Väitöstiivistelmät

Recent Submissions

  • Laine, Juhani (Talentum Media Oy, 2016)
    One of the most characteristic features of the Finnish Companies Act 21.7.2006/624 (hereinafter the FCA ) is the system of so-called true non-par value shares. The Finnish true non-par value system offers companies the opportunity to allot shares completely free of charge even in a directed share issue, i.e. when the pre-emptive rights of the existing shareholders are derogated. This opportunity could be risky, especially from the viewpoint of the minority shareholders, if the required majority of shareholders could in a shareholders meeting freely adopt a resolution about that kind of share issue. In practice, this would mean that a part of the share of the assets and of the power in the company of the old shareholders could be transferred to the new shareholders. However, the use of the directed share issue without payment is restricted by certain material grounds defined in the FCA. Pursuant to chapter 9 section 4 subsection 1 of the FCA, a directed share issue without payment is allowed only if there is an especially weighty reason both for the company and in regard to the interests of all shareholders in the company. The aim of this research is to formulate a meaningful interpretation of the wording of chapter 9 section 4 subsection 1 of the FCA, which could be used as a test when it must be judged, is there an especially weighty reason for the same both for the company and in regard to the interests of all shareholders in the company . My main thesis proposes that besides the formal or judicial principle of equality between shareholders, the principle of equality in its entirety, as it is known in Finnish company law, also has an economic dimension, which can be referred to as the principle of economic equality between shareholders. As such, a directed share issue without payment always means a breach against the equality of shareholders in the formal sense. However, if the company acquires enough substantial economic benefits through that kind of share issue, the real financial position and value of shareholdings of even those shareholders, who are not entitled to the shares allotted without charge, might remain untouched or even improve. The economic equality of shareholders could then be the core of the material grounds of the directed share issue without consideration. This thesis is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 describes the objects and hypotheses of the research, its methods, the most important sources and its structure. Chapters 2 and 3 are the theoretical or general part of the research. The former contains discussion about historical and modern corporate law theories, the concept of a share in a company limited by shares and the relevance of the investment made to a company s capital against the shares. The latter deals with the principle of equality between shareholders and the different dimensions of that principle. Chapters 4 and 5 constitute the practical part of the research. The former provides detailed presentation of the directed share issue without payment as a process. The latter focuses to the interpretation of the especially weighty reason for the same both for the company and in regard to the interests of all shareholders in the company and provides examples about acceptable grounds to the directed share issue without payment. Finally, chapter 6 summarizes the theses and conclusions of the research. The main conclusions of this research are that Finnish company law contains a principle of the economic equality of shareholders as a mandatory rule, and this rule is based on the economic purpose of business companies and the material objectives of the equality principle in company law. The residual position of shareholders in a business company is still based on a contribution to the company. However, even an indirect improvement of the financial position of the company as a result of a directed share issue without payment can be considered as the equivalent of a contribution, i.e. the directed share issue without payment should not be, in effect, a share issue without payment as it would be understood in everyday language. The principle of economic equality also gives a meaningful bedrock to the interpretation of chapter 9 section 4 subsection 1 of the FCA. This principle can then be considered a distinctive feature between the material grounds of the normal directed share issue against payment and the directed share issue without payment. In the former type of directed share issue, the adequate issue price plays a central role and fulfils the objective of economic equality. In the directed share issue without payment other kinds of benefits to the company and the evaluation of economic equality against those benefits will have an independent role. A directed share issue without payment must always be in the interests of the company, the benefit it provides to the company must be substantial and of an economic nature, and it must be defendable when compared to the interests of all shareholders of the company. This latter part of the material grounds of the directed share issue without payment must be interpreted as an example of the mandatory principle of economic equality between shareholders. The essential meaning of that principle in the directed share issue without payment is that the dilution of formal shareholder rights of old shareholders must be compensated in economic sense through the enhanced financial position of the company as a whole. The evaluation of such an expected compensation must, however, be made at the time of the share issue resolution, not retrospectively.
  • Vanhanen, Tero Eljas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Extreme fiction is literature that aims to shock audiences through transgression. Shock value implies two conflicting tendencies: to disturb and repel while simultaneously sparking our fascination and drawing us closer. Extreme fiction increasingly common as censorship has waned embraces this contradiction through shocking representation of sadistic violence and sexual transgression. Extreme fiction is defined by its affective qualities: it aims to shock, disturb, and disgust and expects readers to enjoy these responses. This study analyzes the affective qualities of transgression and shock value and maps out the affective narrative strategies typical of extreme fiction. The study takes a cross-disciplinary approach to extreme fiction and emotional response to fiction, combining cognitive aesthetics, philosophy of mind, and affect theory with narratological analysis of infamous works of extreme fiction. As the phenomenon gained large audiences in the last few decades of the twentieth century, the study focuses on five particularly influential novels from that era: Cormac McCarthy s Blood Meridian (1985), Bret Easton Ellis s American Psycho (1991), Dennis Cooper s Frisk (1991), Samuel R. Delany s The Mad Man (1994), and Poppy Z. Brite s Exquisite Corpse (1996). In order to approach extreme fiction, the study develops new methodological approaches to analyze emotional response to fiction and delineates the phenomenon of extreme fiction historically and theoretically. Finally, through careful analysis of how influential works of extreme fiction induce shock value, the study formulates the shock tactics and extreme strategies that intertwine the conflicting responses of repulsion and attraction that characterize extreme fiction.
  • Kozlowska-Rautiainen, Daria (Unigrafia, 2016)
    This dissertation provides an analysis of the scope and procedure of obtaining documents from the opponent in international commercial arbitration. The goal of this research is to provide an in-depth study of the myriad of detailed questions regarding the procedure and scope of obtaining document production which goes beyond analyzing the differences between common law and civil law practices and takes an international commercial arbitration perspective. The primary aim, however, is not to supply definite answers, but rather to present possible best practices by, for example, discussing various approaches and problematic areas of the topic and also providing the reader with awareness of different aspects that should be taken into account when dealing with document production. To reach this aim, the method of legal dogmatics is predominantly employed. The core of this research is in the interpretation and systematization of international arbitration sources, especially soft law, which provide detailed guidance regarding document production, against the background of legal principles of arbitral procedure. The challenge of conducting research regarding document production is that procedural timetables, document requests, objections and procedural orders are confidential. However, the author of this dissertation had the rare opportunity to research files of ICC cases and anonymized examples from the chosen cases serve as valuable source regarding international arbitration practice. The research is divided into five substantive chapters. In Chapter 2, the framework for document production is discussed. In Chapter 3, the procedure and requirements of the request for documents is analyzed. Here important questions are considered, such as what is the basis of a party s right to obtain documents, how to delimit a narrow category of documents, what is meant by relevance and materiality, can a party request documents relating to issues it does not have the burden of proving and also when are the documents considered as being in a party s control. In Chapter 4, the attention turns to the possible bases for an objection to a document request, such as privilege, confidentiality, data protection, unreasonable burden of production etc. Chapter 5 contains analysis of the questions connected to the actual production, including the tribunal s order to produce or dismiss a production request, the form of production and the consequences of non-compliance, i.e. adverse inferences and financial consequences. In Chapter 6, the issue of national courts assistance in obtaining documents from the opponent is addressed. The detailed results of the analysis are presented throughout this dissertation and the significance of this research is in the discussion of the specific questions. Nonetheless, on the basis of the conducted study certain key findings are also drawn. First, the research shows that many issues can be resolved on the basis of balancing principles of international commercial arbitration. Consequently, there is no need for more regulation. Arbitration needs to remain flexible. Predictability should not be achieved on the level of arbitration rules and soft law, but in specific arbitration proceedings. Second, there are important legal implications relating to production of electronic documents and participants of the arbitral process need to be aware of them. Third, arbitrators are very cautious when making decisions as to not violate possible due process or public policy requirements. In fact, only one arbitral award has been set aside due to a reason connected to a document production question. Finally, with respect to many questions regard-ing the scope and procedure of document production, one can refer to an international commercial arbitration approach.
  • Minard, Nathanaelle (Finska Vetenskaps-Societeten, 2016)
    The construction of Russian representations of Finland and their functions in the polite culture of early-nineteenth-century Russia is the subject of the present dissertation. Based on travellers written accounts, the study examines in particular the interaction between travellers perceptions of Finland and the imperial context. Applying postcolonial theory, and in particular Edward Said s findings with regard to the role and place of culture in the construction of empires, I propose a new approach to Russian perceptions of Finland during a period that has too often been described as simply Romantic without any further characterisation. As a survey of the history of ideas based on literary sources, my work borrows elements from classical literary analysis, but focuses more strongly on the attitudes of a social group − the Russian nobility − and on the values of these representations. The first part of the dissertation explores the construction of a formal framework enabling the appreciation of Finland s terrain in Russia during the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries. The practices of Russian tourists and the discourse they elaborated on Finland were in many ways typical of the Romantic shift in the Grand Tour at the beginning of the nineteenth century: through a change of focus from classical canons to the individual impressions of the narrator, European sentimental literature and pastoral aesthetics constructed a grammar through which to approach and describe the Finnish wilderness. Part 2 examines how Russians travelled in Finland, and notably the dominance during the first half of the nineteenth century of what sociologist John Urry defined as the tourist gaze . Given the focus on scenic pleasure in the travelling experiences of Russians, their descriptions constructed Finland as an infinite collection of visual delights but also as a desolate territory in terms of culture. The travelogues thus left little space for the representation of Finnish elites who, when they appeared at all, were endowed with the same pastoral virtues of simplicity, fraternal spirit and honesty as the talonpoika (peasant, in Finnish). Part 3 presents how Russian travel literature constructed Finland as an ideal colony of an ideal empire. The idyllic image of Finns as agrarian people, essentially loyal to the Monarch who had given them a fatherland, showed the imperial project and the country s annexation in a favourable light. Although apparently less antagonistic than the images developed about the Caucasus and Poland during the same period, the pastoral descriptions of Finland similarly contributed to establishing Russia s cultural superiority and political domination over a primitive and underdeveloped borderland.
  • Koulu, Riikka (University of Helsinki Conflict Management Institute/ Riikka Koulu, 2016)
    This study, Dispute Resolution and Technology: Revisiting the Justification of Conflict Management, belongs to the fields of procedural law, legal theory and law and technology studies. In this study the changes in dispute resolution caused by technology are evaluated. The overarching research question of this study is how does implementing technology to dispute resolution challenge the justification of law as a legitimised mode of violence? Before answering such an abstract research question it is necessary to examine 1) how we should understand technology in the context of dispute resolution, and 2) how technology changes our perception of dispute resolution. In this study, I examine different forms of private enforcement enabled by technology using this phenomenon as an example of the changes in justification caused by the implementation of modern information and communication technology (ICT) to dispute resolution. The use of ICT connects with dispute resolution at three intersections: courtroom technology, online dispute resolution (ODR), and disputes about technology, the first two of which are discussed in this study. I claim that the implementation of technology in dispute resolution creates a discrepancy in the ways in which we have justified the establishment, function and appearances of dispute resolution. This discrepancy becomes visible in private enforcement of e-commerce sites and in self-executing smart contracts based on cryptocurrency infrastructure, as no judicial control of due process can be extended to these private forms of coercion. This study consists of three parts. In the first part I examine the theoretical implications of technology in dispute resolution. Answers to the first of the preliminary questions are sought from media theory: from Marshall McLuhan s technological determinism and Raymond Williams s social construction of technology as well as from Friedrich Kittler s agency of technology. The second preliminary question is answered by discussing the converging models of dispute resolution. In this discussion, I suggest abandoning the doctrinal distinction between courtroom technology and ODR. Implementing technology brings public and private dispute resolution closer to each other in many aspects, and even to the point of convergence. In the second part I exemplify the disruptive power of ICT through private enforcement, which challenges the nation-state s monopoly on violence. Although implementation of ICT cannot be reduced to private enforcement, privatisation of coercion provides a vantage point for evaluating the multifaceted changes brought on by globalisation and the privatisation of law. I identify and discuss three different justificatory narratives that have been employed to justify dispute resolution: sovereignty, consent, and access to justice. These narratives are structures within the legal system formed by continuous operations that are shared with other societal subsystems through structural couplings. The justificatory force of each narrative is tested against the challenge of private enforcement. This analysis shows that private enforcement enabled by technology causes problems for justification, as none of the existing justificatory narratives provides an explanation of its existence. In the third part of the study I briefly examine the co-operation between different justificatory narratives. In addition to this, I address the possibilities of finding justification through the technological infrastructure itself, a conceptualisation which follows Lawrence Lessig s argument of code as law. The main claim of this doctoral dissertation is that none of the discussed justificatory narratives are able to address the challenge brought on by private enforcement. On a practical level this means that it is unclear, how a sufficient level of protection of due process can be extended to private enforcement without judicial control at the enforcement stage. This challenge is rendered even more difficult by the transnational nature of dispute resolution technology. In conclusion, private enforcement constitutes a new grey area of the legal system, balancing between legal and illegal, changing our perception of the justification of conflict management.
  • Pulkkinen, Mari (Mari Pulkkinen, 2016)
    Loss through death is a core experience in human life, for humanity necessitates the acceptance of mortality. In the field of cultural studies, contemporary Finnish grief is an unfamiliar subject as a theoretical as well as empirical phenomenon. I approach loss as a holistic experience of a unique individual. It is deeply subjective but also inherently shared. I pursue this by developing an analytical tool: a conceptual and theoretical perspective on grief which manifests itself in the dimensions of emotions and cognition, deeds and actions, as well as words and grammar. By this I refer to the emotional-cognitive, ritual-conative and linguistic-conceptual nature of grief. Moreover, the experience of loss cannot be understood without also paying attention to its contexts: the life course and the cultural-societal frame of death culture. The data consist of letters written by 159 grieving Finns of different ages and backgrounds. In order to collect the data, advertisements were placed in the print media and on the Internet in 2003 2005. The goal of the analysis is to understand the losses that Finns living the 21st century have experienced over the course of their lives. My approach is deliberately critical. Mourning is still, in the spirit of modernity, often seen as an individual psychological process grief work the stages of which remain largely unchanged regardless of varying circumstances. Its perceived aims are recovery and coping. When understood as an experience, loss claims its place in the human life course the same way as other life events do: as inherently meaningful and permanent. Read closely, in terms of emotions and cognition, grief appears hidden and hard to reach. Emotions are manifold and ambiguous. They should not be approached based on designation only. The grieving also feel as sense of grief in their bodies, cry in private, and experience incomprehensibility beyond the psychological definition of shock. In the light of deeds and action, grief gains the attributes of performance, and in that sense is work indeed. The traditional rituals as well as grief s bureaucracy and everyday obligations are all vigorously performed and dealt with. This separates action from its ritual meaning. From the point of view of words and grammar, grief is silent and wordless. Wordlessness is selective and chosen but also subjective: the experience escapes expression. The human life course is the arena of progressive time where both the grieving and grief have their own uncontrollable time. Neither the experience nor the ties cease to exist. In the changing death culture the ability of others to express their condolences and sympathize is often seen as inadequate. This applies also to encounters with professionals who are expected to be humane. The medication of the grieving bespeaks the desire to control. The varied perceptions of the hereafter often utilize Christian imagery and suggest that the dead watch over the living. They are created out of need, and are based on the hope of something existing beyond the end. Despite its communality, the death culture of the past cannot always be seen as a more gentle background for the experience of loss; it is sometimes even the opposite. This brings to mind the distinct nature of grief, which is not contingent on the era lived in.
  • Aakula, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) impact on cellular signaling pathways and biological processes in physiological and pathological states. The expression of miRNAs is often altered in cancer, but the functions and their targets are less well understood. In this thesis project, the miRNA regulation of genes relevant for PCa proliferation was comprehensively mapped through phenotypic screening and tumor expression data. Given the role of androgen receptor (AR) as a key oncogenic driver in PCa and estrogen receptor α (ERα) playing a similar role in BCa, the regulation of these receptors was investigated here. Systematic gain-of-function screens were conducted with 1129 miRNA molecules and changes in AR, proliferation marker Ki67, and the apoptotic marker cPARP were quantified using reverse-phase protein arrays. The results identify miR-19a, -32, -124a, -130b, -148a, and -583 as regulators of proliferation and, as potential regulators of FLNC, MSRB3, PARVA, PCDH7, PRNP, RAB34 and SORBS1 genes. These aberrantly expressed genes were significantly associated with biochemical recurrence-free survival of 140 PCa patients. Altogether 13 miRNAs that regulate the AR 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) (miR-135b, -185, -297, -299-3p, -34a, -34c, -371-3p, -421, -449a, -449b, -634, -654-5p and -9) were identified and validated in PCa. Interestingly, the RNA-sequencing data revealed a longer 3 UTR of AR, and most of the AR targeting miRNAs were found to act via this extended AR mRNA. MiR-135b and miR-34c showed an inverse association with AR protein levels in 47 clinical PCa samples. Similarly, miR-135b targeted the ERα 3'UTR in BCa and showed significant inverse correlation with the steady-state ERα protein levels in a cohort of 101 breast tumors. MiR-135b also inhibited the growth of AR-positive PCa and ERα-positive BCa cells, whereas it failed to affect the AR- and ERα-negative cells. Prolonged miR-135b expression in 3D and xenograft experiments, however, seem to confer a growth advantage and putatively induce an epithelial-to-mesenchymal switch in LNCaP cells. Taken together, this study identifies specific miRNAs as important regulators of AR, ERα, and HIF1AN protein levels, as well as novel regulatory molecules, which impact on PCa and BCa proliferation and are aberrantly expressed in tumors. This reveals novel regulatory nodes with potential as diagnostic biomarkers and that could be considered as targets for therapy or as therapy if delivery of miRNA as therapy becomes feasible.
  • Siligato, Riccardo (2016)
    Plants possess the rare capability to shape the own architecture according to biotic and abiotic stimuli received from the environment. Spatially defined groups of cells, called meristems, contribute to the division and differentiation processes continuously occurring inside the organism. Meristems can be classified as primary meristems, if they are specified during embryogenesis, or secondary meristems, if they form from undifferentiated, quiescent cells outside the primary meristems. Primary meristems, like the Root Apical Meristem (RAM) and the Shoot Apical Meristem (SAM), coordinate the apical growth of the plant in opposite directions, while secondary meristems shape the radial architecture, regulating the thickness and branching of the primary root and shoot. Cambium is a secondary meristem which produces the vascular tissues xylem and phloem. Xylem transports water and minerals from the root to the photosynthetic tissues; it comprises lignified dead conducting cells called tracheary elements, living parenchyma cells, and lignified dead cells, called fibres, which confer mechanical support and strength. Phloem distributes glucose, RNA, viruses, and proteins from the photosynthetic sources to the sink cells; it consists of empty living sieve elements, supporting companion cells, and parenchyma cells. In order to investigate the regulation of primary and secondary growth, we developed a new chemically inducible system to control the timing and location of the induction of an effector or gene of interest. This enables us to avoid deleterious effects such as seed lethality or sterility when studying the role of a gene in a particular cell type. For example, the meristem cambium is difficult to access through normal techniques, since mutations affecting cambial cell divisions often inhibit the primary growth, too. We developed the inducible system by combining the Multi-Site Gateway cloning technology with the already extant XVE inducible system. This system was used to perform part of the research presented in the thesis. Phytohormones are involved in virtually every aspect of plant life, from development to stress response. They are small molecules which act cellautonomously or non-cell-autonomously to mediate the majority of developmental and environmental responses and, consequently, the activity of the meristems throughout the plant life cycle. Auxin and cytokinins, which were among the first phytohormones discovered, regulate almost every aspect of plant life, such as the division and differentiation processes occurring continuously in the RAM and SAM. The two phytohormones have long been known to interact, and recent studies have uncovered significant crosstalk on the level of biosynthesis, transport, signalling and degradation. We investigated the dynamic role of auxin in maintaining the balance between division, elongation, differentiation in the RAM of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results confirm that an optimal level of auxin response is required for division and elongation, while differentiation mechanisms require just a minimal concentration of auxin to proceed normally. We discovered that auxin and cytokinin responses interact synergistically to specify the stem cells and to regulate the timing of divisions in the cambium of Arabidopsis thaliana. The auxin and cytokinin signalling pathways both have a positive role in triggering secondary growth, but the hierarchy of the crosstalk between them is still unclear. Finally, auxin transported via the AUX1/LAX auxin influx carriers regulates the differentiation of vessel elements in the later stages of root cambium development. In summary, we confirm that auxin and cytokinins behave as master regulators of meristematic activities throughout the root, as the signalling pathways associated with both phytohormones heavily influence primary and secondary growth.
  • Malminen, Toni Petteri (Unigrafia, 2016)
    The study is about the intellectual origins of a form of jurisprudence legal realism. A set of novel ideas about adjudication, legal education, property rights, freedom of contract, and administration of justice, legal realism was established between 1860 and 1960 by three generations of reformist European and American lawyers, philosophers, economists, sociologists, political scientists, and anthropologists who shared the conviction that various areas of social thought were infested with scientifically unsustainable and politically regressive ideas. With their sights fixed on the rise of political progressivism and social democracy, legal realists attempted to remold law for the felt necessities of the time. Through their activities as idea brokers, political confidantes, progressive judges, and innovating ideologists, they became pivotal figures in American and Swedish turn-of-the-century legal, cultural, and political history. This is a history of the intellectual origins of their ideas. The study argues that the early critique of formalism was targeted at not only formalism, positivism, and the systematic orientation of contemporary legal science but also at the romantic historicism of Savigny and his allies. Part 1 will argue that the shift from romanticism, idealism, and conceptualism toward legal realism was mediated by a novel historical sensibility I will call critical historicism. Offered as an alternative to metaphysical conceptions of history, critical historicism approached the past from a materialist and naturalistic vantage point. It also drew on contemporary cultural anthropology to gain a less parochial perspective on law and morals. With its novel historical consciousness, marked by a debunking spirit, instrumentalist vision of law and morals, and private sense of time, critical historicism mediated a shift from nineteenth-century historicism toward twentieth-century modernism and legal realism. Part 2 discusses the secularization of legal thought from the vantage point of legal realism. Although secularization was a major historical trend in the age of legal realism and realism was a distinctly secular approach to law and morals, no specialized study on the relationship between legal realism and the secularization of legal thought has been undertaken so far, a gap in scholarship I will begin to fill, although much more certainly needs to be done. The rise of legal realism coincided with the fall of the American Protestant Establishment and the crisis of the Church of Sweden, and realism was itself a step in the transformation toward pluralism and secularism in social thought. Part 3 addresses the legal skepticism and agonism of Jhering, Holmes, and Hägerström through their notion of law as a site of social struggle. Their turn toward conflict was driven simultaneously by contemporary political, economic, and social developments, including the rise of organized labor, and various intellectual currents such as Darwinism.
  • Leppälahti, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Teenage pregnancy is recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the main public health concerns worldwide. Teenage childbirth and motherhood are associated with substantial socioeconomic and health inequalities. Research concerning those who undergo abortion at a young age remains limited, partly due to lack of reliable data. The present register-based study was designed to assess teenage pregnancy in Finland from 1987 to 2012. The aim was to investigate the trends, determinants and health and social consequences of teenage abortion and childbirth. The trends in teenage abortion between 1987 and 2009 (n=52 968) were examined. The proportion of abortions among all teenage pregnancies remained steady throughout the study period, being 82% among 13- to 15-year-olds and 41% among 18- to 19-year-olds in 2007–2009. Great fluctuation in the incidence of teenage abortion was seen (8.0/1000 in 1993, 11.5/1000 in 2003 and 9.7/1000 in 2009 among all teenagers). Repeat abortions almost doubled among the 16- to 19-year-olds. Obstetric outcomes were compared between all nulliparous teenagers (13–19 years [n=7305], further analyzed in groups by specific age) and control women (25–29 years, n=51 142) with singleton deliveries in 2006–2011. Teenagers faced increased risks of maternal complications during pregnancy, including a risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) (adjusted OR 2.9 [1.8-4.8]), pyelonephritis (6.3 [3.8-10.4]) and eclampsia (3.2 [1.4-7.3]). However, they were more likely to have uncomplicated vaginal deliveries (1.9 [1.7-2.0)]. The 1987 Finnish Birth Cohort was used to analyze the determinants and consequences of teenage pregnancy up to 25 years of age: girls who had experienced underage (<18 years) abortion (n=1041, 3.6%) or childbirth (n=395, 1.4%) were compared with each other and with girls who had no pregnancies. Five percent of all the girls in the cohort experienced underage pregnancy. Early-onset behavioral and emotional disorders and poor socioeconomic background were associated with higher risks of childbirth, and to a lesser degree, abortion. Specific risk factors of underage induced abortion were psychoactive substance use disorders (2.2 [1.3-3.5]), and having a mother who smoked during pregnancy (1.5 [1.3-1.8]) or had undergone induced abortion (1.8 [1.5-2.2.]) When the early adulthood outcomes of those who had experienced underage abortion were compared with those who gave birth, no significant differences in the risks of psychiatric disorders were found. Those who underwent abortion were more likely to achieve higher educational levels (2.4 [1.2-5.0]). When compared with those with no pregnancies, both pregnancy groups had elevated risks of most adverse conditions, but the risks were similar before and after conception. In conclusion, the low incidence of teenage pregnancy in Finland suggests that reproductive health services function comparatively well. To add, abortion or childbirth per se was not associated with mental ill-health. However, a substantial proportion of girls who experience a teenage pregnancy have a disadvantaged background and mostly for that reason, they seem to be a risk group for adverse outcomes in adulthood. These girls should be offered extra attention by social and healthcare professionals to prevent unplanned teenage pregnancies and further marginalization.
  • Martelius, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The occurrence and significance of vertical lung ultrasound artifacts known as B-lines were investigated in children. B-lines are a non-specific sign of lung pathology. They can be used to estimate lung liquid and to diagnose lung disease. Healthy term infants, children with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac surgery, and children undergoing computed tomography of the chest were included in the study. We examined whether the mode of delivery influences B-lines in healthy term infants and compared lung ultrasound with static lung compliance, computed tomography, and chest radiographs. B-lines were more numerous in infants born by elective cesarean section than in those born vaginally. Lung edema scores from lung ultrasound and chest radiographs correlated significantly, but B-lines and static lung compliance did not. A consistent association was present between the number of B-lines in ultrasound and the extent of parenchymal changes in computed tomography. B-lines appear suitable for documenting resolution of lung liquid during postnatal adaptation. They may indicate lung edema after cardiac surgery and detect lung disease in children.
  • Hyvönen, Maija (2016)
    Gliomas, malignant brain tumors, are among the most aggressive cancers in adults. Due to their invasive growth, resistance mechanisms and tendency to relapse, the prognosis of high-grade glioma patients is very poor. Therefore, to improve therapeutic strategies it is essential to study molecular mechanisms underlying the progression of gliomas and identify novel, glioma-specific proteins that could be therapeutically targeted. In this study we first mapped vascular markers of malignant gliomas to find potential candidates for tumor targeting. By using in vivo phage display method we identified a peptide, CooP, which, after systemic delivery, specifically homed to brain tumor satellites and their vasculature in mice. Coop was successfully used in tumor imaging and targeted drug delivery. We also identified mammary-derived growth inhibitor (MDGI) as an interacting partner for CooP in the brain tumor tissue and tumor-associated vasculature. Homing peptide-conjugated nanocarriers have shown great potential in targeting various tumors, including gliomas. Therefore, we estimated the potential of CooP peptide in the surface functionalization and targeted delivery of porous silica nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo. CooP-functionalized particles were shown to be stable, non-toxic and suitable for targeting MDGI expressing subcutanous xenografts. In the last part of this study we characterized the expression and function of MDGI in gliomas. Our immunohistochemical analyses revealed abundant MDGI expression in clinical brain tumor specimens and patient-derived gliospheres. In lower-grade glioma patients MDGI expression correlated with poorer overall survival. Importantly, also endothelium-associated expression of MDGI in the clinical samples was observed. Functional in vitro and ex vivo assays demonstrated that MDGI overexpression enhanced the aggressive growth of glioma cells, whereas even more striking changes occurred when MDGI was genetically silenced. MDGI silencing compromised the growth of human gliospheres, altered the expression of stress-related proteins, disrupted mitochondrial function and eventually caused apoptotic cell death. In addition, mass spectrometric analyses revealed significant changes in the intracellular metabolites after MDGI silencing. Together our results show that the glioma-specific CooP peptide can be utilized both in glioma imaging and targeted drug delivery as well as in biofunctionalization and targeting of nanoparticles in vivo. In addition, MDGI, the interacting partner of CooP, is abundantly expressed in malignant gliomas and essential for glioma cell survival. Since MDGI is reachable via intravenously injected agents, it could be a potential candidate for the targeted treatment of gliomas.
  • Holopainen, Tanja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Angiopoietins (Angs) and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) regulate angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, and lymphangiogenesis, the formation of new lymphatic vessels. Angiogenesis is important in cancer, because for continuous growth a primary tumor needs a supply of oxygen and nutrients delivered via blood vessels. In physiological conditions, the lymphatic vasculature serves to collect interstitial fluid as well as to absorb lipid particles. In the context of cancer, lymphatic vessels serve as a route for the metastatic dissemination of tumor cells. This dissertation aimed to explore the role of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) in cancer progression. In particular, the roles of these proteins in the context of tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis as well as metastasis were investigated in two separate studies. In addition, the effects of the photodynamic ablation of intralymphatic cancer cells and lymphatic vessels on the development of metastases were explored. Furthermore, the effect of the endothelial bone marrow tyrosine kinase in chromosome X (Bmx) on tumor angiogenesis was investigated. We found that the inhibition of VEGFR3 reduces tumor blood vasculature and primary tumor growth. In the second study we found that in-transit tumor cells can be targeted with verteporfin-induced photodynamic therapy. The photodynamic ablation of lymphatic vessels was improved by combining this strategy with anti-lymphangiogenic therapies via the adenovirally mediated soluble expression of the VEGF-C/D trap. Bmx, a member of the Tec non-receptor tyrosine kinase family, was previously shown to promote tumor cell survival, but relatively little is known about the effect of this kinase on tumor biology. Here, we studied the effects of Bmx tumor angiogenesis by using Bmx gene-deleted mice. Some reduction of primary tumor growth in Bmx-/- mice was detected in several isogenic and oncogenic tumor models, along with some attenuation of tumor angiogenesis. Conversely, overexpression of Bmx resulted in increased tumor progression and angiogenesis. Ang2 is known to be a context-dependent agonist of the tyrosine kinase of the Tie2 receptor. Here, we analyzed the effect of Ang2 on metastatic dissemination into the lungs, finding that the overexpression of Ang2 enhanced lung metastasis. In contrast, Ang2 inhibition decreased the occurrence of lung metastases. In the ultrastructural analysis of the metastatic lungs using transmission electron microscopy, anti-Ang2 treatment attenuated tumor-associated changes in metastasis-associated lung capillaries. This dissertation demonstrates that the blockade of VEGFR3 inhibits tumor angiogenesis, and that the inhibition of Ang2 inhibits lymphatic and lung metastasis and improves endothelial integrity. Furthermore, we demonstrated the ability of photodynamic therapy to eradicate lymphatic vessels and intralymphatic cancer cells. These data provide a rationale for developing new cancer therapies targeting the lymphatics in order to reduce metastasis and tumor progression. Taken together, these results provide new insights into endothelial tyrosine kinase-mediated angiogenesis, tumor lymphangiogenesis, and vascular-based therapeutic strategies in cancer.
  • Al-Qaisi, Feda'a (2016)
    The conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2), an abundant renewable carbon reagent, into cyclic carbonate is of academic and industrial interest. Cyclic carbonate serve as green solvent and have some outstanding properties such as a high boiling point and low toxicity. Titanium and iron would be attractive metal candidates as benign and efficient alternative to other metal catalysis for CO2 conversion to cyclic carbonate, due combination of low toxicity and high Lewis acidity. In the present work the coupling reactions of carbon dioxide with epoxides to produce five-membered cyclic carbonates (propylene, 1-hexene, cyclohexene, styrene, and epichlorohydrin carbonates) were efficiently catalyzed either by sustainable metal-based catalysts of: (1) titanium alkoxide complexes/tetrabutylammonium salts; (2) Schiff base iron(III) complexes/onium salts; (3) bifunctional imidazole-Schiff base iron(III) complex; and (4) metal-free systems consisting of a simple, preferably primary or secondary, amines and halides with organic or inorganic cations (such as tetrabutylammonium or lithium chloride, bromide or iodide). Reactivity of the four above-mentioned catalytic systems was further studied and compared in the coupling reactions.
  • Heikkilä, Satu (Wolf Legal Publishers, 2016)
    This study focuses on the execution of the judgments of the European Court of Human Rights (Court) in Finland and especially on its effectiveness. The Court has so far delivered 138 judgments against Finland in which one or more violations of the Convention articles were found. The aim of this thesis is to study how these judgments have been executed by the Finnish authorities. The study showed that in Finland the national execution procedure was not very bureaucratic and that it seemed to work well. Most of the procedural shortcomings identified at the European level did not exist in Finland, and the majority of the proposed new ideas for increasing the procedural effectiveness seemed to already be in use. The research revealed that the overall effectiveness of execution in Finland was therefore at a very advanced level compared to some other countries. However, in absolute terms, there still seemed to be room for some improvement, especially in the co-operation between the Committee of Ministers and the Finnish government. When looking at the payment of just satisfaction and the taking of individual measures, the study showed that their execution was fairly effective in Finland, except in a few exceptional cases. In general the domestic authorities acted quickly and effectively when executing the Court s judgments as far as the payment of just satisfaction and the taking of individual measures were concerned. In these respects the execution could be qualified as effective both in the temporal and in the material sense. However, as far as reopening was concerned, it appeared that the Supreme Court s interpretations did not always demonstrate the most effective attitude towards the execution of judgments. It could thus be deduced that there was occasionally some reluctance on the part of the Supreme Court to actively give full effect to the Convention and the Court s case-law, especially in the context of reopening. The study also revealed that although the taking of general measures in Finland was mostly sometimes even extremely effective, both in a temporal and a material sense, in some situations there were certain visible signs of reluctance to take execution measures. This manifested itself as a certain wait and see mentality, which was visible in particular in situations in which more proactive attitudes would have been required. However, most of the general measures were taken effectively in Finland. One of the best examples of the effectiveness of the Finnish execution of general measures was the execution of the ne bis in idem cases, in which the execution was done long before the first judgments against Finland were even rendered. On the other hand, the taking of general measures in the length of proceedings cases represented a group of cases in which the temporal and material effectiveness of the execution was at its lowest.