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  • Zeller, Wolfgang (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Some argue that the territorial boundaries of African countries, having largely survived the transition to independence, are now like a poorly tailored suit: It does not fit in many places but African leaders have by and large accepted that they and their societies must somehow try to wear it. But has history stood still since independence? What is the everyday reality of those who live with these inherited colonial boundaries today? This dissertation investigates how competing claims of territory, authority and citizenship are negotiated between state representatives and residents in the Namibia-Zambia and Uganda-South Sudan borderlands. It asks: What kinds of governance regimes result from these negotiations? From considering these questions emerges the argument that borders do not only exist as an abstract construct, separate from or above the people and territories they are supposed to separate. Borderland actors in the study regions instead actively engage, challenge and thereby reshape the state, over time and repeatedly. They contribute to fine-tuning the state in ways that do not necessarily undermine or hollow it out. However, there are clear differences in how this happens between the more peaceful setting of the Namibia-Zambia borderland, with its annual rhythm of life patterned according to the seasonal rise and fall of the Zambezi river, and the Uganda-South Sudan borderland, where the memory of recent and fear of future large-scale organised violence strongly affect daily life. This dissertation consists of two articles published in peer-reviewed journals and two chapters published in peer-reviewed edited volumes in 2007-2013, and a synopsis which discusses these works comparatively and introduces their wider conceptual framework.
  • Airila, Auli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In today´s work life, employees are expected not only to be reasonably healthy, but also to be highly engaged and work efficiently. However, at the same time, the prevalence of mental health disorders and diseases of the musculoskeletal systems is high. Therefore, understanding and enhancing employee well-being as a whole is essential. This study examined the longitudinal effects of work characteristics, personal resources, and lifestyle on employee well-being by applying three theoretical frameworks Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model, Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, and Broaden-and-Build (BaB) theory. Employee well-being was understood as a multidimensional construct covering affective, cognitive, and health-related components. The data was collected with questionnaires among Finnish firefighters during a 13-year period with three measurement points (i.e., 1996, 1999, and 2009). Two slightly different datasets were used in the four sub-studies (dataset 1: n = 403; dataset 2: n = 360). The study showed that a positive state of work engagement was significantly associated with work ability even after adjusting for various individual and work characteristics. Secondly, job and personal resources had long-term effects on work engagement, and consequently on work ability, thus expanding the potential positive outcomes of the motivational process included in the JD-R model. Thus, the dual role of work ability both as a predictor (i.e., health-related resource) that may foster engagement, and as an outcome of the motivational process was found. Moreover, this study showed that different developmental paths in positive (i.e., vigor) and negative (i.e., fatigue) affective states are possible and these paths differently predicted well-being. Although both vigor and fatigue were rather stable over time, some changes occurred over the 13-year follow-up period. The results suggest both the possibility and need to foster positive developmental paths in affective states in order to maintain and improve employee well-being. Similarly, different developmental paths in multisite musculoskeletal pain and depressive symptoms were observed, and changes over time proved to be possible. Job demands, job and personal resources as well as lifestyle were partly differently related to pain-depression trajectories. This needs to be acknowledged when planning interventions for preventing musculoskeletal pain and depressive symptoms. To conclude, the beneficial role of job resources and personal resources, and similarly the detrimental effects of job demands in explaining employee well-being were shown, and thus, proving further support for the assumptions of the JD-R model, COR theory, and BaB theory. Evidently, a motivated and energetic worker, who has a resourceful job and not too high mental and physical demands has better well-being than a co-worker who is less engaged and experiences a more unfavourable situation in terms of demands and resources. Moreover, a good level of self-esteem, an optimistic view of the future and healthy lifestyle habits may increase the likelihood of being healthy and happy. As such, work organizations have good opportunities to reinforce and maintain well-being of their employees, and consequently prevent ill-health and promote long work careers.
  • Ahvenniemi, Rasmus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The thesis consists of an introduction and 3 essays presenting stochastic dynamic optimization models concerning decision making in the banking sector. The first two essays consider individual banks in an environment where financial crises may occur. The third essay considers the whole banking sector as one entity which is a part of the economy, and thereby the process of money creation in the banking system becomes a central issue. The first essay presents a model for analyzing the optimal dynamic decision making of a bank, which adjusts the size and composition of its balance sheet over time. The model considers the development of the bank's balance sheet in a situation involving the risk of a financial crisis which may or may not materialize, and the timing of which is uncertain. The crisis may involve defaulting of loans and a reduction in the availability of funding. The maturing of loans and deposits taking place in each period is explicitly modeled, assuming maturity mismatch. The outcomes of the model show e.g. a tendency of the bank to deleverage its balance sheet in preparation for an anticipated financial crisis, as well as a tendency to accumulate cash reserves in order to maintain sufficient liquidity. The second essay presents a portfolio model for analyzing a bank making decisions over time in a stochastic environment. The bank is assumed to make decisions regarding the amount of new loans given out in each period, thus affecting the allocation of its funds between liquid cash and non-liquid loans. The model involves maturity mismatch and the risk of a liquidity crisis during which the availability of new funding is restricted. Simulations of the model show that a positive amount is allocated to cash even though cash pays zero returns and no credit risk or investment risk is present in the model, as long as maturity mismatch and the risk of a liquidity crisis are both present. The third essay presents a model of an economy consisting of a central bank, a commercial banking sector, and a real economy experiencing stochastic productivity shocks. A stochastic dynamic programming model is formulated for modeling the policy decisions of the central bank, which dynamically adjusts the size of the monetary base, attempting to keep inflation close to a target. It is assumed that reserve requirements may or may not be binding at a given time. When reserve requirements are not binding, money creation is endogenous, i.e. determined by lending decisions of commercial banks. These lending decisions are affected by the condition of the real economy and, to some extent, by central bank policies acting through transmission channels such as the portfolio rebalance effect. Lending stimulates the real economy while also accelerating inflation as it causes the money supply to grow. The outcomes show that during a recession lending by commercial banks is reduced, deflation prevails, and the central bank carries out expansionary monetary policy. When the recession ends, lending increases and there is a period of increased inflation, while at the same time contractionary monetary policy is carried out.
  • Pahkin, Krista (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The overarching aim of the thesis was to identify work-related and personal factors which support employee well-being during working career and organizational restructuring. The empirical part of this thesis was based on a prospective cohort study of employees in the Finnish forest industry. Data included responses to questionnaires (N up to 4279) and records from organizational and national registers, all collected between 1986 and 2009. The data covered a period of stable growth, strong international expansion and organizational downsizing. The findings first of all show that the level of employee well-being was relatively stable over time. Employees who reported feeling unwell at work at follow-up worked in considerably worse working conditions (compared to people with good well-being) already 10 years before the follow-up. Their personal resources were weaker both at the 10-year follow-up and at baseline. Furthermore, the resources seemed to increase among those feeling well, whereas the development trend was vice versa among those feeling less well. There was an overall trend of decreasing mental well-being through the restructuring process, irrespective of the type of changes. The findings showed that the same factors which helped individuals to stay well over the long run also helped them during the turbulence of work life. Strong sense of coherence and strong social support were also associated with indices of employee well-being during organizational restructuring as well as a more positive view of the restructuring and its consequences. However, pre-change social support from co-workers did not provide a buffer against the detrimental effect of negative change experience on employee well-being. There was an association between the change appraisal and employee well-being, both health and mental well-being, during organizational restructuring: A negative appraisal of the restructuring process increased the risk of lower employee well-being. The findings showed that also the positive, motivational aspects of mental well-being can be damaged if the change appraisal is negative. Finally, the findings showed that by offering opportunities to participate in the planning of the changes related to one s own work and through the actions of top management and the immediate superior s organizations can support the development of positive change experience.
  • Saarentalo-Vuorimäki, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Finnish expatriates' adaptation to a multicultural environment This study addresses Finnish expatriates adaptation to a multicultural environment. The study focuses on the role of individual values and empathy in adaptation, using Van Oudenhoven and Van der Zee s (e.g., 2000) work on the multicultural personality as the frame of interpretation. The target group were Finnish expatriates and expatriate spouses (N=52) in Brussels. The method used was conversion mixed data analysis. Adaptation was studied with a semi-structured interview, where the respondents were also encouraged to talk freely about any issues that they felt were important concerning living abroad. The goal was to bring out the conceptions and understanding of the participants of the study themselves. This data was analysed mainly with grounded theory methods, applying also some techniques of interpretative phenomenological analysis. In this first phase the major interests were: 1) to find dimensions and other components of adaptation, and 2) to form types of adaptation. Dimensions refer to qualities and attributes the individuals either possess before moving or learn and gain while living abroad. In addition, any additional components affecting adaptation were searched. The types of adaptation were formed by examining main commonalities and differences between the respondents answers. By classifying the respondents into different types I attempted to find out how individuals differed in their adaptation. The data in the second phase of the study was collected by means of Schwartz s Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ) (Schwartz et al., 1999) and Davis s (1994) Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). This data was related to the results of the first phase converted into numerical form by examining correlations between converted variables, values and empathy. The value rank order was compared to studies conducted in Finland with persons of similar education. In the first phase five dimensions of adaptation were found: broadmindedness, flexibility, extroversion, self-efficacy and adventurousness. The dimensions were closely connected to each other. In addition, such competencies and concepts as fluency in the language of the country and social networks, and time spent abroad, were associated with certain dimensions. Based on two major axes, motivation and competencies, four types of adaptation were established: ideally adapted, positively adapting, ambiguously adapting, and not adapted. In the second phase the five dimensions were converted into numerical form, each dimension forming a bipolar category, following the initial continuums found in text analysis. Broadmindedness was divided into growing and extensive broadmindedness, flexibility into evolving and inclusive poles, and extroversion into striving and natural extrovert. Self-efficacy and adventurousness were coded as dummy variables as a function whether they were mentioned of not. The not adapted group was discussed separately in the analysis, since it could not be included into the statistical analysis due to its small size. Among the expatriates, universalism was the most important value, followed by self-direction. Conformity and security ranked lower than in the Finnish samples with a university-level education. Self-direction values were related to several dimensions of adaptation. Self-direction correlated with extensive broadmindedness, inclusive flexibility, natural extrovert, and adventurousness. Those categorized as ideally adapted also scored significantly higher on self-direction than the positively adapting or ambiguously adapting group. Universalism was related to inclusive flexibility, and the natural extrovert group had significantly lower scores on conformity than the striving extrovert group. Regarding empathy, the extensive broadmindedness group scored higher than the growing broadmindedness group on perspective taking. The natural extrovert group and the ideally adapted type had lower scores on personal distress. Combining the results of both phases of the study, what stood out were the relevance of high priority for universalism and self-direction values, and low priority for conformity, as well as the significance of perspective taking and low personal distress in adaptation. The qualitative analysis was also consistent with the assumption that these values and aspects of empathy could change in the process of adaptation.
  • Uysal, Ülke Evrim (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This thesis analyses urban tourism in Istanbul from the point of view of urban studies. Urban tourism is analysed by examining urban regeneration, mega-events and city marketing and branding and the impacts of these in the city of Istanbul between 2007 and 2011. The main argument of the thesis is the following: urban tourism is a complex phenomenon that is not limited to the business of providing services for people on holiday. Several aspects of urban tourism are closely connected to urban development, thus calling for an urban studies point of view. Case studies on Istanbul and a comparison between tourism promotion strategies in Helsinki and Istanbul give empirical evidence to support this argument. The main body of the thesis consists of four scientific publications. The first article analyses the development of cultural tourism projects in Istanbul and the connections between tourism business and urban regeneration policies at the time when Istanbul prepared strategies to become the European Capital of Culture. Tourism-led urban regeneration projects did not only led to the growth of number of tourists but also revived deindustrialised landscape. The article also examines the role of the mega-event of the European Capital of Culture in the transformation of the built environment in Istanbul in general. The second article, drawing on the analysis of locals perceptions and activists vision towards tourism-led urban regeneration, investigates locals resistance against tourism-led regeneration project in Sulukule, a historical neighbourhood of Istanbul. The article analyses the formation, structure, mobilisation and activities of an emerging urban social movement, the Sulukule Platform. The article demonstrates that tourism-led regeneration projects in a deteriorated residential area can have negative economic, spatial, social and cultural impacts. The third article compares tourism promotion strategies in two European cities, Helsinki and Istanbul. The article examines the selling points used in the cities tourism promotional campaigns and published materials. Introducing tourism promotion materials as significant tools of city marketing, the article studies different contextual meanings of similar selling points in these two cities. The fourth article is a case study of city branding in Istanbul during the European Capital of Culture event in 2010. Drawing on analysis of representations in tourism promotion materials through content analysis and semiotic analysis, the article identifies the main components of Istanbul s city brand and presents how tourism promoters used religion as a key theme in the branding processes.
  • Hakkarainen, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Abstract The study draws on the findings of previous ethnographic studies that picture development practice as a space of contestation in which actors engage with cultural values, history and the socio-political context in ways that create deviations from the project script . The study adds to the debate by approaching the contestation as taking place in language that reflects both existing realities and the discourses in which the actors are positioned. The study conceptualizes development practice as a process of construction of, and negotiating over, meanings. The selected approach suggests that the ambiguity of words that manifests itself in development practice is necessarily a part of development practice as actors simultaneously belong to different and sometimes contradictory contexts in which words are given their meanings. Through case studies of two types of development interventions(a Savings and Credit Intervention and a Village Self-reliance and Development Intervention) by a Finnish NGO in Vietnam, the study drawing from a Bakhtinian reading of aid practice inquires how contestation over meanings of terms central to the NGO s development thinking contribute to changes in the NGO s aid practice in relation to the promotion of gender and democracy. The study argues that multiplicity of meanings has important implications for aid practice and for donors agenda of democracy promotion in aid recipient countries. Promotion of democracy necessarily calls for deep contextual understanding as meanings, manifested in concrete utterances, are also contextual and therefore,may vary in ways that hinder or slow down project implementation. Furthermore,the study argues that non-responsive behaviour to development interventions may reflect prior experiences of unsatisfactory state-led development projects and people s understanding of them. Moreover, the study highlights the role of gendered norms and gender roles in Vietnamese society from the perspective of grassroots democracy promotion by showing how they affect women s access to formal decision making forums in villages. Keywords: development thinking, development practice, NGOs in development, language in development, democracy promotion, grassroots democracy, gender, gendered norms, Vietnam, meaning construction, heteroglossia, monologism, dialogical relationship, Bakhtinian reading.
  • Setälä-Pynnönen, Vienna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Media discourse linked to images of bioscience that claim to aim at the promotion of health is wellknown by the Finnish middle class. Science and technology have been rather unanimous projects in Finland and recieved only little critical public attention compared to many other European countries. In attitude surveys people in Finland have shown firm and even increasing faith in science and its ability to resolve problems of health and well-being. Among developed countries Finland ranks high in OECD terms of somatic health. Hovever, Finland is left behind by many liberal democracies when we look at statistics on mental health and socio-economic equality. This thesis looks into Finnish science journalism on health and good life and analyses how it addresses the reader, as well as the hierarchy of knowledge and actors that are inherent in it. What values and image of humanity are attached in the popular scientific discourse on healthy citizenship and good life? The thesis is based on four case studies that represent the continuum of science communication in the Finnish media landscape: The first case analyses the media debate that began after the publication in Science of a survey on the public acceptance of evolutionary theory in 2006. The second case looks into notion of health in an anti fat campaign run by Helsingin Sanomat, the biggest daily in Finland in 2007. The third case compares the citizen-expert relationship in two Finnish health campaigns in 1982 and 2007. The fourth article compares the values and role of bioscientific rhetoric in self understanding of celebrities in a women's magazine in 1982 and 2008. The work proceeds by analysing vocabularies, presuppositions and source practices in representations of health and life science, and points out the power of combination of social status and scientific rhetoric. Observations from data are proportioned with the theoretical views on the science and society. The methodological footing of thesis lies in the critical school of science communication, discourse analysis and notion of human mind that is compatible with epigenetics and psychoanalytic developmental psychology. The summary of the thesis deepens the analysis of the empirical data and intepretes the results and contemporary media discourse in a multidiciplinary frame with hermeneutical notes on the Finnish mentality.
  • Majamaa, Karoliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Parental help and its importance among young adults in a post-industrial, information society has not received much attention in the Finnish discourse of social policy. However, the intensified insecurity in the labour market in recent decades as well as the diminishing state support following the 1990s recession have compromised the economic independence of young adults. It seems that parents have stepped in and are giving more support to their adult children, especially during the transition phase to adulthood. The aim of this study was to extend the discourse to include parental help and its significance, and also to assess the implications if parents do not give any support to their adult children. In short, the study considers parental help from the perspectives of both the receivers and the givers. The purpose is thus to find answers to the question of who are the receivers of parental help. A further aim is to enhance understanding of intergenerational solidarity by focusing more closely on parental help as one form of intergenerational support. The study relies largely on two sets of survey data, which Statistics Finland drew up in 2007. The two sets of survey data covered two generations, the so-called Finnish baby boomers, and their adult children. The former sample comprised 1,998 randomly selected Finns born between 1945 and 1950, and the latter included 3,391 of their adult children born between 1962 and 1988. The respective response rates were 56 (n=1,115) and 42 (n=1,435) per cent. The results revealed that almost all the adult children received financial support or practical help from their parent(s), especially help with childcare, and almost all parents gave some kind of help to their adult child(ren). Help was given in particular to children with a low level of resources in a life phase when the need was most acute, such as following the birth of a grandchild. Furthermore, parents who were better off helped and supported their adult children more frequently than those with fewer resources. Comparisons among the givers and receivers of help revealed, most significantly, that a poor socio-economic position was associated positively with receiving and negatively with giving financial support. The picture was somewhat different with regard to practical help: there was interplay between the socio-economic variables and practical help given and received, but to a lesser extent than with financial support. Furthermore, there seemed to be a generational chain connecting the parents and their adult children. According to the results, intergenerational love and affection as well as need and lacking resources among the children combined with high parental resources appeared to be at the heart of the parental support. Most parents hope that their grown-up children will eventually stand on their own feed, and withholding financial support seemed to stem from this desire. However, the availability of parental support generates inequality in the life transitions of adult children, which will probably get worse given the diminishing levels of state support. Overall, it seems that most parents have stepped in and take on more responsibilities related to the welfare of their adult children. The results indicate that intergenerational solidarity will only strengthen as parents continue to provide for their children after they have moved out of the parental home. Nevertheless, the role of the welfare state remains significant, especially when parental resources (health and wealth) are scarce.
  • Kuokkanen, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study examines how management models developed in the United States have been translated and adopted in Finland and how these ideas have shaped Finnish management and managers view regarding employees. I focus on the management models that concentrate on the social and psychological qualities of employees. These models include human relations school and organizational culture theories. The research period is from the 1930s to 2009. I conceptualize the history of management with the concept of management paradigm. My data consist of personnel magazines from the metal and forest industry, general management magazines, interviews of managers of metal corporations, job advertisements, management guide books and government platforms. I analyse the data using theory-guided qualitative content analysis and supplement it with quantitative content analysis. The analysis shows that management models that focus on the social and psychological qualities of employees were adopted relatively later in Finland than in several other Western countries. The adoption of the ideas of the human relations school was a slow and multi-layered process. The slow adoption of the human relations school in Finland was probably affected by the concentration of Finnish industry in the field of heavy industry, which valued technical knowledge over social skills. In addition, the strong role of engineers in work life and society in general, as well as the unestablished status of social sciences contributed to the slow adoption of the ideas of the human relations school. Moreover, state and labour union support of the Finnish rationalization movement was strong in the mid-1900s, and work life reforms were developed more through collective bargaining than through agreements between managers and employees at individual workplaces. In the 1960s, the rational management rhetorics that emphasized the professional skills of employees and the technical dimensions of work started to give way to normative management rhetorics that emphasized the social and psychological qualities of employees. They had gained a prominent role in the discussions on Finnish work life by the 2000s. The history of the adoption of the human relations school in Finland reflects not only the change in the scientific and ideological paradigm in terms of work life but also the transformation of work life. Economic structural change, the transformation of work, the internationalization of Finnish business life, management influences from abroad, and tightening international competition all created a demand for management models that allow employers to better utilize the mental abilities of employees and to transform them into resources for improving the productivity of the organization. Simultaneously, the new management models contributed to the development of new, more diverse employee requirements.
  • Hakala, Salli (Unigrafia, 2015)
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the complex interplay among governmental communications, the media and society in Finland from the perspective of professionalisation. I examine Finnish society from the viewpoint of the ongoing changes in the occupational roles of governmental information and communications specialists (i.e., professionalisation) from the post–World War II period to the 2010s, interpreting this professionalism as a societal phenomenon. In particular, I seek to answer the following question: In what kind of societal conditions do the practitioners of different occupations seek to change their occupations to professions and themselves from workers to professionals? Over the past 70 years, communications practices have expanded and changed, from propaganda to publicity, communications, diverse public management and promotion. Therefore, the significance of the media in the context of modernisation has also increased, and changes in the media have had a significant impact on government communications. In a modern media society, the role of government communications is focused on the power of definition, namely how information, motivations of preparation and decisions, and the positions of different parties are publicised. In addition, basic rights and the access to information principle create an ethical and professional foundation for all information officers in a constitutional state. This study draws on the sociology of professions. It examines how society is organised in governmental communications, and it regards the qualities of a professional respected occupation to be (i) an abstract and specified foundation of knowledge, (ii) a relatively large occupational control of work, (iii) authorised position and (iv) aims to advance public interest instead of commercial or personal gain. I have therefore structured the research from the perspective of the third logic of the theories of sociology of professions. Elliot Freidson has described the ideal type of professionalism as falling between the ideal types of the free market (see the work of Adam Smith) and of the state bureaucracy (see the work of Max Weber) as the third organising logic of the division of labour in modern society. The data used in this study consist of governmental communications norms and guidelines, as well as interviews with the heads of communications in ministries, which I have analyzed using Chaïm Perelman’s empirical approach to argumentation. I then condensed the research findings into an image of the ethos of government communications specialists in democracy: From the foundation of the obligations of bureaucracy rises respect for authorities, from the foundation of free market rises promotional ethos and moral-based educational ethos is at the core of professionalism. Thus, the publicity and autonomy of a communications specialist are restricted by both the free market and bureaucracy, creating a kind of hybrid that combines both consumerism and bureaucratic managerism out of the profession. Communications appears in late modernity as an ideal type of new professionalism in which the work, the product and the delivery of a service is left to the workers themselves. This is how new occupations arise, until mutual pride and different mechanisms of closure generate additional subgroups based on the demands of society. Keywords: communication, government, state administration, access to information, media society, promotional culture, professionalisation, theory of professions, argumentation
  • Jäppinen, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Early in the post-Soviet years, domestic violence emerged as a social problem in Russia. In contemporary Russia, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) opened the first women s crisis centres, followed by the set up of public crisis departments inside social service centres. This study examines the work with survivors of violence carried out in such centres. Analysis of the assistance practices among women, children and families experiencing domestic violence opens up exciting views on the construction of social problems, reactions to them and the organisation of social services in post-socialist Russia. This study seeks to analyse the work practices of the crisis centres from the perspectives of problem definitions, the meanings acquired by gender and agency. I analyse the practices of the crisis centres utilising the theory of social problems work. In addition, I use the concepts of institutional ethnography in the analysis of extra-local relations which organise local-level practices. This study relies on the approach of feminist ethnography, with fieldwork data drawn from three public crisis departments and one NGO crisis centre in Izhevsk, Saratov and Sortavala. The formula story of domestic violence encountered in the crisis centres involves a drunken man battering his wife and children and forcing them out of the house. When defining domestic violence, professionals seek a balance between broad and specific understandings of violence. In my data analysis, I structured the interpretations of the interconnections between domestic violence and gender through the use of three approaches: gender-neutral, biological and gender-sensitive. Work within the crisis centres is distinctly completed by and with women. While men were present primarily discursively in the everyday workings of the centres, much talk at the centres focused on their role in violence work and the development of services for male perpetrators and survivors of domestic violence. Women survivors of violence seeking help from the crisis centres encountered a firm expectation of active, change-oriented agency. Much of the prospective responsibility towards solving the violent situation and preventing future acts of violence and, sometimes, partial responsibility for violence that already occurred was laid on the women. In practice, most clients left crisis centres to return to their husbands. This occurred not only because women forgave and decided to continue the relationship regardless of any violence, but also because they could not organise otherwise their housing. In spite of the scale of the problem, women and children experiencing domestic violence remain an invisible group in the legislation and welfare policies of the Russian Federation. The legal system insufficiently protects them and no functioning mechanisms for protecting their economic and housing situation exist. Keywords: Ethnography; Domestic violence; Gender violence; Work with vio-lence survivors; Social problems work; Agency; Russia
  • Kässi, Otto (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This thesis studies earnings differences and their dynamics empirically. It consists of an introductory chapter and three independent research papers. All of the three papers are done using Finnish registry data. Chapter two studies the evolution of income inequality from the end of 1980s until the year 2007. I present a statistical decomposition method, which is used to decompose earnings inequality into its permanent and transitory components and study their evolution through time. When the model is applied to Finnish earnings data, it turns out that the spread of earnings inequality over the observation period is driven by both permanent and transitory earnings component. It further turns out, that the earnings dynamics of men and women differ from one another considerably. Chapters three and four study earnings uncertainty within education groups. In chapter three, I compare earnings means and uncertainties among people who have completed a basic level education, secondary level education, lower and upper tertiary level education. I separate uncertainty related to education levels from individual unobserved heterogeneity by modelling selection into education levels with an ordered selection model. I find that education increases mean earnings and decreases earnings uncertainty. In addition, I find that the earnings uncertainties of men are higher than those of women in all levels of education. Chapter four compares the earnings uncertainties between university graduates from different fields of education. The fields are pooled into five fairly homogenous groups. These are: arts, law, business, engineering and natural sciences, and health. As in chapter three, I model the selection into a major to disentangle between uncertainty and heterogeneity, but the selection model is an unordered one. The main result of chapter four is that the differences in mean incomes between different majors are larger than the differences in uncertainties between majors. Taken together, the results of chapters three and four strongly suggest that education is a good investment; it increases earnings, and reduces earnings uncertainty.
  • Van der Vet, Freek (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Through interviews with 40 human rights practitioners, this dissertation broadens our knowledge as to how international litigation before the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) (a) contributes to finding remedies for victims of grave atrocities and (b) impacts on the compliance of Russia to the European Convention on Human Rights. In particular, this dissertation examines the work of a group of nongovernmental human rights organizations (NGOs), and the lawyers working for them, who litigate at the ECtHR on behalf of victims of the Russo-Chechen conflicts, discrimination based on ethnicity, or victims of torture and inhuman and degrading treatment during police detention. This research examines the diffusion of human rights by connecting four previously unconnected social processes of international human rights practice: claim-making, translation, implementation, and protection. First, the influence of the political context on litigation strategies, second, the translation of human rights from the claims of the victim to the Court and vice versa, and third, the contention surrounding the implementation and search for domestic remedies following litigation. A fourth process evaluates the issue of protection in Russia: how human rights defenders manage risk and practice advocacy in a dangerous environment. This dissertation contributes to socio-legal and human rights research by examining how Russian human rights lawyers use legalism and how they operate in transnational networks of human rights experts and activists. The author argues that lawyers do not only make legalistic claims to rights, but experiment with how rights can be used to expand their potential protection to their clients: by managing expectations of clients, expanding the scope of the European Convention, and developing novel ways of protecting themselves against government repression. This dissertation is based on semi-structured interview methodologies and deterritorialized human rights research on expert human rights practitioners working in the same network but in various places. The author conducted the interviews between 2009 and 2012 during various fieldwork trips in the Russian Federation, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Finland. The dissertation consists of four peer-reviewed articles and an introduction. Article 1, Holding on to Legalism: the Politics of Russian Litigation on Torture and Discrimination before the European Court of Human Rights , examines the position of the human rights practitioner between the State and the victim before and during litigation with the ECtHR. It observes how the human rights practitioner selects applicants, conducts public investigations, and uses international litigation as leverage in cooperation with the State to find suitable remedies for the applicant. In particular, the article argues that Russian lawyers do not simply have a belief in legalism, but use legalism as a political strategy. Article 2, Seeking Life, Finding Justice: Russian NGO Litigation and Chechen Disappearances before the European Court of Human Rights , analyzes the interaction between the ECtHR and the victim. The practitioner mediates in struggles that have no easy solution. The author specifically investigates the lawyers dilemma whether to discourage the expectation of relatives of the disappeared on finding their family member alive after their enforced disappearance. This expectation at times conflicts with the NGOs and Court s aim to presume the death of a disappeared person and establish a violation of the right to life. Article 3, Transitional Justice in Chechnya: NGO Advocacy for implementing Chechen Judgments of the European Court of Human Rights , presents the interplay between the ECtHR and the Russian State. In particular, this article argues that the judgments of the ECtHR inform processes of transitional justice. Moreover, it argues that favorable judicial attention to litigation is insufficient to implement a judgment at home. Instead, the judgments provide political leverage for NGO domestic advocacy campaigns promoting the implementation of the judgment, criminal prosecution of perpetrators, remedies for victims, and transitional justice in post-conflict Chechnya. The practitioner lobbies with the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe (CoE) to promote the judgments domestic execution. Accordingly, the litigation process before the ECtHR does not end after a final judgment; instead, it prompts a series of broader political claims to ending impunity and truth seeking, informed by the NGOs strategies. Article 4, Violence and Human Rights in Russia: How Human Rights Defenders develop their Tactics in the Face of Danger, 2005-2013 (awaiting editorial decision) adds to the subject matter of the dissertation by revealing how human rights defenders respond to the curtailing legal measures by the Russian State. It analyzes how Russian human rights defenders take protective measures, practice advocacy under high-risk situations, and manage fear in dangerous situations. Moreover, it identifies how the State uses law to regulate the behavior of civil organizations and popular movements. This domestic struggle is vital to our understanding of human rights practice in Russia, since these human rights defenders are reliant on the government to guarantee their autonomy.
  • Salminen, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Abstract Environments where organizations operate and communicate are in a state of continuous flux due to technological development and global economy. The goal of my research was to find out how to evaluate communication directors expertise from the 2010s onwards and to understand the process how that expertise is developed. I have built my research on two premises on how organizations operate in more or less mediated fields of the public sphere and on the new dialogue model of workplace communication, in which everyone has communication responsibilities. The core of my research is based on theory as I compare educational, sociological as well as leadership and management theories to PR and corporate communications theories and points of view. Applying these theories I created a hypothesis of a postmodern model of the ideal expertise of a communications director in the business sector. I tested the model by determining the expectations of five different stakeholder groups: the communications directors and managers themselves, the managing directors and executives, the human relations and marketing directors and managers and journalists. During the whole research process I have utilized mixed methods thinking, which has made possible the combination of both qualitative and quantitative techniques. As a result of testing my hypothetical model against the views of different stakeholders and comparing it with the newest theories in PR and corporate communications I achieved a model of the ideal expertise of a communications director. I identified the core of strategic expertise every communications director must have. In addition to that core I identified a group of competencies, which are negotiable and dependent on the context in which the organization and its communications exist. In that sense the ideal model is always limited within a certain strategic context. My research also produced a concrete tool that can be used to evaluate and evolve the expertise of a communication director towards the ideal model. Alongside the ideal model I identified the process demanded to generate the expertise of a communication director, 8 views on communication directors competencies and 9 categories of competencies which make it easier to develop communications directors communication, leadership and management competencies. My premises reached only a partial conformation. Organizations can benefit from my research by linking the expertise of a communications director more closely to the strategic management of the company. Communications directors, and those who are interested in becoming one, can use my research as a tool to develop their own expertise and plan their career. The key words are: PR and corporate communications, communication, communication director, professional identity, expertise, competence, skill and professional role.
  • Parpola, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The use of Finland s national forests changed with World War II. During the 1940s and 1950s, the total cut tripled in relation to the area managed for timber production, and the area clear-cut increased six-fold. These new intensive logging practices became standard in the remote forests of eastern and northern Finland. This study explains how and why the agency governing the Finnish national forests, Metsähallitus, changed its operations during the years 1939 1970. These questions are answered in the vein of classical public administration theory by placing Metsähallitus in its social and governmental context and by analyzing the way in which Metsähallitus and its leaders interpreted expectations regarding national forest use. The starting point of the study is the social crisis created by the war, which in turn influenced expectations regarding the national forests and their use. The economic policy of the age emphasized the intensification of national resource use, and discourses on public administration favored effective and independent decision-making. Adhering to these paradigms, the foresters and officials of Metsähallitus changed the agency s operating model to facilitate intensified logging practices. The key figures in this change were Metsähallitus chief N.A. Osara and Forestry Professor Vilho Lihtonen. The new operating model for the national forests stressed maximizing the cut, but ignored the task of regenerating growth in the newly logged areas. As a result, both the volume and the growth of national forests plummeted during the 1950s. The subsequent regeneration of the northern and eastern national forests required a costly and protracted effort spanning the 1960s and 1970s. These changes in the agency s operating model constituted a narrowing of national forest use. Before World War II, the national forests had remained a largely untapped resource, which could serve multiple ends. The new operating model regarded the national forests primarily as a harvestable raw material for use by the pulp and paper industries. Reverting to a more diverse operating model proved difficult, as demonstrated by numerous conflicts with conservation groups during the 1970s and 1980s.
  • Valkeapää, Annukka (2014)
    This study focuses on the values, fairness, and legitimacy of forest-related decision-making in Finland. This context can be described with the opposing values of the intensive use of forests and biodiversity conservation. Further, the legitimacy of decision-making processes in the field has been questioned by various stakeholder groups. The purpose of forest policy in Finland is to enhance the sustainable production of benefits derived from forests to serve the needs of all citizens. To meet this purpose, citizens opinions concerning forests and decision-making are crucial. The first aim of this study is to investigate how forest values make their way into the decision-making process; as such, the forest values of citizens, Members of Parliament (MPs) and forest professionals are compared. The second aim is to suggest speed of decision-making as one principle that people use when evaluating the fairness of an overall decision-making process. The third aim is to develop a model of legitimacy for a hypothetical political sector and test it in the forest policy context, and further, to examine how certain personal factors affect the evaluation fo legitimacy. The fourth aim is practical; to bring out citizen opinions for the basis of policy-making. Three survey samples were used: citizens (N=1260), MPs (N=80), and forest professionals (N=1016). These samples were analyzed in the five quantitative sub-studies of this dissertation using statistical methods, such as regression modelling, analysis of variance, mediation analysis, and structural equation modelling. The examination of forest values revealed remarkable difference between the three groups: citizens emphasized more biodiversity conservation value than economic value, while for MPs these values were almost equal in importance, and for forest professionals, economic value was most emphasized. This partly explains the persistence of forest-related conflicts in Finland. The idea of using speed in decision-making as one fairness criterion is drawn from, and built on, uncertainty management model. The effect of speed on legitimacy was mediated through procedural fairness and the effect was curvilinear. Very fast and very slow decision-making processes were perceived to be less fair, probably because they include more uncertainty than moderate processes. The perceived legitimacy of Finnish forest related decision-making was explained by procedural justice and forestry practices; for non-owners, power relations also had an effect. The policy as a whole was perceived as rather legitimate but the two elements raised notable criticism: the treatment of different points of view was considered to be unfair and the main forestry practice, clearcutting, was generally met with disapproval. System justification theory claims that people are motivated to believe that existing social arrangements are legitimate, justifiable and even necessary especially if the possibilities to influence it are limited. The findings confirm this: the lower a citizen s competence in forest issues, the more the evaluation was perceived as legitimate. This study challenges forest policymakers to acknowledge citizens opinions and focus on procedural justice in decision-making. At the end of this study, the practical implications and possibility of change in the context are discussed.
  • Janzon, Max (Max Janzon, 2014)
    Abstract The study offers a strong constructivist reading on Finnish border security. The objective of the study is to realize border security culture. Realizing Finnish border security culture implies constructing Finnish border territoriality and its social meanings thereof, and reconstructing the patterns of valorization. The first research objective is to construct the shared ideas and assumptions of Finnish border security by constructing border territoriality. The second research objective is to define socially constructed spatial strategy. The third research objective is to realize border security culture and implies framing the social practices that confirm social meanings and patterns. Accordingly, the study has three research objectives and three research questions. The first research question is about how Finnish border security is socially constructed. The second research question concerns Finnish socially constructed border strategy. The third research question asks the question of what about border security culture is realized. The empirical agenda of the study is concluded with a main empirical argument regarding border security culture realized. Border security culture is regarded constructivist and thus as a holistically embedded social structure, which by social constructivism is made known, obvious and then understandable. Social constructivism is treated as a metapractice of border security culture and derives its character from the perceived logical and pragmatic relationship to its object of inquiry. Scientific realism in this study is understood in terms of constitutive realism. Constitutive realism draws from the assumption that there is social knowledge and that this social knowledge is expressed in and by social structures. The epistemological position argues for a constitutive framing of Finnish border security that draws from practical knowledge and its contextual horizon. For empirical purposes, the study applies constitutive framing. The act of constitutive framing produces specific frames by organizing and interpreting the language used to communicate border security meaning, patterns, and practices. A total of twenty Finnish border security professionals in senior or executive positions were interviewed for the study. Border security culture in this study is understood to constitute spatial strategy and bordering practices shared by border security professionals. For the purpose of realizing border security culture, the study develops a constructivist argument according to which constructing border security is by application of securitization theory wedded to border security professionals and by using territorialization theory rooted in how border security professionals construct territoriality. Rooted in the social ontology of international border security, the social constructivist argument forms a territorial political sociology that develops by combining the securitizing practices of border security agents and their shared territoriality. According to the empirical agenda, the master constructs of Finnish border security are Eastborderness, Schengenization, Integration, and Cooperation. Eastborderness and Schengenization are acts for communicating territoriality while integrated and cooperational borderwork are acts for enforcing territoriality. The two patterns of valorization that emerge are territorial consciousness and (securitized) spatial order. The pattern of territorial consciousness constitutes pragmatic and constructive territoriality. The pattern of securitized spatial order constitutes coherent and coordinated spatial order. While pragmatic and constructive territoriality are influential acts for communicating border territoriality, coherent and coordinated spatial order are influential acts for enforcing territoriality. Such influential territoriality constitutes effectively a socially constructed convincing border strategy. Border security culture is then realized by the practices that confirm shared meanings and shared patterns. The practices of eastbordering, social bordering, and spatial bordering confirm Finnish border strategy. Further, these bordering practices constitute influential bordering culture and Finnish (and European) border security culture realized. The main empirical argument regarding a border security culture realized is as follows. Rooted in convincing border strategy, the practices of eastbordering, social bordering, and spatial bordering inhere in and constitute an influential bordering culture, and thereby Finnish (and European) border security culture is realized. Eastbordering refers to the practices of Finnish-Russian border security cooperation, while social bordering constitutes Frontex-like border security. Spatial bordering practices define networked border security. Finnish-Russian border security cooperation, Frontex-like border security, and networked border security constitute influential border security culture, while inhering acts for communicating and enforcing territoriality effectively influence interactions at the security borders.
  • Gritsenko, Daria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This dissertation aims at clarifying how multiple public and private decision-making actors co-exist in the governing of shipping quality in the Baltic Sea, and which mechanisms allow these multiactor arrangements to proliferate and sustain themselves. Acknowledging that collective action problems undermine quality governance, this research sought to collect empirical evidence documenting the role of polycentricity, which implies the existence of overlapping and competing centers of decision making embedded within multiple interdependent and often conflicting contexts, for quality shipping and the way it is conceptualized, operationalized, and practiced. A key argument in this thesis is that whereas the shipping industry is global, quality shipping governance is not; therefore, quality shipping governance takes a form of contextually-bound steering. Quality shipping is defined in this research as shipping that aims at safety and environmental protection, while still maintaining economic sustainability. The two central aspect of quality in shipping safety and environmental were used to empirically grasp and operationalize quality shipping in four individual studies conducted within this dissertation project. The individual empirical studies do not build upon each other directly, however they are linked thematically, conceptually, and methodologically, and allow for interconnected, though varying insights on the emergence and development of collective action by revealing how the practices associated with quality shipping were defined and materialized. The empirical research was built upon reconstructing the governance process on the basis of methodological localism , that is, focusing on actors who are involved in the process of steering, their interactions, and how institutions structure the interaction within multiple interconnected contexts in which interactions are embedded. This thesis relates to the wider body of research on governance by focusing on how quality shipping governance cuts across different levels and jurisdictions and penetrates the grey zones in which neither markets nor states can solely solve collective action problems. Reflecting on the impact of multiactor interaction that connects different functionalities and localities, it contributes to four interconnected theoretical debates on governance: on the role of politics and power, on the territorial dimension of boundary-spanning governance, on the new role images and dilemmas, and on governing of governance, or metagovernance. This dissertation makes an empirical argument to support the proposition that quality shipping governance is not a technical depoliticized process of problem-fixing, but a battlefield overrun with power struggles and conflicts over resources, images, and institutions. The four individual studies portray much of the interaction in existing quality shipping governance as informal and ad hoc, and emphasize that everyday inter-organizational exchanges constitute the larger part of interactions between shipping actors in governance of quality shipping. It further speculates about the role of metagovernance and interactions that allow actors to establish mechanisms that link vertical (hierarchical) and horizontal (market and network) dimensions of governance. The thesis claims that if we want more quality shipping, we need to be able to explain and master the connecting relation between actors and institutions that enhance multiactor coordination and make collaboration work. The practical contribution of this study is in elaborating a framework for formulation and implementation of socio-economic innovation for balanced development and public well-being in polycentric contexts using the example of quality shipping governance. The focus on concrete instances of collective action in quality shipping governance in the Baltic Sea demonstrates that interactions, institutions and mechanisms vary in time and space. This finding has important implications for solving social and environmental challenges in arenas other than shipping, because it shows that collective action is contextually-bound and that local solutions can be found to problems conventionally identified as global.
  • Rintala, Ohto (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The study examines the U.S. State Department s postwar foreign policy planning concerning Finland, Romania and Hungary in years 1942-1945. When Germany launched an attack against the Soviet Union in June 1941 these countries took part in the coalition of Germany, while the United States and Stalin s Soviet Union were allies in the war against Hitler s Germany. Finland, Romania and Hungary located at the borderlands of Europe, between Germany and the Soviet Union, and were in a geopolitically unstable position. The State Department s extensive postwar foreign policy planning started at the beginning of 1942 partly as a consequence of the rise of the United States as a global superpower in the course of the Second World War. This study uses comparative historical approach but in a practical manner. The research material consists of the State Department s plans. In the analysis five themes were investigated: 1) border questions, especially with respect to Finland s, Romania s and Hungary s border with the Soviet Union; 2) regional cooperation between Eastern and Northern Europe; 3) internal political and societal conditions; 4) relations with the Soviet Union; and 5) plans concerning Finland, Romania and Hungary as a part of the administrative planning process. Two key concepts were used in the study. The first one dealt with how the foreign policy planners signified Finland, Romania and Hungary as enemies in the Second World War ( enemy image ), and the second one dealt with the more long-term political and societal development of these countries between the world wars ( history image ). The study shows that the U.S. postwar planners understood the international positions of Finland, Romania and Hungary as attached to the broader question of the Soviet Union s influence on its western border regions. Even though the interests of the Soviet Union in these regions were approved, the State Department s foreign policy planners were seeking compromises in order to stabilize the postwar international system. Stability was also seen as a best way to ensure the global political and economic interests of the United States. The study also shows that the enemy images of Finland, Romania and Hungary were vague especially if compared to Germany and Japan. In the previous research, Finland is often presented as a kind of special case in the U.S. foreign policy during the Second World War. This study supports the claim and shows that in the history images Finland was treated differently compared to Romania and Hungary. This treatment was linked to the strengthened Nordic democratic process during the 1930 s, while profound political and societal reforms were recommended to Romania and Hungary to ensure more stable regional development on the Eastern Europe after the Second World War.