Recent Submissions

  • Korkka, Heli (Suomalainen Lakimiesyhdistys, 2015)
    The proceeds of crime shall be ordered forfeit to the State (Penal Code Chapter 10 Section 2 subsection 1). Crime shall not pay. Therefore, the offender or another person or entity that benefited from the offence must be ordered to forfeit the illegal proceeds. This doctoral thesis establishes a theoretically justified model on how the amount of the illegal proceeds should be quantified (the Theoretical Model). The doctoral thesis also demonstrates how the Theoretical Model functions in practice. The thesis analyses forfeiture in the context of corporate crime. A corporate offence is defined as an offence committed within legitimate business operations or in a business environment, for example, in the securities market. Forfeiture plays an important role as a consequence of a corporate offence, as the offence type typically generates considerable economic benefit. An activity qualifying as a corporate offence often produces both legal and illegal benefit. The Theoretical Model adopted in the doctoral thesis separates legal and illegal benefit and, thus, enables limiting the forfeiture to the illegal benefit only. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first part (Presentation of the Research Problem) sets out the regulatory basis of the Theoretical Model. Chapter 1 considers relevant regulation and the related main rules of interpretation. Chapter 2 analyses the nature of forfeiture as sanction by comparing forfeiture and punishment. The comparison is useful as, under the Finnish law, forfeiture cannot be used as a punishment. Chapter 3 establishes an interpretation method applied in the thesis. The provision on forfeiture entails an interpretative tension. On the other hand, forfeiture must not be used as a punishment (forfeiture must be limited to the benefit generated by an offence and not by other factors related to an offence), but, on the other hand, the crime cannot pay (forfeiture must cover all benefit an offence has generated, including indirect benefit). This tension between restrictive and expansive interpretation is managed in the thesis by forming two principles of interpretation: the prohibition of enrichment and the prohibition of punishment. The balance of the principles is relevant throughout the thesis, as it helps to calibrate the set of differing arguments applicable in a concrete situation. The second part of the thesis is devoted to the construction of the Theoretical Model. The model consists of four criteria: the causality requirement between an offense and benefit (Chapter 5), deductibility of expenses resulting from an offence (Chapter 6), estimation of the amount of the illegal proceeds (Chapter 7) and adjustment of forfeiture (Chapter 8). Amongst the criterion, the causality requirement is the most essential, as the causation criteria defines the subject of the forfeiture, i.e. the property a priori considered illegal proceeds to be ordered forfeit. The doctoral thesis adopts a two-phase causality model. At the first phase, the factual causality analyses empirically observable events. The aim is to establish what has happened and which factor in the surrounding world has had such a strong impact for the resulting event (here, illegal proceeds) that the factor can be considered a cause to the consequence. The latter phase analyses to what extent the factual causal connection established at the first phase is judicially relevant (the judicial relevance of the factual causality). At the second phase, the factual causal connection between the offence and the benefit is assessed against the objectives of the provision on forfeiture in order to establish whether the factual causal connection is relevant and, thus, whether the benefit qualifies as illegal proceeds under the Penal Code and, therefore, can be ordered forfeit. The third part of the thesis contextualises the Theoretical Model to the connection of selected corporate offences, i.e. abuse of insider information (Chapter 10) and environmental offences (Chapter 11). The aforementioned offences are selected due to their distinct nature as corporate offences. Abuse of insider information is committed in the business environment, i.e. in the securities market, whereas the environmental offences are most often committed within legal business operations. The contextualisation demonstrates the functionality of the Theoretical Model in practice. The different operational environment of the offences also entails diverging mechanisms of profit generation, which enables an analysis on how the theoretical model works in context of different types of offences. Through the Theoretical Model and its contextualisation, the doctoral thesis establishes that the forfeiture of proceeds of crime can and should be applied in accordance with certain general principles that are neutral as to the type of offence in question however, taking into account the diverging mechanisms of profit generation in different types of offences. The thesis guides the expedient and efficient application of the forfeiture of criminal proceeds, as well as furthers the consistency of legal practice in this respect.
  • Günsberg, Patrick (2015)
    Drawing on a comparative approach this study discusses the criminalization of the so-called hard-core cartels and suggests that despite possible pitfalls it continues to be a worthy endeavor. It seems that the integrity of the criminal justice system warrants the introduction of a criminalized anti-cartel regime, a project that should be on the agenda for all modern economies, including Finland and Sweden. However, one should not rashly proceed with such a vast project without carefully considering all the components that go into a successful regime lest the project become an asset turned into a liability. Crucially a failure regarding one or few components may undermine the whole project, as the UK experience may confirm. In the gravest cases criminal law alone could communicate adequately the blameworthiness of a given conduct: cartels impair one of the core pillars of our society, the market economy on which individuals depend in an attempt to ensure their own welfare. Indeed the bold disobedience to the whole system appears to be at the core of what is delinquent about cartels. Overcriminalization critique concerning a possible criminalization of cartel conduct seems to ignore the moral educative function of criminal law. The public may come to denounce behavior that was previously perceived to be neutral in moral terms one may think of the environmental offences for instance. Certainly public opinion could be shaped by experts views in complex fields of law. A coherent EU criminal policy and a national one for that matter, with regard to cartels should promote uniformity: the credibility of the criminal justice system is supported by criminally banning violations of a similar penal value. The justification for an exclusively administrative mode of anti-cartel enforcement appears vague. It seems that administrative sanctions could be properly adopted only against minor offences, whereas cartels as an egregious violation of competition law do not seem to fall within that category. Arguably, cartel conduct warrants the ultimate condemnation provided only by criminal law. Other measures would not produce the stigmatizing label on a par with criminal measures. Several EU member states have introduced criminal cartel offences whereas similar rules are absent at the EU level. In that regard it may be noted that it would hardly make for a coherent EU criminal policy if larger cross-border cartels did not prompt criminal liability whereas at the national level cartels were caught by criminal prohibition. Moreover, it may be argued that the UK problems with the cartel offence stem partly from the lack of harmonization in the EU, which may have also contributed to the misguided policy of relying exclusively on administrative sanctions in Finland where individual liability is completely absent. While the optimal deterrence theory cannot alone be relied upon to back a cartel criminalization project, it may remain a point of continued interest in the cartel criminalization debate due to its theoretical appeal. All in all, there are several commentators and jurisdictions that rightly acknowledge the value of a mixture of measures being available in the fight against cartels, including director disqualification orders, fines and custodial sanctions.
  • Henriksson, Laura (Suomen Musiikkitieteellinen Seura, 2015)
    Summary Vocal humour and critique in the couplet recordings by J. Alfred Tanner, Matti Jurva, Reino Helismaa, Juha Vainio and Veikko Lavi The aim of this study is to research the lyrics and singing styles of five Finnish couplet singers who are connected to the Finnish schlager tradition. The material-oriented study is performed by analyzing altogether 160 couplet recordings sung by J. Alfred Tanner, Matti Jurva, Reino Helismaa, Juha Vainio, and Veikko Lavi. The study examines the singers humoristic and critical approaches to the lyrics and investigates how the attitudes are performed orally by the singers. The aim of the study is to analyze the singing styles of the songs together with the content of the songs lyrics. The history of the couplet and the previous studies of the subject are reviewed in the beginning of the first part of the work, which also contains the methodological background of the work, which is divided into cultural models and attitudes and to textual and musical conventions. The methodological section introduces a viewpoint which takes into account the couplet songs musical and textual practices alongside with the general cultural views such as attitudes advocating the culture of contestation and hegemonic masculinity. A detailed analysis of Juha Vainio s couplet song Käyn ahon laitaa demonstrates in practice how the couplet recordings can be analyzed. In the articles the couplets themes are examined by using scientific concepts and by analysing couplet recordings. In the first article couplets and their critical attitudes towards persons in power are examined by using the term of carnivalism. The second article deals with self-irony of the couplets characters which is investigated by using the concept of incongruity and the relief theory previously used in humour studies. The subject of the third article is female characters in the couplet songs. The subjects of the fourth article are masculinity and its vocal interpretation in the songs. The theoretical framework of the study is based on the Judith Butler s concept of performativity and Zygmunt Bauman s categories of the postmodern pilgrim and its followers. Keywords: Couplet, humour, carnivalism, culture of contestation, performativity
  • Juvonen, Tarja (Nuorisotutkimusverkosto/Nuorisotutkimusseura, 2015)
    This doctoral dissertation examines the construction of agency among young people on the threshold of adulthood who are, or risk being, socially excluded. Adolescence involves many choices and decisions that impact later life, such as leaving the parental home and transitioning to independent living, establishing financial independence, making decisions about education and careers, and starting a family. An essential part of adolescence is the pursuit of autonomy and finding one s place in the adult world and its social order. Adolescents who cannot attain these goals are easily rejected as non-adults who fail to meet social expectations for different age groups and life stages. This rejection has the effect of excluding them from full citizenship. Emerging adulthood is particularly challenging for adolescents living in vulnerable circumstances who feel they are not yet ready or able to make decisions about their life. The choices they must make may also involve options that adolescents find dissatisfactory or difficult to handle. This dissertation explores young people s agency from a relational perspective, emphasising the social and contextual basis of agency rather than its individualist foundation. The relational perspective relates to autonomous agency primarily because the construction of autonomy can require the context of human relationships and mutual dependency. In contrast, an emphasis on agency that stresses individuality and independence may engender feelings of loneliness and insecurity as well as of going through the motions of a life with no true sense of meaning. People who work with and support adolescents should also bear in mind that wellbeing depends substantially on the ability of individuals to connect with others. A lack of relationships and a feeling of loneliness characterise the lives of many socially excluded and disadvantaged people. The relational perspective is particularly obvious among those without relationships. This dissertation employs a constructionist philosophy and a relational viewpoint. It focuses on outreach work and, more broadly, the service network that strives to help young people. The research data comprise documents from 2001 on street-based youth work, recordings from the development seminar of a working group, interviews with young people encountered during outreach work in 2010 and 2011, the working group s focus group discussions and recorded client visits. The four scientific articles included in the dissertation use content analysis and the voice-centred relational method to consider the themes of control, the construction of autonomous agency and the concept of having-to as it pertains to young people. The first of the articles discusses elements of control in outreach work. The three other articles explore the theme of agency and the associated relational perspective. The second and third articles examine the construction of young people s autonomous agency, first in tense meetings with outreach workers and the authorities, and then from the perspective of the challenges of independent living. The fourth article analyses the construction of adolescents agency from the viewpoint of cultural expectations, particularly the concept of having-to. The results of the articles inform the concluding section, which addresses the two research questions: How is the autonomous agency of young people constructed in the tense relationship of social control, professional support and having-to, and how is the relational approach connected to the construction of young people s autonomous agency? The results demonstrate that various social structures and service systems provide a framework for the construction of agency, particularly among young people who are or risk being socially excluded. Even the most autonomous individual must deal with certain have-to s and is the subject of control through both societal and social relationships. Both control and culturally defined having-to are factors that define the limits of agency based on freedom and choices. As clients of outreach work, adolescents who are or risk being socially excluded must negotiate with various societal representatives about the limits of their autonomy and range of choices and must respond to the expectation of stronger agency. Young people s experience of their agency and place in the world depends partly on social ties, relationships and the various resources available to them. Strengthening the agency of young people encountered through outreach work requires long-term partnership and support to help them succeed in the challenging transition to adulthood, which is limited by having-to. Interaction in outreach work, the parties meetings or failures to meet each other, plays an important role. Those involved in such work have the power to profoundly affect young people s lives as well as their ideas of themselves and their significance. External compulsion or decisions made without the adolescents contribution do not improve their self-understanding or autonomous agency, which are important to any definition of a good life.
  • Koskela, Elina (2015)
    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) affect 2-3% of the population. In Finland, their rupture rate has been exceptionally high. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors affecting neuro-ophthalmic findings in patients undergoing treatment for IAs. We also investigate the utility of conventional head computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of Terson´s syndrome (TS, vitreous hemorrhage in association with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH)). Patients treated endovascularly or microsurgically for their IAs at the Department of Neurosurgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, in 2011 prospectively underwent a neuro-ophthalmic examination preoperatively and at 3 days, 14 days, 2 to 4 months, and 6 months postoperatively. Findings suggestive of TS, as independently reviewed by two radiologists, on conventional CT head scans were compared with dilated fundoscopic findings. Participants comprised 121 patients with a ruptured aneurysm and 142 patients with an unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA). TS was present on fundoscopy in 13 patients (11%); the overall observed agreement between the two radiologists was 96% (116/121), with a substantial κ of 0.69 (95% CI 0.56-0.82). On average, CT demonstrated sensitivity of 42% and specificity of 97%. Factors independently predicting TS were female gender (OR 5.34, 95% CI 1.05-27.17) and World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade (OR 15.05 for grades IV-V vs. I-III, 95% CI 3.07-73.89). For patients with aSAH, the frequencies of a third, fourth, or sixth nerve palsy were 11 (9%; preoperatively), 16 (13%; immediately postoperatively), and 3 (3%; at the last follow-up), compared with corresponding frequencies of 6 (4%), 15 (11%), and 7 (5%) for patients with UIAs. Significant risk factors for postoperative eye movement disorders (EMDs) among patients with UIAs were aneurysm location in the posterior circulation (OR 142.02, 95% CI 20.13-1002.22) and aneurysm size (OR 1.28, for each 1-mm increase in diameter, 95% CI 1.12-1.47). After a follow-up time of 6 months, patients with aSAH presenting with visual field defects (VFDs) for aneurysm- or operation-related reasons numbered 20 (19%); homonymous VFDs were the most prevalent finding, and in logistic regression analysis, they were significantly associated with the Hunt and Hess (H and H) grade (OR 4.45 for grades IV-V vs. I-III, 95% CI 1.21-16.39) and presence of intracranial hemorrhage (OR 8.93, 95% CI 2.14-37.28). By contrast, seven patients (5%) treated for a UIA had VFDs. Poor-grade aSAH (H and H or WFNS grade IV-V) appears to be a strong predictive factor for TS and VFDs. With a high specificity value, conventional head CT scan might prove a useful tool in the diagnosis of TS. Although a common finding in the acute postoperative stage of ruptured and unruptured IAs, EMDs show marked improvement during follow-up.
  • Itkonen, Juha (Bank of Finland, 2015)
    Climate change is one of the greatest market failures of our time. This thesis consists of three essays in which we study the economics of climate change using networks as a theoretical framework. In the first essay, we discover flaws in the foundations of a recent strand of literature estimating the carbon Kuznets curve (CKC). The CKC hypothesizes that carbon dioxide emissions initially increase with economic growth but that the relationship is eventually reversed. The recent literature attempts to estimate the CKC by adding energy consumption as a control variable. Due to model misspecifications related to the econometric methodology and database definitions, the results are biased to support the existence of a CKC. Consequently, the literature underestimates the need for climate policies. In the second essay, we study how social networks might help to explain why differences of opinion about climate change persist across segments of the lay public despite the scientific consensus. To do this, we programmed a Facebook application that collected survey data on concerns about climate change and network data on friendships. We found that respondents tend to have friends with similar concerns as their own, the unconcerned respondents have fewer friends, and any two respondents who disagreed about the seriousness of global warming were less than half as likely to be friends. The results indicate that the structure of the social network may hinder changes in opinions, explaining why opinions persist despite the scientific consensus. The results suggest that the communication of climate science could be improved by strategies that aim to overcome these network effects. In the third essay, we study permit markets which are connected by a network of links. A link allows participants of one emissions trading system to use permits of other systems. In a linked network of markets, foreign regulators can influence domestic policy outcomes even without a direct link. We apply graph theory to study these dependencies between markets to determine who exactly can affect domestic emissions and prices. We characterize the equilibrium's dependency structure assuming perfect competition and an exogenous trading network. The results help to avoid unexpected foreign interference with domestic policy outcomes and to secure the effectiveness of climate change policies.
  • Konttori, Johanna (2015)
    The aim of this study is to add a new perspective to the large body of scholarly work dealing with the debates on the use of headscarves and full veils in contemporary France. The study examines the discursive construction of national identity by members of the political and social elite as they discuss the use of headscarves in state schools, and the use of full veils in the public sphere more generally. The new perspective that the study presents is threefold. First, the study examines both headscarf and full veil debates, which have so far been mainly studied separately. Second, the data consists of the little-studied transcripts of the hearings organized by the two parliamentary commissions (the Debré and Gerin Commissions) that looked into the headscarf and full veil issues in 2003 and 2009, respectively. Third, even though it has been widely noted in the existing research literature that the headscarf and full veil debates were linked to national identity, it has not been common to draw theoretical insights from nationalism studies, as is done here. The analytical focus is on Muslims and Islam, headscarves and full veils, and their relation to the Republic, its identity and values (notably laïcité). Using analytical tools derived from the discourse-historical approach, the study shows the great variety of different perceptions of Islam and Muslims, but also laïcité, in the data. Even though headscarves and especially full veils are mostly regarded as problematic and even threatening to the Republic, this does not necessarily result in negative perceptions of Muslims and Islam. Finally, the study ponders the usefulness of binary categories. It is concluded that neither the Us vs Them categorization often linked to the construction of national identities nor the claim of Muslims as Others in France entirely fit the data. Instead, it is suggested that the concepts of stranger and national capital enable a more nuanced examination of the place of Muslims and Islam in France.
  • Mönttinen, Heli (2015)
    The right-hand-shaped polymerases comprising the DNA/RNA polymerase superfamily represent at least six different protein families containing replicases, transcriptases and repair proteins from all three domains of life as well as from their viruses. All of these polymerases have at least three subdomains: fingers, palm and thumb, which form together a structure resembling a right-hand. The catalytic site is located in the palm subdomain, in which polymerization process is catalysed by two Mg2+ ions. There can also be additional ions such as the non-catalytic ion in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of phage φ6, which is located approximately 6 Ångströms from the catalytic site. The phylogeny and common regions of the right-hand-shaped polymerases have been previously studied mainly using amino acid sequence alignments. However, the sequence similarity between polymerases belonging into different protein families is low and therefore, the structure alignment provides a potential alternative because protein structures can retain similarity longer in evolution than amino acid sequences. In this thesis, the common structural features between and within the families of the right-hand-shaped polymerases are described, and based on the structural cores the phylogenetic trees are deduced. In addition, the phylogenetic relationships between the right-hand-shaped polymerases and other structurally related proteins are described. As results, it is shown that a phylogenetic tree following the established boundaries of protein families is possible to construct based on structural core sharing no sequence identity. This tree, illustrating long distance phylogenetic relationships suggests that the known right-hand-shaped polymerase families are not the closest relatives to each other. The phylogenies within polymerase families suggest that the relationships among the polymerases do not always follow the evolution of the corresponding organism, which implies horizontal gene transfer between cells, and cells and viruses. The phylogeny of RNA virus RNA polymerases seem to be dependent on the priming mechanism and it does not follow the virion architecture or the Baltimore classification. In addition, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases seem to share a third ion binding site in the proximity of catalytic site.
  • Shawesh, Amna Mohammed (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Indomethacin (IND) is a potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, acute gout and other disorders. IND is available worldwide mostly in the form of capsules and suppositories, however, these formulations usually create side effects. Consequently, an alternate route of administration to avoid or minimize side effects may be found in the form of semisolid dermatological formulations, now available in few countries. The specific goals of this study were: (I) to determine the solubility of IND using different co-solvents: hexylene glycol (HG), propylene glycol (PG), polyethylene glycol 300 (PEG), butylene glycols (1,2 BG; 1,3 BG and 1,4 BG) and ethanol (ETOH). 1% (w/w) Tween® 80 or polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP-25) were used as enhancers; (II) to develop suitable topical gel preparations using 20% (w/w) Pluronic® (PF-127) or 1% (w/w) Carbopol ETD® 2001 (C2001) as gelling agents and HG or PEG 300 as solvents (1% (w/w) Tween® 80 and PVP-25 were added as excipients); (III) To evaluate the effect of composition of prepared gel formulations on the following parameters: appearance, crystallization, pH and rheological behaviour and (IV) to investigate the influence of storage time and storage conditions on the characteristics of the gels. These results indicate that all the solvents tested increased the solubility of IND to varying degrees. Tween® 80 and PVP-25 only slightly enhanced the solubility of IND. 1% (w/w) IND was able to form a structural gel with both PF-127 and C2001. Storing the INDPF-127 gels at 6°C resulted in the precipitation of IND. All gels stored at room temperature exhibited good stability. The gels stored at 45°C developed a dark yellow colour. Gels with C2001 and PF-127/PEG had slightly decreased viscosities with increasing storage time, while the gels with PF-127/HG showed increase in viscosities with time. In conclusion, the water solubility of IND was increased by the addition of co-solvents. 1% (w/w) IND gel can be suitable for using as a gel formulation and it is stable at room temperature. The search for suitable gels for IND topical formulation needs to be continued with more stability studies. Moreover, in-vitro and in-vivo experiments will be necessary for providing data on bioavailability.
  • Lindh, Erika (Hansaprint, 2015)
    Influenza A virus (IAV) is a significant zoonotic pathogen, with a diverse range of subtypes infecting both humans and birds. NDV is the causative agent of Newcastle Disease, a significant infectious disease of poultry. While wild waterfowl, the natural host, remains apparently healthy during the even frequent infections with these viruses, poultry is susceptible for mild to severe disease. Both viruses have a heavy impact on the poultry industry by causing outbreaks with significant economical losses. Low pathogenic IAV and NDV viruses are efficiently transmitted in host populations and have the ability to mutate and become virulent. The segmented genome of IAV also allows it to reassort during dual infections, giving rise to novel viruses with unpredictable pathogenic properties including the potential to transmit to humans and other mammals. Extensive surveillance studies of IAV and NDV during the past decades have revealed their wide global distribution and host species range. Previous surveillance studies have yielded limited information about avian IAV in Finland and so far, NDV has been the causative agent of varying outbreaks in Finland, for example in poultry, a zoo and domestic pigeons. This project was initiated for surveillance purposes, to gather information about prevalence and subtype/genotype distribution of IAVs and NDVs and to assess the potential presence of highly pathogenic strains in wild waterfowl in Finland. Through annual sampling and screening of wild waterfowl, 875 birds were screened during the years 2006-2010 and 2014. The birds represent mainly young, hunted ducks from local breeding areas. We detected altogether 76 IAVs (in 8.7%) and 39 NDVs (in 5.5%). From most of the samples (75%) the viruses were successfully propagated in embryonated chicken eggs and partially sequenced for phylogenetic and pathogenicity analyses. Importantly, while no highly pathogenic strains were encountered, several of the wild waterfowl derived viruses detected in Finland were phylogenetically closely related to viruses detected during outbreaks in Finland and elsewhere in Europe. These viruses includ IAV subtypes H5N2, H7N3, H9N2 as well as NDVs. An unexpectedly high subtype dominance of H3N8 was recorded each year, counting for over 60% of all the subtyped IAVs. Genetic characterization of these viruses demonstrated high sequence homology, even between temporally separated viruses and suggests local perpetuation of the viruses. The past decades have witnessed an increase in the incidence of IAV outbreaks in poultry in Europe and zoonotic transmission of a growing number of subtypes. Surveillance data of IAV in the natural host is important for designing efficient national policies aiming to control the transmission of IAV to susceptible populations and for risk assessment. Our results also show that the northern breeding sites have implications on a European scale.
  • Nokkonen, Soili (Société Néophilologique, 2015)
    This cumulative dissertation is the first systematic study of semi-modal NEED TO and its semantic variation in Present-day British English. This topic is particularly relevant today, since the use of semi-modals, e.g., HAVE TO, HAVE (GOT) TO and NEED TO has increased in the field of obligation and necessity, while the frequencies of core modals such as MUST and NEED have decreased. The link of modal change with the process of democratization, and the way the semi-modals offer a less authoritarian way of obliging, present an interesting background for a corpus-based sociolinguistic study. The primary material of the five studies in this thesis is drawn from mainly spoken corpora from the 1950s to the 1990s. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are applied in data retrieval and the empirical analyses. The chosen corpora enable the exploration of NEED TO across variables such as real time, medium, the speaker variables of age, gender and social class, and a number of spoken registers. For comparison, Article 5 studies NEED TO and six other modals as variants of deontic obligation. The findings on the semantic variation indicate that the functions of NEED TO increasingly resemble those of core modals: the directive obligation uses cover most of the instances, and NEED TO is in the process of developing epistemic meaning. However, the original inherent necessity sense is still frequent. NEED TO shows clear social stratification. It is strongly favoured by the younger age groups, and they also use the newer semantic functions more. It is slightly more frequent among men in general, but in certain relevant speaker groups, e.g., among young adults, women have a lead. The upper middle class leads in its use. NEED TO is clearly undergoing change, but Labovian concepts cannot be applied in a rigid way. A finding that stands out is that register variation plays a decisive role. NEED TO is significantly more frequent in spoken public contexts as opposed to private contexts. Both the persuasive nature of a register and its high degree of interactivity increase the use of NEED TO. The basic inherent meaning relates to the strategic value of NEED TO in a deontic situation by softening an imposed obligation as being in the addressee s best interest. Indeed, NEED TO has found a niche in the face-to-face conversations where it is necessary to negotiate power and also to oblige the addressee in the least face-threatening manner.
  • Outinen, Sami (Into Kustannus Oy, 2015)
    Abstract The study puts into historical context the continuities and discontinuities of the employment concepts and policies of leading social democrats in Finland from 1975 to 1998. It concentrates on the decision-making of the most influential political party in Finland at that time, the Social Democratic Party (SDP). The study applies the methods of social science history and conceptual history by researching both the strategic decision-making and public argumentation of the social democrats. The framework of the analysis is based on regulation theory, which distinguishes five fundamental institutional forms in capitalist societies: (1) the nature of the state (economic, employment and unemployment security policy), (2) the wage-labour nexus (labour market policy),(3) the monetary regime (monetary policy and the regulation of capital markets), (4) the forms of competition (state company, privatisation and competition policy) and (5) international interconnectedness (European integration, economic globalisation as well as the impact of Sweden and international organisations). Finnish social democrats moved towards emphasising private sector-led employment, approached the middle class, adopted monetarist ideas, accepted the market economy and favoured controlled restructuring over counter-cyclical measures in a series of steps in 1975 1998. Export sector competitiveness in global markets, European integration, active labour market policy and R and D investment were the cornerstones of social democratic employment policy in Finland at the time. Finnish social democrats also partly adopted neoliberal practices such as activation, privatisation, financial market deregulation and labour market flexibility. The deregulation of financial markets meant a shifting of the basis of social democratic employment policy from steering the capitalist economy to seeking market acceptance of the party s politics. This did not manage to guarantee full employment in Finland during the period, and exacerbated the poverty of the unemployed. Furthermore, Finnish social democrats practised a third way type of Bad Sillanpää policy long before its adherents such as Tony Blair in the UK. After the mid-1970s, the Finnish social democrat-led governments implemented many reforms which also resembled the premises of the Swedish social democrats Third Way Programme in the 1980s.
  • Mutanen, Anu (2015)
    This dissertation analyses state sovereignty from the point of view of national constitutions in the context of the constitutional pluralism of the EU. The research questions of the study are threefold. 1. What changes has the European Union caused in the conceptions and theories of state sovereignty? 2. How do the constitutions of the EU Member States regulate sovereignty? 3. How have these sovereignty provisions been interpreted in Finland, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Estonia in a selection of EU-related national treaty processes? These questions are examined with a combination of theoretical and genealogical methods as well as contextual legal dogmatics and legal comparison. The dissertation demonstrates that the EU, and European constitutionalism in general, has profoundly affected state sovereignty as a matter of national constitutional law. The concept of state sovereignty has met with increasing criticism. Particularly the idea of absolute sovereignty has faced its demise in the EU Member States. Nevertheless, the general scholarly take within constitutional law still holds on to the concept, but provides it with increasingly relative content expressed in different theories of delegated or shared sovereignty. The texts of the EU Member State constitutions, however, still hold on to rather absolute formulations of state sovereignty and are still silent on the EU despite its far-reaching effects on sovereignty. As a result the constitutional provisions on sovereignty have been subject to dynamic interpretation in order to enable the domestic ratification of the EU treaties and their amendments without jeopardising the EU s development. Germany belongs to the group of states whose constitutions do not contain a sovereignty clause and which have well-established empowerment clauses. The interpretations provided by the German Constitutional Court in regard to the EU treaties have at times been very EU critical, and influential: Sweden, for example, has clearly developed its EU regulation through the model provided by Germany. Sweden does not mention state sovereignty in its Constitutions, and its constitutional interpretation has been integration friendly. Denmark has an EU-minimalist Constitution, the rigidity and the strong built-in referendum institution of which has enabled it to negotiate opt-outs to the EU treaties, allowing it to escape certain significant consequences for sovereignty. Estonia is situated at the apex of sovereignty protectionist constitutions, but on the other hand its Supreme Court has adopted a very pro-EU manner of interpretation. Finland used to have one of the most sovereignty-oriented constitutions in the EU. However, during the country s EU membership the constitutional interpretation has shifted from a rigid and formalistic approach to state sovereignty towards emphasising and easing Finland s EU activities and other international cooperation. This development was codified in 2012 in the Constitution of Finland in the form of an EU clause and empowerment clauses. When considering both the textual level of sovereignty regulation and its interpretation in connection to the national EU treaty ratification procedures, the current Finnish constitutional understanding of sovereignty is more integration friendly than that of Germany, Denmark, Sweden, or Estonia. This dissertation argues in favour of a pluralistic understanding of state sovereignty for resolution of the problems related to sovereignty within the EU. In the new pluralistic understanding of state sovereignty, national conceptions of sovereignty are recognised in that they also contain within themselves the possibilities for international cooperation and EU membership, with the accompanying transfer of powers and widening of competences, in order to engender truly pluralistic interaction between the EU and its Member States.
  • Mainio, Aleksi (Omakustanne, 2015)
    The October Revolution in 1917 led to Europe being divided into two camps. The turmoil in Russia also affected Finland, the territory of which became a safe haven for different counterrevolutionary organisations. It is possible to even talk about an invisible war between Finland and the Soviet Union although officially the countries had reached a peace agreement in 1920. This doctoral thesis examines how different White Russian intelligence and military organisations used the territory of Finland for counterrevolutionary activities between 1918 and 1939. It also discusses the relations of the Finnish Security Police and the Military Intelligence of the General Staff with the underground organisations and the attitude of Finnish authorities towards their illegal activities. No comprehensive research has previously been made on these activities. Nor have the groups operating in Finland been formerly examined in a broader international context. Research on these movements and their operations in Finland has therefore remained fragmented and unconnected with the broader picture of the anti-Bolshevistic activity in Russia and the whole of Europe. One of the main conclusions of this thesis is that the territory of Finland served as a significant base for counterrevolutionary operations. Between 1918 and 1939, White Russian emigrants organised intelligence operations and even terrorist attacks against the Soviet Union from the territory of Finland. These events resulted from the previous history of the country and its geopolitical location close to Leningrad and Moscow as well as from the traditions of Finnish activism. This thesis also shows that the White Russian emigrant organisations were closely linked with Finnish security authorities. Arranging terrorist and intelligence operations against the Soviet Union would have been almost impossible without their active or at least passive support. The General Staff, in particular, and the Finnish Security Police to a certain extent, were ready to tolerate and even support the secret activities of White Russian emigrants under certain conditions. This resulted from their desire to affect the developments in the Soviet Union but also from the great demand for intelligence on the neighbouring country. Without close cooperation with the emigrant organisations this would have been difficult to achieve. Such cooperation was a major risk for Finland and its relations with the Soviet Union. From time to time it might even have brought the countries onto the verge of a military conflict. Soviet propaganda used the support of Finnish authorities to emigrant activists involved in terrorist attack plans to harm the reputation of Finland and to justify the shift towards an increasingly totalitarian system.
  • Kupari, Helena (2015)
    This study examines the lived religion of elderly Finnish Orthodox Christian women in present-day Finland. It discusses the women s everyday religious practice within the domestic environment. Furthermore, it also traces the ways in which their religion had been affected by their life histories, the changing status of the Orthodox community, and the modernization of Finnish society in the course of the 20th century. The primary research material for this study consists of interviews of 24 women. Finland is a Lutheran-dominated country; today, about one percent of Finns belong to the Orthodox Church. Traditionally, most of the Orthodox resided in Finnish Karelia. After the Second World War, Finland had to cede large areas of Karelia to the Soviet Union. In the process, two thirds of the Finnish Orthodox lost their homelands. All the interviewees, or their parents, had been among the evacuees from Karelia. The theoretical-methodological approach made use of in the study is based on practice theory. In particular, the concept of habitus as developed by the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu is applied to analyze the women s interview accounts. The concept captures Bourdieu s understanding of the reciprocal dynamic between practice, subjectivity, and structures of power. The analysis demonstrates that the interviewees religion was characterized by a movement between routine and reflexive action. Judging from the material, they mostly did religion in a habitual fashion. Nevertheless, they could also perform their practices more intentionally, to reinforce their identity against specific others. These two aspects of the women s religion are traced, respectively, to their childhood religious socialization and their social trajectories as minority religious practitioners in Finnish society. Ultimately, the analysis forms an account of the women s religion as habitus. The informants religious habitus constituted an embodied and practical sense of religion, which informed both their routine religious practices and more conscious and creative religious actions. This study provides a description and a theoretical representation of one particular style of contemporary religiosity: the lifelong religion of older lay women. Within recent scholarship on religion, the religion of women of the inter-war generation has not received much attention. This study, moreover, offers a reading of Bourdieuan social theory as applied to the lived religion of minority practitioners. As such, it illustrates the explanatory potential that a Bourdieuan approach can bring to analyses of relatively stable religion.