Valtiotieteellinen tiedekunta

 

Recent Submissions

  • Kochetkova, Elena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This study is devoted to technology transfer from the West (primarily from Finland) to the Soviet forestry industry during a period of rapid modernization under the rule of Nikita Khrushchev during the 1950s and 1960s. Under Khrushchev, the USSR sought to catch up and overtake America . However, in the post-war period the Soviet Union suffered from a dearth of technology and expertise, and technology transfer from more developed foreign industries became a crucial aspect of modernization. Despite geopolitical competition and a vast ideological divide, Khrushchev aimed to transfer updated Western technologies to the USSR in different forms and practices. The Soviet Union established scientific-technical connections with several countries. The main source of modern technologies and machinery needed for paper and pulp production in particular was neutral Finland, which could be considered as a window to Western technological achievements for the Soviet Union. Exemplifying unique relations of West and East in the Cold War, Finland sold many techniques and provided expertise within the framework of scientific-technical cooperation. This dissertation examines the role that technology transfer from the other side of the Iron Curtain played in Soviet modernization from 1955 to 1964. How did technical cooperation with a Western country develop in the context of the Cold War? How and in what forms did Soviet institutions and engineers transfer technologies? How did they deal with more advanced machinery and new expertise? How did they apply the new technologies and how did Soviet domestic research develop? Did these technologies help renew machinery, launch new production and enhance the development of the industry, as expected? If not, why? And, in general, did these foreign technologies lead to technological modernization? In answering these questions, the dissertation sometimes refers to previous periods in order to trace continuities and change. Examining a vast collection of archival and published sources and using methods of the history of technology, the dissertation is focused on the forestry industry, which was one of key fields for expected positive changes in Khrushchev`s modernization. Its technological improvement was necessary not only for the increase of pulp and paper production to meet expanding consumption demands; the forestry industry was also a supplier for a large number of other both civilian and military industries, the latter of which received particular importance during the Cold War. Several plants and factories annexed after the Second Would War (in particular from Finland and the Baltic states) provided for the production of new sorts of pulp needed for military use, and technological modernization of these factories as well as launching new production in other Soviet enterprises was seen as a crucial action for the development of many other industries. Cold War forestry technologies, thus, exemplified their capacity to be a site of exchange , enabling cooperation among different industries, engineers, scientists and institutions. The dissertation illustrates that technologies from Finland and from the West via Finland played a significant role in the Soviet economy while creating a need for continuing transfer. The Soviet leadership aimed to create its own innovations to launch domestic production of the newest technologies. While Soviet engineers succeeded in implementing some technologies, they failed to develop Soviet ones. The Soviet industry remained dependent on cooperation with countries with more advanced industry. The main reasons for this were shortages of raw materials. In addition, technical expertise in industrial enterprises contributed to this dependence. Additionally, within the USSR, there were barriers to technology transfer between institutions. Generally, the successful implementation of Western technologies was possible only when all the details, machinery and expertise, needed for the technology were transferred. At the same time, as a framework for cultural encounters, transfer entailed cultural impacts on Soviet engineers which helped them become more reflexive about work conditions and management practices at Soviet enterprises.
  • Pettersson, Katarina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This doctoral dissertation explores how populist radical right politicians in Finland and Sweden use political blogs for the purpose of nationalist political communication and persuasion. The study builds upon research that has highlighted the growing importance of social media in the transmission of radical right, nationalist and anti-immigration political discourse, and to the central role of these media in the gradual normalisation of such discourse. Moreover, the study acknowledges the potential indicated by previous research of political blogs to function as tools for voter persuasion and mobilisation. The study aims to contribute with insights on how social psychological dynamics such as self-presentation, identity-constructions, discursive divisions between ingroups and outgroups , strategies of persuasion, and appeals to emotions and nostalgic memories are involved in these processes. The dissertation examines blog-entries by members of the populist radical right parties the Finns Party (Perussuomalaiset) in Finland and the Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna) in Sweden during 2007-2015. The bloggers who are the focus of the study represent, first, the parties extreme anti-immigration factions, comprised first and foremost of white men (Studies I and IV); second, the parties women s leagues (Study II); and third, politicians with immigrant or other ethnic minority background who have chosen to join a populist radical right party (Study III). The critical discursive and rhetorical psychological study explores the nationalist political blog discourse at three levels: it investigates the arguments it contains; by what verbal, visual and digital means these arguments are presented in order to seem convincing; and what implications these formulations might have in a social and political sense. In so doing, the study approaches the political blog-discourse as part and parcel of its broader argumentative context. This dissertation contributes to social psychological research on nationalist political communication and persuasion in three central ways. First, by delving into the discourse of both white men, women and ethnic minority members in populist radical right parties, it provides an understanding of the diversity of voices within such parties. Women and immigrants within these parties seem to be faced with particular dilemmas: the former ones with that between societal norms of gender equality and the patriarchal politics of the populist radical right; and the latter ones with that of being an immigrant in an anti-immigration political party. The critical discursive and rhetorical analyses of this study are able to show how these politicians strive to reconcile such dilemmas in their blog-discourse in ways that nevertheless remain faithful to the promotion of patriarchal and nationalist political causes. Second, this dissertation extends the critical discursive and rhetorical approach with analytical tools from narrative psychology, social semiotic studies of images and studies of online political communication. Thus moving beyond the text in its analytical approach, the study is able to explore the multitude of (audio-)visual, digital and communicative features contained in political blogs, and how these interact with classical rhetorical strategies, narrative structures, and socially and culturally rooted discursive resources in the construction of nationalist political arguments. Third, the study shows that the (audio-)visual, digital and communicative features of the blogs allow for the presentation of socially sensitive and even racist political views without the individual blogger having to express an explicit personal opinion on the matter at hand. Because of these features political blogs seem to constitute an optimal sphere for nationalist political communication and persuasion: they enable the conveying of powerful, credible and emotion-provoking messages, yet they concomitantly protect the blogger from charges of holding racist views. Discourse contained in political blogs does not remain in the blogosphere, but becomes circulated in mainstream media and thus influences the broader societal and political debate. In order to grasp the character and societal implications of contemporary political communication and persuasion, this dissertation thus encourages social psychological research to develop its tools for critically studying discourse contained in political blogs.
  • Kurronen, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    In countries highly dependent on their mineral resource sectors, the failure to diversify industrial activity is sometimes characterized as a resource curse. Several factors which are known to be harmful for economic development, such as a lower level of education and poor governance, have been shown to be present in resource-dependent countries. It is not clear, however, whether a resource curse is merely the natural outcome of organizing an economy around its resource sector based on a country s factor endowments. If the resource industry does not need a particularly well educated labor force or a highly developed legal system, it is not surprising that those areas do not develop in countries with a large resource sector. This thesis focuses on unraveling the link between the resource curse and finance. All three articles take a different approach to the same question: does finance play a role in enhancing the resource curse? The first article, using cross-country panel data, presents evidence that domestic bank lending to the private sector is less common and the use of market-based finance more common in resource-dependent countries than in their resource-poor counterparts. That could create an environment difficult for small firms or emerging industries, which are known to rely on domestic bank lending. The second article enters more deeply into the reasons behind this first finding and, using firm-level data, presents evidence that resource firms use less debt and debt of longer maturity than other non-financial firms. Similarly, firms in other sectors in resource-dependent countries have less debt than firms with similar characteristics in other countries. The results suggest that resource firms have demand for a certain type of finance, which could steer the supply of financial services in resource-dependent countries. The third article shows empirical evidence that an oil price collapse adversely affects leverage of not only resource firms but also other firms in resource-dependent countries. In other countries, however, only the resource sector is harmed by the fall in oil price. This fact suggests that volatility is one channel through which the resources affect finance in resource-dependent countries. All in all, the results show that finance is a channel through which the resource curse operates. Resource firms have demand for a certain type of financial services, which could affect the supply of financial services in resource-dependent countries. The financial sector could be formed to serve the needs of large resource firms, and it perhaps leaves other types of firms with inadequate service. Moreover, external commodity price shocks adversely affect firm leverage growth in resource-dependent countries. Consequently, addressing the financial needs of non-resource firms in resource-dependent countries could help to mitigate the resource curse.
  • Yang, Lei (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The association between socioeconomic status and health has been well studied. It has been found that people in higher social classes generally have better health and a lower mortality. However, it is still inconclusive whether the health advantage acquired by people with a higher socioeconomic status weakens in later life. Although empirical evidence in Western societies has revealed different age-related patterns of health inequality, little is known about the situation in China, which has the largest population of elderly people in the world. Recent studies in some industrialised societies also indicate that socioeconomic status is not only individual but also family level resource. In other words, the family s socioeconomic status affect the health of family members. However, few studies have been conducted in middle-income countries such as China. Unlike in Western societies, co-residence with children is still the main living arrangement among the Chinese elderly, and family members play a significant role in the provision of healthcare for them. Thus, it is reasonable to speculate that the socioeconomic status of family members is even more important in terms of maintaining the health of elderly people in China than it is in Western societies. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the trajectories of health in later life by means of different indicators of socioeconomic status, and to assess whether, and if so how the socioeconomic status of family members affects the health and mortality risk of elderly people in China. The specific aim was to find out whether elderly people with a higher socioeconomic status have better physical and cognitive functioning at baseline and a lower rate of decline with age. A further aim was to assess the extent to which higher educational levels among spouses and offspring are associated with self-rated good health and a lower mortality risk among elderly people. The data used in this study came from the Chinese Longitudinal Health and Longevity Survey (CLHLS) conducted in China in 2002-2011. The CLHLS produced the largest set of population-based survey data covering Chinese people aged 65 and over. It was based on internationally compatible questionnaires and yielded extensive information on socioeconomic status, family structure and background, living arrangements, daily activities, life styles, and health conditions. The results indicate that elderly people with a higher socioeconomic status have generally better physical and cognitive functioning at baseline, but the higher status did not protect against a decline in functioning with age. High education and household income predicted better cognitive functioning but were not associated with activities of daily living (ADL) functioning at baseline. High income was related to better instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) functioning but had no effect on the rate of change in IADL. Inadequate financial resources and unavailability of health services were mainly associated with poorer physical functioning at baseline. The findings also revealed an association between higher spousal education and a lower mortality risk among elderly people. Male elderly people living with a highly-educated child seem to have a lower mortality risk than those living with offspring educated to a low level. It was also found that elderly men and women with a low level of education but living with highly-educated adult children were more likely to report good health, although the interaction effect was only significant for females. Thus, the main effect of education on mortality among elderly males should be interpreted with caution because it may vary according to the education of co-resident children. The findings attest to the importance of socioeconomic status, in particular access to financial resources and health care services, in maintaining physical functioning among elderly people in China. Furthermore, living with a highly educated spouse or child also plays a significant role in reducing mortality risk.
  • Ojala, Markus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Recent decades have seen an increase in the number of international forums and media that focus on current issues of the world economy and politics. They bring decision-makers from the spheres of politics, business and administration into a common conversation, and connect powerful individuals around the globe. This study defines these institutions as spaces for transnational elite communication and examines their relevance in the processes of global economic integration and governance. Efforts to bring together business and policymaking elites on an international level are closely associated with the production and governance of a globalised and financialised capitalism. These processes have been spearheaded by the United States and Europe, as well as western transnational corporations and banks after World War 2. The objective has been to incorporate non-western elites into the project of economic liberalisation and to bring them into the institutions and mechanisms of global economic governance. Establishment of international forums and media that bring elites together has been a key part of these objectives. The production of elite culture and a public sphere enhances the potential of elites to bridge divides, formulate common outlooks and negotiate shared goals. Focusing on the World Economic Forum and the Financial Times as influential spaces for transnational elite communication, the study observes how they enable the powerful to network, develop shared ideas about the economy and negotiate differences between competing interests. Facilitating the definition of the values and principles of the globalising elite, international business-policy forums and media emerge as key pillars of the liberal international order. The relative weakening of the leadership role of the United States in the 2010s is accompanied with growing questioning of the world order in which the US dollar and western-led international organisations have dominant roles. This is why elites appear to be increasingly divided. However, despite the rise of nationalist and mercantilist tendencies, transnational elites still tend to share a commitment to an integrated global economy characterised by relatively free movement of the factors of production. Insofar as international elite forums and media are capable of incorporating non-western elites as well as alternative economic-policy ideas, they have the potential to bridge elite divides and to promote the kind of policy shift that addresses the multiple crises of contemporary capitalism.
  • Virta, Ari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This dissertation aims to provide an alternative way to look at morality. This means changing the traditional division of labour in metaethics between moral semantics and moral psychology. This gives grounds for disconnecting morality from moral judgments and strengthening the connection to human well-being. Finally, in at least one area of applied ethics, in business ethics, this means acknowledging the minorities of one, the unique individuals as the vital actors whose very individuality is the most valuable resource for promoting our wealth and well-being. It also means organising our society in a way that allows the widest possible individual liberty. Concentrating on moral psychology means following the thought expressed by Adam Smith in The Theory of Moral Sentiments that we study how actual human beings make moral judgments. This has been done in many areas outside philosophy. It appears that our moral judgments are mostly driven by their possible consequences to us, not any thoughts about judging in a coherent manner the deeds done. Our actual morality thus appears to mostly concern our own well-being. Also, the moral judgments appear to be consequences or post hoc rationalisations of the preceding choices, decisions, or judgments made subconsciously and under framing and priming effects. In other words, we are guided more by our instincts and situational factors than any theoretical deliberations. This accumulated knowledge conflicts with our philosophical tradition about normative human nature. Skeptical naturalism in ethics means acknowledging the obvious: a lot of people believe in objective moral facts and some construct elaborate arguments to defend this belief, but so far there is no scientific proof that the belief is justified and thus no proof that the arguments are valid. A different approach is recommendable. As Smith puts it, we have a propensity to truck, barter, and exchange one thing for another, which means that we are ultra-social animals. We constantly observe our conspecifics and interpret their actions as intentional behaviour. We also instinctively care for their well-being, and these prosocial actions of ours are more dependent on our prosocial emotions than our prosocial judgments. Our social coherence thus depends more on our inhibitions than our prohibitions. It depends mostly on our generally decent behaviour which is most probably produced by the biological, not the cultural evolution. We can use the effects of the biological evolution on the level of cultural evolution by designing our commercial and social institutions accordingly. We can acknowledge that our wealth and well-being depend on our individuality, our different ways of seeing life and world and thus our different aspirations, desires, and evaluations that make possible our division of labour. This drives voluntary exchange and innovation which produce our wealth and well-being.
  • Munck af Rosenschöld, Johan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Research has shown that we are facing multiple urgent sustainability challenges in the ways in which our societies are organized. To address these challenges we need governance systems that are adaptive in order to absorb new knowledge and creative in order to generate innovative solutions. Yet, institutional inertia , or the tendency of institutions to resist change, slows down the adaptation to these complex challenges. A core concern is thus, how to address institutional inertia in the context of sustainability. The goal of this dissertation is to evaluate the role of projects in generating institutional change toward sustainability. The use of projects cross-cutting organizations that are employed to reach well-defined objectives during a specified period of time to implement public policy has lately attracted scholarly attention. The increasing reliance on projects, or projectification , resonates with the need for managing uncertainties and unpredictabilities in contemporary environmental governance and involves cross-sectoral cooperation in society. To explore the role of projects in institutional change processes, this study focuses on two dimensions of institutional work : participation the processes of including actors and different knowledges in projects as well as promoting deliberation among project participants and innovation the generation and diffusion of new knowledge and ideas produced in projects. This dissertation studies two programs that fund projects to implement public policy: the European Union s LEADER Program and the Regional Conservation Partnership Program (RCPP) implemented by the Natural Resource Conservation Service of the United States Department of Agriculture. While both programs rely on projects as funding mechanisms, they differ in how they are organized and in terms of their historical significance. Taken together, the differences between the two programs provide interesting insights into the role of projects in institutional change processes. The data from the two cases, including interviews and central policy documents, was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. This dissertation highlights important contradictions regarding the question of projects serving as fruitful sites for instigating institutional change. The findings emphasize that institutional inertia is generated by a list of mechanisms including cost, uncertainty, path dependence, power, and legitimacy. The results also highlight that inertia has important temporal implications. Not only does inertia slow down change processes, challenging the development of timely responses to sustainability problems, but also calls for a temporally sensitive approach that acknowledges the multifaceted nature of time. The analysis of the empirical cases shows that projects can serve as vehicles for including actors from different sectors with different knowledges. The analysis also highlights the deliberative nature of project work, which serves as a basis for social learning among project participants. The lack of external participation in projects once they were initiated, however, raises some doubt as to the full extent of inclusion of actors and prompts the question of excluded critical voices in project work. The question of innovation sheds critical light on the capacity of projects to initiate institutional change. The analysis suggests that the ability of projects to engage in exploration and generate innovations can be significantly restricted by bureaucratic rules and traditions of administrative top-down control. The dissertation also points to the challenges of diffusing project knowledge to permanent organizations. Two types of innovation diffusion in projectified environmental governance are identified. Vertical diffusion refers to the process of scaling up project knowledge to higher levels of decision making in permanent organizations, such as regulatory agencies and project-funding organizations. The analysis highlights the challenges of vertical diffusion for projects that are locally situated and have decentered decision-making procedures. Horizontal diffusion, in turn, assigns more weight to the project participants themselves to make sense of and utilize project knowledge in future instances, either in their own work or in new projects. Here, projects function as points of contact, where aggregated and accumulated knowledges converge, which in turn generates new combinations and the potential for broader change. The dissertation expands the discussion of projectification in two ways. First, previous research on projectification has thus far relied on single-country or single-region analyses. While the aim of this dissertation is not to conduct a formal comparative analysis of LEADER and RCPP, it represents one of the first attempts to illustrate the significance of projects and projectification by building on empirical findings from Europe and the USA. Second, this dissertation introduces two ideal types, mechanistic and organic projectification, proposing an alternative approach to conceptualizing projects and their role in institutional change in a public policy setting. Deemphasizing rationalism and embracing tensions, inconsistencies, and the untidiness of projectification could help us gain a fuller understanding of different institutional change processes toward sustainability.
  • Mäkinen, Liisa A. (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This doctoral thesis investigates private surveillance practices in everyday life, ranging from control-related monitoring to watching for familial care, for both practical and playful purposes. The focus is on individual camera surveillance practices in private and semi-private places such as homes and recreational surroundings. The work is located in the field of Surveillance Studies. The research builds on the view that surveillance in its current form cannot be conceptualized merely in the framework of control, and recognizes that play can be offered as an alternative. Consequently, the objective is to examine how private surveillance practices can be placed in between, and beyond, frames of control and play. Furthermore, the aim is to examine how surveillance traditionally understood as a control-related activity can be connected to game-like and playful practices on a theoretical level. The study includes four research articles and a summary article. The main body of the empirical data is comprised of qualitative interviews (N:23) collected in Finland with users of private surveillance equipment. Two articles build on interview data, one is a case study (on an online surveillance application) and one is grounded on a theoretical analysis of playful traits in surveillance practices. The main result from the empirical data is that while private surveillance practices connect to forms of control-related monitoring and playful watching practices, uses are not limited to either but combine and add to them. A particularly interesting combination of the two is manifested in gamified surveillance, where surveillants might operate playfully, but surveillance is still authoritative. Control and play can indeed happen simultaneously. Five types of surveillance produced with domestic surveillance systems are recognized: controlling, caring, recreational, communicational and sincere. Furthermore, online cameras are analysed as practical devices which enable a convenient way to monitoring places and property which are important to the users. The key result on the theoretical level is the metaphorical model of surveillance analysis presented in two of the articles. This research introduces five novel metaphors for future surveillance analysis: 1) cat-and-mouse, 2) hide-and-seek, 3) labyrinth, 4) sleight-of-hand, and 5) poker. The metaphorical approach to surveillance practices proposes that control-related surveillance can be analysed from a ludic perspective. This study furthers both empirical and theoretical understanding of private surveillance practices and surveillance taking place at the interfaces of control and play. The underlying argument is that, in addition to control and play, convenience should be considered a framework for analysing private surveillance practices. Consequently, the positions of surveillance subjects should also be rethought.
  • Hämäläinen, Hans (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This doctoral dissertation explores the provision of financial aid and time transfers (care, childcare and practical help) by Finnish baby boomers (born 1945 - 1950) to their elderly parents and adult children. The research questions are: Do baby boomers provide more help to their adult children than elderly parents? How are the opportunities and needs associated with the help given by baby boomers to their elderly parents and adult children? How do the baby boomers reason their support to elderly parents and adult children? To answer these questions, the study utilizes three datasets: theme interview data and two nationally representative postal questionnaires which were all collected from Finnish baby boomers as a part of General transmissions in Finland project. The dissertation consists of four articles and a summary chapter. Articles I and II explore the direction of intergenerational support provided by baby boomers who are in the position of a middle generation. Article I shows that the financial aid given by baby boomers is directed almost entirely to adult children while only a few supports their parents financially. According to article II, baby boomers are also more likely to offer childcare help to their adult children (i.e. grandparental care) than care to their own elderly parents. However, baby boomers provide more practical help to their parents than children. Article III investigates how opportunities and needs are associated with the intergenerational time transfers. According to the results, care and practical help to elderly parents are primarily associated with the parents needs for support. In contrast, the childcare as well as practical help to adult children are positively associated, along with the needs, more widely with the baby boomers opportunities to help. Respectively, according to article I the opportunities and needs are related in the same way to the financial aid provided to adult children. Article IV explores how baby boomers reason the intergenerational support they provide. The results indicate that baby boomers reason the help they give to their parents with their parents needs for support. Needs are also an essential reason to support children. However, in addition baby boomers emphasize their willingness to help their children as much as possible, regardless of needs. The results are interpreted in the contexts of family sociology and evolutionary theory. These fields of research are perceived as complementary to each other. Sociological and evolutionary family studies often investigate the same subjects from different viewpoints. Therefore, combining these approaches is both necessary and productive.
  • Timko, Krisztina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Whenever a common goal requires coordinated action of a team, leadership facilitates the endeavor. Historically, men have held most of the leadership positions, and up to date, women are still a minority in top‐level business positions. Using the turnaround game in controlled laboratory experiments and varying treatment conditions, we investigate whether men and women are equally effective leaders. The first chapter reviews research from three different perspectives: coordination games in economic laboratory experiments and their real‐world implications, gender studies in relation to leadership and ongoing trends, and studies of the democracy effect related to leader effectiveness and gender equality. The second chapter shows with a basic experiment using the weak‐link game that men and women are equally effective leaders, no matter if gender is revealed or not. The third chapter considers communication styles of leaders and finds that despite the different paths in communication, men and women are equally effective leaders. The fourth chapter varies the selection process and presents a replication of the democracy effect on leader effectiveness in a laboratory experiment using the turnaround game as studied earlier by Brandts et al. (2015). The fifth chapter finds that women are elected at a similar rate than men and elected women are marginally less effective leaders than elected men, although the gender difference disappears with repeated interaction. The broad conclusion is that organizations can benefit from both employee participation in choosing group leaders and reconsidering gender imbalance in top‐level positions.
  • Saarikkomäki, Elsa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    While general trust in the police is high in Finland, young people's encounters with the police can be problematic. The starting point for this research was the observation that young people are experiencing higher levels of police control despite the lack of a corresponding rise in youth delinquency. Furthermore, the rapid rise of private security in many Western countries has changed the landscape of social control. This study provides new information about encounters between young people, the police and private security guards. It focused on social control directed at youth delinquency, alcohol use and the free time activities of young people. The study used mixed methods, drawing on a Finnish self-report delinquency survey (N=5 826), and on nine focus group interviews with 31 young people. The findings indicated that police and security guard interventions were highly prevalent among minors: 40 percent had experienced such interventions. Police and security guard interventions disproportionately targeted young people from lower social classes, and those living in non-nuclear families and cities, even when differences in delinquency were taken into account. Furthermore, delinquency and heavy drinking increased the likelihood of interventions. The study also examined how young people perceived encounters with policing agents. Fair and respectful treatment of young people was the key to good relations. Young people perceived encounters as fair when the interactions were friendly, peaceful and predictable. Furthermore, emotional factors, such as the ability of policing agents to be empathetic and control their own negative emotions, enforced trust. Aggressive and impolite treatment, on the other hand, challenged trust. The study also showed that young people have more trust and confidence in the police than in private security guards. Young people trusted the police more because they considered them better educated and their actions more legitimate and respectful. Security guards were perceived as often exceeding their legal rights and acting unfairly. The study emphasizes that within the context of this new form of public-private social control there is a need to understand the positive and negative effects of policing in a broad sense. Negatively experienced encounters can challenge young people's sense of social belonging and their trust in other people. Nevertheless, the study also shows that positive encounters can improve the relations and increase trust between young people and policing agents.
  • Kujanpää, Kirsti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The goal of this study is to research the link between Human Resources Management (HRM) and wellbeing at work in a multicultural work community. The study asks how multiculturalism emerges into human resources management and wellbeing at work. It examines human resources management from the perspectives of diversity management, promotion and leading of wellbeing at work, and the use of human resources management theory. The study focuses on the micro level of organisational studies, on leadership, and on the functionality of the work community. The research takes a case study approach. It is an empirical inquiry into a real-life contemporary phenomenon using multiple sources of evidence. The phenomenon is examined through a municipal public utility. The data are derived from focus groups, personal thematic interviews, wellbeing at work inquiry and human resources policy documents. In the first phase, the study looks at the focus groups perceptions of the concepts of wellbeing at work as well as work ability. A questionnaire for the whole work organisation consists of questions concerning different areas of wellbeing at work in addition to a Work Ability index (WAI) test. In the second phase, the study focuses on diversity management using a multiculturalism inquiry and personal interviews. In the third phase, human resources policy documents are analysed from the perspective of human resources management, wellbeing at work and diversity management/multiculturalism. The results revealed wellbeing at work to have been strongly related to human resources management, human resources functions and strategic decisions, and was found to be the function of the employer. In general, the concept of wellbeing at work was difficult to define, and was understood as the aspects of work ability. The inquiry showed no significant differences in opinion about the actualization of wellbeing at work between the original population and immigrants. Rather, the perceptions related to multiculturalism differed from each other with respect to the expertise and craftsmanship of the immigrants. The original population considered these as risk factors for wellbeing at work. The multicultural work community was found to requires diversity management, immigrants working-life knowledge, bi-directional cultural adaptation, and skills to handle conflicts. The collaboration between human resources management, superiors and occupational health was emphasised as being important when it concerned wellbeing at work and multicultural issues, especially issues that were difficult to bring up as well as work ability assessment. The study shows that the education of all main actors about immigrants culture, expertise, know-how, work ability and rehabilitation should be paid attention to. The analysis of the human resources policy documents found that the organisational management was strategic. However, human resources management was not well linked to the business strategy. Differences in views as expressed between personnel and personnel documents appeared in terms of wellbeing and diversity management. The study indicates that effective and efficient strategic management requires a link between human resources and diversity management strategies on one hand, and business strategy on the other.
  • Kaila, Eero (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This dissertation is aimed at clarifying the concept of moral responsibility within Anglophone, analytic ethics broadly defined, as well as looking at the concept of character to inquire about its role embedded within these theories. In this work, it is claimed that considerations of character matter when moral responsibility is assessed. Two families of theories of moral responsibility are compared with each other starting with Peter F. Strawson s'sentimentalist theory, originated in his influential article Freedom and Resentment (Strawson, 1962) and followed by work of others including R. Jay Wallace (1994). Scholarship on Aristotle's theory provides the basis for a similar framework of responsibility for action (NE III.1). Other aspects of Aristotle's work provide additional depth to his concept of moral responsibility however. Character differs greatly in emphasis in Aristotle's theory from that of Strawson. It is claimed here that character is an essential part of human agency, and is thus a defining factor for actions taken. It is also claimed since that character is not a precise concept, taking it fully into account presents a formidable challenge to all theories attempting to explain responsibility exhaustively. In Strawson's case, the further claim is made that what is traditionally discussed in terms of character is rephrased in terms of pleas and special conditions, which amount together into excuses instead. One common concept that both of these doctrines utilize is blame. Blame (usually accompanied with praise) is identified as a crucial component of responsibility by a majority of thinkers writing on the subject, and this reasoning is followed here as well. An aporetic conclusion supporting critical sources is reached in terms of a common understanding of moral responsibility in Part I. The Aristotelian notion of character and the Strawsonian notion of excuse will be re-visited as examples of blame mitigation within the context of these theories in the systematic section of Part II. Analysis is conducted based on Bernard Williams's (1993 and 1997) explication of elements of responsibility, where a comparison is done between character and excuses appearing in the two families of theories of responsibility. Based on the findings it is concluded that the two theoretical families share similarity of structure regardless of the difference in their age, in a way that no matter whether character or excuses are used to describe the alteration of initial judgment, in terms of the end results blame mitigation appears to happen identically in all cases. Examination of character in the context of philosophy of responsibility shows that there is room for expansion in the narrower attempts to define the concept. Comparisons of both of these theoretical alternatives are illustrated with examples and further discussion is called for.
  • Obstbaum-Federley, Yaira (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Kriminologian ja oikeuspolitiikan instituutin Tutkimuksia
    This doctoral dissertation study analyzed changes in the division of labor between the main societal institutions that handle substance-abuse-related harm, the changes in substance-abuse problems among prisoners that occurred between 1985 and 2006, as well as current prison practices in the assessment and treatment of these problems. The study materials included registers from the social and health authorities, the police and the prisons, along with nationally representative medical studies - Finnish Prisoner Health investigations conducted in 1985, 1992 and 2006. The study shows that substance-abuse-related harm handled within institutions increasingly became a matter for the prison rather than the social-welfare institutions between 1985 and 2006. The number of prisoners with substance-abuse problems in Finnish prisons grew substantially between 1985 and 2006. Addiction to both alcohol and drugs increased. Drug dependence increased to a higher degree and drugs have heavily supplemented alcohol among prisoners. Substance abuse is currently seen as a risk factor that should be tackled in prison in order to reduce reoffending. The study further investigated the degree to which substance-abuse problems are recognized in prisons, comparing the prisoner s sentence plans and risk and need assessments to the independent prisoner health study of 2006. Furthermore the study analyzed interventions given to prisoners whose sentence plans or risk and needs assessments recognized problems related to intoxicant abuse, focusing on prisoners released in 2011 (N=3798). The study shows that longer sentences allow more thorough recognition of problems and leave time for interventions, whereas short sentences seem to warrant both less thorough recognition of problems and fewer interventions. This is a cause for concern given the prominent link between substance abuse and repeat offending among prisoners who receive short sentences. The study suggest that efforts should be made to notice misuse problems in prison and to provide support during the re-entry phase via the providers of social and other services if there is not time during the sentence.
  • Simonen, Mika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This ethnomethodological conversation analysis study investigates how functional capacity interviews are organized in social interaction, thereby documenting recurrent assessment practices. Although interviewing is respected, due to its centrality in knowledge production in contemporary society, little is known about conducting functional capacity interviews per se. Moreover, as demonstrated in the literature review, the notion of functional capacity originates in the works of the sociologists Saad Z. Nagi and Talcott Parsons. It is likely that the very notion of functional capacity therefore conveys their sociological understanding of human functioning. A recent discussion of the social aspects of functional capacity has revealed, however, insurmountable difficulties in their original approach, which attributed functional incapacities to changes in the relationship between humans and their environment, but which was silent on the capacities that are relevant in social interaction. Thus, an alternative sociological understanding of human functioning is required, and this dissertation suggests that instead of focusing on single human subjects, we need to focus on social interaction between humans. That position allows us to elaborate and document the abilities needed in social interaction. The data for this study were drawn from a collection of videotaped welfare interviews (n=57) from three projects run between 2007 and 2009 to research and develop the assessment of functional capacity in central and southern Finland. The interviewers were professional nurses with a background in health care; the interviewees were either unemployed or retired. The data were transcribed and analyzed in detail with conversation analysis methods. The results were published in four articles and document how functional capacity interviews are organized in social interaction: (1) Functional capacity interviews are document-driven interactions: there are pre-scripted questions and answer options, (2) Speakers perform the interview as a mutual collaboration. Since displays of incompetence are prominent in this type of interaction, interviewers may need to support interviewees in situ with comforting actions, (3) Social identity is demonstrably relevant and procedurally consequential in the reception of simple positive responses that do not index any answer options, (4) Social relationship can work as a resource for helping the interviewee answer questions on social functional capacity, and (5) Abilities play an important role in how intersubjectivity emerges in interaction. In the light of the analysis, it seems clear that ethnomethodological conversation analysis is a viable sociological approach for understanding human functioning in social interaction.