Väitöstiivistelmät

Recent Submissions

  • Nikkanen, Joni (2017)
    Defects of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication underlie common metabolic disorders. Despite mtDNA is degraded and synthesised in all cells containing mitochondria, mtDNA replication stress typically causes generation of mtDNA deletions or depletion of mtDNA copy number in muscle and brain, which manifest as mitochondrial myopathy (MM) or neurodegeneration, respectively. MtDNA replication defects, however, do not affect highly proliferative tissues, such as blood or intestine, despite their reliance on robust mtDNA replication to sustain high rates of proliferation. The mechanisms behind the tissue-specific manifestations of mtDNA replication defects remain unknown. In this thesis, we aimed to identify the metabolic response pathways for mtDNA replication stress caused by a dominant Twinkle mtDNA helicase (TWNK) mutation leading to adult-onset MM. The study revealed that MM induces a metabolic stress response in muscle which we found to be orchestrated by one master regulator, mechanistic target of rapamycin complex I (mTORC1). The mTORC1-mediated stress response appeared to promote disease progression, and an mTORC1 inhibitor, rapamycin, remarkably improved the mitochondrial muscle disease. It ameliorated the typical hallmarks of MM: the number of ragged red fibers (RRFs) and the amount of mtDNA deletions were reduced after rapamycin treatment. In the second part of this thesis, we studied the transcription regulation of mtDNA replication machinery. We identified a complex regulatory locus for DNA polymerase gamma (POLG) by in silico predictions, which were verified in vivo. The regulatory non-coding locus drives POLG expression specifically in the sensory interneurons of the spinal cord and oculomotor nucleus, which we found to degenerate in POLG patients. The death of these neurons might be the underlying cause of sensory neuropathy and progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), which are typical clinical findings in POLG disorders. The identified regulatory locus is the first non-coding locus for a mitochondrial disease gene and offers the first candidate region for pathogenic non-coding mutations. In conclusion, our work has identified novel contributors in the tissue-specific manifestations of mitochondrial diseases and offers multiple novel treatment targets for mitochondrial disorders, which currently lack effective treatment options.
  • Lammi, Johanna (Unigrafia, 2017)
    The purpose of this post graduate study is to describe and understand the impact of the unified comprehensive school reform on teacherhood. In the center stage of this study is the reform which integrated not only pupils from grades 1–9 but also the class teachers and the subject teachers in the same school building. Before the reform, the pupils and respective teachers used to be separated in elementary schools (grades 1–6) and junior high schools (grades 7–9). The main question of this case study was, what kind of teacherhood does a unified comperhensive school foster. The following questions were used as the guiding principles for my data collection: 1) what new aspects does the unified comprehensive school bring to interaction in teacher’s work, 2) what kind of collaboration teachers do in the unified comprehensive school, 3) what kind of competence do the teachers need especially from the unity point of view and 4) what factors are holding up the progress of being a teacher in a unified comprehensive school. The ethnographic research data was collected from a unified comprehensive school in Helsinki, Finland. I used literature reviews, theme interviews, working diaries, observation, shadowing and documents as the main sources of the data collection. According to the results, the signification of interaction, collaboration and shared expertice was emphasized in being a teacher in a unified comprehensive school. Also the more and more multi-faced encounters challenge teachers to know better themselves in order to understand the diversity of others as well. I tied the results around the complexity of different kind of ”encounters”: how does the school building, the national educational framework and the school culture build up the teacherhood acting as the engines or the brakes for interaction and how has the interaction between individuals in the context of a unified school become diverse and created both opportunities and challenges for being a teacher. Even though one of main goals of removing the administrative border between the grades 1–6 and 7–9 was contigous and safe school path, the change has also challenged the teachers to build up a new teacher identity and even head to new career paths. The results of this study provide tools and ideas for both individual teachers and teacher communities for more effective ways of working together in the context of a comprehensive school.
  • Pipatti, Otto (2017)
    This study offers an overall interpretation of the sociologist and anthropologist Edward Westermarck’s (1862–1939) moral and social theory. It focuses on the key elements of Westermarck’s theory of moral emotions as presented in The Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas (1906-08) and summarized in Ethical Relativity (1932), and examines the importance of his work for understanding and explaining a wide range of social and moral phenomena that may be observed in all social environments. The study has two main aims. First, it lays out the key features of Westermarck’s theory of moral judgement, the nature of retributive emotions in which moral judgements are based, and the various psychological and social elements influencing them. At the same time, it shows that Westermarck’s account of morality is an ambitious and wide-ranging analysis of the fundamentals of human social behaviour and social reality. By combining the moral-psychological and sociological aspects of Westermarck’s work, the study reconstructs his understanding of emotions, and the different forms of emotional contagion in particular, as the fundamental elements of human sociality. What emerges is that at the heart of Westermarck’s theory-building is his neglected account of sympathy, proving to be crucial to his understanding of morality and human social life. The second aim of this study is to examine Westermarck’s thought in the context of his main sources of inspiration, enabling a better understanding of his work. In this regard, it highlights the importance of Darwinian evolutionism to the different aspects of Westermarck’s project, especially to his approach to the human mind. In addition, the study demonstrates how Westermarck’s theory of moral emotions developed out of, and in response to, David Hume’s and Adam Smith’s moral philosophy, combining their views on human nature, moral sentiments, and sympathy with Darwinian evolutionary thinking. The first part of this work focuses on the central elements in Westermarck’s moral and social theory, especially with respect to the nature of moral emotions, the role of sympathy and society, reciprocity, the emergence and maintenance of moral norms, and moral responsibility. The remaining part of the study expands upon and deepens these discussions by looking at Westermarck’s theory of moral emotions in relation to the sentimentalist tradition in British moral philosophy, whose importance Westermarck himself emphasised as the background for his thinking. Today, his legacy serves as an example of sociological theory-building that is not organized around the dualisms of nature/culture and animal/human which penetrate much of the social sciences. The study demonstrates Westermarck’s sociological relevance and broadens the view of Westermarck as the forerunner of modern evolutionary approaches to morality.
  • Mäihäniemi, Beata (University of Helsinki, 2017)
    The role of information intermediaries has grown significantly in recent years, due to an increased importance of information as an industry input. It seems that posting any information, independently of using a dominant online platform, may be detrimental to one’s business. Such companies can be considered as unavoidable trading partners, which may enable them to manipulate information and possibly exclude or damage effective competition. These intermediaries may block access to, or bias, the quality of information. The main reason why competition law would be interested in regulating the access to information is that where information is controlled by one network-based dominant undertaking — significant competition problems may occur. Firstly, access to the market may be prevented due to indirect network effects, such as consumers preferring a particular network because of its good reputation or everybody else using it and due to the fact that some networks may give preference to its own complementary services. Secondly, companies that control information may also affect the quality of information provided and this may, in turn, affect consumer welfare. Finally, in some cases, where information is created by means of complicated and costly research, but where it is unprotected by an intellectual property right, the danger of free riding may arise. Therefore, competition law should be extremely careful in granting access to information that constitutes a basis for some business models (e.g. trade secrets), even where such information belongs to a dominant company. One of the findings of this study is that special responsibility should not be extended outside competition law to include general fairness considerations in order to allow access to information. Special responsibility should still, as it has been perceived by conventional competition analysis, only be imposed where the company in question is dominant and where it behaves anticompetitively. On the contrary, business justifications could be increasingly used by the dominant company to show that the dominant undertaking competed on merits and did not resort to anticompetitive practices. Abuse of dominance that occurs in digital markets does not always fit into criteria that were crafted for physical inputs, however this does not denote that the conventional way of conducting an analysis of an abuse of dominance should undergo a total makeover. The Commission should not therefore aim at long-term changes; instead, it should acknowledge how characteristics of digital markets affect analysis of competition law. Law on abuse, as applied to situations where access to information is refused or granted on discriminatory terms, should accommodate rapid technological change; preserve incentives to invest and innovate; focus on consumer harm in the analysis of abuse of dominance and grant a larger role to objective (business) justifications provided by dominant companies. The above-mentioned theoretical findings are applied to a case study on one of the most recognised online platforms that is Google Search investigations in the EU which have recently proceeded to the Commission’s decision, however one that is not yet publically available. The initial outcome of the investigations has been as follows: Google has been fined €2.42 billion for abusing its dominant position as a search engine by granting illegal advantage to another of its products - own comparison shopping service. The thesis analyses two of the practices Google has been initially involved in namely, search bias and restrictions on portability of online search advertising campaigns. These are analysed in detail as to whether they are in fact anticompetitive and can be addressed with a valid theory of harm. The thesis in question confirms the Commission’s findings on Google’s dominance, however it offers alternative arguments for the appropriate theory of harm as to the abusive practice of search bias.
  • Kontro, Mika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Direct translation of cancer-specific genomic information into effective personalized therapies for acute leukemias has proven to be difficult. The aim of this study was to utilize novel tools for detailed characterization of genomic, transcriptomic, and functional aberrations in acute leukemia to gain understanding of disease pathology and guide individualized therapies. The main methods used were ex vivo drug sensitivity and resistance testing (DSRT), exome and transcriptome (RNA) sequencing, all of which were facilitated by extensive biobanking. In study I, we developed DSRT platform performed on primary leukemic cells ex vivo for identification of effective patient-specific drugs. Exome and RNA sequencing of serial samples were used for molecular characterization and to understand mechanisms of acquired resistance. Although AML samples exhibited unique DSRT profiles, responses could be clustered in five distinctive groups. Individualized treatment of refractory patients with DSRT-guided therapy resulted in meaningful clinical responses in 3/7 patients. In study II, we studied molecular drivers for relapsed T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and found novel STAT5B mutations. Functional studies demonstrated these mutations to enhance the transcriptional activity and to induce constitutive phosphorylation of STAT5B. The mutated blasts showed elevated BCL-XL expression and sensitivity to the pan-BCL-2 inhibitor navitoclax. Targeted sequencing revealed activating STAT5B mutations in 6/68 patients. In study III, we first evaluated ex vivo BCL-2 inhibitor sensitivity of AML cells, then we systematically assessed whether these responses correlated to specific mutations or gene expression signatures. BCL-2 inhibitor sensitivity associated with mutations in IDH1/IDH2 and WT1, as well as with aberrations in chromatin modifiers. Importantly, overexpression of a specific set of HOX genes predicted highly selective responses to BCL-2 inhibition. In study IV, we developed a national hematological biobank to allow researchers to access high-quality samples with accompanying clinical data. The samples from three collection time-points—diagnosis, potential remission, and relapse—are available. For this study, we evaluated the quality of stored samples and demonstrated that extracted DNA and RNA remain usable for demanding down-stream experiments.
  • Möller, Tia (Suomalainen Lakimiesyhdistys, 2017)
    The Europeanization of private international law is a well-recognized fact. The European Union (EU) has adopted a number of legal instruments in the field of private international law (PIL) in order to create a European area of justice, the objective defined by the EU Treaties. In addition to the Treaty provisions and the EU legislature there is also a third element influencing the Europeanization of PIL: multiannual programmes for the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice. These multiannual programmes have been adopted successively since 1998 (Vienna Action Plan 1998, Tampere Conclusions 1999, Hague Programme 2004, Stockholm Programme 2009, Strategic Guidelines 2014), and they have been adopted by the European Council, and thus by the Member States together with the Commission, and since the Lisbon Treaty, with the president of the European Council. This study analyses the impact of the multiannual programmes in the EU legislative process in the field of PIL and thus, their impact for the Europeanization of PIL. This is discussed from the various angles: the programmes’ relationship to the relevant EU Treaty provisions, concrete guidelines in the programmes for PIL (thus defining the vision of EU PIL) and the programmes’ influence on the EU legislative process. The latter aspect is analysed by examining all the EU PIL legislative acts adopted thus far. Moreover, possible future changes to the content and adoption procedure of multiannual programmes and their impact on future Europeanization of PIL are discussed. The study proposes that the vision of a European area of justice created by the multiannual programmes has played a central role not only in defining the direction of the Europeanization of PIL but also in its actual Europeanization, i.e. in the adoption of EU PIL instruments. In particular, in the area of family law, which varies widely between different legal traditions and legal cultures, the vision of a European area of justice has fostered a common understanding of the legislative work required, thereby furthering the Europeanization of PIL. The multiannual programmes have determined, prior to the formal EU legislative procedure, the PIL issues to be addressed by various legislative acts and also defined the general principles on which PIL cooperation should be based in the EU. The vision has brought real value to the EU Treaty provisions. However, the impact has been limited due to the general nature of the programmes and their limited possibilities in influencing the law on its different aspects. The study is based on the paradigms of legal dogmatics, i.e. legal positivism and the theory of the sources of law. The study uses methods from law and politics and legal history. The impacts of the programmes for the Europeanization of PIL are reflected on different aspects of law: legal order, judicial practices, the legal system and legal culture.
  • Tuori, Klaus (2017)
    The thesis assesses the constitutional implications of the Eurosystem’s changing role and measures during the crisis. It is a supranational central banking system that does not have the state’s economic and political will-formation as its counterpart and control, but rather the constitutional framework in which it was supposed to work, called the European economic constitution. The common macroeconomic policy was elevated to a constitutional level in the Maastricht Treaty and the underlying economic, political and even constitutional assumptions and constraints were agreed upon. The Eurosystem can be assessed as an economic policy actor. How it achieves its objectives and how it performs its tasks. As an independent EU expert institution it also needs to be assessed on the grounds of how it respects and advances the values it is supposed to protect and serve, which is a constitutional perspective. The main question is twofold: How should the legal mandate of the Eurosystem and the ECB be defined and how should the Eurosystem’s measures during the crisis be constitutionally assessed? In the first part, the thesis discovers the economic and institutional framework of the EMU, by reconstructing this economic framework as the European economic constitution. The new elements introduced in the Maastricht Treaty formed a new macroeconomic layer to it, named the European macroeconomic constitution. The EMU and the European macroeconomic constitution are based on three different foundations. The philosophical foundation was economic constitutional thinking largely based on the German ordoliberal approach to the economy. The economic foundation was built on the evolution in central banking and economics that culminated in some form of consensus towards the end of the 1980s. The institutional foundation was the economic, political and legal development in the EU that pave the way towards macroeconomic integration in the form of a common currency. These three different but interlinked foundations happened to share a common ground towards the end of the 1980s and early 1990s that made an agreement on the main elements of the Maastricht Treaty possible. The first part concludes with the forming of the key constitutional principles of the European macroeconomic constitution. The second part of the book places the principles to the test of reality, by analysing the common central banking system through the lens of the constitutional principles, including assessments of many unconventional and contested decisions and measures by the Eurosystem during the crisis. The final conclusions ask some simple questions that raise issues of the constitutional implications of the economic and constitutional crisis and particularly the Eurosystem’s responses to and during the crisis.
  • Caiazza, Ida (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Love Epistolography of the XVI and XVII Centuries. The Evolution of a Literary Genre This thesis examines the Libri di lettere amorose (love letter collections) printed in Italy in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries by authors and collectors who sought to offer a literary product to the public. The “Love letter books” (as they are usually known) have generally been considered as a sub-category within the “Letter books” genre, inaugurated by Aretino's Primo libro in 1538, which merged in into the “Secretary” genre in the early decades of the seventeenth century. However, this is an inadequate way of classifying the love letter collections. Unlike the Lettere familiari (letters between friends or relatives) and Lettere di negozi (official letters), the love letter collections are characterised by a communicative intent which implies a relationship between sender and recipient entirely different to that of friendly or official correspondence. Moreover, they reference the tradition of erotic literature and reveal themselves to be open to the development of narrative impulses. The aim of this study is to provide an accurate classification of these works, which should be defined as an autonomous development of the sixteenth-century discourse on love. Together they form part of a broader pattern made up of the diverse guises assumed by the European epistolary love novel. The works that make up this corpus (identified according to specific literary criteria outlined within this study) are described in an attempt to identify their specificity. Their relationship with literary tradition is examined, and the possible presence of narrative tendencies identified. This study seeks to trace the evolution of the genre and map out the corpus according to chronological-typological “categories”. In doing so, it provides an exhaustive and up-to-date inventory of the love letter collections. The picture that emerges is of a varied whole, united by a clearly identifiable common core. The unique characteristic of the works is their very structure, consisting of letters exchanged between lovers, which renders the reader a participant in their love affair as it unfolds, like a diary in several voices. Finally, despite their stylistic variety, certain topoi found in previous and subsequent love epistolary works are almost always present in these collections, highlighting the deeply-rooted literary awareness at play in the exchange of letters between lovers.
  • Kangaskoski, Matti (Unigrafia, 2017)
    This study concentrates on reading digital poetry. Reading entails the act of reading, strategies of analysis, and the means of understanding. Specifically, this study constructs a model of reading and interpreting poetry in digital form by close analysis of three complex case studies. Broadly, this study concerns the aesthetic means and meanings of poetry in the contemporary moment, where new and old media are in visible negotiation with each other. In digital poetry artistic expression, digital media, technology and cultural practices clash and combine to produce new poetic forms. With new forms of poetry come new challenges to reading, analysis, and interpretation. Digital poetry presents new material, literary, technical, and rhetorical strategies and techniques that offer novel possibilities – and restrictions – for reading. Thus, my broad question is: How do we read digital poetry? This broad question is broken down to a subset of research questions. These deal with the material medium, readerly action, and the processes of the poem, which are all to be seen as constituent of its effects and meanings. In answering these questions, I construct a new model for reading digital poetry. The model is distilled from my close readings of the case studies. The readings are literary, cultural, media-historical and media-specific. The background methodology for the investigation comes from the notion of close reading (sensu Culler 2010; Simanowski 2011; Pressman 2014). My reading model consists of three main elements: interface, interaction, and interpretation. I further divide the interface into elements of data (e.g. text, music, images), processes (e.g. temporal control, text generation), and medium (as material and conceptual). Interaction consists of logic, performance, and effect, which designate the mode of engagement with the work, the joint performance of the poem and the reader, and the effects these produce. Interpretation includes the articulation of effects and meanings. Whereas the effects are created in interaction with the work, articulating them is seen as part of interpretation. Interpretation includes the articulation of the meanings and connections the poem invites. In other words, the poem’s interface guides the concrete act of reading, interaction guides the reader’s mode of engagement with the interface, and interpretation guides the means of understanding what is read. The case studies renegotiate the interrelated and overlapping arenas of print and digital poetry, old and new media, and traditional and digital literary criticism. The first includes Cia Rinne’s zaroum (2001), archives zaroum (2008; with Christian Yde Frostholm) and notes for soloists (2009). The second is Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries’ Dakota (2002). And the third is Stephanie Strickland’s “V-project”, which includes two print books (V:WaveSon.nets /Losing L’Una 2002; V: WaveTercets /Losing L’Una 2014) two web applications (V:Vniverse Shockwave application 2002 with Cynthia Lawson-Jaramillo; Errand Upon Which We Came 2001; with M. D. Coverley), and an iPad application (Vniverse 2014; with Ian Hatcher). The emphasis in the case studies is on examining strategies of reading and interpretation as well as producing new readings and interpretations of the poetry in question. I investigate the interdependence of traditional print-based and emerging digital strategies of reading poetry, and combine print-based scholarly approaches with digital-based scholarship.
  • Immanen, Mikko (Unigrafia, 2017)
    As prominent figures in continental philosophy, both Martin Heidegger and the Frankfurt School critical theorists Theodor W. Adorno, Max Horkheimer, and Herbert Marcuse have all been studied extensively. However, there has been little interest in a comparative approach toward these giants of twentieth-century European thought. This is understandable considering that during their lifetimes the relationship between Heidegger and the neo-Marxist Frankfurt School thinkers was mostly hostile or ignorant. Heidegger never commented on the critical theorists in his published works, and after World War II the German Jewish critical theorists attacked Heidegger’s refusal to apologize for his Nazi politics as symptomatic of the wider German incapacity to come to terms with the past. While this antagonistic image reigns widely today, recent years have seen attempts to disclose unexpected parallels in Heidegger’s and Frankfurt School’s post-war concerns about “oblivion of being” and “dialectic of enlightenment” and in their emphasis on aesthetic experience as an antidote to the one-dimensionality of the modern technological mindset. Although inspired by these philosophical openings, this thesis focuses on the overlooked Weimar period, and, using the methods of intellectual history, shows that during their philosophically formative years in 1927–1933 – also the period between the publication of Heidegger’s magnum opus, "Being and Time," and his Nazi turn – Adorno, Horkheimer, and Marcuse saw Heidegger’s promise of philosophical concreteness as a serious, if flawed, effort to make philosophy relevant to life again. Rather than claiming that Heidegger influenced the critical theorists in a positive way, as Marx and Freud for instance did, the thesis argues that the critical theorists saw Heidegger’s existentialism as the most provocative challenge and competitor to their nascent materialist diagnoses of the discontents and prospects of European modernity. Demonstrating Heidegger’s surprising presence in the works of the twentieth century’s most important leftist social theorists, the thesis not only offers a groundbreaking historical reconstruction of the Frankfurt School’s unacknowledged early confrontation with their later arch-enemy, but also contributes to our understanding of Heidegger’s major impact on twentieth-century philosophy, an impact hitherto reconstructed by studies on his influence on key French, American, and Jewish thinkers.
  • Haikala, Heidi (2017)
    MYC is a transcription factor and a proto-oncogene, which is overexpressed in almost 50% of all breast cancers. Cell cycle promoting oncogenic MYC supports the altered energetic needs of continuously proliferating cancer cells, since there is an immense requirement for nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids to support the cell division. MYC supports the metabolic switch by enhancing the main nutrient (glucose and glutamine) uptake, increasing glycolysis and glutamine utilization, as well as by instructing the normally ATP generating citric acid cycle to serve biosynthetic growth promoting reactions. In this study we found that the metabolic changes induced by MYC lead to decreased production of ATP and the consequent activation of a key cellular energy sensor protein AMP-activated kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a metabolic guardian, which instructs cells to perform catabolic reactions to restore the ATP levels. However, persistent AMPK activity directs MYC-transformed cells towards apoptotic cell death. We found that MYC-activated AMPK phosphorylated the tumor suppressor protein p53, which accumulated on the mitochondrial surface. In the mitochondria, p53 primed the cell death promoting protein BAK for apoptotic cell death induction, thus connecting MYC-driven metabolic transformation to apoptotic sensitivity. In addition, we discovered a novel synthetic lethal and potentially druggable interaction between MYC activation and inhibition of a small GTPase RhoA. We found that RhoA assists MYC to upregulate glutamine metabolism, which highlights the relevance of metabolism as a sweet spot for targeting oncogenic MYC. Furthermore, we found that supraphysiological, highly expressed MYC is globally repressing the transcriptional targets of serum response factor (SRF), a RhoA downstream target, thus exposing new pathways needed for cancer cell survival. In addition, the same study contributed to a finding that supraphysiological MYC represses a set of genes related to luminal identity of breast epithelial cells, which possibly affects the cell differentiation and apoptotic sensitivity in vivo. The described mechanisms suggest a possible answer to the old paradox why cancerous MYC expression levels, but not physiological MYC, sensitize cells to apoptosis. Finally we studied how the altered metabolism-derived sensitivity to apoptosis could be exploited as a potential therapeutic strategy to kill MYC expressing cancer cells. In a rationalized drug combination screen, we found that the pharmacological superactivation of AMPK is able to potentiate the anticancer activity of apoptosis targeting therapies, which usually do not show great efficacy in solid tumors as single agents. The described combination proved substantial efficacy against highly MYC expressing breast cancer models in vitro, in vivo and in ex vivo. Thus, we describe the first pharmacological MYC apoptosis activation strategy that could be easily translated to the benefit of breast cancer patients, and currently clinical trials to test the combination are under consideration. In addition to the described scientific findings, the ex vivo and in vivo preclinical research models of breast cancers developed during this study are likely to serve breast cancer research community by providing more predictive and more translationally relevant platforms for studies of breast cancer biology and drug discovery.
  • Rajavuori, Anna (Työväen historian ja perinteen tutkimuksen seura, 2017)
    The politics of performance. Socialist agitation in the country side of central Finland in 1906–1908 The study examines oral agitation by the Finnish Social Democratic Party in the eastern electoral district of Vaasa before and after the first parliamentary elections. Research on political speeches is rather scarce, partly due to the fact that there are no recordings and only few manuscripts for these have survived. Agitation has usually been examined as a means to spread political viewpoints among the populace, and its success has been determined according to votes cast in elections. In this study agitation and events where this was performed are referenced through a performance theory viewpoint as bodily interaction. The performance is viewed as a lens, through which history, culture, and political and social reality manifests itself. The sources for this study include newspapers, oral history, historical documents and prose. These have been examined in relation to central issues within performance theory, namely identity, social roles and the possibilities of individuals. The study shows that socialist agitation was varied both in form and content. The nature of the performance was dictated by the audience. The performance of agitation borrowed from other types of performance of the era. The agitators made use of Christian rhetoric and their motives drew from the ideals of enlightenment. The central message of agitation, putting into words the class based society and class differences, could be made visible via performance. The agitator attempted to find conflict with the “bourgeoisie”, thus creating a clash between different social classes and a feeling of togetherness within their own. A key objective of agitation was creating a conscious working class identity based on the actions of an inner circle of actors. The study offers new perspectives into political action and the creation of political identity in a rural environment as part of the modernization process. Socialist agitators assisted the people in becoming political actors and strengthened their experience of participation and citizenship. In addition to political and social effects, agitation also had a profound cultural effect, because of the diverse nature of the gatherings, where it was performed. The viewpoint into political performance and the politics of performance offered in this study also presents a point of comparison into modern political culture. Keywords: agitation, agitators, labour movement, the Social Democratic Party of Finland, the 20th century, political performance, socialism, election campaign
  • Maddirala Venkata, Siva Prasada Reddy (2017)
    ABSTRACT Pharmacies are convenient for most people to get to and there is no need for an appointment to see pharmacist which makes them natural first port of call healthcare providers in the society. Worldwide, pharmacists are potentially a vital link in healthcare chain. Since public health services do not cater to all the population, pharmacies and private health providers can play a major role in the healthcare system. This also applies to India with a population of over 1.3 billion. Though there is a large presence, pharmacists both in public as well as in private sector remain largely an untapped resource in India. Aims and objectives The objective of this study was to assess public health and patient care aspects in pharmacy education and the role of pharmacists in national public health programs (NPHPs) in India. The research goal was to find out possibilities and ways of extending pharmacists involvement in national public health programs and how pharmacist education could partly facilitate this shift. The research was divided into four studies which were published as separate original publications. Two of the studies were programmatic studies (I, II) and two cross-sectional surveys (III, IV). The studies I-IV had the following specific objectives: to review pharmacy education system in India from public health and patient care perspective. to compare curriculum of different Indian pharmacy programs (DPharm, BPharm, and PharmD) to see overall differences with a focus on the amount of time devoted for pharmaceutical policies and public health, patient care and pharmacy practice aspects in the programs (I). to compare Indian pharmacy curriculum at all levels with pharmacy curriculum of USA, Finland and Denmark (II). to explore acquaintance of final year pharmacy students with 11 major National Public Health Programs and their attitude on pharmacists involvement in public health and patient care (III). to characterize physician perceptions on the role of pharmacists in public health and patient care (IV). Comparison of curricula (I,II) The programmatic studies (I, II) were conducted between March 2012 and 2014. The curricula collected from the statutory bodies were used for the comparison to see the overall differences with a focus on the amount of time devoted for pharmaceutical policies and public health, patient care and pharmacy practice aspects in the programs. (I) Syllabi of courses leading to 1) registered pharmacist title in India (DPharm, BPharm and PharmD), 2) USA (PharmD, curriculum from University of Florida), 3) Finland (Master of Science in Pharmacy program from University of Helsinki), and 4) Denmark (Master of Science in Pharmacy program from University of Copenhagen) were used for comparison. (II) The results indicate that Indian DPharm and BPharm programs were industry focused, and only PharmD has focus on clinical pharmacy and patient oriented services (I). Indian and US PharmD programs contain most and Indian DPharm and BPharm least public health and patient care aspects (II). DPharm holders are mainstays of pharmacy practice in India but their degree least contains patient care and public health aspects. There is a gap in curriculum, particularly at DPharm level. (I) Pharmacy Students Perceived Knowledge and Attitude on their role in NPHPs (III) This study was conducted as a classroom survey among final year DPharm, BPharm and PharmD students in India to explore acquaintance with 11 major NPHPs and their attitude on pharmacists involvement in public health and patient care (III). A survey instrument was prepared and distributed in a classroom survey to 326 students from 5 randomly selected pharmacy colleges from Southern part of India. (III) Students had positive attitudes on pharmacists involvement in NPHPs, although their attitudes varied in different student groups, PharmD and DPharm students being most positive towards involvement in NPHPs (III). The study also revealed the need for increasing contents supporting NPHPs to all pharmacy programs, particularly to BPharm program. Physician perceptions on the role of pharmacists in NPHPs (IV) A cross-sectional survey was designed to a convenience sample of physicians in Southern part of India. This small-scale pilot study was designed to develop a method for characterizing physicians perceptions on the role of pharmacists in public health and patient care in India. Six volunteers visited 800 physicians in Southern region in India and collected data in 2014. Survey instrument consisted of 28 structured questions based on NPHPs. The data were collated and extracted and descriptive statistical analysis was conducted by SAS (version 9.3). (IV) Among 129 responding physicians, 98% were comfortable with pharmacists roles in general, 96% comfortable to collaborate and 82% regarded pharmacists as part of health care team (IV). Physicians with shorter professional practice experience were more positive on pharmacists involvement in NPHPs than physicians having at least 11 years experience. Overall response of accepting pharmacists role and involvement in NPHPs was positive, Pulse Polio, HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Tobacco control, and Leprosy eradication programs being the top NPHPs where physicians perceived pharmacists had a role to play. Conclusions and recommendations Upcoming PharmD graduates with 6 years education (training initiated in 2008) focused mainly towards clinical and patient care aspects should be able to change collaborative practice models and pharmacists involvement in patient care and NPHPs. It also would be useful to have an alternative curriculum line focusing on patient care and pharmacy practice aspects in Indian DPharm and BPharm programs. Practicing pharmacists would benefit from easily accessible continuing education to cover their knowledge gaps in patient care and enhance their contributions to NPHPs. This study is first of its kind to evaluate pharmacy curriculum contents in India from patient care and public health perspective. It will be helpful to statutory authorities and curriculum reform committees in India and other countries where pharmacists role is continuing to evolve towards inclusion of public health and patient care. Further research with a scope of detailed national level analysis to identity pharmacists potential in NPHPs is needed.
  • Koivusalo, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This study examines honor and honorable emotional expressions in the nineteenth-century American South. I argue that honor was a behavior that facilitated emotional expression in three ways: recognizing acceptable emotions; navigating in society by expressing acceptable emotions; and identifying and achieving life goals. This can be seen in the life and political career of James Chesnut, Jr. (1815–1885), a prominent southern statesman. This study also approaches southern society more broadly. First, I suggest that rather than an unequivocal or static code, the prevailing idea of honor was shaped by multiple individual interpretations of honor. Individuals had to constantly recalibrate their notion of honor to coincide with other peoples’ notions of honor. Second, I propose that honor was a tool for identifying and expressing appropriate emotions. I have used James Chesnut as a case study because his life choices and actions can be read as responses to the requirements of southern honor and prevailing emotional guidelines. I use specific examples of the use of honor as a guideline. I discuss how parents inculcated a sense of honor in their sons, inducing young men to develop an understanding of honor and to recognize honorable emotional expression. Later, as adults, men had to acknowledge the requirements of honor in every life choice and action. I propose that honor helped Southerners formulate and express emotions: instead of displaying the raw emotions of the private sphere, one was expected to demonstrate their noble counterparts, the emotions of the public sphere. I also suggest that the unstable nature of honor was most obvious in times of crisis, such as during the Civil War and Reconstruction. Then, the role of honor and the importance of honor-related emotional expression intensified. Because of major changes in society, however, individual goals changed and the necessity to forcefully alter the understanding of honor arose. This work is a conceptual study: it examines the features of honor in a specific context, the nineteenth-century American South. It is, nonetheless, also a study on the history of emotions, exploring southern emotionologies or emotion repertoires. Textual analysis is, therefore, especially important for this study which examines how emotional expression was formulated into words.
  • Marjosola, Heikki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This dissertation studies the institutional transformation of the European Union s regulatory framework for financial markets and institutions. The dissertation is based on four articles, which deal with several challenges of the transformation: they analyse the economic rationale behind the institutional reforms; identify possible gaps, missing pieces, and problems that remain; and examine how the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has handled certain difficult questions about the legality of the new powers and institutional arrangements. The institutional innovations in the EU since the financial crisis have consisted primarily of increasingly hierarchical and supranational means of control, which have been buttressed by a far-reaching maximum harmonisation agenda. The dissertation argues that these choices have not been balanced with due consideration of their costs and trade-offs. Alternative governance strategies, such as the use of general courts as tools of ex post, principles-based enforcement, have been neglected. On the other hand, in certain critical areas of prudential financial regulation, the transfer of competences to the EU level seems incomplete. These arguments will be developed with the help of a novel approach to the study of financial regulation. Drawing on transaction cost economics and contract theory, the approach builds on the notion of law being incomplete and subject to various hazards of opportunism. Two specific governance problems will be examined, each of which can diminish the effectiveness of regulation and threaten the stability of the regulatory contract: (1) the problem of financial innovation, and (2) the problem of regulatory arbitrage and regulatory competition. Especially the latter can also lead to the underproduction of financial stability as a public good. The dissertation also considers the constitutional framework of the institutional transformation. Constitutional rules, whose function is to constrain the use of public power, limit the alternatives of policy-makers and regulators. However, the post-crisis case law of the CJEU, such as the fleshing out by the Court of new intervention powers from a vague Treaty basis, supports the view that the Lisbon Treaty can be seen as a type of highly adjustable relational contract. However, owing to the possibly conflicting relationship between the new financial stability oriented executive powers, and the more complete and directly effective free movement rights, the EU s economic constitution must deal with more fundamental design problems, which might jeopardise its consistency and continuity.