Väitöstiivistelmät

Recent Submissions

  • Hämäläinen, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease and a frequent cause of pain and disability, with the joints of the hand being the most frequently affected site. OA is a complex disorder that results from the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. It becomes more prevalent with age, and after the age of 50 a higher proportion of women are affected than men. We examined some possible genetic risk factors of hand OA with consideration of previously proposed risk mechanisms, namely: loading of cartilage structure, inflammation, and overweight. We also attempted to replicate previously found associations between hand OA and susceptibility genes, and to analyse in our material the findings of earlier publications that reported associations of gene variants with OA in joint sites other than the hand. The participants in this study were 542 dentists and teachers from the Helsinki metropolitan region. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the COL2A1 gene, which encodes for the main collagen present in normal cartilage, and was previously associated with generalised OA, was also associated with OA in the hand; among dentists the risk was doubled in carriers of this allele compared with those with the major allele. A history of repetitive hand loading tasks combined with carrying the minor allele further increased the risk. Minor alleles of the pro-inflammatory TNFα SNPs, and their haplotype, were associated with an increased risk of hand OA. Further, interactions between TNFα, IL4R, and IL10 SNPs were found, which suggest that the effect of the TNFα polymorphisms on hand OA was modified by the IL4R and IL10 gene variants. Minor alleles of the adipokine RETN SNPs, and the haplotype containing these minor alleles, decreased the risk of ROA. The association of the haplotype with the decreased risk of hand OA was stronger in overweight women. In contrast, the RARRES2 SNP minor allele and LEPR haplotype increased the risk of hand OA. The LEP haplotype, however, was associated with a lower risk of ROA only among overweight women. These findings suggests that BMI is an effect modifier of these associations. A replication study found that the A2BP1 SNP minor allele decreased the risk of ROA, which confirms the original finding. The minor allele of the spinal OA candidate gene TGFB1 almost doubled the risk of symptomatic DIP OA. Teachers with the minor allele of ESR1 rs9340799 SNP had an almost tripled risk of symptomatic DIP OA. Furthermore, we observed interactions between SNPs and occupation in their relation to hand OA. In conclusion, 43 SNPs from 27 candidate genes were analyzed in this study and SNPs in eight of them (COL2A1, TNFα, LEP, LEPR, RARRES2, RETN, A2BP1, and TGFB1) were found to be associated with susceptibility to hand OA. Interactions between the genotypes, occupational loading and BMI were also observed.
  • Mätlik, Kert (Helsingin Yliopisto, 2017)
    Acute ischemic stroke is among the leading causes of long-term disability in developed countries. Among the contributing factors are our inability to limit brain damage in the acute-phase of stroke and the infrequency of complete spontaneous functional recovery. Effective pharmacological therapies that would protect neurons from ischemia-induced death are not available. Moreover, as of now, there are no proven pharmacological treatments to enhance the limited neurological recovery process in stroke patients. Neurotrophic factors MANF (mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor) and CDNF (cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor) are currently among the most promising molecules for the treatment for Parkinson s disease (PD). Namely, both have shown great therapeutic potential in rodent models that mimic the most conspicuous and debilitating symptoms of PD, caused by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). However, in these preclinical studies the fate of CDNF and MANF after their therapeutic intracerebral administration has been poorly characterized. While MANF has been shown to protect cortical neurons from death in a rat model of ischemic brain injury, it is unknown whether CDNF has a similar effect. Moreover, the neurorestorative effects CDNF and MANF have been shown to have in animal models of PD raise the question of whether these factors could act similarly after cerebral ischemic damage and enhance functional recovery. In order to have a better understanding of what happens to recombinant human CDNF (rhCDNF) in brain tissue, we studied its distribution, intracellular localization and clearance after infusion into rat brain. We present the pharmacokinetic properties of striatally infused rhCDNF and describe the main intracellular localization patterns after its neuronal uptake. We also present data that after intrastriatal infusion, the rhCDNF found in the SN is almost exclusively localized to the DA neurons, thus showing that it is retrogradely transported. To shed light on the possible neuroprotective potential of CDNF for ischemic stroke, we studied the effect of CDNF in the rat model of ischemic brain injury achieved by temporary unilateral occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. We show that CDNF is protective against cortical ischemic injury when administered as a recombinant protein, but unlike MANF, not when delivered via a CDNF-expressing adeno-associated virus vector (AAV-CDNF). Our findings thus unmask an important difference in MANF and CDNF s capacity for therapeutic action. Using the same rat model of ischemic stroke, we studied the effect of delayed AAV-MANF administration on post-stroke behavioural recovery, taking advantage of the delivery method we have developed in order to target the expression of AAV vector-delivered genes to the peri-infarct area. We report that AAV-MANF, delivered to the peri-infarct area two days after transient ischemia, accelerates the reversal of ischemia-induced behavioral deficits without affecting lesion size. While histological analyses of brain tissue could not point out which cellular process mediates MANF s effect, an unbiased transcriptomics approach implies modulation of the activity of innate immune cells as a possible mechanism. In summary, MANF should be considered as a possible therapeutic agent or a drug target for promoting functional recovery after stroke. In addition, we show that in cultured peripheral neurons MANF needs to be in the endoplasmic reticulum in order to exert its intracellular survival-promoting activity. We also present data on the importance of two sequence motifs of MANF for its intracellular survival-promoting activity and the neuroprotective efficacy that extracellularly applied recombinant human MANF has in the rat model of cortical ischemic injury. In summary, this work has extended the knowledge on MANF and CDNF s capacity for therapeutic action, and the pharmacokinetic and structural properties important for their therapeutic use in further studies.
  • Ciragan, Annika (2017)
    At the present time resistance to every main class of antibiotic has been observed. Therefore, the continuous development of new-generation antibiotics is crucial to combat the rise of antibiotic resistant strains. Identification of potential antibiotic targets and investigation of their structure and function represent a rational approach to developing a better understanding of the essential processes in which they are involved, and may lead to finding a mechanism to inhibit these processes. The first part of this thesis covers structural characterization and functional studies of the potential antibiotic targets TonB protein and the cell shape determining protein MreC. TonB is needed for TonB-dependent uptake of scarce nutrients, such as iron and vitamin B 12. The cell shape determining protein MreC is involved in cell wall synthesis, which is the target of penicillin and its derivatives. In this study, the three dimensional structures of the C-terminal domain of Helicobacter pylori TonB of different lengths and the C-terminal domain of Bacillus subtilis MreC were determined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Additionally, interaction studies of MreC with penicillin-binding proteins were done using NMR spectroscopy and a bacterial two-hybrid system. NMR spectroscopy is a versatile tool to investigate protein structure, dynamics and interactions. One of the advantages of NMR is that proteins can be studied in solution under nearly physiological conditions. However, with increasing molecular size (> 25 – 30 kDa), structural investigation by NMR becomes more complex and often requires specific labelling techniques and alternative methodologies for NMR measurements. Segmental isotopic labelling, where only a part of the protein is stable isotopic labelled, is an attractive method to overcome the challenges of studying large proteins by NMR. Segmental isotopic labelling allows, e.g. investigation of individual protein domains in a full-length context. Furthermore, NMR is a powerful tool to study the integrity of a protein. Certain requirements, however, have to be fulfilled: the protein has to be soluble at high concentrations and stable over the whole measurement time. Therefore it is important to optimize protein production in order to obtain soluble, properly folded proteins at high concentrations. In the second part of this study, TonB has been used as a model protein to show traceless intein-mediated segmental isotopic labelling by salt induced protein trans splicing using a halophilic intein. This approach facilitates structural investigations of TonB by NMR. TonB consists of a well-structured C-terminal domain and a flexible proline-rich region, which would severely interfere with spectral quality in a uniformly labelled sample. Furthermore TonB was used as a model protein to show the benefit in protein expression of using tandem SUMO fusion vectors as tools for the expression of more soluble proteins, which tend to be expressed in an insoluble form. Both of these applications are beneficial for structural investigation of proteins by NMR and can be applied to other proteins.
  • Ahonen, Paavo (Suomen kirkkohistoriallinen seura, 2017)
    This study examines the attitudes toward the Jews among the leaders and the most important clerics of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. The study focuses especially on anti-Semitic views. The research falls within the scope of general church history, and it is made from the perspective of the history of ideas. Research sources include Evangelical Lutheran newspapers, theological and religious literature and ephemera, church records, as well as bishops' and major religious organizations' archives. The study shows that there were quite sharp anti-Semitic views in the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland and that almost all of the key actors of the Church approved the moderate anti-Semitic perceptions of the era according to which the influence of Jews was growing. Until now, anti-Semitism in the Church of Finland has mainly been studied in other fields of historical research, but the ecclesiastical anti-Semitic atmosphere, in the early 1920s in particular, has not been properly analyzed. Anti-Semitism was present in all key benchmark church groups, and five out the six Finnish-speaking bishops, that is Gustaf Johansson, I. O. Colliander, J. R. Koskimies, Erkki Kaila and Lauri Ingman, presented anti-Semitic ideas, but Ingman only before becoming Archbishop. Jaakko Gummerus was an exception, but he did not defend Jews either, when a strong anti-Semitic campaign broke out in his diocese at the turn of the 1930s, but rather referred to it as a side effect of anti-Communist activity. The anti-Semitism in the Finnish Church had a religious background and was justified as a part of the Christian interpretation of history, in which the Jews were subject to the curse. Anti-Semitism was, therefore, a part of an overall vision of the religious interpretation of the world. Only in a few cases the anti-Semitism was purely political or national. The Finnish Church lacked three internationally significant features of the phenomenon. Even though Jews were considered a race, this was not a clear concept. The churchmen did not underline interracial hierarchy, and Jews were never presented as a lower race. Secondly, none of the ecclesiastical key figures planned or encouraged anyone to take anti-Semitic action. The plan of new civil rights for Jews met with calls for limitations during the process, and after the passing of the law some priests considered granting the civil rights to be a mistake. Nevertheless, none of the prominent clerics proposed canceling them or imposing other restrictions on the lives of Finnish Jews. Thirdly, hatred for Jews was not preached in the Church. The anti-Semitism in the church was not an isolated phenomenon separate from ecclesiastical, political and international life. It was always tied to world events, movements of the anti-Semitic ideology, as well as internal discussions and dynamics of the Church. New openings for conversation, of course, occurred, but when examined carefully, none of the anti-Semitic outbursts were separate from the internal discussions of the church or general developments of the phenomenon. None of the leading clerics considered themselves anti-Semites, because anti-Semitism as a concept was understood in a narrow way either as hatred of Jews or as a political movement aimed at limiting their rights. On the other hand, although enmities were clearly dissociated from, none of the central ecclesiastical opinion leaders publicly questioned the prevailing notion of the negativity of Jewish aspects and practice. This study demonstrates, how flexibly, in a suitable atmosphere, the key ideas of modern anti-Semitism were connected to the Christian conception of history and the image of Jews. This study also shows, that anti-Semitism was much more common phenomenon throughout the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland and it even extended to the leadership of the Church.
  • Hilander, Taru (Hansaprint, 2017)
    Proteins, consisting of amino acids, work as building blocks in the cells. In addition, they carry out vast amounts of cellular functions. Accurate protein synthesis is thus crucial for the normal function of cells. The first step of protein synthesis is the charging of transfer-RNAs (tRNAs) with their cognate amino acids. Evolutionarily conserved and extremely old proteins, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), carry out this step and each amino acid-tRNA pair has its own synthetase for the task. However, in some cases the amino acids are so similar in size and structure that they cannot be separated well enough by the aaRSs. To avoid mischarging and the subsequent protein misfolding, some of the synthetases have an editing domain, which recognizes and hydrolyses incorrect amino acid-tRNA pairs. In addition, cells have other important quality control mechanisms to ensure protein homeostasis, the capacity of cells to maintain internal stability of the proteome. Patient mutations in genes connected to protein synthesis and quality control are found to cause different diseases, the mechanisms of which are not yet, however, well known. Research on these topics is thus important. The aim of this thesis was to study the molecular mechanisms of different tRNA-charging defects and protein quality control mechanisms in both protein-translating compartments of a eukaryotic cell, cytosol and mitochondria. The first part of the thesis describes the molecular mechanism and the clinical phenotype of a special cytosolic tRNA charging defect caused by mutations in SEPSECS gene. The corresponding protein is involved in charging of the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine, to its tRNA. We identified mutations in this gene and showed them to lead to a decreased amount of selenocysteine-containing proteins, selenoproteins, in the brain of a patient with a severe early onset encephalopathy. Our study also indicated increased protein oxidation in the patient brain. This study extends the clinical phenotypes connected to SEPSECS mutations, and indicates that selenoprotein synthesis defect can resemble mitochondrial disease with lactate elevation. In the second part of this thesis, the potential of an amino acid analogue of arginine, canavanine, to induce protein misfolding in mitochondria was studied. The results demonstrated that mitochondrial protein translation machinery does not distinguish canavanine from arginine. The amino acid analog was incorporated into mitochondrially encoded proteins causing protein instability and formation of aberrant polypeptides. Surprisingly, however, canavanine did not induce mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt), a previously described signalling pathway induced by accumulation of misfolded proteins inside mitochondria. The study showed that none of the protein quality control mechanisms were able to solve protein misfolding caused by canavanine, which led to a severe respiratory chain defect. Canavanine has been used previously in a large number of studies to induce cytosolic protein misfolding, but the impact of canavanine for mitochondrial function has been largely ignored. Canavanine can be used in future as a tool to study further the consequences of protein misfolding in mitochondria, and for studying how mitochondria solve stalled ribosomes, which was also detected to be a consequence of canavanine in our study. The goal of the third part of the thesis was to study UPRmt in an animal model. The purpose was to generate a mouse model that has a mutation in the editing domain of mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetase, leading to amino acid mischarging and formation of unfolded proteins inside mitochondria in vivo. The result of the study indicated for the first time the importance of amino acid editing by a tRNA synthetase as an essential quality control mechanism in mammalian mitochondria. The work presented in this thesis provides new information concerning the mechanisms of different tRNA charging defects and their consequences for the cell and organism. Special emphasis was on mitochondrial function.
  • McKeough, Andreas (Työväen historian ja perinteen tutkimuksen seura, 2017)
    A War Reprocessed Through Writing. A Study on the Narrative Processing of Experience in First-person Narratives on the Finnish Civil War In my doctoral dissertation I have studied archived writings – memoirs, diaries and an autobiography – depicting the Finnish Civil War fought in the winter and spring of 1918. The war, fought between the socialistic “Reds”, mostly of working-class background, and the politically bourgeoisie “Whites“, led to over 36,000 casualties and is still regarded as one of the most traumatic periods in the history of the nation. The Whites won the war and gained control of its official historical presentation and commemoration. My research focuses on first-person narration of the war in texts written between 1918 and 1937, in a time period from the Civil War to the years just before the Second World War. The data of the study consists of texts by 6 “White” and 6 “Red” narrators. I have analyzed each text thoroughly and then utilized a comparative view-point. My main analytical focus is threefold. Firstly I have looked at the ideosyncrasies of each text: their themes, style and intentions of narration, and key experiences. Then I have analyzed the “socio-cultural structuring” of the texts; the ways and means in which the narrators refer to social and cultural, often ideological knowledge and depict it in their texts when describing and interpreting their personal experiences, as well as the Civil War in general. Thirdly I have compared the texts to gain insight into the narrative processing of personal, hard-to-grasp, even traumatic experiences of the war, and the structuring of narrated experience. To do so, I have categorized the texts according to the narrative strategies the narrators employ, examined the qualities of narrated experience, analyzed the effect of the distance to the narrated events, and looked at the social and cultural contexts of narration. Finally, on the basis of my three-fold analysis, I have elicited the narratorsʼ modes of perceiving the Civil War and the ideological knowledge affecting these personal, yet culture-linked perceptions. I established that both the narrative processing of experience and the ideological comprehension which the narrators convey with their texts are determined mainly by two factors: the key experiences of the war and the cultural background of the narrators. Furthermore, the intentions of narration are closely linked to the genre of writing, collective historical interpretations of the war, and the social and political contexts of narration. The victorious Whites wrote prolifically of the war shortly after it, to shape and fortify their ideological interpretations and unity. This became the culturally hegemonic “master narrative“ of the Civil War. The Reds, who lost the war and had to pay dearly for their loss, write both to process their traumatic experiences and to contest this aforementioned master narrative.
  • Selin, Sinikka (Nuorisotutkimusverkosto/Nuorisotutkimusseura, 2017)
    Young people s educational decisions and entrance into the labour market are constantly topical issues, perhaps partly because one can only guess what the future labour market will be like. Educational and occupational decisions have wide and far-reaching consequences in an individual s life. These decisions are influenced by the social structure, but at the same time they shape social development. The study at hand deals with Finnish young people s educational and occupational aspirations in the rapidly changing society of the 1950s and 1960s. The study analyses and demonstrates how gender, family background and educational history influenced what the young people perceived as possible, desirable and/or likely to happen in their lives. The sample group for the study consisted of 15 17-year-olds who were finishing mandatory schooling in the capital of Finland, Helsinki. The main source material comprised vocational guidance counselling forms that the young people had completed. Documents for 1,350 young people were sampled from three periods (1950, 1960 and 1968 1971). The data were analysed with descriptive statistics to form a general view of the phenomenon. To explain the observations more deeply, smaller groups and individuals were analysed. In Helsinki, the diverse economic structure and ample schooling options at the time offered many alternatives. The young people s opportunities and willingness to seize upon them were, however, constrained by many factors. The selective school system divided the pupils into two cohorts when the children were 10 years old. The family s social class was strongly related to this division. The mostly middle-class young people in theoretically oriented secondary schools had wider education and employment options to choose from than the young people in more practically oriented elementary schools. The family s economic, cultural and social capital outlined and channelled the young people s perceptions of education and working life as well as their attitudes towards the different options available to them. Further, their plans strictly adhered to a gendered division of trades. The environment in which the young people were considering their future was being revolutionised by many changes: the transformation of economic and occupational structures, rapidly developing technology, a rising standard of living, an increasing emphasis on occupational skills, improvements in social security, and married women becoming more and more frequently employed. The significance and demand for formal education increased substantially in the 1950s and 1960s, and both secondary school and occupational education became more popular. Work was central to young people s aspirations in the early 1950s, but during the next two decades it gave way to education. Vocational guidance counselling went through a change as well, and here the young people s own opinions gained more importance. As part of the slowly emerging individualisation, young people functioned more as independent actors instead of being entirely dependent on the family. The rapid and forceful societal change expanded the scope of the young people s educational and occupational aspirations both qualitatively and quantitatively. At the same time, it increased young people s uncertainty regarding the future. Keywords: vocational guidance counselling, young people, education, choice of a career, aspiration, Helsinki, 1950s, 1960s, societal change, selective school system, social class, gender
  • Myllymaa, Antti (2017)
    This dissertation addresses the tripartite question concerning the relationship between a globalizing capitalist market economy, a territorial states system and a supranational European Union. Specifically, this study explains how different societal actors approach the question of the vertical division of competences between the supranational EU institutions and the Member States while juxtaposing this in the pursuit of desired models of socio-economic regulation. Whereas previous studies have paid attention to issues concerning the form of integration, this study seeks to contribute to more nuanced discussions concerning federalism by focusing on issues of content. It also challenges the view that economic globalization is an exogenous development arguing that what is understood as economic globalization can in fact be traced back to specific national policies that are enacted in order to facilitate the state s international competitiveness, thus making economic globalization an endogenous process. The empirical part of this dissertation addresses the emergence of a cross-border online gambling market in Europe. Although such a de facto market exists, its existence has not been recognized de jure by the European Union. This untenable situation results from EU Member States having diametrically opposing views concerning the legality of this market. In order to explain this development, this study takes a step back and asks how the cross-border online gambling market emerged in Europe. This study employs the process-tracing method in order to identify critical turning points that were necessary for the emergence of this market. It is argued that it was the neoliberal export-oriented competitiveness policies of the Malta and Gibraltar tax havens, enacted following the suggestions of the cross-border online gambling industry, which was a necessary condition for the emergence of the de facto market. The cross-border online gambling operators incorporation in Malta and Gibraltar guaranteed these operators access to the Single Market as they were protected by the fundamental freedoms enshrined in the EU Treaties. The successful business operations subsequently enabled interest representation for these operators and the ability to challenge the protectionist gambling regimes of Member States by making complaints to the EU Commission. As the Guardian of the Treaty, the EU Commission launched infringement proceedings against over a dozen Member States. Partially as a result of these infringement proceedings many Member States have opted for what is called controlled liberalization , thus allowing gambling to be organized for private profit. This nudges the socio-economic regulation of gambling towards neoliberalism. Several contrarian EU Member States, including Finland, are still strongly protectionist thus displaying their commitment to social democratic socio-economic regulation and have decided to fight the liberalization trend that has become prevalent in the field of gambling services. They have resisted the EU Commission s attempts to bring gambling into the Single Market program de jure. Gambling has been omitted from the EU s binding secondary legislation because of the resistance displayed by these protectionist Member States. This resistance has included bringing gambling issues to the EU Council, the EU s multilateral forum, so as to produce non-liberalizing EU level initiatives and regulation of gambling services. It is telling that those Member States, primarily Malta and the UK, who have championed the Single Market perspective for gambling, have fought against such developments. This study confirms the support of neoliberal societal actors for so-called negative EU integration, i.e., the dismantling of national barriers. The novelty of this study is to contribute to recent theoretical discussions by confirming, as these recent discussions have suggested, that following the transnationalization of business activities, social democratic societal actors would not only resist negative integration, but also work towards social democratic multilateralism, i.e., a specific form of so-called positive integration. This has been true in gambling services as was described above. However, this study also confirms the EU s bias towards negative integration, finding that the individual Member States policy space in regulating gambling services is being diminished due to the EU s fundamental freedoms and the EU Court s judge-made law. The protectionist Member States have had to resort to organized hypocrisy in order to protect the de facto socialized or nationalized means of production of gambling services in order to thwart the liberalization trend. Although the reasons for protection are in reality mostly financial, the EU Court and the EU Commission only accepts non-financial overriding public interest reasons for protection. As the stated reasons for protection of protectionist Member States are in fact hypocritical, this study finds that, although there are several potential futures, the most likely future scenario will be the slow neoliberalization of gambling services in the European Union with the sector s de jure inclusion in the Single Market program as the end result.
  • Kemppi, Hanna (Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistys, 2017)
    This dissertation examines the complex and sensitive issue of shaping a Finnish style for Orthodox church architecture in Finland in the interwar period 1918 1939. It is argued in the dissertation that the phenomenon of effacing the Russianness of Orthodox church architecture of Finland proceeded in two stages and, in its entirety, was more complex than previously assumed. Firstly, the dissertation explores the growing anti-Russian atmosphere during and shortly after the Civil War of 1918 and measures taken against unwanted Orthodox cultural heritage in Finland. In particular, the garrison churches of the Russian Imperial Army were explicated as disfiguring objects representing foreign influence in Finnish national culture that had to be cleaned away by eliminating them from the landscape. Secondly, the plans and realisation of creating a Karelian-Finnish style for Orthodox church architecture in the 1920s and 1930s are investigated, revealing designs commissioned from architect Veikko Kyander by the Orthodox Church of Finland. The research reconstructs the Orthodox church architecture of the period with the mapping of 21 churches and chapels built in Finland in the interwar years. The core actors in demarcating the Finnish style included not only church authorities but also antiquarian and state authorities. The analysis of the plans and realisation of the churches and chapels shows the significance of negative choice and the great impact of the building authorities in creating suitable de-Russified designs. It appears that the Finnish style was based on the eclecticism of contemporary Finnish architecture. The analysis of the new ascetic chapel interiors of the Border Karelia region reveals in concrete terms the poor financial situation of the congregations, but it also seems to imply a new uncluttered way of organising the interior. On the other hand, the interiors were based on ecclesiastical artefacts of Russian origin. There was thus a significant dichotomy between the foreign interior and the Finnish national exterior. It seems that also the first example of a new vernacular Karelian-style wooden chapel (1937) was planned by the state building authorities, despite the fact that it was based on a direct traditional vernacular Karelian model. Moreover, it seems that the discourse on the Byzantine roots of the Orthodox heritage in Finland already emerged in the 1930s although it has been prominent after the Second World War. In addition, it is pointed out in the dissertation that despite the dominance of the Finnish discourse it seems that in isolated cases the Orthodox church architecture of the 1930s reflected the influence of Russia Abroad.
  • Haara, Heikki (2017)
    Samuel Pufendorf's (1632 1694) theory of sociability has lately become the subject of renewed interest among intellectual historians and philosophers. Nevertheless, its moral psychological underpinnings have not been explored thoroughly in their own right. The present work is the first study devoted to the role of passions and inclinations in Pufendorf's moral and political philosophy. It examines Pufendorf's scattered remarks and observations on human psychology and evaluates the moral psychological assumptions underlying his theory of human sociability. Pufendorf's acknowledgement of the limits of individual rationality and the fact that people are always deeply embedded in the social and moral practices of particular societies reduces the role of internal moral obligations in his account of moral action. The application of agent-focused morality is relatively limited because Pufendorf believes that, in a large-scale society, most individuals govern their moral behaviour primarily through habitually-acquired dispositions rather than conscientious internal motivations. The central argument of this study is that Pufendorf's natural law theory includes a mechanism by which social interaction, guided by political governance, habituates people to internalize moral norms and govern their passions and actions so as to maintain and cultivate sociability. Pufendorf's theory of sociability intriguingly combines two conficting approaches to morality. On the one hand, he is a natural law theorist who bases the obligation to cultivate sociability on the commands of God, which are recognised by reason. On the other hand, sociability is not merely a normative rule discovered by reason. It is trough the set of social practises that humans in practise adopt sociability as their moral standard. Though Pufendorf's main aim is to demonstrate what the divinely imposed universal natural law norms are, his numerous perceptive remarks and observations on moral conduct as an internalized product of society points towards to the moral-psychological emphasis on habits and passions as a mechanism of sociability that became so important for numerous eighteenth-century authors.
  • Finell, Lisbe (2017)
    The overall aim of the Ph.D. research is to assess the risks of lifting the sector-specific competition provisions in European Union telecommunications from compliance theory perspective. The dissertation examines principally in which manner the competition law pillar at the European Union level, driven by the European Commission s policy, shape compliance with Article 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) on abuse of a dominant position. The multiple factors affecting corporate misconduct are examined in the light of mainly seminal general Anglo-Saxon corporate compliance theories and empirical studies, which are completed with competition law specific respective material. Regarding specific analysis of the legitimacy of a certain Article 102 prohibition, a supplementary external benchmark is chosen from the European Convention on Human Rights provisions. The research data and analysis may be characterised as being legal, economic, and sociological. The research results show first of all that the recognisable industry related incentives and opportunities to breach Article 102 are generally high in European Union telecommunications. As to the regulatory response, the study emphasises that the content of regulatory objectives and the manner of their communication play an important part in grounding the various compliance motives of the target group members characterised as normative, economic, and social. Nevertheless, neither the content nor the prioritisation of Article 102 objectives, being able to lead to contradictory results, is clearly communicated overall within the European Union institutions. With respect to substantive legal norms, the clarity and administrability of a prohibition, both relating to ability to comply and awareness of risks of non-compliance, are further important for all three motivational categories. The level of precision of Article 102 prohibitions concerning exclusionary conducts has undoubtedly arisen by the issuance of the Commission Article 102 Guidance Paper. The current assessment criteria of Article 102 Guidance Paper seem, however, to raise still a concern about their level of clarity and easiness to apply even for exclusionary abuses. Regarding legitimacy aspects of the Article 102 regulatory regime, the study has focused on assessing the vast mandated access criteria set for former public utilities by the Article 102 Guidance Paper. The results show that these mandated access criteria do not have a full, unequivocal back-up from European Union Courts case-law. They, nonetheless, may be seen on a principle and general level to satisfy the minimum requirements contained in Article 1 of Protocol No. 1 of European Convention of Human Rights for property right interferences. The nature and level of expected sanctions as well as the enforcement pressure are traditional means to affect compliance. The overall research results show, nonetheless, that the Commission s expected sanctioning and enforcement policy do not, as such, give predominantly strong incentives to invest in compliance with the Article 102 regime. As a consequence, the risks of lifting the sector-specific competition provisions in European Union telecommunications from our research perspective are considered generally high in the short or medium term.
  • Tarkka-Robinson, Laura (2017)
    Abstract This thesis examines the construction of national characters during the Enlightenment period. The aim of the thesis is to show how eighteenth-century writers employed the notion of nations as characters in intercultural exchanges, for the benefit of their own particular nation and of themselves. Focusing on the transnational career of the Hanoverian scholar Rudolf Erich Raspe (1736-1794), the author argues that while late eighteenth-century Enlightenment culture promoted material progress and emphasised the importance of disseminating knowledge, it also nurtured national particularism, because progress was often represented with the help of national characters. Following Raspe s career through the period from the Seven Years War to the French Revolution and from the German Electorate of Hanover to the extremities of the United Kingdom, the study examines nationally-oriented argumentation in both learned discourses and the world of improvement and industry. It combines a biographical focus with methods from contextual intellectual history and textual analysis to demonstrate that the language of nations could serve the specific purposes of individual writers, but, as a complex web of historically intertwined references, it could not be kept entirely in control. On the whole, the study considers the eighteenth-century construction of national characters as cultural transfer, because this practice always defined cultures interactively and relative to each other. The various debates surrounding Raspe s career reveal how it was possible for him to use the language of nations to his advantage, and how he also faced difficulties due to stereotypes inherent to such language. Drawing on both private correspondence and printed material relating to the transnational context of the Anglo-Hanoverian personal union, the dissertation not only recognises the significance of the national rhetoric in eighteenth-century writing, but also seeks to illuminate the specific circumstances in which it was used.
  • Katto, Jonna (2017)
    This study is about the shifting landscape perceptions and senses of socio-spatial belonging in the life narratives of female ex-combatants in the northwestern province of Niassa. Between 1964 and 1974 thousands of young people in the rural areas of northern Mozambique were mobilized by the guerrilla army FRELIMO to fight against Portuguese colonial rule. Hundreds of girls and young women also became engaged as guerrilla fighters in FRELIMO s political-military campaign for national independence. My study explores the relationship between FRELIMO nationalism and the female bodies that it sought to represent and mobilize. It is based on twelve months of multi-sited fieldwork among Ciyaawo-speaking communities in northern Niassa between 2012 and 2014. My main research material consists of life history interviews with thirty-four female ex-combatants. Bringing feminist scholarship on nationalism and spatial theorizing in conversation, this study problematizes the concept of space often reproduced in feminist scholarship on nationalism. I argue that this notion of space builds on an understanding of a dichotomous relationship between space/time and male/female. Moreover, space conceptualized as feminine is defined as stasis and in binary opposition to masculine time and history. While these notions often implicitly shape the histories of gendered nationalism that we write, they seldom receive explicit analytical attention. This is the analytical task to which my research has sought to contribute. In my analysis of the female ex-combatants sense of socio-spatial belonging, I have worked on a concept of lived landscape . It draws from Doreen Massey s theorization of space-time, the notion of the lived gendered body in feminist phenomenology, and Henri Lefebvre s spatial triad. I suggest that as a concept, lived landscape allows us to look beyond teleological narratives of liberation (/ oppression ), and explore the women s life trajectories as non-linear spatial histories. Lived landscape , moreover, allows us to interrogate the in-between , that is, the ways that discourse and materiality intersect, the personal and national intertwine, and body and landscape shape each other. It is in this in-betweenness that I also locate and conceptualize belonging. Belonging is not a subjective experience but is shaped and negotiated in a multiscalar, reciprocal relationship between body and world. As my analysis shows, aesthetic sensibility (which following Arnold Berleant denotes sensory engagement) is deeply intertwined with the ex-combatants experiences of socio-spatial attachment/detachment. It influences the way belonging is negotiated at different scales (e.g. nation, province, village, family, and globe). In the female ex-combatants narratives, the national often intertwines with the personal in a violent relationship, evoking what I call the haptics of the bush. Still, the Mozambique that emerges from the ex-combatants narratives is not a homogenous, unified landscape; it is perceived as consisting of multiple and unequal landscapes that are valued according to different scales of beauty. Apart from enriching our understanding of the gendered history of the liberation struggle in Mozambique and informing discussions in feminist theory on gender and nationalism, this interdisciplinary research contributes to the study of the body and sensory experiences in war memories/histories and the political field, moreover, to the study of African landscape histories.
  • Säämänen, Juuso (Maanpuolustuskorkeakoulu, 2017)
    From the Threat of a Large-scale Landing to Repelling a Strategic Strike The Development of Finland s Naval Defence from the Continuation War to the 1960 s This research explains how Finland s ability to repel landing operations developed from the end of the Continuation War to 1966 when the Defence Forces adopted the territorial defence doctrine. The development of this ability is examined on the basis of war experiences, threat estimates, operational plans, procurement plans and the changes that took place in Finnish naval and coastal warfare tactics. The research method is the traditional method in history research: the research problem has been solved qualitatively by analyzing and comparing the chosen sources. The sources are mostly primary sources, the most important being the Defence Forces Archives stored in the National Archives and articles in military publications. The development of the Finnish Navy s ability to repel landing operations happened in three stages during 1944 - 1966. The end of the 1940 s was a time of uncertainty and unestablished planning principles. The early 1950 s was a period of adjustment. Long-term development began in the mid 1950 s. The work was done by General Staff Officers or naval and coastal artillery officers who had worked in command positions. They wrote memorandums, articles and research which later developed into development programs, field manuals and operational plans. The principles of how to develop the ability to repel landing operations began to take form at the beginning of the 1950 s as the decision to adopt a new peacetime organization had been made. The decision to merge the coastal forces with the Army temporarily interrupted the development of coastal warfare tactics and organizations. Also, a strong naval defence was no longer considered necessary since an attack by western countries - the prevailing threat scenario since the end of the 1940 s - had become a theoretical possibility by the beginning of the 1950 s. Long-term work to develop the ability to repel landing operations began in the middle of the 1950 s. It was mostly based on up-to-date operational plans as well as the development of operational art and tactics. Materiel procurement was considered secondary since it did not enable defensive warfare against a numerically superior enemy. In addition, the quite modest procurement budget of the Defence Forces forced to focus the effort on operational art. Despite the poor starting point, by the mid 1960 s the Defence Forces was able to conduct coordinated repelling operations. All the services were capable of joint action both in the planning and practical phase of operations.
  • Viljanen, Elina (Acta Semiotica Fennica, 2017)
    The critic, composer, and musicologist Boris Asafiev (1884 - 1949) played a central role in the development of Soviet conceptions of music. Next to his critical analyses on Russian nineteenth century musical tradition, Asafiev became the literary voice of his generation of musicians, such as Prokofiev and Stravinsky. Elected to the Soviet Academy of Sciences in 1943 in and as the head of the Soviet Composers Union in 1947, Asafiev s literary works of the 1940s came to be considered influential Stalin era classics. However, these writings built upon his modernist theory of music, which he developed over the course of the 1920s. Asafiev s theoretical output has still an influential position in the contemporary Russian musical thought. This is the first English language analytical monograph to examine Asafiev s literary output (1916 - 1930) and the development of his theory of Intonation (1947). His works are explored against the backdrop of Russian cultural history, and within the European intellectual historical context. The author demonstrates how Asafiev became an established Soviet cultural theoretician of music, a celebrated but also a persecuted Soviet musicologist. More broadly, the book The Problem of the Modern and Tradition explores how the Russian Silver Age philosophical interpretation of music was transferred to the Soviet era and what kind of new ideas and practices were generated through this process. The thesis characterizes the methodology of early Soviet cultural nationalism from an individualized perspective of the Russian cultural revolution and revolutionary culture of the 1920s. The author addresses the previously contested question of Asafiev s relationship with Soviet politics by tracing a many-sided cultural process in his output, something that can be branded in retrospect as a Sovietization process of Silver Age aesthetics. She argues that in Asafiev s writings this process appears not as a mere political process but a complex interplay of aesthetics, politics, scientific postulates, and cultural mission. Participating in the early Soviet modernization project of Russian culture, Asafiev modernizes the Russian music tradition by bringing it under the critical lens of modern European scientific theories. Meanwhile his theoretical development appears also as a linguistic process. He rewrites his ideas in different forms in order to present them in varying contexts. This was done not only to mask his philosophical views before the political authorities, but it was also part of his theoretical search for founding a new cultural theory of music that would answer the most urgent social challenges of the new Soviet society.