Väitöstiivistelmät

Recent Submissions

  • Katto, Jonna (2017)
    This study is about the shifting landscape perceptions and senses of socio-spatial belonging in the life narratives of female ex-combatants in the northwestern province of Niassa. Between 1964 and 1974 thousands of young people in the rural areas of northern Mozambique were mobilized by the guerrilla army FRELIMO to fight against Portuguese colonial rule. Hundreds of girls and young women also became engaged as guerrilla fighters in FRELIMO s political-military campaign for national independence. My study explores the relationship between FRELIMO nationalism and the female bodies that it sought to represent and mobilize. It is based on twelve months of multi-sited fieldwork among Ciyaawo-speaking communities in northern Niassa between 2012 and 2014. My main research material consists of life history interviews with thirty-four female ex-combatants. Bringing feminist scholarship on nationalism and spatial theorizing in conversation, this study problematizes the concept of space often reproduced in feminist scholarship on nationalism. I argue that this notion of space builds on an understanding of a dichotomous relationship between space/time and male/female. Moreover, space conceptualized as feminine is defined as stasis and in binary opposition to masculine time and history. While these notions often implicitly shape the histories of gendered nationalism that we write, they seldom receive explicit analytical attention. This is the analytical task to which my research has sought to contribute. In my analysis of the female ex-combatants sense of socio-spatial belonging, I have worked on a concept of lived landscape . It draws from Doreen Massey s theorization of space-time, the notion of the lived gendered body in feminist phenomenology, and Henri Lefebvre s spatial triad. I suggest that as a concept, lived landscape allows us to look beyond teleological narratives of liberation (/ oppression ), and explore the women s life trajectories as non-linear spatial histories. Lived landscape , moreover, allows us to interrogate the in-between , that is, the ways that discourse and materiality intersect, the personal and national intertwine, and body and landscape shape each other. It is in this in-betweenness that I also locate and conceptualize belonging. Belonging is not a subjective experience but is shaped and negotiated in a multiscalar, reciprocal relationship between body and world. As my analysis shows, aesthetic sensibility (which following Arnold Berleant denotes sensory engagement) is deeply intertwined with the ex-combatants experiences of socio-spatial attachment/detachment. It influences the way belonging is negotiated at different scales (e.g. nation, province, village, family, and globe). In the female ex-combatants narratives, the national often intertwines with the personal in a violent relationship, evoking what I call the haptics of the bush. Still, the Mozambique that emerges from the ex-combatants narratives is not a homogenous, unified landscape; it is perceived as consisting of multiple and unequal landscapes that are valued according to different scales of beauty. Apart from enriching our understanding of the gendered history of the liberation struggle in Mozambique and informing discussions in feminist theory on gender and nationalism, this interdisciplinary research contributes to the study of the body and sensory experiences in war memories/histories and the political field, moreover, to the study of African landscape histories.
  • Säämänen, Juuso (Maanpuolustuskorkeakoulu, 2017)
    From the Threat of a Large-scale Landing to Repelling a Strategic Strike The Development of Finland s Naval Defence from the Continuation War to the 1960 s This research explains how Finland s ability to repel landing operations developed from the end of the Continuation War to 1966 when the Defence Forces adopted the territorial defence doctrine. The development of this ability is examined on the basis of war experiences, threat estimates, operational plans, procurement plans and the changes that took place in Finnish naval and coastal warfare tactics. The research method is the traditional method in history research: the research problem has been solved qualitatively by analyzing and comparing the chosen sources. The sources are mostly primary sources, the most important being the Defence Forces Archives stored in the National Archives and articles in military publications. The development of the Finnish Navy s ability to repel landing operations happened in three stages during 1944 - 1966. The end of the 1940 s was a time of uncertainty and unestablished planning principles. The early 1950 s was a period of adjustment. Long-term development began in the mid 1950 s. The work was done by General Staff Officers or naval and coastal artillery officers who had worked in command positions. They wrote memorandums, articles and research which later developed into development programs, field manuals and operational plans. The principles of how to develop the ability to repel landing operations began to take form at the beginning of the 1950 s as the decision to adopt a new peacetime organization had been made. The decision to merge the coastal forces with the Army temporarily interrupted the development of coastal warfare tactics and organizations. Also, a strong naval defence was no longer considered necessary since an attack by western countries - the prevailing threat scenario since the end of the 1940 s - had become a theoretical possibility by the beginning of the 1950 s. Long-term work to develop the ability to repel landing operations began in the middle of the 1950 s. It was mostly based on up-to-date operational plans as well as the development of operational art and tactics. Materiel procurement was considered secondary since it did not enable defensive warfare against a numerically superior enemy. In addition, the quite modest procurement budget of the Defence Forces forced to focus the effort on operational art. Despite the poor starting point, by the mid 1960 s the Defence Forces was able to conduct coordinated repelling operations. All the services were capable of joint action both in the planning and practical phase of operations.
  • Viljanen, Elina (Acta Semiotica Fennica, 2017)
    The critic, composer, and musicologist Boris Asafiev (1884 - 1949) played a central role in the development of Soviet conceptions of music. Next to his critical analyses on Russian nineteenth century musical tradition, Asafiev became the literary voice of his generation of musicians, such as Prokofiev and Stravinsky. Elected to the Soviet Academy of Sciences in 1943 in and as the head of the Soviet Composers Union in 1947, Asafiev s literary works of the 1940s came to be considered influential Stalin era classics. However, these writings built upon his modernist theory of music, which he developed over the course of the 1920s. Asafiev s theoretical output has still an influential position in the contemporary Russian musical thought. This is the first English language analytical monograph to examine Asafiev s literary output (1916 - 1930) and the development of his theory of Intonation (1947). His works are explored against the backdrop of Russian cultural history, and within the European intellectual historical context. The author demonstrates how Asafiev became an established Soviet cultural theoretician of music, a celebrated but also a persecuted Soviet musicologist. More broadly, the book The Problem of the Modern and Tradition explores how the Russian Silver Age philosophical interpretation of music was transferred to the Soviet era and what kind of new ideas and practices were generated through this process. The thesis characterizes the methodology of early Soviet cultural nationalism from an individualized perspective of the Russian cultural revolution and revolutionary culture of the 1920s. The author addresses the previously contested question of Asafiev s relationship with Soviet politics by tracing a many-sided cultural process in his output, something that can be branded in retrospect as a Sovietization process of Silver Age aesthetics. She argues that in Asafiev s writings this process appears not as a mere political process but a complex interplay of aesthetics, politics, scientific postulates, and cultural mission. Participating in the early Soviet modernization project of Russian culture, Asafiev modernizes the Russian music tradition by bringing it under the critical lens of modern European scientific theories. Meanwhile his theoretical development appears also as a linguistic process. He rewrites his ideas in different forms in order to present them in varying contexts. This was done not only to mask his philosophical views before the political authorities, but it was also part of his theoretical search for founding a new cultural theory of music that would answer the most urgent social challenges of the new Soviet society.
  • Pohjola, Annakaisa (Suomalainen Lakimiesyhdistys, 2017)
    DANGEROUS OFFENDER? A study on offender risk assessment within the Finnish penal system In certain situations, the Finnish Penal System requires a future dangerousness evaluation to be made of criminal offenders. A future dangerousness evaluation is a risk assessment of the probability of an offender guilty of a serious violent crime or sexual offence committing a similar crime in the future. In this multidisciplinary research, I critically examine and interpret the criminal law legislation concerning the risk assessment of offenders, the psychiatric-psychological and normative practices applied to evaluations, the relevant legal principles and basic and human rights as well as the challenges these might raise in this context. In addition, the research introduces empirical research data concerning especially (1) offenders who have been evaluated in terms of their dangerousness in Finland, (2) respective expert statements based on their risk assessments and (3) judgments and decisions where the court has taken into account the dangerousness of these offenders. A positive future dangerousness evaluation has considerable consequences on the right to liberty of an offender. A consequence of an attempt to prevent dangerous offenders from reoffending is that the offenders are required to serve their entire sentence in prison or are banned from getting on regular parole for a life or entire prison sentence. This means that the time to be served in prison is longer than in the case of a normal sentence given on the basis of act culpability and the principle of proportionality. Because an offender who is assessed to be dangerous is punished in part for something which he has not yet committed, the criminal law system requires strong justifiable criteria to be established for these risk assessments. Due to criminal law principles as well as basic and human rights considerations, evaluating the dangerousness of offenders is complicated, as it is necessary to weigh against each other the concrete elements of dangerousness, formal and substantive justice along with the overall legal safeguards of the justice system. This research shows the interconnectedness of different fields of science legal, psychiatric and psychological in evaluating dangerousness. In forensic psychiatry, the medical, especially psychiatric, and psychological aspects are in the foreground whereas in legal proceedings the matter is evaluated on legal grounds. These different approaches in the evaluation of dangerousness present the serious challenge of compatibility. It follows that forensic psychiatry specialists need to be aware of the relevant legal preconditions for a dangerousness assessment of an offender and, on the other hand, judges who evaluate the case in normative terms have to be familiar with the basic principles and premises of forensic psychiatry evaluations. Central to the attempt to assess the dangerousness of offenders and reduce their violent behaviour is to identify relevant risk and protective factors. The future violent behaviour of an offender is difficult to predict with certainty, as it often depends on the changeable situational context and various individual risk and protective factors, all of which have different weight in a risk assessment. The primary risk factors which can be used to predict reoffending include former violent behaviour, substance abuse, psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder and other mental disorders. Psychiatrists and psychologists usually cite these factors in their statements indicating a person s dangerousness. A future dangerousness evaluation is challenging in many ways. Particularly problematic is the possibility of false positive assessment, meaning that an offender is deemed dangerous when he actually is not. For this reason, carrying out a risk assessment requires special diligence, exactness and taking into account all relevant requirements during the entire evaluation process. There is a need for exact and comprehensive legislation which would define the requirements for conducting valid forensic psychiatric evaluations of the future dangerousness of offenders. In this way, the legal rights of offenders would be protected more effectively because there would be a greater certainty of forensic psychiatric evaluations of offenders being reliable in whatever situation. This research introduces a four-step scale for establishing risk levels for violence. It combines qualitative and numeric probabilities and thus defines the dangerousness of an offender taking into account all elements of dangerousness. This scale should be used in the assessments required by Finnish criminal law legislation. It can define the probability of serious violent behaviour of a person based on the risk and protective factors that the offender manifests. The four-step scale determines the risk of violence more accurately than the three-step scale, which means that the court receives more evidence to deliberate upon, which in turn lowers the possibility of erroneous dangerousness evaluations. This study shows that the statements provided by forensic psychiatry experts have gained a huge practical significance in judges work of normatively evaluating dangerousness, which is why the opinion of the court rarely differs from that given by experts. However, while the court is deliberating on the dangerousness evaluations made by forensic psychiatrists, it should consider all the evidence and make the decision on the question of dangerousness independently on normative grounds. Any evidence provided of the dangerousness of an offender is projected to the future, which is why it can never be certain. As a precondition for determining an offender to be dangerous, the court should apply a standard of proof which requires the risk of the offender s violent behaviour to be at least high if not absolute. In other words, the court requires the dangerousness of the offender to be shown with such a high probability that the offender s dangerousness is proven; otherwise, the offender cannot be deemed as dangerous. Therefore, more extensive pro et contra argumentation is recommended to the courts when ruling on the issue of dangerousness. As a statement of dangerousness is projected to the future and as the court has extensive powers of discretion, the court has an obligation to give detailed reasons for an evaluation of dangerousness.
  • Porkholm, Mikaela (Unigrafia Oy, 2017)
    Although most children with cancer can be cured, every fifth patient still succumb from their disease. The need for new treatments and more refined diagnostic methods are thus understandable. Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is an essential phenomenon in many malignancies. The first study in this thesis evaluated the role of two regulators of angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), during allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in 67 children. High levels of VEGF and Ang-2 in plasma samples collected after allogenic HSCT correlated with severe acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). High Ang-2 post-HSCT was associated with increased non-relapse mortality and, together with concomitantly high VEGF, correlated with inferior event-free survival. However, methodological challenges should prompt cautious interpretation of these results. The second study summarized results of the anti-angiogenic Angiocomb protocol in the treatment of pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs). The survival of study patients (N = 41) did not differ from that of controls (N = 8), but the ability to attend school or daycare and walk was maintained for a longer time after the diagnosis in the study cohort. The Angiocomb protocol was generally well tolerated, with the most frequent adverse event being neutropenia. The third study explored the effect of the Extended Angiocomb protocol in a cohort of 17 heavily pre-treated children with high-risk or end-stage malignancies. Although a significant increase in Karnofsky-Lansky performance scores occurred in patients during therapy, the protocol was more toxic than anticipated. This underlines the importance of careful patient selection and close monitoring during metronomic therapy in heavily pre-treated patients. The fourth study analyzed genetic alterations by next-generation sequencing and protein expression and microvessel density (MVD) by immunohistochemistry in 26 DIPG tumor samples. 87% of the patients had mutations in H3-K27M, excluding two rarely encountered long-term survivors. One of the long-term survivors had an IDH1 mutation, an alteration formerly considered to be absent in DIPGs. Angiogenesis-related genes were altered in 40% of the patients, whereas MVD showed up to 6-fold variation. The clinical significance of these findings requires further studies in the future.
  • Häkkänen, Martti (Suomalainen Lakimiesyhdistys, 2017)
    The Regulation of Building Rights A Study of the Municipal Land Use Planning Function and the Preconditions for Construction from the Perspective of the Landowner's Legal Position The research task is to examine building rights in various legal contexts and, based on this, to formulate general doctrines regarding the regulatory system. Special emphasis is placed on the legal relationship between the municipality as a regulatory authority and the private landowner. The primary objective of the study is to analyse some of the fundamental legal concepts of land use planning and landownership, such as the municipal planning monopoly and building rights, from the substantive law point of view. As a historical framework, the study highlights the manner in which the landowner's right to build has gradually transitioned from the early 20th century through to the 21st century from uncontrolled activity, to a rather strictly regulated one. During the same time period, the objectives for building restrictions have expanded in a remarkable way to encompass everything from the promotion of fire safety to the management of sustainable development. Furthermore, the so-called municipal planning monopoly has gained strength in a variety of ways, particularly in the course of the past decades, as have the expropriation measures available in relation to privately owned land. The land use planning system and building rights are fundamentally connected to the economic value of land. Thus building rights are often the most interesting land userelated factor from the landowner's perspective. At the level of general doctrines, the central question is how the connection between regulation and land value should be understood. The study asserts that land use planning should not be understood as the creator of economic values, but, rather, as the facilitator or inhibitor of the materialization of land values based on demand and supply. This premise has fundamental relevance in interpreting the legal provisions governing the economic rights and obligations of landowners. The study shows that the legal formation of building rights within the land use planning and building regulation system is both materially and procedurally a phased series of events. It is also contingent upon the legal reactions of various persons, namely, upon whether they also actually exercise their rights. The central critique of the study focuses upon the legal reasoning, where the landowner's right to build in this complex system may have been in some cases primarily deduced from the concepts of a subjective right or a municipal planning monopoly. Based on a substantive law examination, the study asserts that such a deduction method is likely to produce a blurred and even distorted picture of the substantive law governing the land use planning system. Instead of concepts, the legal assessment should be focused on the manner in which the substantive provisions, on the one hand, set objectives for, and on the other hand limit the municipality's administrative discretion as the regulator of building rights in the relevant case. For example, the study argues that the answer to the question of the landowner's right to compensation due to the prohibition of construction should not be deduced from the concept of a municipal planning monopoly or from the laconism that the landowner does not have the subjective right to build. On the other hand, as the provisions of the planning and building regulation system are conceptually vague, the formation of building rights is de facto significantly dependent upon the manner in which the municipality exercises its administrative discretion in practice. For instance, the level of land policy activity with which the municipality strives to purchase or expropriate land areas prior to the land being subject to local detailed planning, inversely restricts the possibilities of the private landowner to use their land for construction purposes. The study also discusses several other general doctrines associated with building rights. One of the most fundamental ones is the idea that a building right is formulated in the land use planning system without any charges and thus the legal nature of it is gratuitous. Inversely, it may have been deduced that building rights are not gained benefits, and therefore there is a possibility to weaken or remove them by altering the local detailed plan without compensating the landowner. However, the study asserts that the formation of building rights is in fact linked to a number of payment obligations attached to landownership. This calls for a revision of the doctrine of the gratuitous nature of building rights in such a manner that the formation of building rights can be seen performed for economic consideration. The study, furthermore, argues based on a substantive law examination that the doctrine whereby the weakening or removal of building rights is seen as not being subject to any compensation should be treated with caution. In addition to the formation of building rights, the study examines general doctrines also from the point of view of building, i.e. the exercise of building rights. In this respect, the study shows that despite the strong legal effects of a local detailed plan, several of the flexible norms included in a detailed plan are finally concretized in the building permit. In addition, it is possible to diverge from the defined building rights under restricted conditions. From this point of view, building rights are elastic. On the other hand, it is also brought forth that as such, it is possible to agree upon the exercise of building rights among private parties, but only on a limited basis. Building rights may not be sold or transferred from one property to another without the participation of the municipality.
  • Järvinen, Riikka (Unigrafia, 2016)
    Non-muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma (NMIBC) should be treated with a transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (TURBT). The need for an adjuvant intravesical treatment is evaluated after TURBT and is based on various tumour characteristics. The aim of the adjuvant intravesical treatment is to reduce the number of recurrences and the risk of progression. This thesis consists of four individual FinnBladder (FB) studies that compared different intravesical regimens of chemo- and immunotherapy among patients with intermediate- or high-risk NMIBC. The present thesis analyses the long-term results of those studies. Patients in these studies belonged to the intermediate- or to the high-risk group of NMIBC. Patients in study I were treated with mitomycin C (MMC) or bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) instillations for up to one year, whereas the patients in study II had one perioperative plus four weekly MMC instillations followed by MMC or alternating MMC and BCG instillations. The patients in study III had one perioperative MMC plus four weekly MMC instillations followed by either BCG or alternating BCG and interferon-α2b (IFN) instillations. The patients of study IV had one perioperative epirubicin (EPI) followed by BCG or combination of EPI and IFN. The follow-up times of the patients that were still alive were between 8.0 (study IV) and 19.4 years (study II). The median follow-up times of all patients were between 7.2 (study II) and 8.6 years (study III). In study I, we found that BCG significantly reduced the time to recurrence but had no effect on progression, disease specific survival or overall survival compared to MMC. In study II, we found no difference between the study groups (one perioperative MMC and four weekly MMC followed by BCG or alternating MMC and BCG). However, the risk of dying of BC appeared to be markedly lower than observed in the series of untreated patients. In study III, we found that one perioperative and four weekly MMC instillations followed by a monthly maintenance with BCG significantly reduced the probability of recurrence compared to maintenance with alternating BCG and IFN. In study IV, we found that one perioperative EPI administration followed by five weekly BCG and a 1- to 2-yr BCG maintenance treatment was significantly better in reducing recurrence than was a combination of EPI and IFN using the same schedule. Two subgroup analyses of our studies revealed a lower probability of recurrence in patients that had been treated with a single perioperative chemotherapy instillation compared to those without the single instillation. The risk of progression was very low in the best treatment groups of our studies after 10 years, which might question the benefit of a recommended life-long follow-up for all patients. Three out of four patients who progressed died of BC despite the relatively meticulous follow-up. Better methods are still needed to recognize the progression in NMIBC early enough to be able to lower the mortality of this disease.
  • Tegegne, Yitagesu Tekle (Unigrafia, 2016)
    In the past four decades, a range of policies and governance mechanisms have been created to deal with complex problems associated with the use of the world s forests. Two of the most recent international policies are the European Union s Action Plan on Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) and its bilaterally negotiated Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPAs), and the United Nations mitigation policy on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+). The emergence of these policies with some overlaps brings into question the success of these policies: do they build effective and enduring forest governance in isolation or in coordination? Focusing on the Congo Basin countries of Cameroon and the Republic of the Congo, this doctoral research explored the synergies between and the impacts of FLEGT VPA and REDD+ processes. The key lessons for the global forest governance mechanisms are discussed in this dissertation. Theories and methods from the fields of forestry, social sciences and political sciences were used to answering the research questions. Comparative analysis was employed to study the interactions between FLEGT VPA and REDD+ under varying socio-political conditions. Various methods were used during data collection, including in-depth expert interviews, content analysis of policy documents, and focus group discussions with local communities and indigenous peoples. The study results suggest that institutional and policy factors, especially political culture (e.g. corruption and vested interests), are the most important and difficult to address causes of deforestation and forest degradation (paper I). Subsistence and commercial agriculture and legal and illegal logging remain important drivers of deforestation and forest degradation. To successfully address deforestation and forest degradation, policymakers must recognize the conflicting interests (conservation vs conversion) that the governments of the countries are facing. This research found 13 cases of interactions and potential synergies between FLEGT VPA and REDD+ (paper II). Both processes can support each other in areas such as safeguard mechanisms, information transparency, ensuring multi-stakeholder participation, monitoring and reporting and addressing drivers of forest loss (papers II & IV). The possibilities for the synergies between and potential impacts of FLEGT VPA and REDD+ will eventually be limited by domestic political processes, institutional silos and the vested interests of powerful actors (papers III & IV). Thus, 1) transformational change is required to achieve multilevel coordination across all sectors that affect land use (from global to local); 2) national state and non-state actors as well as global proponents (e.g. EU, World Bank, UNREDD) and donors of the processes should adopt a holistic rather than a silos approach; and 3) the processes should look beyond timber legality and reducing CO2 emission to recognize the significant role of tropical forests in providing non-carbon benefits. The results point to the conclusion that fundamental governance reform and a change in incentive structures and enforcement will be needed for FLEGT and REDD+ to effectively contribute to the global efforts of reducing tropical deforestation. FLEGT and REDD+ and other global policies to reduce deforestation should be mainstreamed into national economic strategies to help tropical countries shift away from extractive scenarios, otherwise the processes will have only a marginal overall impact on protecting and conserving tropical forests.
  • Bulanova, Daria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Familial history and inherited genetic mutations are the most important risk factors for the development of this type of neoplasia. However, according to current estimations, known highly penetrant germline mutations (e.g. in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes) explain the origin of less than 30% of familial breast cancer cases 2 5. It urges for identification of the novel genetic determinants of breast carcinogenesis. In the presented work, we performed a whole exome sequencing-based search for new breast cancer-predisposing genetic mutations. We identified a germline inactivating mutation c.183delG [p. Arg61fs] in an orphan G protein-coupled receptor-encoding gene GPRC5A as a novel genetic determinant of breast cancer, which is highly prevalent in BRCA1-associated familial tumors. Following this finding, we revealed that GPRC5A modulates BRCA1 expression and function in homologous recombination-mediated DNA repair, suggesting that GPRC5A may act as a genetic modifier of BRCA1-mediated breast cancer progression. GPRC5A has been implicated in the epithelial carcinogenesis, but so far its function remains controversial. Exploring the effect of GPRC5A deficiency or excessive expression on different aspects of cancer progression, we discovered that GPRC5A plays a role in cancer cell-matrix interactions, and found that it functions as a positive modulator of integrin β1-mediated adhesion. The data suggest that GPRC5A may play a role in progression of particular types of epithelial tumors. We found that GPRC5A associated with two more matrix interaction regulators, Ephrin receptor A2 (EphA2) and hyaluronic acid receptor RHAMM; the effect of GPRC5A on RHAMM expression was BRCA1-dependent. Finally, we revealed that GPRC5A expression in mammary glands is estrogen-dependent and correlates with proliferative capacity of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) mammary tumors, proposing GPRC5A as a biomarker of ER+ tumors progression. We propose that GPRC5A is a determinant of breast carcinogenesis, whose function depends on the context of the genetic background (presence of BRCA1 mutation) and the hormonal status of the tumor.
  • Taipale, Kristian (2016)
    In the history of oncology scientists have tried to treat cancer in numerous different ways. Traditionally surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been regarded as the three main treatment modalities. However, harnessing the power of the human immune system by cancer immunotherapy has recently attracted considerable interest, even though studies on immunotherapy started already more than hundred years ago. The crucial feature of immunotherapy is that it reshapes the immunosuppressive environment created by the tumor. Immunosuppression blocks the activity of body s own immune system, which would normally destroy the transformed cells, and it has been identified as one of the hallmarks of cancer. Oncolytic viruses are a promising form of immunotherapy, and the first viruses have already been approved for clinical use. Oncolytic virotherapy is based on the concept of selective viral replication inside tumor cells. Replication causes tumor cell lysis, release of danger signals and immune cell activation. Viruses can also be modified to stimulate the immune system further, for example by inserting immunostimulatory cytokines into their genomes. One of the most popular viruses used as an oncolytic platform is adenovirus, which is a non-enveloped double-stranded DNA virus. Treatments with oncolytic adenoviruses have been previously shown to be safe and able to activate the anti-tumor immunity in pre-clinical and clinical settings. This thesis investigates the influence of adenoviral immunotherapy on the human immune system. Additionally, predictive and prognostic potential of several immune-related biomarkers and clinical variables is evaluated. The patients included in these studies were treated as a part of the Advanced Therapy Access Program (ATAP), which was a clinical access program in contrast to a clinical trial. The thesis includes analyses from all of the 290 patients treated in ATAP. The first part of the thesis includes findings from the T cell subsets in the peripheral blood and tumors of 50 patients treated with an oncolytic adenovirus. When comparing pre-and post-treatment samples, a significant shift in the ratio of CD4- and CD8-positive T cells in peripheral blood was identified. The proportion of CD4-positive T helper cells decreased in the majority patients, while the proportion CD8-positive cytotoxic T cells increased. Interestingly, the changes in peripheral blood T cell levels were correlated with T cell levels in the tumor biopsies. Moreover, this correlation was found to be inverse for CD4-positive T cells and positive for CD8-positive T cells. The second study of the thesis concerned the pre-treatment tumor biopsies of 27 patients treated in the ATAP program. Several pathways related to immune responses, such as B cell receptor signaling, GM-CSF signaling and leukocyte extravasation signaling, were activated in patients surviving a shorter time than their matched controls. In the level of individual genes, several macrophage markers, complement components and complement receptors were also upregulated in this same patient population. To verify findings on a protein level, immunohistochemical stainings were performed for 19 biopsies. In these analyses, helper T cell marker CD4 and macrophage marker CD163 were significantly higher in patients with poor prognosis. Relating to infiltration of T helper cells, many T cell exhaustion markers, such as TIM-3, PD-L1, PD-L2, CTLA-4, were increased in patients with worse than expected survival, possibly suggesting a presence of exhausted T cell population. Third part focused on identifying predictive and prognostic factors for adenoviral immunotherapy. In this study, absence of pre-treatment neutralizing antibodies and low baseline neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were found to correlate with a significantly longer overall survival, whereas absence of liver metastases was associated with an improved disease control rate. In multivariate Cox regression tumor type, gender and WHO performance status were linked to a lower hazard ratio for tumor related mortality. Interestingly, treatment with viruses that were armed with immunostimulatory cytokines was also associated with a lower hazard ratio. In predictive regression analysis intraperitoneal administration route of the viral treatment was correlated with a significantly higher odds ratio for disease control. In addition to improving the understanding on immunologic phenomena related to adenoviral immunotherapy, these results offer interesting directions for the development of biomarkers and clinical criteria for selecting the right patients for the treatments. Moreover, the findings provide a rationale for combination studies with already approved and emerging immune checkpoint inhibitors. In the future this knowledge could possibly be utilized to improve also the design of the viruses by targeting them more specifically to the immunosuppressive pathways that are activated in cancer.
  • Orpana, Jessi (Unigrafia, 2016)
    This thesis investigates the transmission processes of earlier traditions in Judaism during the late Second Temple period (c. 250 BCE-70 CE). In previous research transmission has been seen rather one-sidedly as a series of literary dependencies that have been investigated almost exclusively as textual changes. The current study will contribute to this broad discussion from the point of view of the changes observable in the late Second Temple literature depicting in various ways the creation of humanity traditions. In practice the thesis maps out, how Jewish sages answered the most fundamental questions of human existence, such as why do humans live and die, and how can we live in harmony with nature, each other, and God. The focus of the study is on the different strategies of interpreting and transmitting the creation of humanity traditions. This dissertation is the first comprehensive study on changes in the traditions concerning the creation of humanity and their interpretation in late Second Temple Jewish literature, and what can they reveal about the mechanics of the transmission processes. Much has already been written by scholars, especially during the recent decade, concerning the general way texts were formed and the intentional and accidental changes happening in them during a literary transmission processes, as well as, on specific aspects of the individual source texts used in the thesis. But thus far there have been no studies that would have incorporated the full source material available from the Second Temple period with so many texts from different genres and text corpora, and investigated them from the perspective of a particular biblical tradition. It is demonstrated that the two creation accounts attested in Genesis form the background and stepping stone for all the later interpretive textual sources analyzed in this study. These two creation accounts are treated in numerous different ways in texts from the late Second Temple period when the form and status of Genesis had not yet been fully fixed. Some texts focus merely on the two creation accounts of Genesis and read them as one narrative. Many select and emphasize more elements from either the first or the second creation account whereas others seem to aim to incorporate all the available material from a wider range of traditions. Finally, there are also some compositions that pick a theme or an image from the Genesis creation accounts, supplement it with material from elsewhere and build their own interpretation on the basis of all of these. This research shows that in order to draw a comprehensive picture of the reception and transmission processes of the creation of humanity, the investigation cannot just function between the different text forms and with questions and terminology strictly linked to such a framework. Therefore, such an exploration should rather also incorporate the recognition of the importance of scribes and the various strategies they used, as well as, a consideration of the paradigm shifts on the societal level, that sometimes surfaced on the textual level and that forced scribes to reinterpret texts and traditions in novel ways.
  • Kivistö, Martti (Suomalainen Lakimiesyhdistys, 2016)
    This dissertation reconstructs the evolutionary journey of the general doctrine of Finnish copyright law, starting with the preparatory stages of the Decree of 1880 on the rights of author and artist and ending with the era of digital technology and European copyright law. The focus of the study is copyright as property, i.e. as a form of ownership that gives an author exclusive control over the use of his or her work. Parallel to the gradual build-up of the legal position of the author, the emergence of various public interest goals that offset this development and their impact on law is also monitored. The study primarily operates within the framework set out by the Nordic copyright law and scholarly doctrine. In terms of methodology, the study builds on the assumption of the legal system being a layered structure wherein the elements of general doctrine, that is, theories, concepts, and principles, reside within a level of legal culture beneath the surface level that consists of statutory law, jurisprudence, and doctrinal opinions. In the opening parts of the study, the evolution of the doctrine and amendments of statutory law are explored in parallel, while also linking both narratives to their contemporary philosophical, societal, and economic surroundings. As a result of this examination, a synthesis combining the doctrinal and legislative elements accrued until the Finnish Copyright Act of 1961 came into effect is first laid out. This general outline is followed by the introduction of four fundamental principles, each of which summarizes a set of qualities that are characteristic to copyright as property. In the next chapters, further development of Nordic and Finnish law-making and general doctrines is addressed to include the second decade of the 2000s. A strict positive law approach that underscores the supremacy of the legislator for setting the balance between author s entitlements and public interest goals has become the hallmark of Nordic copyright law. A reassessment of copyright law from a national fundamental rights perspective in the early 2000s was a distinct Finnish endeavour with no direct equivalence in other Nordic countries. In the wake of the fundamental rights reform of 1995, the constitutional protection of copyright as property has been reaffirmed, but at the same time the relevance of other fundamental rights vis-à-vis the property dimension of copyright has been both accentuated and clarified.
  • Karjalainen, Katja (Suomalainen lakimiesyhdistys, 2016)
    The importance of cross-border protection of adults has begun to emerge, as the population of European countries ages rapidly while being more mobile than ever. The study focuses on the solutions and challenges of the Hague Convention on International Protection of Adults. It compares Finnish and Spanish material and private international guardianship rules Finland is a Contracting State while Spain is not and contemplates the possibility of EU measures in the field. The study answers the following questions: How does adult protection manifest materialization of private international law? What are the main weaknesses of private international law in the area of adult protection? Are private international law rules regarding adult protection efficient in legal reality? Should states create their own private international law rules, should they ratify the Hague Convention or should the European Union take a dominant role in the area? For the purpose of answering these questions the study employs the method of private international law, legal dogmatics and functional comparative law in both horizontal and vertical dimensions. The materialization of private international law in the area of adult protection is well illustrated by the fact that the interest of an adult is a paramount principle in the Convention on Protection of Adults. This is obvious not only when the Convention is looked at as a whole but also in its individual provisions. The Adult Protection Convention is a coherent, exhaustive and well-composed Convention. Nevertheless, there are certain problems in its solutions. For instance, the relativity of the Convention´s most important connecting factor, the habitual residence, and the special questions related to it in the adult protection area, are disregarded. International cooperation between contracting states is mostly voluntary and the contracting states are not obliged to hand out a certificate of protection. The complex relationship of the EU, with competence in the area of private international law, and the Hague Conference is evident in the adult protection questions. The area of freedom, security and justice, free movement of union citizens and the fundamental rights development can be considered justifications requiring the Union to act on the matter of adult protection. The study finds that it is possible to fulfill the special goals behind EU private international law by using international instruments. On the basis of the study it can be claimed that private international law rules concerning adult protection have only limited impact in legal reality. The rareness of the cases indicates that cross-border adult protection is often handled outside the scope of private international law. This does not yet imply that private international law is altogether meaningless. It is essential to take the materialized nature of adult protection into consideration when the rules are applied. The rules do not solve all the problems related to cross-border protection, they cannot be used in categorical way and they must be flexible enough in order to protect the interests of an adult.
  • Laine, Juhani (Talentum Media Oy, 2016)
    One of the most characteristic features of the Finnish Companies Act 21.7.2006/624 (hereinafter the FCA ) is the system of so-called true non-par value shares. The Finnish true non-par value system offers companies the opportunity to allot shares completely free of charge even in a directed share issue, i.e. when the pre-emptive rights of the existing shareholders are derogated. This opportunity could be risky, especially from the viewpoint of the minority shareholders, if the required majority of shareholders could in a shareholders meeting freely adopt a resolution about that kind of share issue. In practice, this would mean that a part of the share of the assets and of the power in the company of the old shareholders could be transferred to the new shareholders. However, the use of the directed share issue without payment is restricted by certain material grounds defined in the FCA. Pursuant to chapter 9 section 4 subsection 1 of the FCA, a directed share issue without payment is allowed only if there is an especially weighty reason both for the company and in regard to the interests of all shareholders in the company. The aim of this research is to formulate a meaningful interpretation of the wording of chapter 9 section 4 subsection 1 of the FCA, which could be used as a test when it must be judged, is there an especially weighty reason for the same both for the company and in regard to the interests of all shareholders in the company . My main thesis proposes that besides the formal or judicial principle of equality between shareholders, the principle of equality in its entirety, as it is known in Finnish company law, also has an economic dimension, which can be referred to as the principle of economic equality between shareholders. As such, a directed share issue without payment always means a breach against the equality of shareholders in the formal sense. However, if the company acquires enough substantial economic benefits through that kind of share issue, the real financial position and value of shareholdings of even those shareholders, who are not entitled to the shares allotted without charge, might remain untouched or even improve. The economic equality of shareholders could then be the core of the material grounds of the directed share issue without consideration. This thesis is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 describes the objects and hypotheses of the research, its methods, the most important sources and its structure. Chapters 2 and 3 are the theoretical or general part of the research. The former contains discussion about historical and modern corporate law theories, the concept of a share in a company limited by shares and the relevance of the investment made to a company s capital against the shares. The latter deals with the principle of equality between shareholders and the different dimensions of that principle. Chapters 4 and 5 constitute the practical part of the research. The former provides detailed presentation of the directed share issue without payment as a process. The latter focuses to the interpretation of the especially weighty reason for the same both for the company and in regard to the interests of all shareholders in the company and provides examples about acceptable grounds to the directed share issue without payment. Finally, chapter 6 summarizes the theses and conclusions of the research. The main conclusions of this research are that Finnish company law contains a principle of the economic equality of shareholders as a mandatory rule, and this rule is based on the economic purpose of business companies and the material objectives of the equality principle in company law. The residual position of shareholders in a business company is still based on a contribution to the company. However, even an indirect improvement of the financial position of the company as a result of a directed share issue without payment can be considered as the equivalent of a contribution, i.e. the directed share issue without payment should not be, in effect, a share issue without payment as it would be understood in everyday language. The principle of economic equality also gives a meaningful bedrock to the interpretation of chapter 9 section 4 subsection 1 of the FCA. This principle can then be considered a distinctive feature between the material grounds of the normal directed share issue against payment and the directed share issue without payment. In the former type of directed share issue, the adequate issue price plays a central role and fulfils the objective of economic equality. In the directed share issue without payment other kinds of benefits to the company and the evaluation of economic equality against those benefits will have an independent role. A directed share issue without payment must always be in the interests of the company, the benefit it provides to the company must be substantial and of an economic nature, and it must be defendable when compared to the interests of all shareholders of the company. This latter part of the material grounds of the directed share issue without payment must be interpreted as an example of the mandatory principle of economic equality between shareholders. The essential meaning of that principle in the directed share issue without payment is that the dilution of formal shareholder rights of old shareholders must be compensated in economic sense through the enhanced financial position of the company as a whole. The evaluation of such an expected compensation must, however, be made at the time of the share issue resolution, not retrospectively.
  • Vanhanen, Tero Eljas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Extreme fiction is literature that aims to shock audiences through transgression. Shock value implies two conflicting tendencies: to disturb and repel while simultaneously sparking our fascination and drawing us closer. Extreme fiction increasingly common as censorship has waned embraces this contradiction through shocking representation of sadistic violence and sexual transgression. Extreme fiction is defined by its affective qualities: it aims to shock, disturb, and disgust and expects readers to enjoy these responses. This study analyzes the affective qualities of transgression and shock value and maps out the affective narrative strategies typical of extreme fiction. The study takes a cross-disciplinary approach to extreme fiction and emotional response to fiction, combining cognitive aesthetics, philosophy of mind, and affect theory with narratological analysis of infamous works of extreme fiction. As the phenomenon gained large audiences in the last few decades of the twentieth century, the study focuses on five particularly influential novels from that era: Cormac McCarthy s Blood Meridian (1985), Bret Easton Ellis s American Psycho (1991), Dennis Cooper s Frisk (1991), Samuel R. Delany s The Mad Man (1994), and Poppy Z. Brite s Exquisite Corpse (1996). In order to approach extreme fiction, the study develops new methodological approaches to analyze emotional response to fiction and delineates the phenomenon of extreme fiction historically and theoretically. Finally, through careful analysis of how influential works of extreme fiction induce shock value, the study formulates the shock tactics and extreme strategies that intertwine the conflicting responses of repulsion and attraction that characterize extreme fiction.