Browsing by Author "Koivula, Nina"

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  • Koivula, Nina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    This study was carried out in a Finnish steel company. It had two main goals. First, the structure of values postulated by S. H. Schwartz’s value theory was examined among the company employees (N=1314). The values of manual workers were of special interest, given that people with little education have seldom been studied in value research. Second, the association of value priorities with attitudes towards organisational change and knowledge sharing were examined both at the individual and at the workplace level. Value priorities were measured by means of the 40-item Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ). Multidimensional scaling and transformation analysis were used to test the universality of the value structures among manual workers and white-collar workers. The validity of the instrument was confirmed by comparing the steel worker sample with Finnish university student samples. The value structures of the white-collar employees and of the manual workers were similar and in line with Schwartz’s model with the exception of security, which was located within self-transcendence values in both groups. The measures for attitudes towards organisational change and knowledge sharing were constructed for the present research by means of a qualitative study. Attitudes towards organisational change were weakly predicted by self-transcendence (+), tradition (-), and hedonism (-). Stronger results were obtained starting from the assumption that positive attitudes were the company norm and that conformity values partly determine whether attitude is guided by social norms or by other values. When the associations were examined separately for employees high on conformity on the one hand and those low on conformity on the other, the values largely failed to predict attitudes among the high conformity respondents, but among those low on conformity, universalism and benevolence were positively and power negatively associated with the attitudes. Interestingly, achievement predicted positive change attitudes among employees high on conformity, but negative change attitudes among those low on conformity. For knowledge sharing, self-direction predicted less favourable perceptions of change, while benevolence and conformity predicted more positive perceptions. Achievement was associated with sharing only when conformity was high. When mean scores for workplaces (N=19) were used, workplaces high on self-transcendence and conformity and low on self-enhancement values showed higher levels of sharing. The sample was divided into three occupational environments: conventional, realistic, and enterprising. Differences between the environments were explained by age, gender, and education. Independently, no differences were found between the first two. An enterprising environment stood out as valuing power, self-direction, and achievement more than a realistic environment. For a realistic environment, tradition and hedonism values were more important than for an enterprising environment.