Faculty of Educational Sciences


Recent Submissions

  • Törrönen, Sari (2020)
    The aim of this study was to research how authenticity was actualized in school language teaching. The research questions were targeted at analysis and interpretation of pupils’ experiences and views on Swedish language training and use ,when they were doing the given tasks either in or outside of the classroom. The different theoretical definitions of authenticity, suitable for a school context, worked as a base for my own definition.The study consisted of two groups of basic education pupils of which 22 were fourthgraders and 11-13 fifth grades. They were all studying Swedish as an optional subject. The study was carried out as a collective case study and contained five tasks of which three were done in the classroom (the 4th graders) and two out of the classroom (the 5th graders). The data were gathered mainly by questionnaires, but also through observation. According to the research findings, a majority of pupils felt that using the foreign language outside of the classroom was in many cases pleasant, meaningful and sometimes even easy. However, because of their limited language skills, many of them needed assistance, either visual or verbal, during and before the out of the classroom training. The research findings show that the authentic classroom tasks supported foreign language learning in many ways. Words, sentences and pronouncingwere learned by repeating,writing and using themin speech. The typical features of the communicative tasks were also an important part of learning. Among other things, pupil’s autonomy and teamwork were highly appreciated when the tasks’ attractiveness was assessed. The research findings can be especiallyutilised in language teachers’ everyday work, but also in teacher education and workshops.The future research, related to this kind of tasks, should be focused on learners’ learning: what, and how well, they actually learn when they are working with authentic tasks. Also, the use of authentic material and out of the classroom training should be more widely researched in education.
  • Sepponen, Mirja (2019)
    The licentiate video study in Finnish sign language aimed to determine whether bullying occurs in special sign language schools and how bullying is experienced. In all, 32 pupils from grades 5–9 participated in this sign language survey in 2004. The answers to the survey were compared to a Finnish language survey carried out in the same school group (N = 62, 36 boys and 26 girls) in 1999 for a Master’s thesis (Sepponen 2001). In this survey, 30 pupils were separated into two groups based on their understanding of this Finnish-language bullying survey: reliable (21) and unreliable (9) pupils. It is important to compare the results from the Master’s thesis because that Finnish language survey is still the only one carried out on school bullying in Finland. We wanted to find any changes in school bullying and compare it to a sign language survey (2004). This is important to verify the survey in sign language. In this study on bullying, the focus is on the bullies, as the pupils had hoped. The pupils’ responses to the queries were evaluated both together and separately for each year, based on the type of outburst (direct physical, direct verbal or indirect psychological bullying) and according to group, grade and sex. The study, which was empirical, quantitative and qualitative, was based mainly on the theories of Dan Olweus (1992). We analyzed the data using SPSS software, using cross-tabulation and a chi-squared test. In sign language schools, bullying was experienced as direct physical, direct verbal or indirect psychological bullying. In the 5th grade pupils experienced much more direct bullying than did pupils in other grades. Both girls and boys experienced bullying. The study also found a significant “reciprocal effect” regarding bullying, as some of the bullied also bullied others (3%, in 2004). As many as 21% of the pupils attributed the bullying to their deafness: “Because I am deaf, others think of me differently from a hearing pupil.” In the period between 1999 and 2004, the experiences of bullying were somewhat similar in special needs schools. Those who had mastered Finnish well (1999) answered the questions in the same way as those who had mastered sign language very well. The linguistically unreliable answers of the students unsure of the language used showed that they did not always understand the questions as intended by the researcher. The pupils’ responses have been influenced by their culture, deafness, different levels of hearing, a lack of a common language and any other additional injuries. The concepts of bullying should be made easier for students to understand.
  • Lastikka, Anna-Leena (2019)
    Currently, countries around the world are concerned with migration flows, which set challenges to the development of inclusive ECEC services. Although Finland’s non-native population is small by international standards, it has grown amongst the fastest in the OECD countries. However, the research on culturally and linguistically diverse children’s and families’ perspectives in the Finnish ECEC context is scarce. This research, which consists of three individual studies, examines the phenomenon of culturally and linguistically diverse children’s and families’ experiences of participation and inclusion in Finnish early childhood education and care (ECEC). The general aim is to create a model of inclusive and participatory ECEC pedagogy that identifies the essential elements in building and developing the inclusive and participatory practices considering the experiences of culturally and linguistically diverse children and families. This study applies the strength-based approach (Dunst, Trivette & Mott, 1994; Powell et al., 1997) and sees children and families as possessing funds of knowledge (Gonzalez, Moll & Amanti, 2005) indicating that we need to move away from focusing on deficiencies and to seeing culturally and linguistically diverse children and families as capable and competent and skilful individuals. Additionally, the socio-cultural perspective (Berthelsen et al., 2009; Corsaro, 2011; Rogoff, 2007) is applied in seeing children as active and competent participants in their communities. These three theoretical frameworks combined with the international and national reforms, declarations and curricula, as well as the values of inclusion, equity and equality, form the basis for developing the model of inclusive and participatory ECEC pedagogy. This study is both qualitative and quantitative in nature and different data collection and analysis methods have been applied. The research data has been collected in two different projects: the international INCLUD-ED project (2006-2011) and the ongoing international Orientation project. The results of this study indicate that it is possible to create a holistic model of inclusive and participatory ECEC pedagogy that combines meaningful elements for culturally and linguistically diverse children and families. The model has two levels: the macro-level, which includes the elements on a large scale influencing the inclusionary and participatory ECEC practices. These elements include the ECEC and pre-primary education curricula, reforms and policies, values, image of the child and teachers’ understanding of diversity. In addition, the discourses of families and parenthood, available resources and services and the theoretical frameworks of the strength-based approach, funds of knowledge and a socio-cultural perspective would be part of the macro-level. The micro-level includes the found elements meaningful for culturally and linguistically diverse children and families in the Finnish ECEC: (1) Dialogue; (2) Support, care and a sense of belonging; (3) Mutual understanding; (4) Play pedagogy; (5) Promotion of knowledge, competence and strengths; (6) Equal interaction; (7) Active participation; 8) Importance of other children and families and (9) Positive emotions. These elements build an empowering pedagogy that is based on the strengths, knowledge and active participation of children and families. The results of this study imply that to develop an inclusive and participatory ECEC pedagogy, more emphasis should be placed on building social cohesion and mutual understanding among all children, families and educators in the ECEC contexts.
  • Komulainen, Kati (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    A small child s food allergy is a general chronic condition with many practical challenges. The purpose of this Licentiate thesis is to describe and clarify the estimates of the precautions that mothers of children of less than four years of age with food allergies take, as well as their experience of this burden and the quality of life of the family. The research material (N = 104) was collected in 2007 from public, private and third-sector sources. Highly educated mothers born in the 1980s with a good socio-economic station volunteered for the study. At the time of the research, the children were under four years of age and had been diagnosed with a food allergy. The mothers dealt with the food allergy by not allowing it into the diet. According to the results of the first portion of the publication (I), the child's food allergy is connected to the family s quality of life in terms of load experienced, allergy management, psychosocial welfare and the interaction between the family members. A good quality of life for the families is promoted by a realistic and positive attitude, an adequate supply of information, support from other individuals and general allergy knowledge. The lack of common sense of outsiders, defective specifications, lack of information, anaphylactic reactions and a severe food allergies were found to weaken the quality of life for the families. According to the results of the second portion of the publication (II), the degree of satisfaction with the care of the child's food allergies is manifested in the mothers feelings of control and quality of life. Dissatisfaction with the child's care leads to uncertainty and a decreased quality of life. According to the results, 57.7% of mothers experienced a delay in the beginning of care for their child's allergies. This experience of delay was connected to the experienced load (r = 0.343, p = 0.001). According to the results of the third portion of the publication (III), the child's food allergy was connected to the emotional load experienced by the mothers. The emotional load was connected to feelings of sorrow, to the fear of allergic reactions and to worry that the allergies would not improve. Cooking questions related to the child's health and nutrition, as well as the potential for the allergy to cause problems in the child s social life, were also noted. Mothers experienced the least worry with respect to whether or not the child would grow normally. The experienced load was connected to the emotionality of the child, sleep difficulties and stomach symptoms. Additionally, the age of allergy onset as well as the number of the foods required to be avoided were linked to the load experienced. Based on the results, the connection of the child's food allergy to the psychosocial welfare of the family in small children's families is important. Good care can be used to promote family quality of life and to prevent social withdrawal. Furthermore, reducing the experience of the load will be useful for helping mothers as well as for ensuring the family s welfare.
  • Lattu, Matti (Helsingin yliopisto, 1999)
    Tutkimus kuuluu Helsingin yliopiston opettajankoulutuslaitoksen luonnontieteen ja teknologian opetusta ja opetusvälineitä kehittävään LUONTI-projektiin. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on teknologiakasvatukseen liittyvän käsitteistön selkiyttäminen ja projektissa kehitetyn laitteiston, Empirica Controlin, käyttöönotto ja sen tutkiminen. Teoreettisessa taustassa tarkastellaan teknologiaa ja teknologiakasvatusta oppivelvollisuuskoulun näkökulmasta. Erilaisia teknologiamäärittelyjä ja ajatuksia teknologian olemuksesta verrataan tutkimuksessa kehitetyillä malleilla. Teknologia on luonteeltaan integroiva aihepiiri, jolle on ainakin tässä tutkimuksessa esitetyn teorian valossa vaikea määritellä omaa tiedonalaa ja siten luontevaa paikkaa omana oppiaineenaan. Avoimessa oppimisympäristössä tapahtuvaa kognitiivisen teorian mukaista oppimista on hahmoteltu muokkaamalla Lehtisen (1988) esittämää mallia. Aikaisempien tutkimus- ja kokeiluraporttien perusteella määritellään kolme luovaa ongelmanratkaisua ja avointa oppimisympäristöä hyödyntävää työtapaa: mallintava menetelmä, ongelmanratkaisu ja vapaa kokeilu. Empirica Controlia verrataan tekstipohjaiseen Logoon ja muihin markkinoilla oleviin laitteistoihin sekä tarkastellaan sen ominaisuuksia didaktiikan ja konstruktivistisen oppimisteorian näkökulmasta. Tutkimuksen empiirinen osuus koostuu kolmesta opetuskokeilusta. Laajin kokeilu järjestettiin kahdella helsinkiläisellä peruskoulun ala-asteen 2. luokalla. Menetelmällisenä viitekehyksenä oli neljä sykliä käsittävä opetus- ja arviointikäytäntöjen kehittämiseen pyrkivä toimintatutkimus, jossa jokainen sykli pitää sisällään kvantitatiivisesti suoritetun oppimisen tarkastelun. Tiedonhankintamenetelminä käytettiin oppilaiden itsearviointia, erilaisia haastatteluja ja ääninauhan tukemaan strukturoitua päiväkirjaa pyrkien menetelmälliseen triangulaatioon. Näitä tuloksia varmennettiin kahdella lyhyemmällä opetuskokeilulla, joista toisessa tutkittavat olivat viidesluokkalaisia ja toisessa luokan- ja lastentarhanopettajiksi opiskelevia. Tutkimus tuotti kokemuksia Empirica Controlin opetuskäytöstä sekä laitteiston kehittämisehdotuksia. Tulosten mukaan oppilailla oli työskentelyn vaatiman teknologiaan, tietotekniikkaan ja rakentamisee nliittyvät perusvalmiudet. He kokivat työskentelyn positiivisena ja oppivat käyttämään ohjelmointikielen yksinkertaisimpia käskyjä. Lyhyemmät opetuskokeilut antoivat samansuuntaisia tuloksia. Teknologian oppimista tutkittiin automaatioteknologisten laitteiden toiminnasta annettujen selitysten kautta. Selityksissä havaittiin vain hienoista paranemista. Avainsanat: teknologiakasvatus, konstruktivismi, avoin oppimisympäristö, ryhmätyö, tietokoneavusteinen opetus,triangulaatio Keywords: technology education, constructivism, open learning environment, groupwork, computer-aided instruction,triangulation
  • Mylläri, Terttu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    The research focus of this study is imagery-based learning aimed at discovering an authentic way of public speaking in the context of transformative learning. The experiences of the participants in this learning process were also a subject of study. This learning process consisted of both guided and independent imagery-based training techniques. Critical reflection plays an important role in transformative learning. Actions, and interpretations and assumptions guiding them, are recognised and subjected to critical reflection. The goal of the learning process is an authentic and wide meaning perspective. Imagery-based training benefits from the gap between the new and the old experience of public speaking, and this is utilised as an activating factor for learning. The study is qualitative, looking at the imagery learning process and its outcomes from the subjective viewpoint of the participants personal experience. The imagery training acted as an intervention in the process of learning authentic public performance. The number of participants in this study was ten, five men and five women from four different working backgrounds. There were 80 individual training sessions, each attended by one person. The author conducted the imagery-based training. For each participant the learning process took roughly nine months. The research data consisted in the answers to questions in writing, diary entries, interviews and researcher notes. The data gathered by these methods was compiled into a personal report for each participant. The learners perceived authentic public speaking performance at the end of the learning process as wider, more flexible and more genuine than at the start of the training. Authenticity was defined through an internal process of becoming aware instead of some external characteristics. The learners understood the process of imagery learning as training for public performance and as an opportunity to become familiar with one s own personal way of acting and with one s own attitudes. They also perceived it as a tool that enabled the observation of personal experiences from different points of view. The learners reflected on ways of acting related to public speaking as well as on contributing factors to performance anxiety during the imagery learning process. Towards the end of the learning process, even critical reflection took place. The learners were categorized into three groups according to differences in their learning processes: the participants, the actors and the critical reflectors. This grouping reflected the relative amount of transformation in their learning processes. The participants became aware of their actions and assumptions. They took part in guided training sessions only. Worries in private life also had some consequences to their training in imagery learning. Apart from than becoming more conscious, the learning process did not yield much difference to the public speaking experiences of the participants. The actors attended both guided imagery training sessions and did individual training on their own. They became aware of their assumptions and their ways of acting. The encounter of the new and the old way of acting stimulated their learning. The actors advanced towards their own goals or even achieved them. The critical reflectors recognised their own assumptions and ways of acting and started to reflect critically on their own attitudes, as well as external attitudes and interpretations. Their assumptions, interpretations and experiences of public performance started to change in a positive direction. The learning process of the critical reflectors was functioning as a transformative process. This learning process revealed old assumptions hindering learning and old ways of acting resulting from these assumptions, thus opening up an opportunity for critical reflection and transformation. Avainsanat Nyckelord imagery learning, imagery-based training, transformative learning, reflection, critical reflection, public speaking anxiety, authentic public performance
  • Frantsi, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2003)
    Tutkimuksen kohteena olivat jääkiekon valmentajakoulutukseen vuosina 1998 ja 1999 osallistuneet 30 valmentajaa. Valmentajien johtamistoimintaa arvioi yhteensä 245 pelaajaa ja lisäksi valmentajat arvioivat itse omaa johtamistoimintaansa. Menetelmänä käytettiin 360 asteen CPE (Change, Production, Employee)-johtamisarviota. Kuuden faktorin malli nousi tulkinnallisesti tarkoituksenmukaisimmaksi. Faktorit nimettiin seuraavasti: visiointi ja muutos, kontrolli, pelaajien positiivinen huomiointi, reiluus jaoikeudenmukaisuus, kehitys ja toimeenpano ja valmentava yksilöllinen ohjaus. Faktoreiden sisäinen konsistenssi vaihteli välillä .70 ja .80. Pelaajat arvioivat valmennuspäälliköt merkitsevästi valmentajia korkeammalla visiointi ja muutosfaktorilla, pelaajien positiivisessa huomioinnissa sekä kehitys ja toimeenpanofaktorilla. Korkeammin koulutetut arvioitiin myös korkeammallavisiointi ja muutosfaktorilla kuin vähemmän koulutusta saaneet. Jatkotarkastelua varten aineisto klusteroitiin ja klustereiden määräksi valittiin 5. Korkean profiilin valmentajat olivat itsearvioinneissaan varovaisempia, kun taas matalamman profiilin valmentajat olivat taipuvaisia itsensä yliarviointiin. Tulokset näyttäisivät tukevan käsitystä siitä, että johtaminen valmentamisessa on laadullisesti erilaista kuinjohtaminen työelämässä ja että valmentajan johtamistoiminnan arvioimiseen ei voida suoraan soveltaa työelämän tarpeisiin kehitettyjä mittareita. Valmennuskulttuurissa on vähitellen nostamassa päätään muutossuuntautunut ja ihmiskeskeisempi valmennuskulttuuri, jossa pelaajat nähdään enemmän kehityskykyisinä yksilöinä kuin kasvottomana pelaaja-materiaalina. Urheilu ei voi elää tyhjiössä, vaan ulkopuolisen maailman odotukset ja muutospaineet muuttavat väistämättä myös valmennuskulttuuria muun maailman kehityksen tahdissa.