Recent Submissions

  • Karppinen, Sini (2016)
    The theory of transformations groups is the theory of symmetries of a set. Formally, a symmetry of a set is a bijective map from the set to itself. If the set has some kind of mathematical structure, then we are naturally interested in those symmetries which preserve the given structure. For example, the symmetries of a topological space are homeomorphisms. When the transformations of a set form a group, we call the group a transformation group and the set a G-set. We also say that the group G acts on the set X. The study of these groups will reveal a lot about the set itself. In this thesis we are interested in topological transformation groups i.e. the transformation groups of topological spaces.We will, in particular, study the case where the topological space X is completely regular and where the transformation group G is a Lie group. The theory of Lie groups is vast and they have a well-understood structure. Our main goal is to present and prove the so-called slice theorem which is one of the most important results in the theory of transformation groups. A slice in a G-space X characterizes the action of G locally in an invariant neighbourhood of an orbit of X. The slice theorem i.e. the fact that there exists a slice at every point in a G-space X was first proved in the case where G is a compact Lie group. This was done in the 1950s by Gleason, Koszul, Montgomery and Yang and in full generality by Mostow. In order to prove the existence of slices in the case of non-compact Lie groups, the way that G acts needs to somehow be restricted. It turns out that proper action is the right way to do this. The existence of slices for proper actions of noncompact Lie groups was firsst proved by Palais in 1961. Abels and Lütkepohl presented a different kind of proof in 1977. We will present these two proofs in detail and compare them. We will present the machinery needed for the two proofs. The first four chapters are dedicated to the general theory of topological transformation groups, Lie groups and their representations and infinite-dimensional manifolds. Chapter five is dedicated to proper actions. Then in chapter six the two different proofs for the existence of slices for proper actions of non-compact Lie groups arepresented. After the detailed presentations of the proofs, we will compare them in a more general level. We will also present some applications of the slice theorem and consider possible ways to generalize the slice theorem for non-Lie groups.
  • Tiala, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The starting point for the work was to develop a method for covalent binding of phospholipids on fused silica capillaries for capillary electrochromatography (CEC). The method consists of three steps. First, the silanol groups in the fused silica capillary were aminopropylsilylated with 3-(aminopropyl)-triethoxy silane (APTES). Secondly, the product of aminopropylsilylation was allowed to react with glutaraldehyde giving an imidoaldehyde, which further reacted with the primary amino group of phospholipids. The stability of the coating was verified by measuring the electroosmotic flow (EOF) mobility after aminopropylsilylation with APTES and liposome coating. The highest stability of the EOF was obtained using coatings made of liposomes comprising 1-palmitoyl-2-oleyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine (POPS). The EOF remained stable even after injection of a large number of analytes. The tested phospholipids were selected to mimic biological membranes. In the coating procedure the following phospholipids were used: POPC, 1,2-didodecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (DLPA), 1,2-didodecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DLPE), and POPS. Primary amino groups were needed for stable covalent binding of liposomes to the fused silica capillary wall. The phospholipids POPC and POPS contained primary amino groups. The highest stability of the covalent binding was achieved using liposome dispersions of 3 mM POPC/POPS 80/20 mol-% but the retention factors for aldosterone, testosterone, and progesterone were higher using a 2 mM POPC/POPS 80/20 mol-% dispersion. The thickness of the liposome layers was measured with quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). The mass of the adsorbed liposomes was higher for the 2 mM POPC/POPS 80/20 mol-% dispersion than for the 3 mM POPC/POPS 80/20 mol-% dispersion, which explained the higher retention factors for the analytes studied. The developed coating method was used to the separation of model steroids by on-line open-tubular CEC mass spectrometry (OT-CEC-MS). The steroids, which are poorly visible or non-visible by UV-detection, could be separated and detected by on-line OT-CEC-MS. Six different type of steroids were separated and detected by this method. There was no ion suppression in the MS due to lipid leakage. The effect of reducing the formed Schiff’s base with sodium borohydride and the impact of liposome composition on the stability of the coating were investigated. NaBH4 treatment did not improve the stability of the EOF, but rather decreased it. The effect of NaBH4 reduction on 40/40/20 mol % POPC/POPS/cholesterol-coated capillaries was also investigated, and the results were similar to those obtained with the 80/20 mol % POPC/POPS-coated capillaries: the stability of the coating was better without NaBH4 treatment. The effect of cholesterol in the phospholipid coating was studied and the results show that cholesterol can well be included in phospholipid coatings covalently attached to silica. 2 mM 40/40/20 mol% POPC/POPS/cholesterol showed greater stability than 2 mM 80/20 mol% POPC/POPS. However, much higher retention factors of aldosterone, testosterone, and progesterone were obtained with 2 mM 80/20 mol % POPC/POPS liposome coatings than with 2 mM 40/40/20 mol% POPC/POPS/cholesterol coatings. This may be due to the fact that cholesterol is likely to increase the rigidity of lipid membranes. Also the stability and robustness of the capillary column was tested by individual injections of a large amount of analytes into the capillary: almost 400 injections were made into the 40/40/20 mol% POPC/POPS/cholesterol coated capillary (different type of drugs). The EOF was stable for over 200 injections.
  • Rautjärvi, Heli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Work engagement means a positive state of work-related wellbeing characterized by vigor, dedication and absorption (Schaufeli, Bakker, & Leiter, 2010; Schaufeli, Salanova, Gonzalez-roma, & Bakker, 2002). In modern working life, it can be considered as one of the most useful measures of productivity and wellbeing of a single employee or team. Research has found many antecedents of work engagement. At the same time our knowledge of physical wellbeing related to mental wellbeing increases all the time. Sufficient physical activity combined with avoiding too sedentary lifestyle has been found to be one important way of supporting this holistic wellbeing. However only few studies have explored the relationship between physical activity and/or sedentary behavior and work engagement. In present study, I wanted to explore the association between these three topical wellbeing constructs. The study was part of Liike Elämään -project. The study was based on self-evaluating questionnaire data on 12 Finnish small- to medium-sized companies from different industries around Finland (n = 289). Results showed that weekly moderate to vigorous physical activity was associated with work engagement but sedentary behavior, operationalized as daily sitting, was not. Respondents’ self-evaluated health was meaningful for both the experience of work engagement and the amount of physical activity. From these results we can conclude that when looking for engaged, that is well performing and wellbeing, employees, it is also important to invest in supporting employees’ physical activity and perceived health. The role of sedentary behavior in relation to work engagement requires more research with multiple methods. Supporting employees’ work engagement and physical activity challenges both management, employees themselves and occupational healthcare professionals to support each other and work together towards this common goal, utilizing one another’s expertise.
  • Majanen, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Tässä erityisesti saamentutkimuksen alaan kuuluvassa tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan saamelaisia ja saamelaisuutta ensin tutkimuskirjallisuuden ja lainsäädännön valossa, sitten sanomalehtiartikkelien kautta. Tutkimus on lähinnä analyyttistä ja tulkitsevaa diskurssianalyysiä ja sen toteuttaminen on vaatinut laadullisen tutkimuksen sisällönanalyysiä ja lähilukua. Aineistoon kuuluu 82 saamelaiselämään liittyvää artikkelia, joista suuri osa on haastatteluja. Niissä esiintyvät henkilöt ovat pääsääntöisesti saamelaisia tai saamelaisen perheen jäseniä. Aineisto on kerätty kolmesta suomalaisesta suomenkielisestä sanomalehdestä, Helsingin Sanomista, Inarinmaasta/Inarilaisesta ja Lapin Kansasta vuosilta 1991 ja 2011. Tutkimuksen painopiste on kirjoitetuissa teksteissä, mutta myös kuvat huomioidaan. Koska lehtiartikkelit osaltaan vaikuttavat siihen, miten identiteettejä muokataan ja valtasuhteita rakennetaan, ei ole samantekevää, mitä ja miten kirjoitetaan. Tutkimuksessa käsiteltävät teemat ovat: (1) luonto, (2) ennakkoluulot sekä tavallisuus ja erilaisuus, (3) saamen kielet ja (4) saamelaissymbolit. Lisäksi erikseen kiinnitetään huomiota artikkeleissa esiintyvien henkilöiden nimeämiseen ja kuvaamiseen. Käsiteltävänä ovat erityisesti seuraavat kysymykset: Miten saamelaisten luontosuhde, luonto ja ympäristö tulevat esiin artikkeleissa? Millaisia ennakkoluuloja sekä tavallisuuden ja erilaisuuden kuvauksia on? Miten saamen kielet, saamenpuku ja muut saamelaissymbolit näkyvät ja miten saamelaisuutta ilmennetään niiden kautta? Lehtiartikkelit sisältävät vastakkainasettelua menneisyyden ja nykyisyyden sekä perinteisten ja modernien tapojen välillä. Luontoon liittyvissä artikkeleissa kuvataan toisaalta ympäröivää luontoa, toisaalta haastateltavien suhdetta luontoon ja käsityksiä siitä. Ennakkoluulo- sekä tavallisuus ja erilaisuus -teemaan kuuluu sekä artikkeleja, joissa saamelaisiin suhtaudutaan vähättelevästi ja halventavasti että varsinkin artikkeleja, joissa heidän erilaisuutensa tai erityisyytensä tulee ilmi myönteisesti. Saamelaisten erityisyys on yksinkertaisimmillaan saamelaisuutta ja saamelaisia tapoja, jotka poikkeavat valtaväestön tavoista. Saamen kielten kohdalla esillä ovat saamen kielten käyttäminen ja käyttäjät, joista monet tarvitsevat kieltä työssään. Saamelaissymboleihin kuuluvat muun muassa saamenpuku ja saamelaiset yksityiskohdat pukeutumisessa. Osin jo menneisyyteen kuuluvia ennakkoluuloja lukuun ottamatta saamelaiset ja saamelaisuus kuvataan tavallisesti myönteisessä sävyssä. Elämä ei aina ole helppoa ja ongelmatonta, mutta saamelaiset nähdään selviytyjinä, joille oma kieli ja kulttuuri ovat tärkeitä. Artikkeleissa puhutaan saamelaisista ja saamen kielestä, hyvin harvoin lappalaisista ja lapin kielestä. Eri saamelaisryhmät ja -kielet näkyvät 1991 hyvin vähän. 2011 ne näkyvät enemmän, parhaiten saamelaiskäräjävaalien yhteydessä. Avainsanat: saamelaiset, saamelaisuus, sanomalehtitekstit, saamentutkimus, tekstintutkimus, diskurssianalyysi, Helsingin Sanomat, Inarinmaa, Inarilainen, Lapin Kansa
  • Suvikas-Peltonen, Eeva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Sairaaloissa käytetään paljon lääkkeitä, jotka pitää saattaa käyttökuntoon ennen annostelua potilaille. Eniten käyttökuntoon saatetaan systeemisesti vaikuttavia infektioläkkeitä. Lääkealan turvallisuus- ja kehittämiskeskuksen Fimean määräyksen mukaisesti lääkkeiden käyttökuntoon saattaminen tulisi keskittää sairaala-apteekkeihin. Käytännössä kuitenkin suurin osa lääkkeiden käyttökuntoon saattamisista tehdään sairaaloiden osastoilla. Lääkkeet tulee saattaa käyttökuntoon noudattamalla aseptisia työmenetelmiä, jotta voidaan varmistaa turvallinen lääkehoito potilaille. Mikrobiologisesti kontaminoituneiden lääkkeiden annostelu potilaalle voi aiheuttaa bakteeritulehduksia, muita sairauksia tai jopa kuoleman. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli löytää aseptiikan kannalta virheellisiä käytäntöjä ja toisaalta tehdä suosituksia hyvistä käytännöistä. Tarkoituksena oli myös laatia auditointityökalu, jonka avulla voidaan arvioida osastoilla tapahtuvaa lääkkeiden käyttökuntoon saattamisen laatua ja sen avulla edistää turvallista lääkkeiden käyttökuntoon saattamista osastoilla ja parantaa potilasturvallisuutta. Virheellisten käytäntöjen etsimiseksi ja suositusten laatimiseksi tehtiin järjestelmällinen kirjallisuuskatsaus vuosilta 2007-2015. Auditointityökalua varten suomennettiin ISMP:n (Institute for Safe Medication Practice) ohjeistus steriilien lääkkeiden valmistamisesta. Suomennettujen ohjeiden ja muun kirjallisuuden avulla laadittiin alustava auditointityökalu, joka validoitiin kaksikierroksisella Delfoi-menetelmällä: ensimmäisellä kierroksella arvioitiin kohtien käytännön soveltuvuutta ja toteutettavuutta, toisella kierroksella asiantuntijoiden kommenttien perusteella muokattujen kohtien toteutettavuutta. Delfoi-kierroksien arvioijina oli 19 asiantuntijaa. Järjestelmällinen kirjallisuuskatsaus tehtiin 26 artikkelin perusteella. Artikkeleista löytyi 11 virhellistä käytäntöä, jotka kasvattivat mikrobiologisen kontaminaation riskiä. Eniten raportoituja olivat ruiskujen, lagenuloiden ja ampullien monikäyttö sekä puutteelliset desifiointikäytännöt. Katsaus löysi 22 suositusta, joilla voidaan välttää lääkkeiden mikrobiologista kontaminaatiota. Nämä suositukset jaettiin kuuteen aihealueeseen: lääkkeet ja tarvikkeet; desinfiointi; työskentely-ympäristö; säilyttäminen; katetrin hoito sekä valmistettujen lääkeiden laatu. Tutkimuksen tuloksena yli 70-prosentin konsensuksena saadussa auditointityökalussa on 64 lääkkeiden käyttökuntoon saattamiseen liittyvää kohtaa, joiden järjestys noudattaa lääkkeiden käyttökuntoon saattamisen prosessia. Kohdat ryhmiteltiin viiteen eri osa-alueeseen, joista eniten kohtia on osa-alueissa lääkkeiden käyttökuntoon saattamisen yleiset periaatteet (23 kohtaa) sekä IV-lääkkeiden käyttökuntoon saattaminen (25 kohtaa). Tutkimus osoitti, että lääkkeiden käyttökuntoon saattamisen käytännöissä löytyy vielä puutteita. Asiaan on kuitenkin kiinnitetty viime vuosina huomiota ja sen parantamiseksi on laadittu erilaisia tarkastuslistoja ja auditointityökaluja. Tässä tutkimuksessa laadittiin auditointityökalu osastoilla tapahtuvaan lääkkeiden käyttökuntoon saattamisen auditointiin. Työkalua käyttämällä on jatkossa mahdollista kehittää lääkkeiden käyttökuntoon saattamisen käytäntöjä suomalaisissa sairaaloissa ja parantaa lääkitysturvallisuutta.
  • Gilmore, Clifford (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Linear dynamics is a rapidly evolving area of operator theory, however the only results related to the dynamics of the commutator operators have hitherto been on the characterisation of the hypercyclicity of the left and right multiplication operators. This text introduces the requisite background theory of hypercyclicity before surveying the hypercyclicity of the left and right multiplication operators. It expands on this to prove sufficient conditions for the hypercyclicity of the two-sided multiplication operator. Conditions are established under which the general class of elementary operators are never hypercyclic on Banach algebras and notably it is shown that elementary operators are never hypercyclic on the space of bounded linear operators of the Argyros-Haydon Banach space. In the first main result of this text, large classes of operators for which the induced commutator operators are never hypercyclic on separable Banach ideals are identified. In particular it is proven that commutator operators induced by compact and Riesz operators are never hypercyclic on the ideal of compact operators and that commutator operators are also never hypercyclic on the ideal of compact operators of the Argyros-Haydon Banach space. In the Hilbert space setting it is demonstrated that commutator operators induced by hyponormal operators are never hypercyclic on the ideal of Hilbert-Schmidt operators. In the second main result, nonzero scalar multiples of the backward shift operator on the Hilbert space H is identified as a strong candidate to induce a hypercyclic commutator operator on the separable ideal of compact operators on the separable Hilbert space H. However it is proven that it cannot have a dense orbit and hence is never hypercyclic. This study indicates that the commutator operator typically behaves in a non-hypercyclic fashion and that if they exist, instances of hypercyclic commutator operators are rare.
  • Raisio, Juha (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The phenology and flowering of the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) in Southern Finland was monitored during 1999-2006, in the Framnäs and Lenholm oak forests, which are mixed with hazels, birches, aspens, rowans, lindens, junipers, spruces, pines. Both stands are about 20 ha and located by the northern limit of natural distribution of oaks. The distance between the groves is about 60 km. A long-term pasture of about 150 years, on both islands has reduced the oak stands, however in recent decades selective cuttings have been made to help the oaks. In the south-western coastal areas degree days ranged from 1405,7 to 1737,7 d.d. in 1999-2006, indicating higher cumulating heat sums than on average over the normal period for the years 1981-2000. A total of 20 oaks × 3 branches /each tree sits in both stands, which equals 120 branches that were surveyed. The cork oak flowering model was modified to common oaks. Phases: 0-7 in male flowering were specified: from the dormant period (0) to swelling of the buds, from the onset of flowering to withering of the inflorescences (6). During the female flowering similar phases were found - from the rest period of apex buds (0) to the development of auxiliary buds on same year shoots. Further from the onset of first tiny female flowers to the withering of stigmas on the latest ones (6). The common oak flowering model was accurate enough and easy to apply in the survey. Male flowering began in 1999-2006 between 17th May and 6th June. Anthesis followed a few days later, when most of the staminate inflorescences had ripened. The catkins in the full length turned from green to bright yellow just before pollen release. Ripening was equal to phase 5 in the model of staminate flowering. Onset of the first female flowers began when the phase for stamens was about 3-4. Pollen receptivity of the first glossy reddish stigmas began when male flowering was about 5-5,5. The peak for female flowering took place a few days later than the anthesis, indicating protandry in common oak flowering. The period from pollination to fertilization is still a competition sequence for the pollen tubes. The stigmas, the developing female flower organs in gynoecium and the pollen tube cell tissue interact at the cell level. The self-incompatibility system acts on preventing selfing. Hence the loss of female flowers is huge, in some trees and in some years about 50% of the flowers fall down by the time of fertilization. Only 0-7,5% of the female flowers of the peak blossom period developed into acorns, which was less than in many other investigations. The suitable period for the common oak reproduction is very limited in the northernmost parts of its natural distribution. If the onset of the male flowering was delayed to early June, the number of female flowers was consequently low (years 1999, 2003, 2005). The detected linear regression is a topic for further studies. It remains unclear in this current scrutiny how the regulatory process acts on limiting the seed set and preventing extra ecological costs of any failing reproduction. In 2004-2006 a new potential pest, the black-dotted groundling, Stenolechia gemmella L. attacked the common oaks in many parts of Southern Finland. The moth larvae hollowed out new, same year shoots by length of few centimeters. Slightly afterwards shoots with their leaves and flowers turned brown. In July 2005 hundreds of withering shoots appeared in large oak crowns and of the monitored 1500 shoots in Framnäs 249 were infested by the moth larvae. Larvae and pupae are present in shoots in July, the adults emerge later in August or September.
  • Lipponen, Suvi (2015)
    Hevosen hankositeen yläkiinnityskohdan vamma (proximal suspensory desmitis= PSD) takajalassa on tärkeä aihe, koska usein vamma on krooninen, helposti uusiutuva ja vaikeasti hoidettava. Se esiintyy usein urheiluhevosilla, joiden nopea paraneminen takaisin käyttökuntoon on tärkeää omistajille. Nykykäsityksen mukaan vamman aikainen diagnosointi on tärkeää. Täten hoidoilla saadaan parempia tuloksia. Diagnosointi on haastavaa. Täten tulee käyttää mieluiten useita eri kuvantamismenetelmiä ontumatutkimuksen ja puudutusten lisäksi, jotta päästäisiin mahdollisimman tarkkaan diagnoosiin. Kuvausmenetelmistä suositellaan käytettäväksi ainakin röntgen- ja ultraäänitutkimusta. Vamman parantamiseen on kokeiltu useita erilaisia hoitomuotoja, joista parhaat tulokset on tällä hetkellä saata syvän metatarsaalisen faskian faskiotomialla ja lateraalisen plantaarihermon syvän haaran neurektomialla. Muita vähemmän invasiivisia hoitomuotoja ovat paineaaltohoito ja uusimpana regeneratiiviset hoitomuodot. Vamman diagnosointi tänä päivänä on helpompaa, kun on saatavilla erilaisia kuvantamismenetelmiä ja paranemisennuste on parantunut huomattavasti verrattuna konservatiivihoitoon, jolla vammaa aiemmin hoidettiin. Työ on ajankohtainen, suomenkielinen katsaus takajalan hankositeen yläkiinnityskohdasta saatavilla olevaan tutkimustietoon. Asiasta kiinnostuneet voivat helposti perehtyä aiheeseen tämän tekstin avulla suomeksi.
  • Karlia-Palomäki, Christina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The framework of this research is competition law and IPRs. Competition law regulation concerning Block Exemption concerning the Transfer of Technology (TTBER) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) Articles 101 and 102 mean that companies have to take into consideration certain regulation in order to avoid the intervention of competition authorities. As the system of TTBER is based on a self-announcement system, companies may take more or less risk in their agreement praxis. The research questions were: What are the preconditions for a competition according to the new Block Exemption Regulation concerning the Transfer of Technology (TTBER)? This research question can be divided into the following sub-questions: 1) How small and medium size companies (SMEs) fulfill the criteria of permitted competition after the changes in Block Exemption Regulation concerning the Transfer of Technology? – how SMEs try to achieve market shares 2) How small and medium size companies fulfill the criteria of Block Exemption according the new regulation? These questions were scrutinized by litterature reviews, case analysis and updated materials from experts e.g. corporate lawyers and attorneys. The main results of the research were as follows: The doctrine of the misuse of a dominant position has often been a core issue in case law of European Court of Justice (ECJ) and especially the essential facilities problem. It has a chain effect to TTBER regulation. A dominant company can decide how to promote innovations. To identify the market shares it is important to find the relevant markets. The strength and knowledge of the licensee effects to the possibilities to succeed in license negotiations. A powerful company having the resources can take into account the TTBER regulation to favour its goals and take advantage of the economic condition. Often a high royalty is agreed in order to avoid claims. In R&D projects the amount of innovations is relevant in contract negotiations. In some cases companies have agreed of royalties in relation to the amount of the IPRs. SMEs grow into large companies and form joint ventures: it is not easy to evaluate how and when they fulfil the conditions of permitted competition. Technology pools are nowadays allowed, if they are not aiming to restrict competition and there are grounds for them, which are related to the technology. The arrangement is accepted, when it brings benefits to consumers.
  • Salo (os. Muurinen), Kirsti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The history of Finnish school system has mutual interest with agricultural club established in USA in the beginning of 1900. Learning by doing was the motto for 4H-work and experiential learning was valued at school as well. The Evergreen Model of Environmental Education action plan describes the use of the outdoors as an expanded learning environment and to develop sustainability education at modern school. The model was initiated by a local 4H-association in collaboration with the local municipality and the schools. The intention according to the schools curricula and learning goals was to fulfill experiential learning out of doors and to realize a holistic vision of a sustainable learning environment. The development of the model started in 2003 with four pilot schools and by 2010 all 16 primary schools of the municipality were involved - from small village schools (32 96 students, grades 1 6) to large comprehensive schools (370 583 students, grades 1 9). Within seven years school gardens were built, active learning in nearby farms was conducted, and learning sessions were organized in the nearby forests and in special nature resorts. Research questions were: What were the reasons to start the collaboration to develop new methods and places for learning outdoors? How did the teachers experience garden activities and learning outdoors? What were hindrances and promoting factors for learning outdoors and gardening in school every day? The Evergreen Model of Environmental Education has shown positive results and could be at least partly applied in all schools. Action plans need to be developed depending on each school s own possibilities and surroundings. Schools possess limited resources and teachers need to feel starting a program and teaching outdoors is easy. Collaboration with specialists like farmers or gardeners is important while establishing outdoor education in addition to everyday school work. The size of a school was not a hindrance for outdoor learning but larger groups did require extra adults and more complex organizing efforts to have successful sessions.