Väitöstiivistelmät

Recent Submissions

  • Bergström, Milla (Suomen kirkkohistoriallinen seura, 2015)
    The Holy See, Poland and the Polish-Ukrainian Tensions in Eastern Galicia, 1921-1931 This study analyzes the principles that guided the Holy See in problems generated by Polish-Ukrainian tensions during the pontificate of Pope Pius XI. The geographical focus is in Poland where Pius XI had acted as apostolic visitor and nuncio only eight months before he ascended the throne of Saint Peter. Poland was declared independent in November 1918, and from the start, the Poles were thrown into competition with the republic s largest minority, the three million Greek Catholic Ukrainians of Eastern Galicia. The Ukrainians reluctance to acknowledge Polish dominance over Eastern Galicia in addition to the government s aspirations to pressure them into being loyal citizens resulted in nationalist tensions that persisted throughout the interwar period. These tensions were also reflected in religious matters, occasionally causing the Holy See to become involved with the incidents between the Polish government and the Greek Catholic Ukrainians. The study is based on the Holy See s primary sources that have been available for consultation since 2006. It provides the first thorough investigation of problems generated by Polish-Ukrainian tensions expressly from the point of view of the Holy See and the principles that influenced its responses. The study shows that the Vatican was guided by three main principles: the safeguarding and uncompromising defense of the rights of the Catholic Church and its freedom of action, adhering to the impartiality of the Holy See, and the promoting of peace between nations and preventing unrest. The principle of defending the rights of the Catholic Church and its freedom of action was a central factor in the decisions of the Holy See, for instance, when Polish officials arrested Greek Catholic priests and intruded into cloisters of nuns in Eastern Galicia. The Holy See responded to these violations by presenting to the Polish government an energetic objection and an official protest. Since the Holy See aimed at protecting the rights of the Greek Catholic Church and not those of the Ukrainians, it did not consider it was endangering its principle of impartiality. The principle of impartiality was inherently connected with the pontiff s role as the supreme spiritual shepherd of the universal Catholic Church. Pope Pius XI emphasized the equal benevolence he felt as the Holy Father of all Catholics towards both Roman Catholic Poles and Greek Catholic Ukrainians. In order to not offend either party, the Holy See could not interfere in the disputes between the Poles and the Ukrainians which were primarily a result of conflicting national interests. The Holy See considered that to remain impartial it was required to abstain from taking a public stance in what it regarded as purely political issues. According to the Holy See these issues included, for instance, the territorial dispute over Eastern Galicia. The Holy See´s principle of promoting peace between nations can be attested, for instance, in the Vatican´s endeavor to guide nationality-conscious bishops and clergy towards Christian fraternity. The Holy See considered as particularly problematic the fact that the nationalism of the Roman Catholic and Greek Catholic clerics inspired them to participate in nationalistic politics, and sometimes they seemed to pay more attention to politics than to saving souls. At the same time the national politics and enmity among the bishops and the clergy caused confusion in the parishioners and disrupted the amicable coexistence between the Poles and the Ukrainians. The Holy See instructed the bishops and priests to set an example by showing moderation and thus promoting peace in Eastern Galicia. The main focus of this study is on the two most difficult challenges brought forth by the Polish-Ukrainian tensions Pius XI faced during his pontificate, which aptly demonstrate the principles of the Holy See. The first of these cases was a dispute between the Holy See and the Polish government concerning the return of the Greek Catholic Metropolitan Andrei Sheptytskyi, considered as an enemy by the Poles, to his Archiepiscopal See of Lviv (Eastern Galicia) from his extended journey abroad in 1923. In this case the emphasis was on the principles of ensuring the rights of the church and promoting peace and preventing unrest between the Poles and the Ukrainians. The second problematic case arising from the Polish-Ukrainian tensions dealt with the violent pacification of Ukrainians in the fall of 1930 ordered by the Prime Minister of Poland Józef Piłsudski. This case was of a political nature and because of that, the Holy See s principle of impartiality significantly affected the Pope s resolutions. Pius XI held the principle of impartiality to bind him even when his conscience told him to publicly express his disapproval of the violence inflicted on Ukrainians.
  • Walkila, Sonya (2015)
    The grounds for debate on fundamental rights in the European Union are currently more fruitful than ever. Following the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty, not only did the Union avail itself with its own Bill of Rights , i.e., the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, but is also preparing for its accession to the European Convention on Human Rights. By the same token, the Charter was elevated to the same level as other primary EU law. The frequent horizontal effect of fundamental rights in recent case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union is an indication of a stronger presence and the increased significance of fundamental rights in the Union s legal order at the time when the boundaries between the public and private spheres are increasingly blurred. The Court of Justice strives to interpret and apply the law in a way which contributes to a build-up of a coherent case law and conforms to fundamental rights as closely as possible. The immediate source of the jeopardising act or degree of the incurred effects should not prove decisive. Rather, the horizontal effect of fundamental rights contributes to the primacy, unity and effectiveness of European Union law . This study suggests it is feasible to consider the horizontal effect of fundamental rights as they relate to situations where the legal positions of private parties are transformed in the Hohfeldian sense pursuant to the application of those rights by a court in a legal dispute before it. The incurring legal position depends in turn on the degree of enforceability of the fundamental right norm in question. Because of the semantic and structural openness of fundamental right norms they often necessitate the deduction of a more concrete normative content. This concretization of abstract norms makes adjudicating on the basis of fundamental rights a delicate matter, since it gives great power to the courts. Where this power is extended to the area which typically falls in the sphere of private law, it grows even stronger. Besides powerfully serving to enhance the inner coherence and consistency of Union law and offering feasible solutions to legal problems, the horizontal application of fundamental rights implies a move towards a strengthened constitutional phase of the integration process. Arguments on fundamental rights entail much more than just formal or dogmatic disputes over the scope of application of an act of EU law. They touch on fundamental questions relating to the functioning of the Union and its constitutional nature which pertains to the entire legal order of the EU.
  • Pohjanpalo, Maria (Unigrafia, 2015)
    This research investigates the interrelation of international investments and the environment. It is a study on fragmentation and how to potentially overcome it in practice through what is called a spectrum approach, in the field of international investment law and international environmental law. In particular the focus is on foreign direct investments. Three research questions are posed. First, why is there an increasing amount of investor-state disputes involving an environmental aspect? Second, is it possible to identify common elements, particular problems and specific rules regarding foreign direct investments which have an environmental aspect, from different sources of law, while also taking into account the element of liability? Finally, how could the risk of conflicts, disputes and any resulting liability be minimized? After the introductory Part I, Part II focuses first on the detailed substance of the research topic, placing it then in the theoretical framework, followed by systemizing the growing and changing regulatory and quasi-regulatory framework of it. In Part III on implementation, relevant existing cases are examined. A practical implementation exercise of the identified rules and elements to a foreign investment in the forest sector is included, to investigate if and how the identified rules and elements would apply. Finally in Part IV discussion on future developments and concluding remarks on the findings are presented. The end product of the research is a compact and practical indicative checklist for states and investors that could serve as a tool in order to minimize as far as possible the risk of disputes and liability. The study demonstrates that due to the fragmented nature of international law, in order to facilitate the functioning of the system there is not one, single solution available. This is particularly the case in relation to the third and final research question. Instead, actions by different actors, in different contexts, levels and temporal phases are required, while ensuring a sufficient dialogue and information flow between these actors.
  • Kullman, Kim (2015)
    Working between and beyond the interdisciplinary areas of childhood studies and children’s geographies, this thesis explores how children learn practices of everyday mobility in metropolitan Helsinki (population 1.4 million). Children’s urban movement has become a contested issue in Euro-American settings due to a range of developments, among them the growth in car traffic, the increase in travel distances to school and the widening influence of risk thinking on cultural understandings of childhood. Such tendencies have conspired to intensify the regulation of children’s engagements with urban environments, thereby circumscribing their agencies and sociabilities. Elaborating a more affirmative account of children’s mobility, this thesis gives prominence to the varied competencies, experiences and knowledges of movement that are already in place in the daily lives of families. Through a close exploration of the actual practices whereby children foster their mobilities, the thesis indicates that some of the current concerns around children’s urban movement are misplaced and that societies need to reconsider how children are involved in the shaping of present and future mobilities. The thesis draws on empirical research in two specific sites where children in Helsinki learn mobility: a model traffic area for 5-10-year-olds and the school journeys of 7-12-year-olds, the first of these providing an entry-point into formal pedagogical practices, the second into informal learning through mundane urban travel. The study has deployed various qualitative and participatory methods—including mobile ethnography, digital picture-making and visual interviews—to create an open-ended and flexible arena for children, parents and educators to experiment with diverse ways of becoming mobile and to convey their experiences of such becomings. Further extending this approach, the thesis allies itself with Donald Woods Winnicott, Daniel Stern, Gilles Deleuze, Bruno Latour and other thinkers to trace out a series of mobility experiments, transformative relational arrangements, which suggest a three-fold argument about mobile learning. First, the thesis develops a detailed account of children’s mobility that eschews generalised assumptions about their agency, stressing instead its dynamic and relational emergence as part of daily practices of movement. Children’s mobility in Helsinki is often constituted in collective experiments that draw together a variety of people and materials, from parents and siblings to zebra crossings and bicycles—all carefully composed to engage children in an equally safe and playful elaboration of their agency in relation to other urban bodies. Describing these heterogeneous set-ups and their intricate workings, the thesis brings out the creativity and diversity of children’s everyday movements. Second, the thesis proposes an affirmative view of children’s mundane mobilities by demonstrating that the experimental forms of learning cultivated by the families and educators in Helsinki contribute to children’s sense of belonging in urban and traffic environments. Such experimental learning speaks of more caring and collaborative styles of movement that this thesis further clarifies in an attempt to develop alternative ways of understanding children’s mobility that bypass some of the control-oriented and risk-averse attitudes surrounding the geographies of childhood in present Euro-American societies. This also enables a closer examination of how mobility experiments could help academics, educators, planners and other professionals to support and stimulate children’s mobility in a manner that enriches their civic agency and participation. Third, the thesis elaborates a methodological argument about the importance for childhood research to move beyond the effort to describe the world as it appears towards a more active and collective experimentation with the ways in which the world could become otherwise, as dealing with ever-complex empirical challenges asks for more dynamic and open-ended modes of working. The thesis indicates that understanding issues such as children’s mobility requires continuous experimentation with concepts, devices and methods so that both researchers and participants have an opportunity to detect and amplify unexplored possibilities in their practices. The areas of childhood studies and children’s geographies, through their interdisciplinary inclinations and sensitivities to human potential and transformation, are particularly well placed to contribute to such an exploration of more responsive forms of engagement.
  • Palola, Tuomas (Suomen Rauhanyhdistysten Keskusyhdistys ry, 2015)
    North American Laestadianism, also known as Apostolic Lutheranism, has been divided by schisms on several occasions, which in turn, have also had an effect on the development of schisms within the revivalist movement in Scandinavia. The revivalist movement s problematic history has been traditionally explained by members of the movement as being caused by the actions of individuals or different doctrines. No comprehensive, scientific study has examined the reasons behind the schisms. Those Laestadians who joined the revivalist movement in the original regions, from which they would later emigrate to North America, did not bring with them a monolithic dogmatic heritage. Into the doctrinal diversity of the Apostolic Lutheran melting pot were added the challenges brought forth by the movement s own independent free church status and Americanization. The revivalist movement s leadership in Fennoscandinavia attempted to guide the North American movement, without understanding the factors that were influencing its development. As a result, the leadership created additional conflicts, which precipitated a schism. The doctrinal views within this lay movement were not developed systematically, but rather situationally. The group formation was influenced by the fact that three different languages were spoken in the regions from which the immigrants departed: Finnish, Swedish and Norwegian. In addition to these languages, the immigrants adapted to English usage in North America. The assimilation process progressed at a different pace with different individuals and groups. Thus, they usually ended up having to respond to challenges without a vision, and as a result, the solutions were pragmatic. The chronologically uneven development of schisms in the revivalist movement s areas of influence in Scandinavia and North America also created a situation in which not all of the groups found a corresponding group on the other continent. This factor caused more tension within the movement. The aforementioned factors shaped from Apostolic Lutheranism, in terms of its identity, practices, organization, doctrinal emphases and group formation, a distinctive form of Laestadianism, which maintained contact with the Old Country . This slowed down the pace of Americanization in Apostolic Lutheranism, more so than in other Finnish American churches, and stoked divisions within Laestadianism in Fennoscandinavia. Thus, Apostolic Lutheranism diverged from the general developmental trends of other immigrant churches. Keywords: Finnish immigration to North America, assimilation, laestadianism,laestadian schisms, the third use of the Law, confession
  • Zhang, Yuezhou (Yuezhou Zhang, 2014)
    Bioisosteric replacements are used in drug design during lead generation and optimization processes with the aim to replace one functional group of a known molecule by another while retaining biological activity. The reason to use bioisosteric replacements are typically to optimize bioavailability or reducing toxicity. Phosphate groups represent a paradigm to study bioisosteric replacements. Protein-phosphate interaction plays a critical role during molecular recognition processes, and for example kinases represent one of the largest families of drug targets. However, some challenges exclude phosphate as a promising lead-like building block: i) charged phosphates do not cross molecular membranes; ii) some widely expressed proteins such as phosphatases easily hydrolyze phosphoric acid esters, which lead phosphate-containing ligands to lose their binding affinities before reaching their biological targets; iii) introduction of phosphate groups to parent scaffold is not easy. In the first part of the thesis work, I designed and implemented a computational protocol to mine information about phosphate structural replacements deposited in the Protein Data Bank. I constructed 116, 314, 271, and 42 sets of superimposed proteins where each set contains a reference protein to either POP, AMP, ADP, or ATP as well as a certain number of non-nucleotide ligands. 929 of such ligands are under study. The chemotypes that came out as structural replacements are diverse, ranging from common phosphate isosteres such as carboxyl, amide and squaramide to more surprising moieties such as benzoxaborole and aromatic ring systems. I exemplified some novel examples and interpreted the mechanism behind them. Local structural replacements are circumstance dependent: one chemical group valid in certain set-up cannot necessarily guarantee the success of another. The data from the study is available at http://86.50.168.121/phosphates_LSR.php. In the second part, I synthesized fifteen compounds retaining the adenosine moieties and bearing bioisosteric replacements of the phosphate at the ribose 5'-oxygen to test their stability toward human macro domain protein 1. These compounds are composed of either a squaryldiamide or an amide group as the bioisosteric replacement and/or as a linker. To these groups a variety of substituents were attached: phenyl, benzyl, pyridyl, carboxyl, hydroxy and tetrazolyl. Biological evaluation using differential scanning fluorimetry showed that four compounds stabilized human MDO1 at levels comparable to ADP and one at level comparable to AMP. Virtual screening was also run to identify MDO1 binding ligands. Among 20,000 FIMM database lead-like molecules, 39 compounds were selected for testing and eleven compounds found active based on ADPr and Poly-ADPr competition binding assay. The assay is however not well validated and a second confirmatory assay was conducted using calorimetry. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first report of non-endogenous ligands of the human MDO1. Altogether, this thesis highlights the versatility of molecular recognition processes that accompanies chemical replacements in compounds; this in turns shows the limits of the concepts of molecular similarity and classical bioisosterism that are based on the conservation of molecular interactions.
  • Palonen, Eveliina (2015)
    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infections derive from ingestion of contaminated food or water. Typical symptoms of yersiniosis are fever and abdominal pain resulting from mesenteric lymphadenitis, and immunological sequelae are possible. The pathogen has recently caused several epidemics in Finland through fresh produce. However, the slow growth rate and poor competition of Y. pseudotuberculosis make its detection and isolation demanding. Polymerase chain reaction with primers targeted to virulence genes inv, virF, and yadA is thus often used in detection, although the sequence variability of the virulence genes is unknown. To study genetic variability of the virulence genes, inv, virF, and yadA of 18 Y. pseudotuberculosis strains, and two Yersinia similis strains originating from 12 different countries were sequenced. The greatest sequence variability was detected in yadA, while the variability of inv and virF was limited. The observed variability in yadA may hinder detection using PCR and also impact functional properties of YadA. Furthermore, the commonly used primers targeted to inv can, in addition to Y. pseudotuberculosis, detect Y. similis. Y. pseudotuberculosis tolerates well low temperature and other stressful conditions in the environment and in the food chain. However, information on the stress tolerance mechanisms used by this pathogen is limited. Here, the roles of two-component systems (TCSs), alternative sigma factor σE, and RNA helicase CsdA of Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 under stress conditions were studied. The relative expression levels of 54 genes encoding putative TCSs in Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 were determined at 3°C and at the optimum growth temperature of 28°C. The relative expression levels of most of the genes were higher at 3°C than at 28°C, and TCS CheA/CheY encoding genes cheA and cheY had the highest relative expression levels at 3°C. Mutational analysis demonstrated the demand for cheA for optimal growth at 3°C. In addition, both cheA and cheY were required for motility. Increased expression of several TCS encoding genes demonstrate that probably in Y. pseudotuberculosis many TCSs play a role in adaptation to low temperatures. In addition, motility seems to be associated with cold tolerance. The role of alternative sigma factor σE under stress conditions was studied by determining relative expression levels of rpoE encoding σE and using mutational analysis. Expression of rpoE was induced under low and high temperatures, acid and alkaline conditions, and osmotic and ethanol stress. Mutation of rpoE impaired or abolished growth at pH 5.0, at 3°C, at 37°C, at 42°C, and at 3% ethanol, demonstrating that functional σE is essential under several stress conditions in Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953. In addition, the rpoE mutant had a higher minimum and a lower maximum growth temperature than the wild-type strain. Thus, in this pathogen, σE has a significant role in stress tolerance, and it contributes to survival during food processing and storage. The function of a cold-induced RNA helicase CsdA has been unknown in Y. pseudotuberculosis. Investigation of the role of CsdA at 3°C by mutagenesis revealed that CsdA is essential for growth at low temperatures. At the optimum growth temperature of 28°C, no growth defect was seen. Also the minimum growth temperature of one of the mutants was significantly higher than that of the wild-type strain. Thus, CsdA enables the growth of Y. pseudotuberculosis in the food chain by allowing continuous growth at low temperatures. The results demonstrate that the foodborne pathogen Y. pseudotuberculosis counters environmental stress by using TCSs and alternative sigma factor, and by synthesizing cold-induced proteins.
  • Pihkala, Panu (Unigrafia, 2014)
    This study analyzes early twentieth-century ecotheology about which it provides a great deal of new information. The focal point is the work of Joseph Sittler (1904 1987), an American Lutheran and ecumenical theologian. Through the use of systematic analysis and historical methods, Sittler s thought is placed in context in relation to other early ecotheology and environmentalism. Many strands of early ecotheology are here reintroduced into the discourse on ecotheology, such as the British contributions by both Anglican and Reformed theologians. For the first time, a relatively comprehensive overview of early ecotheology is given. American and British sources are the most prominent, although some discussion about Scandinavian ecotheology is included. German sources are not used, but early German ecotheology is briefly discussed. The study confirms that there were significant forms of Christian environmental thought and action well before the age of environmentalism began in the 1960s. This fact has consequences for the definition of ecotheology. The study includes substantive discussion of definitions, typologies and methods of environmental theology. It argues that ecotheology (or ecological theology) has many benefits as a general term for the subject matter. The existence of early ecotheology requires that the concept be widened to include these early forms, even though a significant change took place in the 1960s, when a wider ecotheological movement was born. For the first time, the growth of ecotheology is placed in the historical context of theological developments in the twentieth century. One of the findings is that certain socially-oriented forms of Christian theology included environmental concerns early on. Especially significant in this regard is Walter Rauschenbusch, the famous Social Gospel theologian, whose ecotheology receives a close reading for the first time in this study, and the multitalented Liberty Hyde Bailey. The study shows that their concerns were picked up by different post-liberal (in a general sense) and neo-liberal theologians, such as several of the realist theologians in the United States. Paul Tillich s theology of nature evidently made a powerful impact. The most influential early ecotheologians combined insights from both liberalism and neo-orthodoxy. Through their work, the legacy of early ecotheology was carried on to the next generation, who made their mark in the age of environmentalism. In this study, Sittler s early theological development is comprehensively examined for the first time. Although Sittler grew up in a traditional American Lutheran environment, he was affected by ecumenical currents relatively early on. Already in his youth he manifested a strong interest in the natural world and the fine arts, both of which later became major themes in his theology. Sittler was shaped by neo-orthodoxy and Scandinavian theology as propounded by his teachers John O. Evjen and Walter M. Horton, and he later became closely involved with the realist theologians, including Tillich. Sittler contributed to the changes in American Lutheranism, especially with his first book, The Doctrine of the Word (1948), and he soon moved in an ever more ecumenical direction. He was influenced by process thought, but developed his (eco)theology in a more traditionally theistic manner. Sittler began addressing environmental concerns in the early 1950s, especially in his seminal essay A Theology for Earth (1954). At the same time he found his theological stance: Sittler wanted to develop neo-orthodoxy-influenced theology in a more earth-affirming direction. Many of the ecotheological arguments Sittler used are already found in some form in earlier ecotheology, but out of these arguments, Sittler constructed a more comprehensive ecotheology in a creative fashion. He included basic notions of stewardship, yet Sittler was exceptional in emphasizing the status of nature as man s sister and the interdependence of humans and the rest of nature. He further developed many of his insights in his later work, which is a topic for future research. Overall, early ecotheology emerges from this study as multifaceted. There was dominion (Horton) and stewardship ecotheology (the agrarians, Walter C. Lowdermilk, the Malvern Conference 1941); there were eco-justice elements (Daniel Day Williams, Sittler), emphasis on spiritual experiences in nature (Bernard E. Meland) and ecological subjectivity (Charles E. Raven, Herbert H. Farmer, Tillich, Sittler). There was both strong and weak anthropocentrism, and some early ecotheologians emphasized the theocentric, intrinsic value of nature (Bailey, Tillich, Sittler). Numerous themes are featured, such as aesthetics, eschatology, Christology, Incarnation, sacraments and theological anthropology. The role of these early ecotheologians is discussed in relation to environmental history and environmental education. The findings show that ecotheology was not as emphatically separate from other kinds of environmentalism as it was after the end of the 1960s and the Lynn White debate. Early ecotheologians contributed to the general development of environmental thought and action.
  • Nevalainen, Maarit (Unigrafia, 2014)
    The aim of this study was to investigate medical students and primary care physicians feelings of uncertainty, experiences of medical errors and ways of coping with them, and attitudes towards the career of a GP. In Study I the learning diaries (n=79) and writings on specific themes (n=94) of 22 students during their first clinical year were analysed by thematic content analysis. The topics uncertainty and medical errors were studied in more detail. Studies II and III are based on the responses of 5th-year students to a cross-sectional survey (Study II, n=307 and Study III, n=309, response rate 86%) during their main course in general practice. Study IV concerned younger (n=85) and experienced physicians (n=80) responses to an electronic survey related to uncertainty and experiences of medical errors (response rate 68%). Factors predisposing physicians to medical errors and means to avoid making them were assessed. In the second, third and fourth studies the responses were cross-tabulated. The variables are presented as means with standard deviations and percentages. Comparisons of categorial variables were carried out by using the X2 test or Fischer s exact test, comparisons of non-normally distributed continuous variables were made by using the Mann-Whitney U-test. (P values less than 0.05 were considered significant.) 95% CIs are presented for the most important results. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore which factors predicted good tolerance of uncertainty among GPs. A developmental path among the 3rd- to 4th-year medical students was discovered regarding their experiences of uncertainty and fears medical errors. All students wrote about several aspects of uncertainty. They also feared mistakes. However, they started gradually to be more confident in coping with responsibility. The 5th-year medical students were divided into two groups based on their tolerance of uncertainty and fear of medical errors. Those who tolerated uncertainty quite well or well (n=240, 78%) were older, more often males, and had been working for a longer time as locum doctors than those tolerating uncertainty poorly (n=67, 22%). In the latter group, 100% were afraid of medical errors, in the former group the figure was 86%. Those tolerating uncertainty poorly felt more often that a GP s work is too challenging and difficult and involves too much responsibility. About 3/4 of the fifth-year medical students considered the work of a GP positively versatile and challenging, but about 2/3 of them considered it to be too hasty and pressing. The females thought that a GP s work is too lonely. The males considered that a GP deals too much with non-medical problems and the work may be too routine and tedious. According to the majority of the students (82%) the most important aim of a GP s work is to identify serious diseases and refer such patients to specialized care. In the fourth study 6% of the younger and 1% of the experienced physicians tolerated uncertainty poorly. The younger physicians feared medical errors more (70% vs. 48%) and more often admitted having made an error (84% vs. 69%) compared to the experienced ones (48%). The experienced physicians apologized more willingly to their patients for an error. The younger physicians were more prone to use electronic databases and consult on site. Tolerance of uncertainty seems to develop gradually during the medical studies and this development also continues after graduation. Students are already aware of the possibility of a medical error. Almost all of them are afraid of them. Also half of the experienced physicians admitted to feeling some fear. The attitudes of fifth-year medical students reflect their experiences of general practice.
  • Niinistö, Sari (Unigrafia, 2014)
    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between the maternal intakes of fatty acids, vitamin D, and their respective dietary sources during pregnancy or lactation, as well as the child s fatty acid status, and the risk of type 1 diabetes. The present study is a prospective cohort belonging to the nutrition part of the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study (DIPP). The cohort comprised children at increased genetic risk for type 1 diabetes (n=6069) born at the Oulu and Tampere University Hospitals between the years 1997 and 2004. Maternal diet was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire during the 8th month of pregnancy and the 3rd month of lactation. The children were monitored for the appearance of autoantibodies associated with type 1 diabetes and for the development of clinical type 1 diabetes, at intervals between 3 and 12 months. The associations between the maternal intakes of fatty acids, vitamin D, as well as their respective food sources and the endpoints, were analyzed by the piecewise linear log-hazard survival model and Cox proportional hazard analyses. The associations between the children s serum fatty acid composition and the risk of type 1 diabetes were studied in a nested case-control study design that included 108 children with preclinical type 1 diabetes and 216 matched controls. The total serum fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography from samples that were taken from the children between the ages of 1 and 6 years. Conditional logistic regression was applied in the statistical analysis. After adjustment for putative confounders, neither the maternal intake of fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation nor the intake of vitamin D during pregnancy, showed any association with the development of type 1 diabetes. The maternal use of fresh milk and cheese, and the intake of protein from fresh milk during pregnancy, were associated with a lower risk of clinical type 1 diabetes. The maternal total consumption of red meat and meat products, particularly processed meat, during lactation was associated with an increased risk of type 1 diabetes. The child s serum profile of milk-associated fatty acids at, or closest to, the time of seroconversion, was associated with a higher risk of preclinical type 1 diabetes. Findings give one of the first indications that prenatal exposure to certain dairy foods may affect immune regulation, and our results on the milk-associated fatty acid biomarkers confirm the previous findings that the child s own direct cow s milk exposure is associated with autoimmunity in children with increased genetic risk of type 1 diabetes. These results thus indicate that milk and meat products in particular, are interesting topics for future studies on potential nutritional risk and protective factors for type 1 diabetes.
  • Savolainen, Ulla (Suomen Kansantietouden Tutkijain Seura, 2015)
    As a result of the Winter War (1939 1940) and the Continuation War (1941 1944), Finland ceded territories of Karelia to the Soviet Union. There was a Finnish population of over 400,000 people living in the ceded area at that time, and this population was evacuated to the Finnish side of the new border. The evacuation generated narratives about the evacuation journey. Later on, the evacuation journey has itself become a symbol enriched with meanings, a symbol that seems to characterize memories and reminiscences of Karelian evacuees more than any other theme. The research of the present thesis explores the poetics and rhetorical techniques of reminiscence writings about childhood evacuation journeys. The methodological foundation of the research combines theories of folkloristics, oral history research and narrative research. Memories and reminiscences are a fascinating area to explore because they are, according to the approach used here, the contemporary, personal and also narrative interpretations given to the past as well as rendering the significance the individuals assigned to it. Accordingly, the topic of this research is not so much childhood as it was in the past but childhood as it is formulated in writings at the moment of reminiscing. In the case of former Karelian child evacuees, both childhood and the childhood home are remote in time and in space. Narrative reminiscing operates as a tool for handling and crossing this distance. It is a means of creating and analyzing the relationship between the past, the present and the future. The research reveals three narrative strategies: 1. Truth and history oriented narrative strategy 2. Reflexive narrative strategy 3. Literary narrative strategy These strategies are illustrated through three different ways of how writers describe the evacuation journey. Strategies are also characterized by certain kinds of intertextual connections on the one hand and the writer s different ways of handling time in narration on the other. These narrative strategies are emblematic of the goals and intentions of the individual writers, and their investigation produces an outline of the genre of reminiscence writings. In evacuation journey writings, memories tend to interconnect with concrete points of reference, such as objects, documents, places, bodily experiences or crystallized narratives. In this research, these points are defined as sites of memory. Sites of memory testify, authenticate and reassert the link between the past, the present and the future. The research indicates that in reminiscence writings, sites of memory appear as points for the condensation of memories from different times, which in narration are manifested as temporal leaps and expansions of the plot into several overlapping levels of chronology. In addition, the research explores the significance attached to food and social relations in the writings. Central topics are children s reliance on their parents, their role within the family and peer group, and the dependence of the evacuees on other people s help and benevolence. The research shows that negotiations relating to social and power relations interconnect with more general ethical discourses understandings of right and wrong, good and bad which illustrate a writer s comprehensive experiences of losing his or her home and being an evacuee.
  • Jaakkola, Salla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Extremely saline environments include salt lakes, evaporation ponds, and terrestrial environments, such as salt deserts and underground halite deposits. They are inhabited by halophilic microbes that require salt for living. Cell densities in hypersaline waters can be as high as 107-108 cfu/ml, and most of the cells are archaeal. The number of viruses can be ten times higher than that of the cells. In buried halite, the cell counts are generally low, but viable bacteria and archaea have been isolated from samples up to Permian in age (250-280 million years). Icosahedral tailless virus types seem to be common in hypersaline waters, based on microscopic studies. However, only few such viruses have been isolated and studied. In this thesis Haloarcula hispanica icosahedral virus 2 (HHIV-2) was studied using virological, biochemical, sequencing, lipidomic, and cryo-electron microscopy methods. HHIV-2 infects a halophilic euryarchaeal host and is virulent. It is icosahedral, tailless, and contains an inner membrane. The properties of HHIV-2 were compared to two structurally related viruses: haloarchaeal virus SH1 and thermophilic phage P23-77. The comparison revealed the evolutionary stability of the virion capsid structure, in contrast to the host-interacting structures of viruses. It was also established that different virus capsid assembly pathways can lead to identical capsid architecture. Drill core samples from deeply buried halite deposits were used for isolating halophilic microbes. Nine novel unique archaeal strains belonging to Halobacterium and Halolamina were obtained. No bacteria or viruses could be isolated. Three archaeal isolates from 40 million years old halite were found to be polyploid. Polyploidy is connected to higher mutation resistance, which might positively affect the survival of cells inside halite deposits. One unique isolate was obtained from 123 million years old halite. The complete genomic sequence of this isolate was resolved. Based on sequence data and DNA-DNA hybridization, the isolate represented a novel species, and was named Halobacterium hubeiense. The isolate was found to be closely related to halophilic archaea residing in surface habitats.
  • Walta, Ville (2014)
    This study is concerned with the libraries, manuscripts and book culture of the Birgittine Vadstena Abbey. It offers a case study of a large late medieval monastic library in Sweden and examines the book acquisition, manuscript production and the contents of Vadstena Abbey s libraries. The study demonstrates that the libraries were fashioned after European models and that book importation played a large role in book acquisition throughout the abbey s history. The study also argues that the differences in the contents, palaeography and codicology of the manuscripts testify to the differences in the book cultures of the abbey s two convents. Vadstena manuscripts form the principal source material for the study. The source corpus is taken into account more extensively than in previous studies. In addition to the entire manuscript collection, the study includes manuscript fragments and the abbey s correspondence. The manuscripts are presented in Appendix 1 and examined using methodology adopted from quantative codicology. This makes it possible to comprehensively study the Vadstena manuscript production. The study also challenges some nationalistic claims concerning the special nature of the Vadstena manuscripts that have been made based on a smaller sample of material. In chapters 2, 3 and 5, the organisation, acquisition and contents of the Vadstena collection are examined, and several similarities to other collections are pointed out. The abbey employed various methods of book acquisition, including organised visits to the European book markets, and quickly adopted new innovations such as the use of paper as writing material and the printing press. Most of the writing done in the abbey was based on texts popular throughout Europe. The same is true for the sisters library; although their manuscripts were produced locally and written in Swedish, they often include translations of widely popular texts. Chapter 4 examines the palaeography and codicology of the manuscripts. I argue that the palaeography and codicology of the manuscripts show that the two convents approached the book as an object in different ways. Whereas for the brothers the manuscripts were objects necessary for performing their daily tasks, for the sisters the manuscripts had a more profound meaning. They saw writing as a useful ascetic exercise as a prayer conducted with the hands instead of the mouth. Since the books served as devotional objects, it was also important to place more care into their making and materials. This explains why the liturgical books and the books of the sisters are usually written on parchment and carefully decorated, while the brothers books are often on paper and lack decorations. The manuscripts of Vadstena Abbey show that a single uniform Birgittine book culture did not exist. The abbey rather served as the intersection of two different approaches to literacy and manuscript production.
  • Riekki, Tapani (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The present thesis consists of six studies that investigate different cognitive factors that contribute to believing and unbelieving in paranormal, superstitious, magical, and supernatural (commonly referred to as paranormal beliefs). Earlier studies have found several factors reaching from personality factors to cognitive factors to cultural factors that contribute to believing. However, the research has neglected the important factor of what sets paranormal beliefs apart from other beliefs. In addition, although we know a lot about demographical and personality features that contribute to differences in paranormal beliefs, neuro-cognitive differences are still not well known or empirically tested. One explanation that takes into account the difference between paranormal beliefs and other beliefs is that paranormal beliefs stem from core knowledge confusions about the ontological properties of mental, physical, and biological phenomena. The first study of the thesis tried to gain insight into the neural basis of core knowledge confusions in an event-related electroencephalography study. The next two studies tested the possibility that cognitive inhibition, the ability to flexibly switch between thinking modes and if needed, to inhibit unwanted or irrelevant thoughts, could contribute to believing and unbelieving. In these two studies group differences between paranormal believers and skeptics were first compared by using tests of cognitive inhibition and secondly by using brain imaging. Brain imaging was done during a task that invoked paranormal interpretations. The last three studies of the thesis examined the role of the social information processing differences between paranormal believers and skeptics. Methods included brain imagining, behavioral experiments, and self-report measurements. In the first study, we tested how conceptions about the mind are related to beliefs and core knowledge confusions. In the second and third of these studies, we tested group differences between paranormal believers and skeptics by using brain imaging and a behavioral test. We investigated if the groups differ in attribution of intentions to randomly moving objects and in tendency for illusory face perception. The results suggest that core knowledge confusions are based on intuitive world knowledge and that this intuitive world knowledge is less categorized among paranormal believers than among skeptics. Cognitive inhibition was also found to contribute to paranormal beliefs: strong cognitive inhibition downplays paranormal beliefs. Social information processing was connected to paranormal beliefs in several ways. First, understanding mind and its properties in a Cartesian dualistic way was associated with paranormal beliefs and ontological confusions preceded them. Second, believers when compared to skeptics assigned more intentions to randomly moving objects. This was associated with activation of the mentalizing system at the brain level. Finally, we found out that paranormal believers were more prone to illusory face perception than skeptics were. The results underline that if one seeks to understand believing and especially unbelieving, which both are complex phenomena, individual differences in cognitive processing must be taken into account.
  • Yliaska, Ville (Into Kustannus, 2014)
    This study explores the birth and development of marketisation of the public sector in Finland since the 1970s. These quasi-market reforms were labeled New Public Management (NPM) in the 1990s. The main idea of NPM was to introduce competition and result-oriented management into the public sector. The main focus falls on three different reforms: the management-by-results reform, state subsidy reform and the incorporation and privatization of public agencies. The research falls at the intersection of political and administrational history. The analysis is based primarily on archival sources, press debates and publications that deal with the marketisation of the public sector. The main questions are: how were the reforms justified and how it was possible to maintain the wave of reform for decades without any feedback about the economic impacts of the reforms? The study begins with the history of the welfare state and with the criticism that the welfare state encountered from different directions in the wake of the oil crisis of the 1970s. The study shows that New Public Management was one of the turning points where ideas about democratisation, decentralisation, conservancy and decommodification of work born in the 1960s and mid-1970s gave way to the centralisation, recommodification and marketisation of structures in the public sector. The study also shows that by 1980s and 1990s power over public resources in Finnish society was centralised from local to central government through doctrines of New Public Management, which separated operational and strategic power in order to reallocate public resources from welfare services to industrial policy. This power shift is analysed in the context of the recession of the 1970s, which was interpreted at the time as an overproduction crisis. The main justification of the NPM reforms – “decentralization” – is analysed from different angles, but the main focus is on the methods of conceptual history. The political battle over the meaning of the concept “decentralisation”, which had a pleasant connotation, was an important factor in defining the results of the reforms. The findings of the study align with the recent interpretations of the political and economic history of other European countries where structural reforms have also led to the centralisation of power from local government to the central government and especially to the treasury.