Abstracts of doctoral theses

Recent Submissions

  • Stepanova, Polina (2021)
    Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD) are characterized by loss of function or death of definite cell populations in the basal ganglia. HD is triggered by an expanded polyglutamine tract (glutamine repeats) in the huntingtin protein, leading to misfolding of the protein and subsequent accumulation of mutant huntingtin (mHtt) in the nuclei of different types of neurons. In contrast, in PD, dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) degenerate; moreover, there is also the accumulation of misfolded proteins associated with the neuropathology of PD. Additionally, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been detected in both of these diseases. Currently, no effective treatment for PD or HD is available to slow, stop, or reverse the progression of neurodegeneration. Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) is an evolutionarily conserved protein with neurotrophic properties. CDNF protects and restores the function of DA neurons in preclinical models of PD more effectively than other neurotrophic factors (NTFs), making it a promising drug candidate as a disease-modifying treatment of PD. Additionally, CDNF was safe and well-tolerated, showing therapeutic effects in some PD patients in phase 1/2 clinical trials. This thesis aimed to investigate the potential of CDNF as a drug candidate in cellular and rodent models of both HD and PD. We focused on studying the effect of coadministration of CDNF with another NTF, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of PD. Moreover, we wanted to evaluate the difference in the mode of action between the two factors in this model. We found an additive neurorestorative effect after intrastriatal CDNF and GDNF coadministration in the 6-OHDA toxin model of PD. CDNF alone and in combination with GDNF showed a trend toward an increase in the density of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive fibers in the lesioned striatal area, and moreover, the combination of the two factors significantly protected TH-positive cells in the SNpc area. CDNF activated the PI3K/AKT pathway, whereas GDNF activated two signaling pathways: PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK. We found a delay in activating the prosurvival pathway by CDNF compared to GDNF. Additionally, in comparison with GDNF, CDNF alone significantly enhanced the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 downstream of the PI3K/AKT pathway in lesioned rats. Finally, CDNF, but not GDNF, reduced striatal levels of some ER stress markers in the above model. PD and HD show a wide range of commonalities, and as CDNF has been successful in preclinical trials and demonstrated a positive effect in clinical trials of PD, we expected to observe some beneficial effects of CDNF administration in the experimental HD models. We studied the neuroprotective and neurorestorative potential after different delivery paradigms of CDNF in preclinical models of HD to find the optimal paradigm for possible future application in clinical trials. First, we investigated the protective effects of CDNF in in vitro and in vivo quinolinic acid (QA) toxin models of HD. We demonstrated that CDNF improved motor coordination in QA-lesioned animals, which could be explained by the neuroprotective and neurorestorative effects of CDNF in the cell populations that are vulnerable in HD. Moreover, we found a protective effect after a single intrastriatal injection of CDNF in an in vivo QA-lesion model of HD. Second, we tested the therapeutic efficacy of CDNF in a transgenic mouse model of HD. CDNF was delivered as a chronic intrastriatal infusion using Alzet minipumps for N171-82Q mice. Chronic CDNF administration ameliorated the behavioral deficits and showed a trend toward reduced the nuclear staining and intranuclear inclusions in N171-82Q transgenic mice. Additionally, chronic delivery of CDNF demonstrated a trend toward a decrease in ER stress markers in the striatum in the above model. Furthermore, we found a significant increase in hippocampal BDNF mRNA levels after chronic CDNF administration in N171-82Q mice. In conclusion, CDNF shows a unique beneficial effect in several models of HD independent of the etiology of the disease. Notably, this thesis reports the first beneficial effects of CDNF in different models of HD.
  • Pradhan, Barun (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Transposable elements (TEs) comprise almost half of the human genome because of their mobile activity during genome evolution. Although most families of TE are currently inactive in the human genome, one young TE family called Long Interspersed Nuclear Element (LINE)-1 is found to be active in germ cells, during embryonic development, and in diseases such as cancer, especially epithelial cancer types. LINE-1 is an RNA transposon (retrotransposon) which means it moves from one genomic location to another via an RNA intermediate by a process called retrotransposition. By following this replicative cycle, LINE-1 has already made more than 500,000 near-identical copies of itself and hence occupied 17% of the human genome. However, most of these copies have accumulated inactivating mutations and/or truncations and are retrotransposition-incompetent. The diploid genome in an individual is estimated to have only 80-100 potentially active LINE-1s. These potentially active LINE-1s are epigenetically silenced in normal cells. Widespread epigenetic modification during cancer alters this silencing mechanism and activates these LINE-1s which have the potential to generate mutagenic insertions in the genome. Detection of de novo LINE-1 insertions among more than 500,000 pre-existing LINE-1 copies remains challenging. To address this unmet need, we developed a novel PCR-based method that detects de novo insertions originating from one of the most active LINE-1 loci in the human genome (located within the TTC28 gene, hereafter referred to as TTC28 LINE-1). Compared to whole-genome sequencing (WGS), this approach is substantially more sensitive, identifying nearly three times more de novo TTC28 LINE-1 insertions in two colorectal cancer samples. Moreover, by taking advantage of long-read single-molecule sequencing, we were able to characterize de novo LINE-1 insertions in their entirety at nucleotide-level resolution. Using uterine leiomyoma as the disease model, we show that LDI-PCR is also suited for detecting DNA rearrangements in rearrangement-prone genomic regions with high sensitivity. Next, we traced the activity of TTC28 LINE-1 in a panel of ten high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) cell lines, five of which were proficient for homologous recombination (HR), an error-free DNA double-strand break repair pathway, and the other five were HR-deficient. Although TTC28 LINE-1 mRNA was expressed in all HGSOC cell lines, HR-proficient HGSOC cell lines showed a higher frequency of de novo TTC28 LINE-1 insertions in comparison to HR-deficient cell lines. We speculate that the simultaneous loss of HR-mediated DNA repair and gain of LINE-1 activity (which generates DNA double-strand breaks as part of the insertional process) could be detrimental to HR-deficient cell lines. HR-proficient cell lines, in contrast, might tolerate LINE-1 activity and thus have accrued more de novo LINE-1 insertions. Altogether, this thesis provides a highly sensitive method to detect and characterize de novo LINE-1 retrotransposition events. By employing this approach, this thesis also demonstrates that LINE-1 retrotransposition is more frequent in HGSOC cell lines that are proficient in repairing DNA double-strand breaks by the HR pathway.
  • Hirvonen-Ere, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This monograph is a multidisciplinary doctoral dissertation under the socio-legal umbrella. The topic dictating the chosen methods is Contract Management. The context is large and complex project type of business contracts between global corporations and other large international private sector businesses. Although the underlying perspective is from inside of an operating business organization and its professional in-house Contract Management department mainly on the sell-side, examples on the buy-side are also utilized. The industry field is primarily ICT, but sources from construction and military are also used. Via utilizing, inter alia, the goal-oriented teleological method, the values underpinning the study are looking at a contract and contracting through the so-called Contract Management lens and proactively seeking coherence, collaboration, and mutually beneficial contract outcomes between the parties on a long-term basis. The study defines Contract Management as an international systemic business contract approach to manage the contract lifecycle and to orchestrate a corporation's legal, commercial and contractual business contract activity in a coherent manner, on a high-end maturity level. Such an approach brings significant direct monetary value and strategic competitive advantage to companies that apply it. Contract Management aims to increase the contractual quality, efficiency and risk/reward balance of a company’s business contracts, and decrease the amount of wasted money, time, resources and quality. This leads to a better relationship between the parties, and fewer disputes and contractual conflicts. Contract Management provides the parties, inter alia, with a flexible framework to agree upon changes and settle claims and proactively prevent risks over the contract lifecycle. Contract Management achieves this via utilization of so-called war stories and lessons learned and developing them further to produce best practices, processes and policies, and via using tools, such as software systems, to facilitate the Contract Management modus operandi. This study acknowledges that there is no one-size-fits-all Contract Management applicable globally and approaches the broad topic of Contract Management via the following research questions: 1. What is Contract Management and why does it matter? 2. How does Contract Management lead to the expected benefits in the contracting practice? 3. Are the legal aspect and passing the legal test sufficient to constitute a large and complex project type of a business contract? 4. What are the other aspects of a contract? Are they needed to constitute a coherent ‘contract (as) integrity’ (ex analogia Ronald Dworkin’s iconic law as integrity)? 5. One underlying question of the research is asked by an American philosopher, pragmatist William James: “What concrete difference does it being true make in any one’s actual life…?” Translated into the legal and business language: if what this dissertation argues is true, what difference would enhanced adoption of Contract Management modus operandi make to the legal quality of contracts and to the businesses that apply it? What should companies start doing differently tomorrow? The study is structured as follows. The Prologue sets the scene by presenting the scandalous Enron case and its relation to Contract Management. Chapter 1 introduces the study. Chapter 2 explains various definitions of Contract Management. Chapter 3 presents an example of contracts in action via the scope creep problem and Contract Management solutions to it, and explains how the choices over the commercial model, delivery model and contract strategy affect the likelihood for scope creep to arise. It also explains how to mitigate the impact of scope creep. Chapter 4 explains why the legal aspect of a contract is not sufficient in itself, and Chapter 5 explains what the other contractual aspects are and how they affect the coherence of contract. Chapter 6 concludes the study by presenting a contract as a multi-aspect, multidisciplinary, coherent ‘contract as integrity’. Contract Management is the glue, or mortar, between the bricks, that binds all aspects of a contract and a company’s contracting activity together. This study proposes several solutions that can be implemented in the contract practice to mutually benefit both parties. In addition, the study has resulted in the creation of a visual metaphor, showing a contract as a multi-cup scale (inspired by the scales of justice). Further, the dissertation takes steps towards creating a theory of contractual balances. As Contract Management is a very broad theme, it also proposes topics for future research. The Epilogue ponders whether it will be possible to close the circle started by the Enron case. If yes, what would that imply? What did we learn from the Enron case, if indeed we learned anything? Key words: Contract Management, Contract Lifecycle Management, Enron, scope creep, change management, contract as integrity, coherence
  • Cerejeira-Matos, Rita (Unigrafia, 2021)
    The survival of any organism depends on many factors, including their ability to adapt to novel environments. Nutrient accessibility in the environment is crucial for the development, growth, fertility, metabolism, and other biological functions of animals. Nutrients such as sugars, amino acids, and lipids are not only essential building blocks for the maintenance of a typical bioenergetic and cellular homeostasis of animals, but they also serve as signals to regulate cellular functions. The integration of such signals sent by the availability or scarcity of nutrients provided by the environment are sensed by nutrient sensors. Different nutrient sensors are activated or inactivated by specific nutrients, and ultimately mediate the physiological function of an animal through regulation of gene expression. The regulation of gene expression implicated in nutrient sensing can be studied using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. The fruit fly has several advantages for studying nutrient sensing and the impact of regulatory gene expression on the physiology of reproduction, growth, and metabolism. Examples of such advantages are reflected in the publicly available genetic toolkit, and the highly conserved molecular mechanisms to humans. This thesis used Drosophila melanogaster as a model to study novel regulatory mechanisms in gene expression. The first study demonstrated the physiological role of the heterodimeric basic-helix-loop-helix zipper (BHLH/Zip) transcription factor, Mondo-Mlx, in the adult reproductive system of fruit flies. Specifically, the impact of its loss of function in the fertility of female flies was shown for the first time. This result led to the discovery of several defects in the oogenesis progression. Finally, ribosome and oogenesis gene clusters were identified as target genes of Mlx. In the second study, evidence was shown for the role of the chromatin binding periodic tryptophan protein 1 homolog (PWP1) as a direct regulator of RNA Polymerase III (Pol III) target genes in a nutrient-dependent manner. Specifically, it was shown that PWP1 directly binds to the 5S rRNA gene, a well-known Pol III target, and induces its expression in a nutrient-dependent manner. By conducting this study, both in Drosophila melanogaster larvae and mammalian cells, it was shown that this biological role of PWP1 was conserved among organisms. The third study was the first to demonstrate the physiological role of actin in the reproductive system of adult flies and its requirement for Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis progression through direct regulation of RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) transcribed genes. In conclusion, using Drosophila melanogaster as a model, these three studies identified previously unknown mechanisms in gene expression that ultimately affect biological functions such as fertility and growth of the fruit fly.
  • Jämsä, Jurkka (Suomalainen Lakimiesyhdistys, 2021)
    The topic of this research is legal norms restricting the admissibility of evidence in Finnish criminal procedure. Its primary method is doctrinal but, in addition, epistemological and comparative notions are employed to broaden the view of the subject. Traditionally, Finnish legal research has used Scandinavian and German law as the point of comparison. Here, an attempt is made to focus more on the British and American law of evidence. This does not mean, however, that Scandinavia or Germany should be overlooked. The normative structure of the Finnish law of evidence has, after all, been influenced mostly by both. It has been said that evidence law is a matter of epistemology, the philosophy of knowledge. The role of evidence is to provide grounds for knowledge with legal implications. For that reason, the basic maxim of free proof is to allow as much information in a trial as possible. Indeed, any limitation on evidence means a limitation on knowledge, and may have direct effects on a trial’s outcome. Against this background, the admissibility of evidence should only be restricted if its admission would jeopardise an interest even greater in weight than a correct outcome. A brief analysis of such interests is essential for understanding rules of admissibility. For at least two decades now, praxis of the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) on the right to a fair trial has had a great impact on the development and interpretation of Finnish evidence law. As a result of this, it is important to recognise and analyse exactly what requirements for the use of evidence can and should be derived from this praxis. This research suggests that the traditional German framework of admissibility rules – which distinguishes between forbidden subjects, means, and methods of gathering and introducing evidence – needs to be modified in order to understand the latest developments. The framework suggested in this research is based upon three variable elements that are common for all rules restricting the use of evidence. The traditional division is incorporated into the framework as its first element, pointing out the object of the restriction, i.e. what sort of use of evidence is being restricted. Secondly, it is important to recognise and distinguish between rigid rules forbidding a particular use from those more flexible that set conditions for using evidence. Should the conditions be met, the evidence may be used. Lastly, not all restrictions apply similarly (or at all) in all three stages of the procedure: pre-trial investigation, trial, and deliberation. After outlining a framework, it is put into use by analysing the target, flexibility, and phase(s) of application of all legal norms restricting the freedom of proof. The main focus is on the ECtHR praxis, which is growing in importance but not comprehensively analysed. Using the new and more nuanced framework, an attempt is made to explain in greater detail the differences between the more traditional rules of admissibility on the one hand and those derived from the ECtHR’s judgements on the other. It is especially within these judgements that a greater flexibility is found in comparison to the established rules of admissibility such as various professional privileges. Perhaps the most difficult and challenging rules of evidence are those resulting from the breaches of either the privilege against self-incrimination or the right to cross-examine prosecution witnesses. There are landmark judgements within the jurisprudence of the ECtHR on both subjects; yet, it seems that the Strasbourg Court has been unsuccessful in creating an understandable and practical model for evaluating the effects of these breaches. Another important attempt of this research is to clarify and interpret the ECtHR’s judgements in order to understand how these evaluations should be made. This would hopefully benefit not only academia, but the legal practitioners as well.
  • De Lorenzo, Francesca (2020)
    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the dysfunction and death of specific neuronal populations. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is caused by the progressive loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, whereas motor neurons (MNs) in the motor cortex, brain stem, and spinal cord degenerate and die in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Accumulation of misfolded proteins and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are some common hallmarks in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. ER stress triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR), a physiological response that aims at restoring the ER homeostasis by degrading misfolded proteins, attenuating protein translation, and increasing the expression of ER chaperones important for protein folding. Initially the UPR is protective, but, upon prolonged ER stress, the UPR switches from an adaptive to a pro-apoptotic response. Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) is an ER resident protein with neurotrophic properties that is protective and restorative in preclinical models of PD. The mechanism underlying CDNF’s action is still unclear, but experimental data suggest a possible involvement of CDNF in the ER homeostasis. The aim of this thesis work was to study the therapeutic potential of CDNF in PD and ALS rodent models and investigate CDNF mode of action, with a special focus on the ER stress response. Herein, we report that co-administration of CDNF and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) showed an additive neurorestorative effect in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of PD, suggesting a different mechanism of action for these two proteins. We found that GDNF activated the pro-survival MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT pathways in the striatal dopamine neurons within 1 hour from protein administration. In contrast, CDNF activated only the PI3K/AKT pathway and at 4 hours upon treatment. Furthermore, CDNF, but not GDNF, reduced the expression of UPR markers ATF6, p-eIF2α, and GRP78. Therefore, the ability of CDNF to regulate ER stress was thoroughly investigated in three rodent models of ALS with different genetic etiology and disease progression. We showed that CDNF decreased the ER stress response specifically in MNs, by attenuating all three branches of the UPR, initiated by transducers inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), protein kinase R (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). CDNF treatment was effective in all three models, indicating that CDNF’s therapeutic effect was independent of disease etiology. CDNF rescued MNs from ER-stressed induce cell death, halting the progression of the disease and ameliorating the motor deficit in the SOD1-G93A mouse model and in the TDP43-M337V rat model. Finally, we identified that depleting endogenous CDNF from the SOD1-G93A model worsened the motor symptoms in the mice, but did not affect their lifespan. The ER stress response in the Cdnf -/- SOD1-G93A mice was especially exacerbated in the skeletal muscle, where CDNF is normally highly expressed, and an overexpression of homologous protein mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF) was detected in the same tissue. We observed a reduction in the number of lumbar MNs in Cdnf -/- SOD1-G93A compared to classical SOD1-G93A mice, which would explain the aggravated motor impairment. At this point, however, we could not determine whether the increase in MNs loss was caused by CDNF depletion in MNs, or rather a consequence of CDNF-deficiency in the degenerating muscle cells, targets of MNs. It was previously reported that, in mice, endogenous CDNF is important for the development and maintenance of enteric submucosal neurons, as well as for the regulation of gastrointestinal transit. Remarkably, we found that Cdnf -/- mice had less lumbar MNs at 4 months, compared to WT littermates, although this decrease did not result in any motor deficit. These findings suggest that CDNF may also have a role in the development and/or survival of MNs. Altogether, these studies indicate that ER stress is an important therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases, such as PD and ALS, and that CDNF is a promising drug candidate, due to its ability to attenuate all three pathways of UPR.
  • Miettinen, Ilkka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Treatment-resistant bacterial infections pose a major challenge to healthcare. In order to establish a chronic infection, bacteria must tolerate antimicrobial treatment and evade clearance by host immune system. The ability of bacteria to form biofilms, which are sessile communities of adherent microbes encapsulated in self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, contributes crucially to both of these traits. Biofilm bacteria produce numerous virulence factors that facilitate their adherence, invasion into host tissue, and evasion of the host immune system. Variable microenvironments within the biofilm give rise to metabolically sedentary subpopulations of bacteria, known as persisters, which can transiently tolerate antimicrobial chemotherapy. The biofilm matrix provides additional mechanical barrier against a selection of therapeutics. This thesis presents the optimization and validation of a Staphylococcus aureus model for persistence. Bacteria were monitored past the stationary phase transition to detect metabolic switching and a culture with halted energy metabolism and replication was confirmed to withstand extreme levofloxacin concentrations in a manner that was reversible by resurrecting growth. This model culture was used to study the effect of the metabolic status of the inoculum on biofilm characteristics. A label-free proteomics-based analysis of surface-associated proteins was carried out, and persister model-derived biofilms were shown to display boosted tolerance traits, such as oxidative stress defense and immune evasion, when compared to biofilms created from metabolically active cultures. This was reflected to increased survival in macrophage-like cells. A mixed biofilm model based on S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, common co-habitants in chronic wounds and cystic fibrosis lung infections, was also established to study the effect of interspecies interaction on biofilm virulence and tolerance. A label-free proteomics approach was applied to concurrently compare surface-associated and extracellular protein profiles between mono- and co-cultured biofilms. This study provided proteomics-level insight that simultaneously covered multiple facets of virulence and tolerance in mixed-species biofilms. Several of the key findings here were found to be aligned with previously published functional studies. The proteomics studies also involved the compilation and improved annotation of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa theoretical proteomes, which are now fully accessible for future studies involving these or related bacterial strains. Altogether, this work demonstrates the applicability of label-free proteomics approaches in two different, clinically relevant settings involving bacterial biofilms. It also proposes models, methods, and proteomic workflows for the study of bacterial virulence and tolerance.  
  • Luoma, Antti (Suomen kirkkohistoriallinen seura, 2020)
    The Finns’ Impact on the Establishment of the Church of Ingria, 1988–1993 The aim of this study is to clarify the role of Finns in re-establishing the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Ingria in Russia, 1988–1993. The Ingrian-Finns’ (hereafter Ingrian) national Church, comprising approximately 30 parishes, was destroyed in the 1930s during Stalin’s purges. Eventually, the Soviet reform policy of perestroika and glasnost opened a new door. In 1988, once their national and ecclesiastical consciousness awakened, Ingrians started to re-establish their Church once again. The number of Ingrian parishes grew rapidly. In 1988, there were only two parishes, but in 1993 there were almost 30. At first, the Ingrian parishes belonged to the Estonian Lutheran Church, but by 1992 these parishes constituted their own independent entity. The Finns were by far the most significant foreign supporters of the rise of the Ingrian Church, as it was strongly Finnish-speaking at that time. The Ingrian Church received clergy, material and financial support from Finland as well as theological influences. Therefore, the study reviews the construction of the Ingrian Church functionally, financially, administratively, and spiritually. The study is based primarily on archival material such as minutes, memos, reports, and letters. This material was collected in Finland, Russia, Estonia, and Switzerland. In addition, many newspaper articles, television programmes and printed sources, such as (auto)biographies and histories, were used as source material. Several people interviewed for this study played key roles in the events under study. The aim of the study is to reconstruct the historical events through critical source work as well as to do justice to the objects of this research. The Ingrians’ national and ecclesiastical awakening was brought to the attention of thousands of Finns through media exposure during the autumn of 1988 and winter of 1989. The Finns donated a considerable amount of money to Ingrians’ cause and sought to support their parishes. Ingrian parishes offered a clear place where Finns could support them, given the fact that the parish network was large. In consequence, Finns primarily supported Ingrians and only secondarily their parish activities. The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland took responsibility for coordinating aid work in the Ingrian areas. Finns were involved at practically every level in the rise of the Ingrian Church. Ingrians were of course inspired by their own national and ecclesiastical awakening, and they were themselves very active in re-establishing their parishes, but the Finns created the structures for an independent Church. The Ingrians simply lacked the resources and skills to create the Church’s administrative structures, pastoral education and church buildings, which the Finns made possible.
  • Kaustell, Kim (2020)
    Agriculture and commercial fishing are among the most hazardous occupations world- wide, also in Finland. Various efforts have been developed to prevent and mitigate the effects of occupational accidents and diseases. The process of risk management comprises two significant stages: 1) risk assessment, and 2) risk treatment. Occupational safety and health (OSH) risk assessment builds on the evolution of accident causation models and of knowledge on human behavior over several decades. Risk treatment has also evolved, ranging from limited targeted efforts to multi-faceted interventions. The aims of this thesis were to identify factors that influence the incidence and se- verity of occupational accidents (risk assessment approach) and work system related factors that affect efficacy of occupational safety interventions (risk treatment approach). Information of the identified factors, called “occupational safety determinants” in this thesis, was composed into a list of occupational safety determinant clusters with respect to their contribution to occupational safety risk assessment and risk treatment. Four original articles were used as case studies to derive occupational safety determinants. Two of the articles focused on the occupational safety of farmers while the two other articles dealt with that of commercial fishers. For both occupations, there was one article based on accident insurance claim records, and one article based on user (farmer/fisher) centered surveys. The list of occupational safety determinant clusters was used to facilitate the assessment and discussion of occupational safety determinants. The list comprises the following nine titles: Physical environment, Organization and management, Individual, Task, Tools and technologies, External, Performance, Intervention mechanisms, and Intervention drivers and barriers. Analysis of occupational accident insurance claim records with a limited set of variables yielded a narrow quantitative set of safety determinants that mainly described the immediate accident context. The result was expected, because the national and the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) methods include sparse if any information on distal factors to the accident, such as the effect of work organization, management, or external factors of the accident etiology. The user centered surveys yielded a broader qualitative spectrum of occupational safety determinants, and provided also insight into additional, macro-ergonomic factors, such as the social and organizational context as well as contextual factors potentially influencing adoption of safety interventions. User centered research methods along with research that is based on accident claim records can assist in designing more effective occupational safety interventions. These methods contribute to understanding the individuals’ behavior in the context of work, both from accident and hazard analysis as well as from the accident prevention view- point. Multi-faceted approaches are needed to provide comprehensive information that is essential for reducing the excessive burden of injury and illness in agriculture and commercial fishing.
  • Asikainen, Pekka (Väylä-kirjat, 2020)
    The focus of this research is centered on leadership and practices related to it. Irrespective of organization, similar dimensions of leadership are shared amongst them. The operational environment, the core mission of the organization and regional cultural differences all provide their own nuances to leadership. In the case of expert organizations, leadership is focused on professional identity. The vicar operates, based on their theological substance, to fulfil the core spiritual mission of a parish. In this qualitative case study research, leadership has been examined in the context of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland and from the perspective of leadership of a local parish. The research has been conducted by interviewing 32 vicars of parishes. The results of this research have been grouped according to two larger entities. These are the views of the vicar on pastoral leadership and the vicar’s role as a pastoral leader. The deep structures of pastoral leadership have been resolved by inquiring of the interviewees’ views on priesthood, spiritual identity, the Bible and leadership. The vicars have also highlighted the changes happening in the operational environment which reflect upon pastoral leadership. One of the research results is a model of pastoral leadership entity. The model encapsulates the vicars’ understanding of pastoral leadership and the vicar’s views and role as a pastoral leader. Pastoral leadership represents the vicar’s leadership role in a local church so that the church’s core spiritual mission would be fulfilled. Comparable examples are the pedagogical leadership task of a headmaster and the medical leadership task of a medical director. The outcome of the study supports the discussion of general leadership theory. It can be used to examine leadership in expert organizations in which leadership is based on professional identity. The research results can be especially utilized in the development of leadership education in churches. At the same time, it gives individual leaders the possibility to reflect on their own leadership and deep structures related their leadership using the Pastoral Leadership Model as a basis. This model can be utilized in ecumenical interchurch discussion concerning priesthood and other elements of pastoral leadership. Feelings of loneliness arose as new research themes in the diverse leadership roles of a vicar. This research theme/topic needs further research in order to map out the burdens of a vicar’s position. Conflicts within the church and work community were found to be challenging by vicars. Prevalent structural changes within the church, as well as, differences in opinion in spiritual matters and ethical conflicts brought additional pressure to the position. In addition to this theme, the ongoing transformation in work culture in the church is a matter worth investigating. It would be interesting to expand the qualitative research study with a quantitative section investigating the views of vicars in the Finnish Lutheran church on leadership. An additional aspect to pastoral leadership would be provided by an ecumenical study in which Lutheran vicars would be joined by vicars from the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches as well as parish leaders from the Pentecostal church in a Finnish context.
  • Koivukari, Kristiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This dissertation discusses the narrative of modern European criminal justice: does the narrative exist, what it tells about criminal justice, and what it ignores and effaces? To start with, the study seeks an answer to the question of why it is so difficult to combine EU law and criminal law so that the central characteristics of both could be embraced. From the perspective of criminal justice, the often suggested answer to the question is that the fundamental criminal law principles together with EU law and its principles could form an appropriate basis for the combination, but the EU seems reluctant to truly commit itself to criminal law principles and it seems the EU does not recognise the delicacy and integrity of criminal law. My hypothesis is instead that the central problem lies in the question itself, which presumes a certain kind of criminal law and EU law. Therefore, instead of straightforwardly trying to answer the question presuming and accepting the special nature of criminal justice and the EU’s reluctance to respect it, I critically analyse the elements assumed to be the essential parts of the concept of criminal justice forming the narrative of modern European criminal justice and the EU’s role and approach to criminal law. As discussions on these questions suggest that Enlightenment thinking constitutes the value basis for a common understanding of European criminal justice as well as EU criminal law principles, I also examine the narrative of the Enlightenment within criminal justice and the values and principles therein suggested to form the basis of criminal justice in both Europe and the EU. The different elements assumed to be the essential parts of criminal justice indeed prove to be ambiguous and blurred. Further, examining the reasons for the EU to legislate in criminal law matters, its competence and political limits indicate that it might not be (at least merely) a choice of the Union not to respect the criminal law principles but a consequence of its limited competence and political leeway as well as its interdependent position and way of functioning. In terms of values and principles, Enlightenment ideology does indeed seem to be the value basis for the narrative of modern European criminal justice. But the values, and their meaning and role as understood within criminal justice narrative, should be questioned instead of taken for granted, and indeed they are being questioned along with the narrative of modern European criminal justice itself. I argue that the Enlightenment values and principles as depicted by narrative on criminal justice presume a system structure, and the EU cannot form a system of its own. On the other hand, the EU inevitably deconstructs the systemic features of domestic criminal justice ‘systems’ by interfering with them in multiple ways and by eroding any possibilities of maintaining the narrative of the criminal justice system even in the domestic sphere. The EU (alone) does not cause this deconstruction of system structure(s), but intensifies it and makes the issue more evident and visible. While the concept or narrative of the modern criminal justice system is necessary to understand systemically, this systemic understanding is not realistic in the first place in the current undeniably inter-legal world of law. Hence the systemic narrative on modern European criminal justice crumbles and is challenged by multiple, more fragmented and interactional narratives on (criminal) law. This study is conducted by critical analyses of different dimensions of narratives. Narrativity works as a perspective and framework to emphasise that what I discuss in this study is what is told about criminal justice rather than what it is. In other words, narratitivty refers to my starting point of what kind of story we tell about criminal law, but it also refers to the possibility of other narratives as well. In turn, I use systemic and interactional approaches as lenses through which I explain the narrative told of modern European criminal justice (resembling more a systemic legal order) and the alternative narrative(s) which from my point of view would be more realistic in the inter-legal world (legal orders understood interactionally to some extent). Further, I claim that the narratives we tell affect the way law is used in practice, and in that sense is in no way innocent or irrelevant. I apply these theories or perspectives to each chapter and concept of the study separately, but the different parts of the study read as a whole expose the narrative of systemically understood criminal justice as on the one hand existing and on the other hand crumbling. This further questions the current construction of legitimacy as a residual justification of morally and philosophically unjustifiable punishment built on the systemic understanding of criminal justice. As that alleged legitimacy crumbles along with the narrative of criminal justice, it exposes the unjustifiability of punishment. The question then is whether it is possible to combine criminal law fluently with any other legal area, or whether it is even possible for it to be a part of legal or judicial systems at all.
  • Koskimies, Emanuela (Unigrafia, 2020)
    This doctoral dissertation investigates the development of the norm of sovereignty as responsibility by focusing on its institutionalization in the framework of the International Criminal Court (ICC). Prominent observers have regarded the emergence of a new norm of sovereignty as responsibility as one of the most significant normative shifts in international society since the aftermath of World War II. Against this backdrop, accounts have proliferated situating the ICC at the cutting edge of normative change. The present study critically engages with the whole set of theoretical foundations underlying this view, including the conventional constructivist understanding of norm development upon which the latter is premised. This, on the one hand, emphasizes the importance of norm institutionalization within “tangible” sets of rules or organizations. On the other, it understands institutionalization itself as a moment of clarity and stabilization, thus largely reducing it to an end-point of the norm emergence process. In other words, norm institutionalization is confined to a positivist view in which institutions fall back to the role of neutral fora. The result is a linear, static, and largely depoliticized account of norm content, which, while yielding to the traditional lack of communication between normative and empirical studies, ends up reiterating a dichotomic and simplistic view in which norms are scripts of emancipation, and power a practice of domination. The dissertation aims to unravel this dilemma altogether by offering a step forward in the development of a post-positivist constructivist approach. In other words, it takes a genuinely trans-disciplinary perspective and delves into the configuration of normativity as part of institutional practice, paying special attention to how the relative power of relevant actors reconstitutes norms during norm negotiation and implementation. Hence, the study unfolds from an unusual location – at the intersection between normative international theory and the politics of international criminal law; and from there, it seeks to revive discussions about the power-laden nature of the normative fabric of international society, its own dis-symmetries, and its outright hierarchies. To this end, the dissertation asks two major sequential questions: how the overarching system negotiated by states at the Rome Conference affects the selection of situations and cases before the ICC and their outcomes; and how the selection of situations and cases and their outcomes, in turn, “feeds back” to the norm of sovereignty institutionalized through the Court’s practice. The resulting analysis shows the following. While the Rome Statute reflects the persistence of the state as the primary site of political authority and coercion, it also cuts against the normative aspirations of sovereignty as responsibility by leaving the Court specifically ill-equipped to break with a notorious pattern of hyper-protected sovereignty. Outstanding issues such as the ICC’s selectivity and African bias, as well as the Court’s future prospects, are then reconsidered under this light. Those findings are then discussed in the final part of the study. Focusing on questions of delegation to international institutions, this ends with a note of caution. It concludes that the prospects of sovereignty as responsibility, as well as the broader discussion about cosmopolitan governance, lie more with the re-politicization of the debate than a straightforward invocation of greater forms of supranat
  • Nieminen-Finne, Hanna (Suomalainen Lakimiesyhdistys, 2020)
    EXPERT AS JUDGE: EXPERT JUDGES OF TECHNICAL AND NATURAL SCIENCES IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION CASES AT THE ADMINISTRATIVE COURT This dissertation examines the role of expert judges who participate in resolving environmental protection cases at the administrative court of Vaasa, Finland, which is the first appeal instance. These expert judges are either engineers or have a degree in natural sciences. They work as full-time judges. This study is doctrinal and belongs to the discipline of procedural administrative law. In addition, aspects of other areas of law such as procedural law, environmental law, EU law, human rights law and Finnish constitutional law are taken into consideration. The study starts with an overview of modern environmental law and procedural environmental law. Procedural environmental law, that is, the process at the court of appeal, has its own characteristics. The study briefly describes the history of the environmental expert judges and also looks at the other experts who work at the Finnish administrative courts as part-time members, for example, in child welfare cases. Both constitutional and international elements concerning expert judges are taken into consideration. The environment has an important position in the Finnish constitution, and national environmental law has strong connections to EU law. The requirements of fair trial according to the Convention on Human Rights and the European Court of Human Rights are described as well. The most interesting elements of fair trial, from the expert judges’ point of view, are the adversary principle and the independence and impartiality of the court. Access to a court, access to justice and the Arhus Convention form an important part of the various international aspects associated with expert judges. The broad international discussion about the need for expertise and environmental courts or tribunals is highlighted. Several international aspects, such as procedural requirements deriving from EU law and the Arhus Convention, seem to support the system of expert judges. Even the element most critical of the role of expert judges, the adversary principle, does not demand the abolishment of the system of expert judges in environmental cases. The dissertation ends with an overview of the practical aspects of Finnish environmental procedural law and an analysis of the case law of the Vaasa administrative court.
  • Kuivalainen, Ilkka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The Portrayal of Pompeian Bacchus This dissertation is a basic study in the field of ancient art and classical archaeology. It aims to define what Pompeian Bacchus was like, especially the iconography in wall paintings and in sculpture, and why he was depicted in different forms in different places. Bacchus was either an elderly bearded man, a young beardless man or a child. In order to understand the relationship between this divinity and ancient Pompeians the spreading of the Greek Dionysiac cult is analysed; how it came to Italy and what his connection to old Italic variants, especially the Roman god Liber was. The god’s name used by the Romans is also analysed. He was linked to mysteries, theatre and viticulture. The research deals mainly with Pompeii and the material in or from the town during the period of ca. three hundred years before the town was destroyed in AD 79. Of Pompeian source groups firstly the extramural temple is dealt with, secondly inscriptions, thirdly the largest group consisting of wall paintings, including those from the villas directly linked to the town. The fourth group consists of sculpture and the fifth of mosaics. Because many wall paintings have been destroyed or damaged the excavation reports and other earlier research especially done in the 19th century are of great importance. The visual material in this study consists of 174 cases. The method is firstly descriptive but widens to comparative. Parallel works are also studied elsewhere in Pompeii and in the regions that have affected it, mainly Latium, Etruria and Southern Italy (e.g. vase painting), but also some Greek temples. Roman literature and archaeological material are used in order to find reasons for the choices of name and images of Bacchus. The remarks based on this research material deal with the physical appearance, clothing, attributes and companions of Bacchus, and myths or historical events depicted and the Pompeian spaces where Bacchus was visible. Additionally the models and choice of the portrayal are analysed. In private houses Bacchus was usually portrayed in representative, more public rooms, but as a child in smaller and more private rooms. The statues were mainly in gardens. The very limited number of mosaics leans to more representative spaces. Bacchus was also depicted in public places around the town. Some portrayals of Bacchus must have had religious meaning. The viticultural context was clearly more important than than connections to theatre or mysteries. This is shown especially in paintings in lararia or façades where Bacchus was alone, or with a panther or some other divinity, and in which vine, wine or grapes represent agricultural fertility. Theatrical aspect is shown in only one central painting but some compositions of paintings show effects of theatre performances. The mystic aspect is shown by the idea of a good afterlife, and the different forms of Bacchus and the epiphany, even Ariadne may be linked to this. Based on this study one could say that Pompeian Bacchus was mainly portrayed as Greek Dionysus. The continuation of the cult shows the old Liber with his Italic counterparts. Liber was the most important name of the divinity used in Pompeii in the first century AD, though his portrayal was usually, according to Hellenistic fashions, modelled to the local needs.
  • Grufstedt, Ylva (Ungrafia, 2020)
    This thesis explores counterfactual history and game design practice, and how the two concepts relate to digital strategy games. The approach is interdisciplinary and has epistemological footing in history and game studies. The aim is to investigate developer understandings of history and game-making contexts, and their subsequent influence on representations of the past. This is a case study of two games made by Paradox Development Studio: Europa Universalis IV (2013) and Hearts of Iron IV (2016). Specific attention has been paid to the design and application of counterfactual history in order to explore how it can be studied and understood through games, as well as how developers navigate design practice with regard to historical verisimilitude. The study builds on two sets of materials. The first involves qualitative interviews with game developers and associated beta testers at Paradox Development Studio in Stockholm, Sweden. The second involves a game analysis and technical reading of the digital strategy games Europa Universalis IV and Hearts of Iron IV to highlight how developer statements relate to artefact design. The technical reading was done using the games’ files – scripted content and localisation – that were then analysed through a framework based on counterfactual history as uses of history. The results identify game-industry specific frameworks that influence how developers navigate their understanding of the past. These frameworks, in turn, influence, for example, practices related to the sourcing and omission of content, as well as the role of beta testers, whose efforts and perspectives play a significant part in the games’ design and content. Design goals such as monetization and replayability appear to, in part, frame how synergies between mechanics and counterfactual scenarios are designed. Furthermore, it is possible to discern ways in which historical culture imposes itself on the design of counterfactual scenarios in both games, mainly in the implementation of goal-setting and emergent stories. Demonstrable differences in counterfactual design appear related to historical period and themes depicted. The results also show how design legacy, genre convention and player expectations frame the design of counterfactual history and the use of history, based on the interplay of historical verisimilitude and challenging gameplay.
  • Forji Amin, George (2020)
    This thesis examines the historical economic processes and legal regimes between the 15th and 19th centuries that caused Sub-Saharan Africa to assume the trajectory of underdevelopment in the world system. Particular emphasis is placed on various development initiatives which international law has historically legitimated for Africa and how they have shaped the continent economically. It is underscored that European extraterritorial imperialism during the era under consideration, was a political expression, poignantly expressed through evangelizing and civilizing missions. The first objective of the thesis is to interrogate the economic and legal components of the evangelizing and civilizing missions, especially the way in which international law introduced two economic institutions that were to shape the economic future of Sub-Saharan Africa for centuries, namely: trade and private property rights. The study observes that a regime of exception advanced by publicists between the 15th and 18th centuries, enabled international law to conceptualize human beings as legitimate private property. Upon invoking and relying on Papal Bull decrees as well as just war doctrines, European powers were able not only to trade Sub-Saharan African peoples as commodities (slaves), but also maintained them in the Americas under conditions of bondage as legitimate goods, marred by grave violation of rights. The second objective is to explore the techniques according to which African Sovereignty was roundly submerged into European Sovereignty in the 19th century, following the wave of rivalries by varying European companies scrambling for territorial control across Africa. It is underscored that the validation of the concept of “effective occupation” at the 1884-85 Berlin Conference as an acceptable legal standard for European appropriation of colonies on the continent, not only resulted to the partition of the continent to become European protectorates but moreover brought about a pivotal shift in the discipline of international law. The 19th century was accordingly animated by the logic of the civilizing mission—the duty of the civilized to rule and nurture the uncivilized—a modality for preparing them to join the family of nations. The study underscores that doctrines of trade and property rights sanctioned by international law resulted to a trend of dispossession of non-Europeans in general and Africans in particular by Europeans colonizers. While it is peoples that Africa was robbed of during the first era (15th-18th centuries), in the second era (19th century), the entire continent was appropriated and partitioned as protectorates of European sovereigns. This study embraces two interdisciplinary methodologies, which are primarily historical but also critical and philosophical. The two approaches are Marxism and Third World Approaches to International Law (TWAIL). Whereas the former puts emphasis on the exploitative nature of the international legal order and its historiography, the latter conceives international law from the standpoint of the Third World, denouncing its current oppressive nature while at the same time underlying its liberating potential.
  • Guenther, Carla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Our health is protected by the immune system, which maintains a carefully regulated balance between inflammation and immune suppression. To mediate homeostasis and inflammation, leukocytes continuously patrol the body and therefore operate in a dynamic mechanical landscape. Mechanical information is transduced into the cell via different proteins, including adhesion receptors called β2-integrins. These receptors mediate essential leukocyte processes, including phagocytosis, immune cell trafficking, adhesion under shear flow conditions of the blood stream and immunological synapse formation between antigen presenting cells and T-cells. However, β2-integrins can also restrict inflammatory processes, such as macrophage Toll-like receptor signalling and cytokine expression, as well as dendritic cell maturation and migration. The precise signalling pathways involved in β2-integrin-mediated leukocyte regulation are not yet fully unravelled. β2-integrin activity is regulated via conformational changes. β2-integrin conformational changes are mediated by interactions with cytoplasmic proteins, such as talin, filamin A and kindlin-3. Talin, filamin A and kindlin-3 are sensitive to mechanical forces and respond by changing their conformation. However, the precise roles of these two proteins in regulating β2-integrin mediated immune processes, especially in response to force, have not yet been fully investigated. The aim of this doctoral thesis was to study molecular mechanisms involved in β2-integrin-mediated leukocyte mechanotransduction and immune responses. We investigated the role of filamin A in β2-integrin-mediated primary neutrophil and T-cell adhesive functions using conditional filamin A knockout mice. In neutrophils, filamin A restricts β2-integrin mediated cell spreading and static adhesion. Furthermore, filamin A was found to inhibit neutrophil oxidative burst, but it was required for proper formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. In T-cells, filamin A restricts F-actin content in cells spreading on integrin ligands. Interestingly, filamin A plays a different role in T-cell adhesion than in neutrophils, as it is required for optimal adhesion under shear flow conditions, and for the generation of integrin-mediated traction forces. Furthermore, filamin A is necessary for T-cell homing in vivo and for T-cell trafficking to sites of inflammation. Together the studies therefore revealed a dual role for the mechanosensitive integrin-binding protein filamin A in regulating leukocyte adhesive processes. In dendritic cells, β2-integrins have previously been shown to regulate gene expression, and to restrict cell maturation, migration and dendritic cell-mediated T-cell activation. Here, we used a β2-integrin TTT/AAA knock-in (KI) mouse model, where the β2-integrins/kindlin-3 interaction has been disrupted, which leads to expressed but dysfunctional integrins. The aim of these studies was to identify integrin-mediated signalling pathways regulating the mature dendritic cell phenotype. In our studies, we found that the mechanoresponsive MRTF-A/SRF pathway is downstream of β2-integrins in dendritic cells. Furthermore, this pathway regulates cytoskeletal gene expression, which governs the ability of dendritic cells to adhere and to generate traction forces, but not dendritic cell 3D migration. We subsequently identified novel mechanotransductional mechanisms involved in integrin-mediated dendritic cell programming and function. We discovered a β2-integrin/actin/lamin link in dendritic cells that regulates global histone methylation in these cells, as well as chromatin accessibility and gene expression. Interestingly, targeting this mechanical link leads to a similar mature dendritic cell phenotype as that caused by abolishing β2-integrin function, and can be used to induce better dendritic cell-mediated tumour rejection in vivo. Taken together, these studies outline several β2-integrin mediated leukocyte mechanotransduction pathways, which we demonstrate are relevant for immune system function in vivo. The results highlight the importance of considering and studying how mechanical forces and information impact immune system function. This is especially important in diseases such as cancer and during aging where the mechanical properties of tissues change over time.
  • Kuosmanen, Isa (2020)
    This dissertation is a collection of three empirical essays on the economics of immigration and education. In the first chapter of this dissertation, I will introduce the topics and methods, cover key literature, and summarize the main findings from all three essays. In Chapter 2, we study the labor market consequences of opening borders by using the eastern enlargement of the European Union as a natural experiment. In our identification strategy, we use the fact that the eastern enlargement of the EU exposed construction workers in some occupations and regions differentially to the influx of foreign labor. We find that opening borders to workers from the new EU countries decreased annual earnings of workers in vulnerable occupations relative to less vulnerable workers. This drop in earnings is economically meaningful and these workers never seem to catch up with the less vulnerable individuals after opening of the borders. Although we do find that vulnerable workers were slightly more likely to be unemployed, this does not fully explain the drop in earnings. We additionally investigate heterogeneity by age as well as adjustment mechanisms. The negative effect on earnings is driven by younger workers, who became more likely to switch to other sectors of employment and establishments of work, and older workers, who became more likely to retire. In Chapter 3, we study the overall effects of a reform that introduced choice between public schools to the comprehensive education system in Finland. Our identification strategy exploits variation in school choice opportunities across municipalities before and after the school choice reform. The idea is that the reform was more intense in municipalities with multiple schools, as there were more opportunities to exercise choice. We find that students from all household income groups made choices after the reform. The introduction of school choice had on average a positive effect on students’ education and labor market outcomes. However, we find that the benefits of school choice were unequally distributed. Students from higher income households benefited from school choice, as they experienced improvements in their GPA and were more likely to get a high school education. These short-term gains also translated in to improvements in long-term education outcomes. Despite that students from lower income households were as likely to exercise school choice, they did not experience improvements in short-term education outcomes and were less likely to get a higher education later in life. These results are potentially explained by students from higher income households attending schools and classes with higher average attainment after the reform. We also document heterogeneity in selection into education and occupation later in life. In Chapter 4, I study the effects of public school choice on segregation of schools, residential segregation, and classroom-level segregation. I use the same reform and identification as Chapter 3. I find that school choice increased segregation of schools both by ability and household characteristics. On the contrary, I find no robust evidence that choice would have had an impact on residential segregation. Lastly, my results show that students from different ability and household characteristics were less likely to meet in a classroom after the introduction of school choice. I additionally document that this results is not only driven by increased sorting to schools, but that student sorting to classrooms within the schools also increased.
  • Tolttila, Karri (Suomalainen Lakimiesyhdistys, 2020)
    This study analyses one of the most prominent instrument of mutual recognition, the European Arrest Warrant (EAW). The surrender mechanism of EAW is meant to replace the system of extradition based on a complex network of international conventions and bilateral treaties, which has governed the relationships between the Member States of EU. By replacing the previous extradition systems like the 1957 European Convention on Extradition (ECE), the EAW has introduced a system of surrender between judicial authorities for categorized offences, without control of double criminality and other traditional conditions for extradition. This system of surrender is established through Council Framework Decision of 13 June 2002 on the European arrest warrant and the surrender procedures between Member States (hereinafter “Framework Decision). The rules governing the Framework Decision in Finland are laid down in an Act of Parliament: laki (1286/2003) rikoksen johdosta tapahtuvasta luovuttamisesta Suomen ja muiden Euroopan unionin jäsenvaltioiden välillä. With the EAW, traditional political and diplomatic extradition cooperation between States is replaced by direct cooperation between judicial authorities. This means that the surrender is a judicial, and not anymore a political matter. Furthermore, as the surrender system is based on the principle of mutual recognition, an EAW is not a request in a traditional sense that can be granted or refused by the recipient State. According to Article 1(2) of the Framework Decision “shall” be executed and the terminology of Articles 3 and 4 of the FD speaks of cases on “non-execution” of an EAW rather than “refusal to grant”. The aim for the study is to find out in which situations and for what conditions a requested person can be surrendered from a Member State to another Member State within EU. This thesis explores the major changes that the EAW system has introduced compared to traditional extradition. Secondly, the study analyses the consequences that these changes have from the point of individual and what is the added value of the EAW for efficient criminal law cooperation between EU Member States. The aspect of the study focuses on the Member State level (in this case especially Finland). The thesis studies the impact of the EU developments on the national legislation with the aim of pinpointing similarities and differences between extradition and surrender; EU legislation and national Member State implementation legislation, and the influences which affect these distinctions. The thesis analyses the meaning and functioning of the principles of mutual recognition and mutual trust. Mutual trust is an essential element of mutual recognition as it enables free movement of judicial decisions across the EU via the recognition and execution of foreign judgements with a minimum of formality and limited grounds for refusal. It is argued whether it is appropriate that cooperation can take place on the basis of a high level of mutual trust in the criminal justice systems of Member States, premised upon the presumption that fundamental rights are in principle respected fully across the EU. The thesis follows legal dogmatic methods. The aim is to analyse legal norms and legal constructions and give them content and context. The dogmatic method applied to the study is supported by practical analysis. The aim is not only to reach conclusions concerning the contents of legal norms e.g. rules governing extradition and surrender and requirements of law but study the practical functioning of these norms.
  • Kari, Ville (2020)
    This thesis explores the rise and fall of the classical doctrine of civil war in international law. The doctrine was based on the legal concepts of war, peace and neutrality and their application to internal conflicts. In the traditional Westphalian system, rebellions and insurrections were understood strictly as internal affairs of sovereign states, and insurgents enjoyed no standing before the law of nations. However, under some circumstances the facts of an insurrection would necessitate its recognition by foreign powers as a situation of civil war, where the laws of war and neutrality applied. While the classical law of civil war was once a well-known part of legal scholarship, there have been few major studies on the subject for several decades, and the classical concepts and arguments of civil war have become increasingly difficult to assess using the present-day vocabularies. This study seeks to make the classical doctrine more understandable again, and to explain how it fell out of use in the twentieth century. The main findings are as follows. The origins of the doctrine were in the early modern revolutions, in particular the Dutch revolt and the English civil war. The synthesis of the legal principles of civil war was drafted by Emer de Vattel in his Droit des gens (1758). The rise of the classical doctrine of civil war took place when those principles were invoked by the American and Spanish American colonial revolutionaries during the transatlantic revolutions, as they established insurgent prize jurisdictions and claimed belligerent rights on the high seas. The doctrine began its decline in state practice after the abolition of privateers in 1856 and the Geneva arbitration in 1872. The practice of belligerent recognition was gradually superseded by alternative and often more indeterminate approaches, such as the qualified recognition of insurgencies. This also contributed to the gradual development of the law of intervention and the law of state responsibility as legal approaches to internal conflicts. After international law took a more professional form in the 1870s, the classical doctrine of civil war was developed further by legal scholars. Dedicated monographs were published by Carlos Wiesse and Marquis d’Olivart in the 1890s, and two resolutions on the subject were passed by the Institut de Droit International in 1900. But with the renunciation of war in 1928 and the founding of the United Nations in 1945, civil war as a legal concept began to wither away and was eventually replaced by the new languages of armed conflict and international humanitarian law. The transition led into a crisis in the classical law of civil war, as illustrated by the case example of the Spanish civil war in 1936–1939. The sunset of the classical doctrine of civil war can be identified in the drafting of the Geneva Conventions of 1949, in the new legal approaches arising from decolonization, and in its final consideration at the Institut session at Wiesbaden in 1975.

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