Faculty of Medicine

 

Recent Submissions

  • Ilo, Sari (2020)
    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on tarkastella yhden tapauksen valossa, millaista keskustelua coachingammattikäytännössä käydään. Tarkastelun alla on erityisesti se, kuinka asiakkaan toimijuutta käytännössä rakennetaan ja tuetaan kysymyksin, niin asiakkaan puheeseen reagoimisen kuin erilaisten kielellisten formulointien kautta. Syntyneiden havaintojen pohjalta tehdään alustavaa vertailua kahteen työelämän kehittämisen rinnakkaisinstituutioon, nimittäin prosessikonsultointiin ja työnohjaukseen. Tutkimusorientaationa on vuorovaikutuksen analyysi, jossa hyödynnetään diskurssinanalyysin periaatteita ja sille ominaisia tarkastelunäkökulmia. Näitä periaatteita ovat mm se, miten jokin asia suhteutuu sanottuun ja miten tilanteessa reagoidaan. Paitsi diskurssinanalyysin periaatteita, tässä tutkimuksessa voi nähdä myös aineksia keskusteluanalyysista. Kaiken kaikkiaan tässä keskusteluaineistossa vuoropuhelu polveilee neuvotteluna asiakkaan toimijuudesta. Keskustelua raamittavat asiakkaan ajatukset hänen tavoitteistaan, oman elämänkertomukseen liittyvät syy-seuraussuhteet ja yleisellä tasolla asiakkaan pelot, huolet, toiveet sekä käsitys itsestä. Coachin tekemät vuorovaikutusteot kiteytyvät viiteen erilaiseen toimijuuden rakentamisen keinoon; formulointiin osallistumiseen, kokemuksen sitomiseen nykyhetkeen, yhteisöön sovittautumisen tukemiseen, uudelleenmäärittelyyn kutsumiseen ja tulevaisuusnäkökulmaan ohjaamiseen. Tutkimuksestani kävi ilmi, että toimijuuden näkökulmasta rinnakkaiskäytännöillä on enemmän yhtäläisyyksiä kuin eroja. Ammattikäytänteitä on vaikeaa asettaa samalle viivalle, vaikka samanlaisuutta onkin nähtävissä. Käytännöt voivat olla varsin eri näköisiä niiden sisältämistä variaatioista johtuen. Variaatioiden lähteitä tuottavat esimerkiksi tavoitteista ja niiden muotoilusta tulevasta lähtökohdat. Niin ikään vaihtelua tulee ohjattavan tarpeesta, ohjaajasta itsestään kuin myös edellisten suhteesta sekä organisaatioista lähtien.
  • Heiniluoma, Marika (2019)
    Efficiency and continuous improvement are important parts of laboratory work today. By increasing automation in sample and result handling, manual interventions can be more controlled and diminished. This shortens sample turnaround times and improves patient safety when the number of human based errors decrease. Most of the laboratory results are within the reference limits, whereby the results can be automatically verified and released (autoverified) in the information system if there are no indications of the quality defects in the sample or analysis process. Autoverification increases productivity and allows laboratory staff to focus on the results that require investigation and manual review. The theoretical part of the thesis considers the currently available scientific publications on autoverification. For the criteria of autoverification one must consider the factors that are affecting the quality of the result; such as the approval limits (based on e.g. analytical measuring range, reference values or clinical decision limits), sample quality, comparison with the previous patient results, device and method settings and error situations. The aim of the study was determinate the autoverification rates and estimate how the verification settings are working in routine. The focus of the thesis was on the 15 most commonly analyzed chemistry and immunochemistry tests at Päijät-Häme Laboratory Services. In the thesis, the data sampling was taken from both systems: the middleware, which involves the autoverification rules, and the laboratory information system. Based on the sampling data of the middleware, it was possible to calculate autoverification rates by tests, as well as to classify the reasons that led to the failure of autoverification (i.e. led to manual inspection of the sample and result). The autoverification rates were found to be high with the criteria used at Päijät-Häme Laboratory Services. The tests of CRP, LDL, ALP, Chol and TG exceeded 99% and ALT, TSH, Gluc, HDL and free T4 tests exceeded 98% autoverification rate. Over 97% rate was achieved with the following tests: Crea, Potassium, Sodium and Bil. The lowest level of autoverification rate occurred with TnT test (92 %) caused by the sample results below the lower limit of measurement (6 %). This thesis also found that the verification settings were working properly.
  • Kyöstilä, Satu (University of Helsinki, 2018)
    The aim of this longitudinal study was to evaluate how to support 6-7 years old children’s socioemotional skills by Second Step program. This social and emotional learning (SEL) program intervention was implemented during a one school year. The research data were collected in seven school classes (N=7) during one school year in southern Finland town. Children (N=33) who participated in the intervention were at the schooling for practicing their school readiness skills. Children’s socioemotional skills were estimated before intervention. Intervention was Second Step curriculum which included 22 lessons (ca 45 min / week). Children’s socioemotional skills were estimated again after the intervention. Results show, that children’s socioemotional skills improved statistically significantly. Children’s social competence was higher after Second Step –intervention than before that. Children’s amount of antisocial behavior was decreased after the Second Step-intervention
  • Lyytinen, Nina (University of Helsinki, 2017)
    We examined the association between maladaptive and adaptive aspects of perfectionism and burnout among Finnish primary school teachers. Burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey (MBI–GS), and assessed perfectionism using a questionnaire applied to teachers from the Multidimensional Inventory on Perfectionism in Sport. Participants consisted of 76 primary school teachers. After adjusting multiple regression analyses for age, gender, and years in education, we found that striving for perfection (adaptive perfectionism) did not associate with burnout. However, maladaptive aspects of perfectionism, such as negative reactions to imperfection and, to a lesser extent, pressure from students and their parents to perform perfectly were associated with higher burnout scores. In conclusion, primary school teachers characterized by maladaptive perfectionism could be targeted for interventions to reduce rates of burnout in education.
  • Palomäki, Kati (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Pohjoismaiden välisessä vertailussa suomalaisnuoret ovat osoittautuneet huonoiten hampaitaan harjaavien joukkoon. 11-,13- ja 15-vuotiaista pojista vain 37-39% ilmoitti harjaavan hampaansa suositusten mukaistesti kahdesti päivässä. Saman ikäisillä tytöillä luku oli 53-61%. Reikien vaurioittamia hampaita esiintyykin reilusti yli puolella 15-vuotta täyttäneistä nuorista. Heikkojen suunterveystottumusten lisäksi nuoret nauttivat runsaasti makeisia ja muita sokeroituja tuotteita. Näillä tuotteilla nuoret täyttävät jopa 40% energiantarpeestaan, mikä on erityisen huolestuttavaa hammasterveyden kannalta. Murrosikäiset nuoret ovat kriittisessä iässä päihdekokeilujen kannalta. Alkoholin ja tupakan käyttö on viime vuosina hieman vähentynyt nuorten keskuudessa, mutta sen sijaan nuuskan ja kannabiksen käyttö lisääntynyt. Systeemisten haittavaikutustensa lisäksi päihteillä on lukuisia haitallisia vaikutuksia suun terveyteen ja ne ovat nähtävissä jo nuorten päihdekäyttäjien suussa. Myös erilaiset suulävistykset, jotka ovat suosittuja nuorten keskuudessa aiheuttavat vahinkoa suun terveydelle. Tämän kirjallisuuskatsauksen tarkoituksena on tarjota ajankohtaista tietoa nuorten terveyskäyttäytymisestä ja sen vaikutuksista suun terveyteen.
  • Rautjärvi, Heli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Work engagement means a positive state of work-related wellbeing characterized by vigor, dedication and absorption (Schaufeli, Bakker, & Leiter, 2010; Schaufeli, Salanova, Gonzalez-roma, & Bakker, 2002). In modern working life, it can be considered as one of the most useful measures of productivity and wellbeing of a single employee or team. Research has found many antecedents of work engagement. At the same time our knowledge of physical wellbeing related to mental wellbeing increases all the time. Sufficient physical activity combined with avoiding too sedentary lifestyle has been found to be one important way of supporting this holistic wellbeing. However only few studies have explored the relationship between physical activity and/or sedentary behavior and work engagement. In present study, I wanted to explore the association between these three topical wellbeing constructs. The study was part of Liike Elämään -project. The study was based on self-evaluating questionnaire data on 12 Finnish small- to medium-sized companies from different industries around Finland (n = 289). Results showed that weekly moderate to vigorous physical activity was associated with work engagement but sedentary behavior, operationalized as daily sitting, was not. Respondents’ self-evaluated health was meaningful for both the experience of work engagement and the amount of physical activity. From these results we can conclude that when looking for engaged, that is well performing and wellbeing, employees, it is also important to invest in supporting employees’ physical activity and perceived health. The role of sedentary behavior in relation to work engagement requires more research with multiple methods. Supporting employees’ work engagement and physical activity challenges both management, employees themselves and occupational healthcare professionals to support each other and work together towards this common goal, utilizing one another’s expertise.
  • Römer, Maria Mikaela (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This thesis describes the characteristics and management of pediatric deep neck infections at the Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery at the Helsinki University Hospital during a 10-year period. The cohort consisted of 62 patients. A majority (85%) of the patients underwent immediate or late surgical intervention. Due to the low amount of conservatively treated patients (15%) no factors suggestive for successful conservative treatment were recognized. However, initiation of conservative treatment and close follow-up seem sufficient if the patient is in stable condition. The mean duration for hospital stay was 4.8 days. Patients with a complicated clinical course presented more likely with fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, trismus and torticollis. Despite the chosen treatment modality, all patients recovered well and the risk of serious complications was low. Surgical drainage still remains the main treatment modality for this patient population at our institution. Further studies are warranted to compose evidence-based treatment guidelines.