Browsing by Subject "vähägluteeninen"

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  • Laine, Juhana (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    The literature review focused on the composition of oats along with wheat-free oat baking technology. Enzyme active baking and rye malt utilization in low gluten baking was also reviewed. In the experimental part the effect of an extract prepared from rye malt sourdough on dough viscosity and oat bread quality was studied in order to develop technology to good quality rye flavored oat bread. Rye malt flour of high enzyme activity was used to prepare a sourdough enabling degradation of rye prolamins, harmful to celiac patients. Rye malt extract was prepared from the sourdough by centrifugation. Part of the extract was heated for enzyme inactivation to compare the effects of the enzyme active and inactive extracts on oat dough and bread. The extract was used for baking 15, 25 and 30 % (dough weight) by reducing water. Miniature size breads (20 g) were baked in small pans. Dough viscosity was measured to show partial hydrolyzation of beta-glucan due to enzyme activity. Rye flavor was measured with the help of trained jury. Rye malt extract decreased dough pH approximately from 5.8 to 4.4 and increased the titratable acidity. The dough was less viscous when using enzyme active extract and more viscous when using the inactivated extract. The rye malt extract increased bread firmness and flavor and aroma were improved. Also the pores in the crumb were smaller and more evenly distributed. The inactivated extract increased bread crumbliness. The results suggest that the production of good quality rye flavored oat bread is technologically possible when using an enzyme active extract. This can possibly be explained by the low pH inhibiting the amylases together with high gelatinization temperature of oat starch. During fermentation, the pH of the rye malt sourdough drops so low that it inhibits the excessive ?-amylase activity in the dough so that excessive starch hydrolysation cannot occur. Therefore the use of the rye malt extract in baking process is possible without inactivation. Sourdough fermentation as part of gluten-free baking can improve bread color, aroma, flavor and texture. Also, the addition of rye malt extract improved mold-free time by lowering the pH. It seems that with the help of this technology it is possible to add long yearned rye flavor to low gluten oat bread. Based on earlier results it was concluded that it is possible to achieve bread prolamin content of 63.5 mg/kg. However, it should be possible to obtain even better results with the help of further development.