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  • Poikolainen, Janne (Nuorisotutkimusverkosto/Nuorisotutkimusseura, 2015)
    The study introduces a historical perspective to the discussion on fandom by examining the emergence of popular music fan culture in Finland from the 1950s to early 1970s. The analysis focuses on the ways the forms and meanings of music fandom, as well as the images attributed to fans, developed in the interaction between the music industry, publicity and audience. The source material consists mainly of written reminiscences on popular music and fandom, and music magazines from the research period. The material also includes e.g. fan letters and statistics. The historical context of the analysis is comprised of the substantial changes in youth brought about by the post-war social change. In the study, these changes are referred to as the modernization of youth. The study examines the technological, social and cultural changes linked to the change in youth that facilitated the emergence of the fan culture. Secondly, the study identifies the socio-cultural needs, created by modernization, to which music fandom as a phenomenon responded. In terms of content, the analysis focuses on three dimensions of fan culture. The first dimension comprises the musical and material settings of fandom, such as recordings, concerts and music magazines. The second consists of media discourses concerning the fan phenomenon. Here the study also questions and disassembles the gendered stereotypes constructed within the discourses. The third dimension comprises the socio-cultural meanings of fandom, particularly in respect of identity work taking place in the forms of identification and social distinction. Scrutiny of these dimensions also highlights the links between the fan phenomenon and the constituent phenomena of modernizing youth: for example, the mediatization, Anglo-Americanization and sexualization of youth culture, as well as the weakening of the traditional identity models. The study shows that the emergence of fan culture was a process where the media contents and ideas concerning fandom interacted in multi-dimensional ways between the various actors. The music industry, media publicity and fan audience formed the macro-level of this interactive network. The contents of fandom formed within this framework assumed their practical meaning in the daily lives of young people. These everyday meanings of fandom were concretized in the form of various consumption and production practices, through which the macro-level interrelationships were again redefined.
  • Vähämaa, Miika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This dissertation conceptualizes social groups as epistemic communities that is, as communities that circulate and regard some things as credible knowledge based on its own idiosyncratic criteria. An epistemic community sets social standards or, group epistemologies for what is understood to be knowledge. The philosophical and social psychological underpinnings of an epistemic community are reviewed considering, inter alia, theories by Aristotle, Jan Smedslund, Steve Fuller, Alvin Goldman, Jürgen Habermas, Arie Kruglanski, Henri Tajfel, Anna Wierzbicka and Julia Annas. The literature on social knowledge is used to initiate a synthesis conceptualized as the epistemic calculus of groups. Theory is substantiated with empirical studies. One study shows that university students define even universal topics such as mathematics differently based primarily on whether they live in Finland or Norway, suggesting culturally different group epistemologies about math. Another survey from the United States shows that even socio-economic group variables can be powerful predictors of how people view science and its relevance to society at large. Socio-economic variables together with media exposure cultivate these large groups to hold similarity of thought and therefore to become epistemic communities. Even more surprisingly, the pan-European data shows that occupational groups of politicians and political journalists in diverse countries Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, France, Spain, Slovenia, Austria and Switzerland may transcend national boundaries to develop a set of goals. These goals of political communication provide the rules of thumb for reasonable political knowledge for the professional. These rules appear so strong and so well developed across nations that they are likely to cause epistemic struggle and disagreement between the professionals. In the final analysis, then, it is discussed who gets to define what we pass as knowledge?
  • Yliruka, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This doctoral dissertation focuses on practices that support working and learning and that target knowledge creation in social work as a means to enhance the flexible, open and critical expertise of social workers and to promote their efforts to assist their clients practices known here as reflective structures. This dissertation explores the topic by studying the introduction, feasibility and development of the reflective Kuvastin ( Mirror ) method of self- and peer-evaluation. This doctoral dissertation 1) explores and expands the role of individual reflection and self-evaluation, and connects it to the organisation of reflection and evaluation as well as to the creation of reflective structures as part of practice-based innovation activities and competence management, 2) presents a research-based method of reflective self- and peer-evaluation of social work which members of an organisation can use together to examine and develop their work as well as to create practice-oriented organisational innovations, and 3) analyses the feasibility of the model, particularly the conditions required in a public sector organisation. The dissertation is based on five previously published empirical articles and investigates the Kuvastin method by incorporating both a case study and an action research study. The dissertation has both adopted this method and used a theoretical approach to study how and under which conditions self-evaluation can create approaches and meeting spaces that generate, analyse and enrich reflection to support not only ethically sensitive social work with clients, but also innovation activities, in addition to promoting reforms in social work. This dissertation uses qualitative analysis to identify themes and types in the empirical data, and utilises the methodological tools of actor network theory. The dissertation highlights how processes of reflection, the construction of operational knowledge and the development of tools for personal reflection can at best strengthen employees expertise, workplace wellbeing and sense of meaningful work, thereby promoting the potential of social work to respond to clients needs. The study also shows that the achievement of good results in implementing and maintaining the Kuvastin method requires certain elements, such as transformational leadership, a shared concept of knowledge, dialogic interaction and shared object-oriented work. The method helps superiors, together with the employees, create a permanent learning community, a reflective structure in which employees jointly explore their and their peers experiences, challenge their beliefs and develop new artefacts that support their learning and working as well as the supervision of their work. Thus, this dissertation promotes a new approach to learning, enhancing workplace wellbeing and creating knowledge in social work communities. These activities are important not only for the services provided to clients, but also for the viability of the public sector.
  • Kaukomaa, Timo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study examines facial expressions in naturally occurring face-to-face interaction. The focus is on how facial expressions (e.g., smiles and frowns) are part of the collaborative construction and modification of shared emotional stances between speakers and hearers. The data corpus of this study consists of five recorded dyadic Finnish conversations over lunch between individuals who were familiar with each other. The conversations were recorded with three video cameras: two cameras recorded the participants facial expressions and upper bodies and one camera the overall situation. The method of this study is conversation analysis, which makes it possible to examine how participants use their facial expression, move-by-move or turn-by-turn, in the joint negotiation processes of shared emotional stances. The dissertation consists of three original articles and an introduction. In the introduction, I lay out the central concepts and the perspective of the study, describe the data and method, and provide an overview and short examples of the results of the study. I also discuss at a more general level the ways in which my study contributes to earlier studies on embodied socio-emotional communication, and to our understanding of social interaction and social life. The analysis highlights the important role facial expressions have in construction and modification of the public emotional sphere of conversation. The emotional sphere is in continuous transformation, as the participants collaboratively negotiate their situational relationship and interpersonal (in)congruence with regard to the activity at hand. The articles 1 and 2 examine how speakers turn initial facial expression (a smile or a frown) contributes to the action of the utterance it foreshadows and to the larger sequential environment. The results show that the interactional trajectories of these turn-opening facial expressions vary substantially: smiles are first steps to a shared moment of positive or humorous stance, whereas frowns initiate a problem turn that creates momentary distance between participants. The article 3 demonstrates the ways in which recipients facial expression may shift the emotional stance of the speaker s utterance. The recipient s facial expressions play a major role in the collaborative modification of shared emotional stance. They do not simply mirror the speaker s stance or display understanding of the speaker s talk; rather, they perform well-timed systematic operations on the projected course of the talk. The contribution of the article is to show how speakers and hearers work in collaboration using subtle and well-timed facial (and other) expressions of emotion in order to negotiate, move-by-move, the emotional stance(s) that they will share. This study reveals the significance of facial expressions in communicative actions and in the regulation of situational affective relationship between speakers and hearers in mundane interactions. These processes resonate with the larger social structures and the reproduction of micro-social order.
  • Onodera, Henri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This is an ethnographic study of the lived experiences of young activists during the last years of Mubarak s presidency in Egypt. Its general aim is to provide an understanding of what it was like to be involved in opposition politics during a period when the eventual end of Mubarak s rule in 2011 was little more than a collective aspiration. Drawing on different strands of qualitative social science, including anthropology, sociology and youth research, the study is based on 12 months of fieldwork in Cairo, conducted between 2007 and 2011. It makes use of political engagement as an open analytic that enables the examination of different activities that were oriented towards, but not exclusive to, public political processes and formal avenues to political participation. In this vein, the study explores the activities that the young activists regarded as meaningful in terms of challenging the status quo, and how being young in itself shaped their ways of participating in public political life. While it focuses on the experiences of young Cairenes who were predominantly male and aged in their 20s, it is acknowledged that important differences existed among them that conditioned their efforts to acquire new visibilities and political roles, including social differences such as class, gender and global connectedness. In order to explore the diversity of their political experiences, the study discusses four principal areas of analysis and related topics: namely, generational consciousness, tactical practice, friendship relations and ethical reflections. It is demonstrated that, firstly, the new forms of youth activism in the 2000s promoted a critical generational consciousness as a disenfranchised social location in the intergenerational order, while also providing reinvigorated meanings to youth as a subversive political category, and in some ways a privileged experiential realm, ready to conduct public political dissent on its own terms. The new youth movements, such as Youth for Change and April 6 Youth that emerged on the fringes of larger processes of contentious politics, assumed new roles in public political life and merged, at least temporarily, young Egyptians from different backgrounds and affiliations into collective actions: forging alliances, largely beyond the formal political institutions. Secondly, the young activists resorted to a number of tactical practices in order to reach out to wider publics via both offline and online avenues. Their operating preferences lay in organizing unlicensed street protests in the popular, lower-class residential areas and tapping into the subversive potential of the new information and communication technologies, including blogs and social media. Although these forms of public dissent expanded their otherwise narrow political opportunities, their adoption was not, however, equally available to everyone. Some either had the necessary social networks in place, including family support, or the available time and the economic means to do so, while those, who were less equipped for public dissent, could nonetheless acquire new combinations of practical skills, knowledge and social connections that enabled them to enact their sense of meaningful political action. At the same time, the efforts to build youth coalitions faced a number of challenges, one of which was internal factionalism, which, coupled with the growing use of social media, diversified the scope of youth activism in the run-up period to the 2011 uprisings. Thirdly, being a young activist in the late 2000s provided much more varied everyday experiences than merely the acts of public political dissent. It also involved absorbing pre-existing oppositional culture and adopting dissident lifestyles that were filled with shared moments of being and doing things with others on a daily basis. In the absence of representative political institutions, the experiences of having friends and being a friend to others offered intimate avenues to public political life that stretched beyond kin ties and formal organizations. Although oppositional youth activism was divided along lines of class, gender and political affiliation, the young could forge mutual grounds for friendship relations on the basis of their shared experiences and stories of contention, while frequenting downtown Cairo as the main hub of their everyday trajectories. Although friendship relations were at times volatile in the contested field of politics, safeguarding the bonds of trust, belonging and everyday solidarity represented highly relevant everyday activities. Fourthly, the young Cairenes were faced with a number of ethical reflections on the meaningfulness of their own dissent practices, not the least due to the personals risks that opposition politics involved in authoritarian settings. While the prospect of impoverishment did not generally motivate their political engagements, they shared a sense of injured patriotism that prevailed in the wider prodemocracy movement, and aspired to greater recognition as rightful citizens. At the same time, they operated on an ambivalent moral terrain that required positioning one s self and others in relation to normative claims to the common good; furthermore, they had to contend with popular suspicion about the impact of their public political dissent and about possible motives for their activism, such as the pursuit of social status and personal wellbeing. Despite the differences that existed among the activist youth in terms of class and gender, however, they could in part challenge these types of speculations by enacting the prevailing ideals of personhood in terms of bravery, righteousness and self-sacrifice. Meanwhile, although the young Cairenes were embedded in the moral worlds of prodemocracy mobilization, they were also compelled to balance their political engagements in terms of multiple life transitions, especially in terms of balancing their activism with the requirements of gaining a livelihood. While there were multiple ways of being or becoming an activist in the late Mubarak era, the young Cairenes political engagements were connected to their collective pursuit of playing a meaningful role in what happened in the present, while acknowledging that Egypt s future was intimately tied to their own life trajectories.
  • Saikkonen, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    As a result of soil pollution, five hundred people had to move away from their homes in Alakiventie at the end of the 20th century. This area of Alakiventie had been built on an old waste dump in Myllypuro in the 1970s. Examination of the case showed that the area had been built according to the legislation and practices typical of that time. No mistakes had been made, and in consequence, the administration of the city interpreted the case as a rare single accident. This raised the question: when and how is polluted soil constructed as an environmental problem? In the doctoral dissertation, polluted soil is examined as a phenomenon that exists in a certain time span and space. The circumstances of society must be taken into account in order to understand polluted soil as an environmental problem. The definition of the environmental problem and its relation to risk management are in focus. The definition of the problem as well as the solution is dependent on knowledge. Knowledge is historically constructed, originating in action, and transformed from one actor to another. Furthermore, risk knowledge is related to the process in which an environmental problem and risk are defined. The research problem asks how knowledge production promotes or restricts the ability of local decision makers to remedy environmental problems. The problem is answered by the four articles and three sub-questions. The research is a case study. The practices of local governance are analysed over several decades. The studied case addresses local governance in a risk society. The interviews, the official documents of the city, the publications of the administrative bodies, and the minutes of the city board are combined as research material. Knowledge production about polluted soil seems to be disorganized and random. The knowledge produced does not accumulate, and the general view is invisible to decision makers. The silos in the administration, in legislation and in science hamper knowledge production in a way that hides solutions to wicked problems.
  • Mäenpää, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The tendency towards socio-economic homogamy - partner similarity in terms of socio-economic status - is of great interest to social scientists, for two reasons. First, socio-economic homogamy is an indicator of social closure between status groups in a society. Second, given that homogamy leads to the accumulation of advantageous and disadvantageous socio-economic conditions within couples, it also intensifies social and economic inequalities between families. The objective of this thesis is to enhance knowledge of socio-economic homogamy and its consequences for union stability in Finland. The first aim was to analyse the strength and patterns of socio-economic homogamy in partner choice. The second aim was to determine whether and, if so, how homogamy is associated with the likelihood of ending non-marital cohabitation - through separation on the one hand, or marriage on the other. In addition, two dimensions of socio-economic status, individual educational attainment and social class of the family of origin, were analysed to find out whether matching on individually achieved status or on the status of the parental family had a bigger effect on union dynamics. The analyses were based on sets of register data compiled at Statistics Finland. Log-linear models were applied to study homogamy tendencies and their changes in marriages and cohabitations of women born in 1957-1979 at the age of 30. The effects of homogamy and heterogamy on the likelihood of separation and marriage were analysed with Cox proportional hazards model in cohabitations formed in the period 1995-2002 by women born in 1960-1977. An elaborate approach was adopted: marriage and separation rates were examined in each possible combination of partner status. The results imply that people tend to choose partners who are similar to them in terms of educational attainment and class background. However, homogamy was stronger with regard to education than to social-class origins. This is line with the view that boundaries based on achieved status are more difficult to cross in modern, individualized societies than boundaries based on social origins. The most highly educated - those with a higher university degree - were particularly strongly inclined towards homogamy. The general strength of homogamy did not change much across the birth cohorts from the late 1950s to the 1970s, but the trends differed depending on the level of education: homogamy strengthened among those with a low level of education, and weakened among the highly educated. The results also indicate that in the absence of homogamy, women increasingly tend to have partners whose level of education is lower than theirs. Homogamy in class background had a relatively weak influence on the stability of cohabiting unions. Homogamy increased the marriage rate among the children of farmers, whereas heterogamy was associated with an increased separation risk when one partner came from a farmer family and the other from an upper-white-collar family. Educational differences played a somewhat more significant role in these transitions. Homogamy was associated with a reduced risk of separation among the most highly educated cohabitors in particular. The effects of educational homogamy on the marriage rate were less consistent: homogamy increased the marriage rate among cohabitors with a basic-level education, but reduced it among the most highly educated. The findings reveal that status barriers and cultural differences are of significance in partner choice and the stability of cohabiting unions in Finland, and that group boundaries based on achieved status are stronger than those based on ascribed status in terms of union dynamics.
  • Stewart, Timo R. (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study analyses Finnish Christian Zionism from the end of the 19th century to the 1960s using the methodology of the history of ideas. It evaluates previous interpretations and investigates how Finns and in particular Finnish Christians related to Zionism and the State of Israel and why many Finnish Christians gave Zionism and the State of Israel a religious significance. The study points to three significant sources of growing Finnish Christian interest in Palestine, Jews and prophecy before Israeli independence. The first was through early visits to Palestine and the travel accounts that ensued. Pastors and theologians were particularly active in seeking out the lands of the Bible and the Fifth Gospel that they saw in it. The second was missionary work, which created a small but influential group of Finnish experts on Palestine. Of the people they encountered in Palestine, the missionaries clearly identified most with the Zionists and conveyed their worldview to their Finnish audiences. The third source was the increasingly prevalent prophecy literature that more frequently and confidently linked Zionism with the fulfilment of Biblical prophecies. This was most common amongst Pentecostals, but soon Lutheran missionaries and Evangelical revivalist followed suit. With the creation of the State of Israel even broadly read Lutheran papers made use of the same interpretive traditions. Interpretations varied in detail, but general allusions to an unspecified connection between Bible prophecy and the State of Israel founded in 1948 become common to the point of not requiring explanations. Even bolder forms of Christian Zionism were never challenged. These interpretations were facilitated until the middle of the 1960s by very favourable popular impressions of Zionism and Israel, in which the national experiences of Finland and Israel were seen to have much in common. In contrast, the voice of the Palestinians was not heard at all. Many Finnish Christians saw the State of Israel as a sign of the times and a miracle from year to year. Zionism and the State of Israel seemed to offer an answer to the question of God s continuing involvement with the world and the significance of the Bible. They were constantly relevant signs, but also seen as proof that settled the question of whether the Bible could be trusted. In the eyes of many Finnish Christians this gave the State of Israel a very special significance indeed.
  • Turunen, Harri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    I study the importance of variation in the higher moments of macroeconomic and financial quantities. The first essay considers the effects of uncertainty on the fiscal multiplier when the economy has hit the zero lower bound (ZLB) on the nominal rate in a relatively standard New Keynesian Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) model. As the ZLB is a very strong form of nonlinearity, the model is solved using a numerical method. Uncertainty in government spending and productivity are modeled as stochastic volatility. Confirming previous research (e.g. Christiano, Eichenbaum and Rebelo, 2011), the multiplier is found to be higher when at the bound, and the effects of volatility shocks are found to be noticeable (e.g. Basu and Bundick, 2015). Uncertainty is found to have an impact on the multiplier: when future spending is uncertain, the multiplier is high, but when future productivity is uncertain, the multiplier is low. The second essay studies whether or not DSGEs are able to generate simulated realizations with realistic third and fourth moments. Many time series in macroeconomics and finance exhibit either excess kurtosis or skewness or both. However, as was shown by Ascari et al (2013), standard DSGEs such as the neoclassical growth model or the model of Smets and Wouters (2007) are unable to produce realizations with reasonable moments, regardless of shock distribution or the order of the Taylor approximation applied. My results however indicate that this is mostly due to lack of nonlinearity in the models, since especially a model with a very strong form of nonlinearity, such as the ZLB, is able to generate non-Gaussian realizations. The third essay considers the pricing of macroeconomic risk. The theory of Merton (1973) implies that there can be other sources of priced risk than the risk associated with the return on the market portfolio and that an appropriate measure for sensitivity of a stock to this risk is the covariance of the return of that stock with the source of that risk. I apply the multivariate volatility model of Engle (2002) to estimate time-varying covariances of US stock portfolios with a variety of US macro time series. The finding is that inflation and unemployment are priced in the market and earn a negative premium, while the growth rate of industrial production and the Case-Shiller house price index are not priced.
  • Hämäläinen, Saara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Our thesis has three individual papers and an introduction. It contributes to dynamic price and search theory. The first paper deals with the classic problem of trading under asymmetric information. The other two analyze retailing strategies that help lock in buyers by creating in-store frictions. In the first paper, we investigate welfare and equilibrium trading in a decentralized search market with asymmetric information and bilateral communication opportunities. Sellers and buyers meet randomly and pairwise and view a shared signal of the seller's quality. In the following signaling game, the sellers can either rely on this costless signal (pool) or costly signaling (separate). We observe that, although the average market quality is high, additional information is not generally welfare improving. All equilibria are inefficient. Contrary to the usual tradeoff between price and liquidity, we find that the signals can help sustaining stationary Markovian equilibria where higher quality is traded faster. In the second paper, we construct a novel search model that features in-store frictions and equilibrium price dispersion both within and across stores. The frictions originate from the gradual arrival of price information within stores and the existence of deadlines for buyers. We show that sellers have an incentive carry several similar items and generate price variation among these items to amplify the existing search frictions and create barriers to switching in an environment where none exist initially. It also helps them to discriminate better between buyers, who end with diverse degrees of price information. As the number of items in stock expands, sellers can extract more profits. In our third paper, we develop a price search model that features endogenous frictions in a duopolistic environment. These frictions originate from the gradual arrival or price information within stores and the existence of deadlines for buyers. We show that both sellers have a strategic incentive to generate frictions. There exists exactly two equilibria with a unique asymmetric pattern: a prominent seller, whose expected price is higher but the in-store frictions lower, and a non-prominent seller. The buyers are divided exactly equally into informed and uninformed consumers, and into those who fail to find anything. Under the Poisson process, this surplus loss is about 6 %.
  • Anttila, Erkko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Suburban century: Local community in the working-class suburbs of Helsinki in the twentieth century. The study discusses working-class suburbs that sprang up outside Helsinki in the early twentieth century and their change into affluent middle-class suburbs in the second half of the century. The focus of the study is on local community life and its change in the studied suburbs. Moreover, the study discusses how the suburbanites' ways of life and their relationship to their social and physical surroundings changed due to modernization in the latter half of the century. The research data consist of historical documents and personal reminiscences of residents that deal with topics such as neighbourhood life, practices of everyday life and local clubs and associations. In the first half of the twentieth century the working-class suburbs under study (e.g. Malmi, Pakila, Tapanila and Leppävaara) were fairly rural communities, which were characterized by their close-knit community life, widely practiced subsistence gardening and animal husbandry and numerous local small businesses. Another important characteristic of these suburbs was the central role played by local formal and informal organizations in solving problems of everyday life and in organizing leisure activities for local residents. This manifested itself, for example, in the form of local road maintenance associations, voluntary fire brigades and community festivals. Such practices indicated that the residents of these suburbs were in many ways functionally dependent on their local suburban community. Soon after the Second World War the way of life in the suburbs under study began to change towards a more privatized way of life. Behind this change was the growing prosperity of the post-war era, technological progress and the strengthening of extra-local networks and organizations. These factors diminished the suburban residents' dependence on local community networks and widened their horizons beyond narrow local circles. The suburbanites actively contributed to this change by lobbying state and municipal authorities to hasten the modernization of local infrastructure and public services. By the late twentieth century the working-class suburbs under study had changed into modern middle-class suburbs which were characterized by a high standard of living, a privatized way of life and the residents' dependence on extra-local networks and organizations. The local social and economic practices that were typical of the first half of the century had by now mostly disappeared. Instead, local community action now focused on maintaining the peace and quiet of the residential area. There were also aspirations to revive some aspects of the old community life. However, unlike in the local community networks of the early twentieth century, participation in these new forms of community building was entirely voluntary.
  • Paalanen, Tommi (Sexpo-säätiö, 2015)
    The topic of the dissertation is applying of liberal sexual ethics to sexological work with clients, sexual politics and jurisprudential problems. The work consists of an introduction and six articles that look into 1) ethical challenges and tools in therapeutic practice concerning sexuality, 2) the ethical basis of sexuality counselling and utilizing ethics in working with clients, 3) societal and ethical dimensions of women s sexual power, 4) the meaning of objectification to the ethics of pornography, 5) legislative problems and consequent ethical questions caused by child pornography, and 6) the ethical justification of criminalizing sadomasochistic sex and violent pornography. The introduction presents philosophical background for the articles: John Stuart Mill s ethical liberalism and the liberal tradition built on it, including the concepts of liberties and rights, which compose the most central ethos of modern sexual culture. The philosophical basis of liberal sexual ethics is built on egalitarian social philosophy, ethical neutrality of sexual acticity and rejection of paternalism and moralism as liberty-limiting principles. The articles are concerned with questions about supporting freedom and autonomy in helping professions and justifying limiting them in the society. Each article looks into the questions within their own context and thus expands into necessary theoretical backgrounds, arguments, questions and consequences in legal philosophy, criminalization theory, ethical basis of helping professions and sexual politics. The articles share a question about, how liberal sexual ethics support sexual wellbeing of individuals in different contexts. A shared result emerges: prevailing practices should be consistently liberalized in professional ethics and policies concerning equality, sexuality and criminal issues. All of these fields nurture practices that are illiberal, inconsistent and moralist due to their historical and cultural contexts, and thus impede the highest possible realization of sexual rights and well-being.
  • Metsola, Lalli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This is a study of Namibian ex-combatant and veteran policies after the country s transition to independence in 1990. Instead of assessing the successfulness of reintegration against its stated objectives or the perspective of post-conflict policy discourses, it examines the politics of reintegration as a process of multiform negotiation over recognition and entitlements for the ex-combatants, and political authority and legitimacy for party and government leaders. The study interrogates the ways in which this process reflects and contributes to postcolonial Namibian politics, state formation and citizenship. It is based on nine months of fieldwork in 2002, 2003 and 2009 and its main sources include ethnographic observation, life historical interviews with ex-combatants, thematic interviews with politicians and civil servants, grey literature as well as Namibian newspapers and internet sources. The study finds that instead of being a neutral exercise in post-conflict management and peacebuilding, Namibian reintegration has been motivated by more exclusive ideas of the nation and by the special bond between the ruling party and the former liberation movement Swapo and its formerly exiled cadres. This close tie and the characterization of Swapo combatants as heroes who hold a special place in the Namibian narrative of national liberation have repeatedly enabled Swapo ex-combatants to demand recognition, employment, monetary compensation and other benefits. Coupled with this, the relative strength of the Namibian state and economy has made it possible to plan and implement ex-combatant reintegration as a predominantly domestic process without the close involvement of international agencies. Hence, it has been possible to diverge from mainstream disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) programmes and attempt to solve the ex-combatant question by broad-based public employment. After most ex-combatants were employed in the late 1990s and early 2000s, however, their demands and policy responses shifted towards monetary compensation. The domestic character of Namibian reintegration also made it possible to implement ex-combatant and veteran policies selectively so that former Swapo exiles have gradually been transformed into an officially recognized group of veterans while their former enemies, Namibian fighters of South African surrogate forces, have been sidelined. This process of domestically driven, selective reintegration has multiple broad implications. First, as Namibia has recently emerged from a long period of violent conflict, security concerns and the imperative to control organized violence are clearly visible. The targeting of Swapo ex-combatants in reintegration and their recruitment to the public service, particularly the uniformed services, have relinked their fates with that of the Swapo government, pacifying them and making them useful in consolidating the hold of the regime over the security agencies and the marginal and frontier areas and populations. Indeed, a key reason why the demand politics of the ex-combatants have been so successful is that their interests have been largely congruent with the perceived interests of the political elite. Second, the tendency of Namibian reintegration to entrench involvement in liberationist history as a criterion of full membership in the political community, creating an ever-widening circle of veterans versus others, provides and interesting comparison with struggles over recognition and citizenship elsewhere in Africa which are often framed in terms of language, religion, ethnicity, race or historical origins. The movements thus generated may adopt anti-national stances but they are as likely to seek to reformulate and colonize nationalism itself. Namibian ex-combatant reintegration, on the other hand, exemplifies a situation where nationalism as a supposedly unifying force still has salience but has been appropriated by a particular narrative of belonging. Thus, instead of representing a break from inclusive citizenship towards increasingly codified particular identities that compete within the national space, the Namibian case demonstrates the coexistence of a legal concept of universal national citizenship with a pervasive ideology of national belonging. The latter, however, inherently contradicts the supposed universalism of legal citizenship. The long-term effects of Namibian veteran politics remain to be seen. On the one hand, the aim to reconcile and build a nation, evident in some of the decisions and statements associated with reintegration as well as in Namibian political discourse more generally, is countered by the persistence of pre-independence political logics and divisions, and a concentration of power according to liberationist fault lines. It is not surprising that a militant version of nationalism seems appealing to certain political elites in their bid to justify the current regime and entrench their own positions in it. On the other hand, in the long run the politics of ex-combatants and veterans may also offer a template for more broad-based demands that question entrenched patterns of economic and political privilege, and provoke responses that may lead towards more inclusive citizenship and more broadly legitimate authority.
  • Hirvilammi, Tuuli (Kelan tutkimusosasto, 2015)
    The starting point of this study is a paradoxical situation: the wellbeing of average Finns is very high but simultaneously their environmental impacts threaten the carrying capacity of the earth. The paradox raises the question of what would sustainable wellbeing be and how is it to be studied. This study aims to develop a theory of sustainable wellbeing that recognizes the interaction between people and nature, as well as the goals of sustainability. In this interdisciplinary study the ecological issues are integrated into wellbeing research both in theory and in the empirical research settings. The empirical substudies are based on data that explores the wellbeing, standard of living and natural resource use (material footprints) of minimum income receivers. Material footprints were measured with the MIPS method.The results present a theory of sustainable wellbeing that is based on a relational conception of man. It enables us to see the connections between people and ecosystems, and humans as a part of nature. Sustainable wellbeing is defined as an entity that consists of a sufficient and sustainable standard of living, purposeful and responsible behavior, significant relations and an alert presence. The study develops a dynamic framework that can be used to explain the relations between capabilities, functionings and natural resource use. In order to be sustainable, wellbeing should be eco-efficient, which means satisfying needs with a minimal load on the environment. The results also present an interdisciplinary methodological setting, which can be used to assess the limits of a socially and ecologically sustainable standard of living. The aim of the sustainable standard of living is to secure all people with necessary resources within the carrying capacity of nature.
  • Ojajärvi, Anni (Nuorisotutkimusverkosto/Nuorisotutkimusseura, 2015)
    This study observes young men´s health behaviour during military service. In addition to individual health choices, the study analyses how the practices of the military institution, the conscript community and the images of and expectations for the conscript role guide and restrict the health choices of the conscripts. The purpose of this study is to determine how health behaviour is constructed in different social contexts, amongst the orders of a total institution. The study is situated in the field of qualitative health research. The research material involves an ethnographic field study conducted in Parolannummi Panzer Brigade in 2008. The researcher participated, during eight weeks and full time, in the initial conscript training, lived with the conscripts and observed the everyday life in the army. The conscripts were also interviewed; altogether 39 individual interviews of 15 men and 8 women, some of them twice, were made. On the basis of the results, the conscripts´ health behaviour can be determined as a communal process that is restricted by the institution. An individual conscript makes choices in the midst of the strictly defined everyday life of a total institution and the social reality of the conscript community. In the absence of a strong personal motive for guiding the individual health choices, the young person adheres to institutional practices and to the conscript community. The logic and objectives of military training or the practices of the conscript community do not always support the aims of health education. Instead, the everyday life in the army often contradicts the health perspective. In the empirically chapters the study analyses the limits between sickness and health, eating, smoking and alcohol consumption. Findings include answers to questions such as how smoking may seem as a smart choice from the conscript point of view, how collective army stories are related to conscripts´ alcohol consumption, how being occasionally sick is connected to conscript´s social identity, and how eating is split to fuelling up and eating for pleasure. At the same time, the study discovers how a 21st century young man revives the ethos of sustaining but, differing from the traditional ethos of self-sustaining, shares his difficult life situations with others. The empirical chapter also introduces conscript ideals, constructed on the basis of the study material, which define the limits of a socially acceptable conscript role. Whenever aiming at influencing the conscripts´ health behaviour, the study calls attention to everyday practices in the institution and the conscript community´s ways of acting.
  • Valaste, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In sample surveys, the uncertainty of parameter estimates comes from two main sources: sampling and measuring the study units. Some aspects of survey errors are quite well understood (e.g. sampling errors, nonresponse errors) and reported but others, like measurement errors, are often neglected. This thesis studies measurement uncertainty in covariates. Focus is on the adjustment for covariate measurement errors in logistic regression for cluster-correlated data. Three methods for adjustment for covariate measurement errors in surveys are studied. The methods are Maximum Likelihood, Multiple Imputation and Regression Calibration. These methods require information obtained from validation study. The thesis consists of a theoretical part and extensive Monte Carlo simulation experiments. At the first simulation experiment, the simulation study is conducted with artificial data and with independent observations to test and have experience of the three methods: MI, ML and RC. The second and third simulation study is performed with cluster-correlated data. In these simulation studies, the first simulation uses artificial data and the latter uses real data. In both simulations regression calibration and multiple imputation approaches are examined in various simulation designs. The quality of the methods is assessed by the bias and accuracy. The bias is measured by absolute relative bias percentages (ARB%) and the accuracy by relative root mean-squared error percentages (RRMSE%). The results suggest that additional information from validation (calibration) data enables more accurate estimates in terms of bias percentages.
  • Zeller, Wolfgang (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Some argue that the territorial boundaries of African countries, having largely survived the transition to independence, are now like a poorly tailored suit: It does not fit in many places but African leaders have by and large accepted that they and their societies must somehow try to wear it. But has history stood still since independence? What is the everyday reality of those who live with these inherited colonial boundaries today? This dissertation investigates how competing claims of territory, authority and citizenship are negotiated between state representatives and residents in the Namibia-Zambia and Uganda-South Sudan borderlands. It asks: What kinds of governance regimes result from these negotiations? From considering these questions emerges the argument that borders do not only exist as an abstract construct, separate from or above the people and territories they are supposed to separate. Borderland actors in the study regions instead actively engage, challenge and thereby reshape the state, over time and repeatedly. They contribute to fine-tuning the state in ways that do not necessarily undermine or hollow it out. However, there are clear differences in how this happens between the more peaceful setting of the Namibia-Zambia borderland, with its annual rhythm of life patterned according to the seasonal rise and fall of the Zambezi river, and the Uganda-South Sudan borderland, where the memory of recent and fear of future large-scale organised violence strongly affect daily life. This dissertation consists of two articles published in peer-reviewed journals and two chapters published in peer-reviewed edited volumes in 2007-2013, and a synopsis which discusses these works comparatively and introduces their wider conceptual framework.
  • Airila, Auli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In today´s work life, employees are expected not only to be reasonably healthy, but also to be highly engaged and work efficiently. However, at the same time, the prevalence of mental health disorders and diseases of the musculoskeletal systems is high. Therefore, understanding and enhancing employee well-being as a whole is essential. This study examined the longitudinal effects of work characteristics, personal resources, and lifestyle on employee well-being by applying three theoretical frameworks Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, and Broaden-and-Build (BaB) theory. Employee well-being was understood as a multidimensional construct covering affective, cognitive, and health-related components. The data was collected with questionnaires among Finnish firefighters during a 13-year period with three measurement points (i.e., 1996, 1999, and 2009). Two slightly different datasets were used in the four sub-studies (dataset 1: n = 403; dataset 2: n = 360). The study showed that a positive state of work engagement was significantly associated with work ability even after adjusting for various individual and work characteristics. Secondly, job and personal resources had long-term effects on work engagement, and consequently on work ability, thus expanding the potential positive outcomes of the motivational process included in the JD-R model. Thus, the dual role of work ability both as a predictor (i.e., health-related resource) that may foster engagement, and as an outcome of the motivational process was found. Moreover, this study showed that different developmental paths in positive (i.e., vigor) and negative (i.e., fatigue) affective states are possible and these paths differently predicted well-being. Although both vigor and fatigue were rather stable over time, some changes occurred over the 13-year follow-up period. The results suggest both the possibility and need to foster positive developmental paths in affective states in order to maintain and improve employee well-being. Similarly, different developmental paths in multisite musculoskeletal pain and depressive symptoms were observed, and changes over time proved to be possible. Job demands, job and personal resources as well as lifestyle were partly differently related to pain-depression trajectories. This needs to be acknowledged when planning interventions for preventing musculoskeletal pain and depressive symptoms. To conclude, the beneficial role of job resources and personal resources, and similarly the detrimental effects of job demands in explaining employee well-being were shown, and thus, proving further support for the assumptions of the JD-R model, COR theory, and BaB theory. Evidently, a motivated and energetic worker, who has a resourceful job and not too high mental and physical demands has better well-being than a co-worker who is less engaged and experiences a more unfavourable situation in terms of demands and resources. Moreover, a good level of self-esteem, an optimistic view of the future and healthy lifestyle habits may increase the likelihood of being healthy and happy. As such, work organizations have good opportunities to reinforce and maintain well-being of their employees, and consequently prevent ill-health and promote long work careers.
  • Ahvenniemi, Rasmus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The thesis consists of an introduction and 3 essays presenting stochastic dynamic optimization models concerning decision making in the banking sector. The first two essays consider individual banks in an environment where financial crises may occur. The third essay considers the whole banking sector as one entity which is a part of the economy, and thereby the process of money creation in the banking system becomes a central issue. The first essay presents a model for analyzing the optimal dynamic decision making of a bank, which adjusts the size and composition of its balance sheet over time. The model considers the development of the bank's balance sheet in a situation involving the risk of a financial crisis which may or may not materialize, and the timing of which is uncertain. The crisis may involve defaulting of loans and a reduction in the availability of funding. The maturing of loans and deposits taking place in each period is explicitly modeled, assuming maturity mismatch. The outcomes of the model show e.g. a tendency of the bank to deleverage its balance sheet in preparation for an anticipated financial crisis, as well as a tendency to accumulate cash reserves in order to maintain sufficient liquidity. The second essay presents a portfolio model for analyzing a bank making decisions over time in a stochastic environment. The bank is assumed to make decisions regarding the amount of new loans given out in each period, thus affecting the allocation of its funds between liquid cash and non-liquid loans. The model involves maturity mismatch and the risk of a liquidity crisis during which the availability of new funding is restricted. Simulations of the model show that a positive amount is allocated to cash even though cash pays zero returns and no credit risk or investment risk is present in the model, as long as maturity mismatch and the risk of a liquidity crisis are both present. The third essay presents a model of an economy consisting of a central bank, a commercial banking sector, and a real economy experiencing stochastic productivity shocks. A stochastic dynamic programming model is formulated for modeling the policy decisions of the central bank, which dynamically adjusts the size of the monetary base, attempting to keep inflation close to a target. It is assumed that reserve requirements may or may not be binding at a given time. When reserve requirements are not binding, money creation is endogenous, i.e. determined by lending decisions of commercial banks. These lending decisions are affected by the condition of the real economy and, to some extent, by central bank policies acting through transmission channels such as the portfolio rebalance effect. Lending stimulates the real economy while also accelerating inflation as it causes the money supply to grow. The outcomes show that during a recession lending by commercial banks is reduced, deflation prevails, and the central bank carries out expansionary monetary policy. When the recession ends, lending increases and there is a period of increased inflation, while at the same time contractionary monetary policy is carried out.
  • Pahkin, Krista (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The overarching aim of the thesis was to identify work-related and personal factors which support employee well-being during working career and organizational restructuring. The empirical part of this thesis was based on a prospective cohort study of employees in the Finnish forest industry. Data included responses to questionnaires (N up to 4279) and records from organizational and national registers, all collected between 1986 and 2009. The data covered a period of stable growth, strong international expansion and organizational downsizing. The findings first of all show that the level of employee well-being was relatively stable over time. Employees who reported feeling unwell at work at follow-up worked in considerably worse working conditions (compared to people with good well-being) already 10 years before the follow-up. Their personal resources were weaker both at the 10-year follow-up and at baseline. Furthermore, the resources seemed to increase among those feeling well, whereas the development trend was vice versa among those feeling less well. There was an overall trend of decreasing mental well-being through the restructuring process, irrespective of the type of changes. The findings showed that the same factors which helped individuals to stay well over the long run also helped them during the turbulence of work life. Strong sense of coherence and strong social support were also associated with indices of employee well-being during organizational restructuring as well as a more positive view of the restructuring and its consequences. However, pre-change social support from co-workers did not provide a buffer against the detrimental effect of negative change experience on employee well-being. There was an association between the change appraisal and employee well-being, both health and mental well-being, during organizational restructuring: A negative appraisal of the restructuring process increased the risk of lower employee well-being. The findings showed that also the positive, motivational aspects of mental well-being can be damaged if the change appraisal is negative. Finally, the findings showed that by offering opportunities to participate in the planning of the changes related to one s own work and through the actions of top management and the immediate superior s organizations can support the development of positive change experience.