Recent Submissions

  • Taipale, Kristian (2016)
    In the history of oncology scientists have tried to treat cancer in numerous different ways. Traditionally surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been regarded as the three main treatment modalities. However, harnessing the power of the human immune system by cancer immunotherapy has recently attracted considerable interest, even though studies on immunotherapy started already more than hundred years ago. The crucial feature of immunotherapy is that it reshapes the immunosuppressive environment created by the tumor. Immunosuppression blocks the activity of body s own immune system, which would normally destroy the transformed cells, and it has been identified as one of the hallmarks of cancer. Oncolytic viruses are a promising form of immunotherapy, and the first viruses have already been approved for clinical use. Oncolytic virotherapy is based on the concept of selective viral replication inside tumor cells. Replication causes tumor cell lysis, release of danger signals and immune cell activation. Viruses can also be modified to stimulate the immune system further, for example by inserting immunostimulatory cytokines into their genomes. One of the most popular viruses used as an oncolytic platform is adenovirus, which is a non-enveloped double-stranded DNA virus. Treatments with oncolytic adenoviruses have been previously shown to be safe and able to activate the anti-tumor immunity in pre-clinical and clinical settings. This thesis investigates the influence of adenoviral immunotherapy on the human immune system. Additionally, predictive and prognostic potential of several immune-related biomarkers and clinical variables is evaluated. The patients included in these studies were treated as a part of the Advanced Therapy Access Program (ATAP), which was a clinical access program in contrast to a clinical trial. The thesis includes analyses from all of the 290 patients treated in ATAP. The first part of the thesis includes findings from the T cell subsets in the peripheral blood and tumors of 50 patients treated with an oncolytic adenovirus. When comparing pre-and post-treatment samples, a significant shift in the ratio of CD4- and CD8-positive T cells in peripheral blood was identified. The proportion of CD4-positive T helper cells decreased in the majority patients, while the proportion CD8-positive cytotoxic T cells increased. Interestingly, the changes in peripheral blood T cell levels were correlated with T cell levels in the tumor biopsies. Moreover, this correlation was found to be inverse for CD4-positive T cells and positive for CD8-positive T cells. The second study of the thesis concerned the pre-treatment tumor biopsies of 27 patients treated in the ATAP program. Several pathways related to immune responses, such as B cell receptor signaling, GM-CSF signaling and leukocyte extravasation signaling, were activated in patients surviving a shorter time than their matched controls. In the level of individual genes, several macrophage markers, complement components and complement receptors were also upregulated in this same patient population. To verify findings on a protein level, immunohistochemical stainings were performed for 19 biopsies. In these analyses, helper T cell marker CD4 and macrophage marker CD163 were significantly higher in patients with poor prognosis. Relating to infiltration of T helper cells, many T cell exhaustion markers, such as TIM-3, PD-L1, PD-L2, CTLA-4, were increased in patients with worse than expected survival, possibly suggesting a presence of exhausted T cell population. Third part focused on identifying predictive and prognostic factors for adenoviral immunotherapy. In this study, absence of pre-treatment neutralizing antibodies and low baseline neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio were found to correlate with a significantly longer overall survival, whereas absence of liver metastases was associated with an improved disease control rate. In multivariate Cox regression tumor type, gender and WHO performance status were linked to a lower hazard ratio for tumor related mortality. Interestingly, treatment with viruses that were armed with immunostimulatory cytokines was also associated with a lower hazard ratio. In predictive regression analysis intraperitoneal administration route of the viral treatment was correlated with a significantly higher odds ratio for disease control. In addition to improving the understanding on immunologic phenomena related to adenoviral immunotherapy, these results offer interesting directions for the development of biomarkers and clinical criteria for selecting the right patients for the treatments. Moreover, the findings provide a rationale for combination studies with already approved and emerging immune checkpoint inhibitors. In the future this knowledge could possibly be utilized to improve also the design of the viruses by targeting them more specifically to the immunosuppressive pathways that are activated in cancer.
  • Orpana, Jessi (Unigrafia, 2016)
    This thesis investigates the transmission processes of earlier traditions in Judaism during the late Second Temple period (c. 250 BCE-70 CE). In previous research transmission has been seen rather one-sidedly as a series of literary dependencies that have been investigated almost exclusively as textual changes. The current study will contribute to this broad discussion from the point of view of the changes observable in the late Second Temple literature depicting in various ways the creation of humanity traditions. In practice the thesis maps out, how Jewish sages answered the most fundamental questions of human existence, such as why do humans live and die, and how can we live in harmony with nature, each other, and God. The focus of the study is on the different strategies of interpreting and transmitting the creation of humanity traditions. This dissertation is the first comprehensive study on changes in the traditions concerning the creation of humanity and their interpretation in late Second Temple Jewish literature, and what can they reveal about the mechanics of the transmission processes. Much has already been written by scholars, especially during the recent decade, concerning the general way texts were formed and the intentional and accidental changes happening in them during a literary transmission processes, as well as, on specific aspects of the individual source texts used in the thesis. But thus far there have been no studies that would have incorporated the full source material available from the Second Temple period with so many texts from different genres and text corpora, and investigated them from the perspective of a particular biblical tradition. It is demonstrated that the two creation accounts attested in Genesis form the background and stepping stone for all the later interpretive textual sources analyzed in this study. These two creation accounts are treated in numerous different ways in texts from the late Second Temple period when the form and status of Genesis had not yet been fully fixed. Some texts focus merely on the two creation accounts of Genesis and read them as one narrative. Many select and emphasize more elements from either the first or the second creation account whereas others seem to aim to incorporate all the available material from a wider range of traditions. Finally, there are also some compositions that pick a theme or an image from the Genesis creation accounts, supplement it with material from elsewhere and build their own interpretation on the basis of all of these. This research shows that in order to draw a comprehensive picture of the reception and transmission processes of the creation of humanity, the investigation cannot just function between the different text forms and with questions and terminology strictly linked to such a framework. Therefore, such an exploration should rather also incorporate the recognition of the importance of scribes and the various strategies they used, as well as, a consideration of the paradigm shifts on the societal level, that sometimes surfaced on the textual level and that forced scribes to reinterpret texts and traditions in novel ways.
  • Kivistö, Martti (Suomalainen Lakimiesyhdistys, 2016)
    This dissertation reconstructs the evolutionary journey of the general doctrine of Finnish copyright law, starting with the preparatory stages of the Decree of 1880 on the rights of author and artist and ending with the era of digital technology and European copyright law. The focus of the study is copyright as property, i.e. as a form of ownership that gives an author exclusive control over the use of his or her work. Parallel to the gradual build-up of the legal position of the author, the emergence of various public interest goals that offset this development and their impact on law is also monitored. The study primarily operates within the framework set out by the Nordic copyright law and scholarly doctrine. In terms of methodology, the study builds on the assumption of the legal system being a layered structure wherein the elements of general doctrine, that is, theories, concepts, and principles, reside within a level of legal culture beneath the surface level that consists of statutory law, jurisprudence, and doctrinal opinions. In the opening parts of the study, the evolution of the doctrine and amendments of statutory law are explored in parallel, while also linking both narratives to their contemporary philosophical, societal, and economic surroundings. As a result of this examination, a synthesis combining the doctrinal and legislative elements accrued until the Finnish Copyright Act of 1961 came into effect is first laid out. This general outline is followed by the introduction of four fundamental principles, each of which summarizes a set of qualities that are characteristic to copyright as property. In the next chapters, further development of Nordic and Finnish law-making and general doctrines is addressed to include the second decade of the 2000s. A strict positive law approach that underscores the supremacy of the legislator for setting the balance between author s entitlements and public interest goals has become the hallmark of Nordic copyright law. A reassessment of copyright law from a national fundamental rights perspective in the early 2000s was a distinct Finnish endeavour with no direct equivalence in other Nordic countries. In the wake of the fundamental rights reform of 1995, the constitutional protection of copyright as property has been reaffirmed, but at the same time the relevance of other fundamental rights vis-à-vis the property dimension of copyright has been both accentuated and clarified.
  • Karjalainen, Katja (Suomalainen lakimiesyhdistys, 2016)
    The importance of cross-border protection of adults has begun to emerge, as the population of European countries ages rapidly while being more mobile than ever. The study focuses on the solutions and challenges of the Hague Convention on International Protection of Adults. It compares Finnish and Spanish material and private international guardianship rules Finland is a Contracting State while Spain is not and contemplates the possibility of EU measures in the field. The study answers the following questions: How does adult protection manifest materialization of private international law? What are the main weaknesses of private international law in the area of adult protection? Are private international law rules regarding adult protection efficient in legal reality? Should states create their own private international law rules, should they ratify the Hague Convention or should the European Union take a dominant role in the area? For the purpose of answering these questions the study employs the method of private international law, legal dogmatics and functional comparative law in both horizontal and vertical dimensions. The materialization of private international law in the area of adult protection is well illustrated by the fact that the interest of an adult is a paramount principle in the Convention on Protection of Adults. This is obvious not only when the Convention is looked at as a whole but also in its individual provisions. The Adult Protection Convention is a coherent, exhaustive and well-composed Convention. Nevertheless, there are certain problems in its solutions. For instance, the relativity of the Convention´s most important connecting factor, the habitual residence, and the special questions related to it in the adult protection area, are disregarded. International cooperation between contracting states is mostly voluntary and the contracting states are not obliged to hand out a certificate of protection. The complex relationship of the EU, with competence in the area of private international law, and the Hague Conference is evident in the adult protection questions. The area of freedom, security and justice, free movement of union citizens and the fundamental rights development can be considered justifications requiring the Union to act on the matter of adult protection. The study finds that it is possible to fulfill the special goals behind EU private international law by using international instruments. On the basis of the study it can be claimed that private international law rules concerning adult protection have only limited impact in legal reality. The rareness of the cases indicates that cross-border adult protection is often handled outside the scope of private international law. This does not yet imply that private international law is altogether meaningless. It is essential to take the materialized nature of adult protection into consideration when the rules are applied. The rules do not solve all the problems related to cross-border protection, they cannot be used in categorical way and they must be flexible enough in order to protect the interests of an adult.
  • Laine, Juhani (Talentum Media Oy, 2016)
    One of the most characteristic features of the Finnish Companies Act 21.7.2006/624 (hereinafter the FCA ) is the system of so-called true non-par value shares. The Finnish true non-par value system offers companies the opportunity to allot shares completely free of charge even in a directed share issue, i.e. when the pre-emptive rights of the existing shareholders are derogated. This opportunity could be risky, especially from the viewpoint of the minority shareholders, if the required majority of shareholders could in a shareholders meeting freely adopt a resolution about that kind of share issue. In practice, this would mean that a part of the share of the assets and of the power in the company of the old shareholders could be transferred to the new shareholders. However, the use of the directed share issue without payment is restricted by certain material grounds defined in the FCA. Pursuant to chapter 9 section 4 subsection 1 of the FCA, a directed share issue without payment is allowed only if there is an especially weighty reason both for the company and in regard to the interests of all shareholders in the company. The aim of this research is to formulate a meaningful interpretation of the wording of chapter 9 section 4 subsection 1 of the FCA, which could be used as a test when it must be judged, is there an especially weighty reason for the same both for the company and in regard to the interests of all shareholders in the company . My main thesis proposes that besides the formal or judicial principle of equality between shareholders, the principle of equality in its entirety, as it is known in Finnish company law, also has an economic dimension, which can be referred to as the principle of economic equality between shareholders. As such, a directed share issue without payment always means a breach against the equality of shareholders in the formal sense. However, if the company acquires enough substantial economic benefits through that kind of share issue, the real financial position and value of shareholdings of even those shareholders, who are not entitled to the shares allotted without charge, might remain untouched or even improve. The economic equality of shareholders could then be the core of the material grounds of the directed share issue without consideration. This thesis is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 describes the objects and hypotheses of the research, its methods, the most important sources and its structure. Chapters 2 and 3 are the theoretical or general part of the research. The former contains discussion about historical and modern corporate law theories, the concept of a share in a company limited by shares and the relevance of the investment made to a company s capital against the shares. The latter deals with the principle of equality between shareholders and the different dimensions of that principle. Chapters 4 and 5 constitute the practical part of the research. The former provides detailed presentation of the directed share issue without payment as a process. The latter focuses to the interpretation of the especially weighty reason for the same both for the company and in regard to the interests of all shareholders in the company and provides examples about acceptable grounds to the directed share issue without payment. Finally, chapter 6 summarizes the theses and conclusions of the research. The main conclusions of this research are that Finnish company law contains a principle of the economic equality of shareholders as a mandatory rule, and this rule is based on the economic purpose of business companies and the material objectives of the equality principle in company law. The residual position of shareholders in a business company is still based on a contribution to the company. However, even an indirect improvement of the financial position of the company as a result of a directed share issue without payment can be considered as the equivalent of a contribution, i.e. the directed share issue without payment should not be, in effect, a share issue without payment as it would be understood in everyday language. The principle of economic equality also gives a meaningful bedrock to the interpretation of chapter 9 section 4 subsection 1 of the FCA. This principle can then be considered a distinctive feature between the material grounds of the normal directed share issue against payment and the directed share issue without payment. In the former type of directed share issue, the adequate issue price plays a central role and fulfils the objective of economic equality. In the directed share issue without payment other kinds of benefits to the company and the evaluation of economic equality against those benefits will have an independent role. A directed share issue without payment must always be in the interests of the company, the benefit it provides to the company must be substantial and of an economic nature, and it must be defendable when compared to the interests of all shareholders of the company. This latter part of the material grounds of the directed share issue without payment must be interpreted as an example of the mandatory principle of economic equality between shareholders. The essential meaning of that principle in the directed share issue without payment is that the dilution of formal shareholder rights of old shareholders must be compensated in economic sense through the enhanced financial position of the company as a whole. The evaluation of such an expected compensation must, however, be made at the time of the share issue resolution, not retrospectively.
  • Vanhanen, Tero Eljas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Extreme fiction is literature that aims to shock audiences through transgression. Shock value implies two conflicting tendencies: to disturb and repel while simultaneously sparking our fascination and drawing us closer. Extreme fiction increasingly common as censorship has waned embraces this contradiction through shocking representation of sadistic violence and sexual transgression. Extreme fiction is defined by its affective qualities: it aims to shock, disturb, and disgust and expects readers to enjoy these responses. This study analyzes the affective qualities of transgression and shock value and maps out the affective narrative strategies typical of extreme fiction. The study takes a cross-disciplinary approach to extreme fiction and emotional response to fiction, combining cognitive aesthetics, philosophy of mind, and affect theory with narratological analysis of infamous works of extreme fiction. As the phenomenon gained large audiences in the last few decades of the twentieth century, the study focuses on five particularly influential novels from that era: Cormac McCarthy s Blood Meridian (1985), Bret Easton Ellis s American Psycho (1991), Dennis Cooper s Frisk (1991), Samuel R. Delany s The Mad Man (1994), and Poppy Z. Brite s Exquisite Corpse (1996). In order to approach extreme fiction, the study develops new methodological approaches to analyze emotional response to fiction and delineates the phenomenon of extreme fiction historically and theoretically. Finally, through careful analysis of how influential works of extreme fiction induce shock value, the study formulates the shock tactics and extreme strategies that intertwine the conflicting responses of repulsion and attraction that characterize extreme fiction.
  • Kozlowska-Rautiainen, Daria (Unigrafia, 2016)
    This dissertation provides an analysis of the scope and procedure of obtaining documents from the opponent in international commercial arbitration. The goal of this research is to provide an in-depth study of the myriad of detailed questions regarding the procedure and scope of obtaining document production which goes beyond analyzing the differences between common law and civil law practices and takes an international commercial arbitration perspective. The primary aim, however, is not to supply definite answers, but rather to present possible best practices by, for example, discussing various approaches and problematic areas of the topic and also providing the reader with awareness of different aspects that should be taken into account when dealing with document production. To reach this aim, the method of legal dogmatics is predominantly employed. The core of this research is in the interpretation and systematization of international arbitration sources, especially soft law, which provide detailed guidance regarding document production, against the background of legal principles of arbitral procedure. The challenge of conducting research regarding document production is that procedural timetables, document requests, objections and procedural orders are confidential. However, the author of this dissertation had the rare opportunity to research files of ICC cases and anonymized examples from the chosen cases serve as valuable source regarding international arbitration practice. The research is divided into five substantive chapters. In Chapter 2, the framework for document production is discussed. In Chapter 3, the procedure and requirements of the request for documents is analyzed. Here important questions are considered, such as what is the basis of a party s right to obtain documents, how to delimit a narrow category of documents, what is meant by relevance and materiality, can a party request documents relating to issues it does not have the burden of proving and also when are the documents considered as being in a party s control. In Chapter 4, the attention turns to the possible bases for an objection to a document request, such as privilege, confidentiality, data protection, unreasonable burden of production etc. Chapter 5 contains analysis of the questions connected to the actual production, including the tribunal s order to produce or dismiss a production request, the form of production and the consequences of non-compliance, i.e. adverse inferences and financial consequences. In Chapter 6, the issue of national courts assistance in obtaining documents from the opponent is addressed. The detailed results of the analysis are presented throughout this dissertation and the significance of this research is in the discussion of the specific questions. Nonetheless, on the basis of the conducted study certain key findings are also drawn. First, the research shows that many issues can be resolved on the basis of balancing principles of international commercial arbitration. Consequently, there is no need for more regulation. Arbitration needs to remain flexible. Predictability should not be achieved on the level of arbitration rules and soft law, but in specific arbitration proceedings. Second, there are important legal implications relating to production of electronic documents and participants of the arbitral process need to be aware of them. Third, arbitrators are very cautious when making decisions as to not violate possible due process or public policy requirements. In fact, only one arbitral award has been set aside due to a reason connected to a document production question. Finally, with respect to many questions regard-ing the scope and procedure of document production, one can refer to an international commercial arbitration approach.
  • Minard, Nathanaelle (Finska Vetenskaps-Societeten, 2016)
    The construction of Russian representations of Finland and their functions in the polite culture of early-nineteenth-century Russia is the subject of the present dissertation. Based on travellers written accounts, the study examines in particular the interaction between travellers perceptions of Finland and the imperial context. Applying postcolonial theory, and in particular Edward Said s findings with regard to the role and place of culture in the construction of empires, I propose a new approach to Russian perceptions of Finland during a period that has too often been described as simply Romantic without any further characterisation. As a survey of the history of ideas based on literary sources, my work borrows elements from classical literary analysis, but focuses more strongly on the attitudes of a social group − the Russian nobility − and on the values of these representations. The first part of the dissertation explores the construction of a formal framework enabling the appreciation of Finland s terrain in Russia during the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries. The practices of Russian tourists and the discourse they elaborated on Finland were in many ways typical of the Romantic shift in the Grand Tour at the beginning of the nineteenth century: through a change of focus from classical canons to the individual impressions of the narrator, European sentimental literature and pastoral aesthetics constructed a grammar through which to approach and describe the Finnish wilderness. Part 2 examines how Russians travelled in Finland, and notably the dominance during the first half of the nineteenth century of what sociologist John Urry defined as the tourist gaze . Given the focus on scenic pleasure in the travelling experiences of Russians, their descriptions constructed Finland as an infinite collection of visual delights but also as a desolate territory in terms of culture. The travelogues thus left little space for the representation of Finnish elites who, when they appeared at all, were endowed with the same pastoral virtues of simplicity, fraternal spirit and honesty as the talonpoika (peasant, in Finnish). Part 3 presents how Russian travel literature constructed Finland as an ideal colony of an ideal empire. The idyllic image of Finns as agrarian people, essentially loyal to the Monarch who had given them a fatherland, showed the imperial project and the country s annexation in a favourable light. Although apparently less antagonistic than the images developed about the Caucasus and Poland during the same period, the pastoral descriptions of Finland similarly contributed to establishing Russia s cultural superiority and political domination over a primitive and underdeveloped borderland.
  • Koulu, Riikka (University of Helsinki Conflict Management Institute/ Riikka Koulu, 2016)
    This study, Dispute Resolution and Technology: Revisiting the Justification of Conflict Management, belongs to the fields of procedural law, legal theory and law and technology studies. In this study the changes in dispute resolution caused by technology are evaluated. The overarching research question of this study is how does implementing technology to dispute resolution challenge the justification of law as a legitimised mode of violence? Before answering such an abstract research question it is necessary to examine 1) how we should understand technology in the context of dispute resolution, and 2) how technology changes our perception of dispute resolution. In this study, I examine different forms of private enforcement enabled by technology using this phenomenon as an example of the changes in justification caused by the implementation of modern information and communication technology (ICT) to dispute resolution. The use of ICT connects with dispute resolution at three intersections: courtroom technology, online dispute resolution (ODR), and disputes about technology, the first two of which are discussed in this study. I claim that the implementation of technology in dispute resolution creates a discrepancy in the ways in which we have justified the establishment, function and appearances of dispute resolution. This discrepancy becomes visible in private enforcement of e-commerce sites and in self-executing smart contracts based on cryptocurrency infrastructure, as no judicial control of due process can be extended to these private forms of coercion. This study consists of three parts. In the first part I examine the theoretical implications of technology in dispute resolution. Answers to the first of the preliminary questions are sought from media theory: from Marshall McLuhan s technological determinism and Raymond Williams s social construction of technology as well as from Friedrich Kittler s agency of technology. The second preliminary question is answered by discussing the converging models of dispute resolution. In this discussion, I suggest abandoning the doctrinal distinction between courtroom technology and ODR. Implementing technology brings public and private dispute resolution closer to each other in many aspects, and even to the point of convergence. In the second part I exemplify the disruptive power of ICT through private enforcement, which challenges the nation-state s monopoly on violence. Although implementation of ICT cannot be reduced to private enforcement, privatisation of coercion provides a vantage point for evaluating the multifaceted changes brought on by globalisation and the privatisation of law. I identify and discuss three different justificatory narratives that have been employed to justify dispute resolution: sovereignty, consent, and access to justice. These narratives are structures within the legal system formed by continuous operations that are shared with other societal subsystems through structural couplings. The justificatory force of each narrative is tested against the challenge of private enforcement. This analysis shows that private enforcement enabled by technology causes problems for justification, as none of the existing justificatory narratives provides an explanation of its existence. In the third part of the study I briefly examine the co-operation between different justificatory narratives. In addition to this, I address the possibilities of finding justification through the technological infrastructure itself, a conceptualisation which follows Lawrence Lessig s argument of code as law. The main claim of this doctoral dissertation is that none of the discussed justificatory narratives are able to address the challenge brought on by private enforcement. On a practical level this means that it is unclear, how a sufficient level of protection of due process can be extended to private enforcement without judicial control at the enforcement stage. This challenge is rendered even more difficult by the transnational nature of dispute resolution technology. In conclusion, private enforcement constitutes a new grey area of the legal system, balancing between legal and illegal, changing our perception of the justification of conflict management.
  • Pulkkinen, Mari (Mari Pulkkinen, 2016)
    Loss through death is a core experience in human life, for humanity necessitates the acceptance of mortality. In the field of cultural studies, contemporary Finnish grief is an unfamiliar subject as a theoretical as well as empirical phenomenon. I approach loss as a holistic experience of a unique individual. It is deeply subjective but also inherently shared. I pursue this by developing an analytical tool: a conceptual and theoretical perspective on grief which manifests itself in the dimensions of emotions and cognition, deeds and actions, as well as words and grammar. By this I refer to the emotional-cognitive, ritual-conative and linguistic-conceptual nature of grief. Moreover, the experience of loss cannot be understood without also paying attention to its contexts: the life course and the cultural-societal frame of death culture. The data consist of letters written by 159 grieving Finns of different ages and backgrounds. In order to collect the data, advertisements were placed in the print media and on the Internet in 2003 2005. The goal of the analysis is to understand the losses that Finns living the 21st century have experienced over the course of their lives. My approach is deliberately critical. Mourning is still, in the spirit of modernity, often seen as an individual psychological process grief work the stages of which remain largely unchanged regardless of varying circumstances. Its perceived aims are recovery and coping. When understood as an experience, loss claims its place in the human life course the same way as other life events do: as inherently meaningful and permanent. Read closely, in terms of emotions and cognition, grief appears hidden and hard to reach. Emotions are manifold and ambiguous. They should not be approached based on designation only. The grieving also feel as sense of grief in their bodies, cry in private, and experience incomprehensibility beyond the psychological definition of shock. In the light of deeds and action, grief gains the attributes of performance, and in that sense is work indeed. The traditional rituals as well as grief s bureaucracy and everyday obligations are all vigorously performed and dealt with. This separates action from its ritual meaning. From the point of view of words and grammar, grief is silent and wordless. Wordlessness is selective and chosen but also subjective: the experience escapes expression. The human life course is the arena of progressive time where both the grieving and grief have their own uncontrollable time. Neither the experience nor the ties cease to exist. In the changing death culture the ability of others to express their condolences and sympathize is often seen as inadequate. This applies also to encounters with professionals who are expected to be humane. The medication of the grieving bespeaks the desire to control. The varied perceptions of the hereafter often utilize Christian imagery and suggest that the dead watch over the living. They are created out of need, and are based on the hope of something existing beyond the end. Despite its communality, the death culture of the past cannot always be seen as a more gentle background for the experience of loss; it is sometimes even the opposite. This brings to mind the distinct nature of grief, which is not contingent on the era lived in.
  • Aakula, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) impact on cellular signaling pathways and biological processes in physiological and pathological states. The expression of miRNAs is often altered in cancer, but the functions and their targets are less well understood. In this thesis project, the miRNA regulation of genes relevant for PCa proliferation was comprehensively mapped through phenotypic screening and tumor expression data. Given the role of androgen receptor (AR) as a key oncogenic driver in PCa and estrogen receptor α (ERα) playing a similar role in BCa, the regulation of these receptors was investigated here. Systematic gain-of-function screens were conducted with 1129 miRNA molecules and changes in AR, proliferation marker Ki67, and the apoptotic marker cPARP were quantified using reverse-phase protein arrays. The results identify miR-19a, -32, -124a, -130b, -148a, and -583 as regulators of proliferation and, as potential regulators of FLNC, MSRB3, PARVA, PCDH7, PRNP, RAB34 and SORBS1 genes. These aberrantly expressed genes were significantly associated with biochemical recurrence-free survival of 140 PCa patients. Altogether 13 miRNAs that regulate the AR 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) (miR-135b, -185, -297, -299-3p, -34a, -34c, -371-3p, -421, -449a, -449b, -634, -654-5p and -9) were identified and validated in PCa. Interestingly, the RNA-sequencing data revealed a longer 3 UTR of AR, and most of the AR targeting miRNAs were found to act via this extended AR mRNA. MiR-135b and miR-34c showed an inverse association with AR protein levels in 47 clinical PCa samples. Similarly, miR-135b targeted the ERα 3'UTR in BCa and showed significant inverse correlation with the steady-state ERα protein levels in a cohort of 101 breast tumors. MiR-135b also inhibited the growth of AR-positive PCa and ERα-positive BCa cells, whereas it failed to affect the AR- and ERα-negative cells. Prolonged miR-135b expression in 3D and xenograft experiments, however, seem to confer a growth advantage and putatively induce an epithelial-to-mesenchymal switch in LNCaP cells. Taken together, this study identifies specific miRNAs as important regulators of AR, ERα, and HIF1AN protein levels, as well as novel regulatory molecules, which impact on PCa and BCa proliferation and are aberrantly expressed in tumors. This reveals novel regulatory nodes with potential as diagnostic biomarkers and that could be considered as targets for therapy or as therapy if delivery of miRNA as therapy becomes feasible.
  • Siligato, Riccardo (2016)
    Plants possess the rare capability to shape the own architecture according to biotic and abiotic stimuli received from the environment. Spatially defined groups of cells, called meristems, contribute to the division and differentiation processes continuously occurring inside the organism. Meristems can be classified as primary meristems, if they are specified during embryogenesis, or secondary meristems, if they form from undifferentiated, quiescent cells outside the primary meristems. Primary meristems, like the Root Apical Meristem (RAM) and the Shoot Apical Meristem (SAM), coordinate the apical growth of the plant in opposite directions, while secondary meristems shape the radial architecture, regulating the thickness and branching of the primary root and shoot. Cambium is a secondary meristem which produces the vascular tissues xylem and phloem. Xylem transports water and minerals from the root to the photosynthetic tissues; it comprises lignified dead conducting cells called tracheary elements, living parenchyma cells, and lignified dead cells, called fibres, which confer mechanical support and strength. Phloem distributes glucose, RNA, viruses, and proteins from the photosynthetic sources to the sink cells; it consists of empty living sieve elements, supporting companion cells, and parenchyma cells. In order to investigate the regulation of primary and secondary growth, we developed a new chemically inducible system to control the timing and location of the induction of an effector or gene of interest. This enables us to avoid deleterious effects such as seed lethality or sterility when studying the role of a gene in a particular cell type. For example, the meristem cambium is difficult to access through normal techniques, since mutations affecting cambial cell divisions often inhibit the primary growth, too. We developed the inducible system by combining the Multi-Site Gateway cloning technology with the already extant XVE inducible system. This system was used to perform part of the research presented in the thesis. Phytohormones are involved in virtually every aspect of plant life, from development to stress response. They are small molecules which act cellautonomously or non-cell-autonomously to mediate the majority of developmental and environmental responses and, consequently, the activity of the meristems throughout the plant life cycle. Auxin and cytokinins, which were among the first phytohormones discovered, regulate almost every aspect of plant life, such as the division and differentiation processes occurring continuously in the RAM and SAM. The two phytohormones have long been known to interact, and recent studies have uncovered significant crosstalk on the level of biosynthesis, transport, signalling and degradation. We investigated the dynamic role of auxin in maintaining the balance between division, elongation, differentiation in the RAM of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results confirm that an optimal level of auxin response is required for division and elongation, while differentiation mechanisms require just a minimal concentration of auxin to proceed normally. We discovered that auxin and cytokinin responses interact synergistically to specify the stem cells and to regulate the timing of divisions in the cambium of Arabidopsis thaliana. The auxin and cytokinin signalling pathways both have a positive role in triggering secondary growth, but the hierarchy of the crosstalk between them is still unclear. Finally, auxin transported via the AUX1/LAX auxin influx carriers regulates the differentiation of vessel elements in the later stages of root cambium development. In summary, we confirm that auxin and cytokinins behave as master regulators of meristematic activities throughout the root, as the signalling pathways associated with both phytohormones heavily influence primary and secondary growth.
  • Malminen, Toni Petteri (Unigrafia, 2016)
    The study is about the intellectual origins of a form of jurisprudence legal realism. A set of novel ideas about adjudication, legal education, property rights, freedom of contract, and administration of justice, legal realism was established between 1860 and 1960 by three generations of reformist European and American lawyers, philosophers, economists, sociologists, political scientists, and anthropologists who shared the conviction that various areas of social thought were infested with scientifically unsustainable and politically regressive ideas. With their sights fixed on the rise of political progressivism and social democracy, legal realists attempted to remold law for the felt necessities of the time. Through their activities as idea brokers, political confidantes, progressive judges, and innovating ideologists, they became pivotal figures in American and Swedish turn-of-the-century legal, cultural, and political history. This is a history of the intellectual origins of their ideas. The study argues that the early critique of formalism was targeted at not only formalism, positivism, and the systematic orientation of contemporary legal science but also at the romantic historicism of Savigny and his allies. Part 1 will argue that the shift from romanticism, idealism, and conceptualism toward legal realism was mediated by a novel historical sensibility I will call critical historicism. Offered as an alternative to metaphysical conceptions of history, critical historicism approached the past from a materialist and naturalistic vantage point. It also drew on contemporary cultural anthropology to gain a less parochial perspective on law and morals. With its novel historical consciousness, marked by a debunking spirit, instrumentalist vision of law and morals, and private sense of time, critical historicism mediated a shift from nineteenth-century historicism toward twentieth-century modernism and legal realism. Part 2 discusses the secularization of legal thought from the vantage point of legal realism. Although secularization was a major historical trend in the age of legal realism and realism was a distinctly secular approach to law and morals, no specialized study on the relationship between legal realism and the secularization of legal thought has been undertaken so far, a gap in scholarship I will begin to fill, although much more certainly needs to be done. The rise of legal realism coincided with the fall of the American Protestant Establishment and the crisis of the Church of Sweden, and realism was itself a step in the transformation toward pluralism and secularism in social thought. Part 3 addresses the legal skepticism and agonism of Jhering, Holmes, and Hägerström through their notion of law as a site of social struggle. Their turn toward conflict was driven simultaneously by contemporary political, economic, and social developments, including the rise of organized labor, and various intellectual currents such as Darwinism.
  • Leppälahti, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Teenage pregnancy is recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as one of the main public health concerns worldwide. Teenage childbirth and motherhood are associated with substantial socioeconomic and health inequalities. Research concerning those who undergo abortion at a young age remains limited, partly due to lack of reliable data. The present register-based study was designed to assess teenage pregnancy in Finland from 1987 to 2012. The aim was to investigate the trends, determinants and health and social consequences of teenage abortion and childbirth. The trends in teenage abortion between 1987 and 2009 (n=52 968) were examined. The proportion of abortions among all teenage pregnancies remained steady throughout the study period, being 82% among 13- to 15-year-olds and 41% among 18- to 19-year-olds in 2007–2009. Great fluctuation in the incidence of teenage abortion was seen (8.0/1000 in 1993, 11.5/1000 in 2003 and 9.7/1000 in 2009 among all teenagers). Repeat abortions almost doubled among the 16- to 19-year-olds. Obstetric outcomes were compared between all nulliparous teenagers (13–19 years [n=7305], further analyzed in groups by specific age) and control women (25–29 years, n=51 142) with singleton deliveries in 2006–2011. Teenagers faced increased risks of maternal complications during pregnancy, including a risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) (adjusted OR 2.9 [1.8-4.8]), pyelonephritis (6.3 [3.8-10.4]) and eclampsia (3.2 [1.4-7.3]). However, they were more likely to have uncomplicated vaginal deliveries (1.9 [1.7-2.0)]. The 1987 Finnish Birth Cohort was used to analyze the determinants and consequences of teenage pregnancy up to 25 years of age: girls who had experienced underage (<18 years) abortion (n=1041, 3.6%) or childbirth (n=395, 1.4%) were compared with each other and with girls who had no pregnancies. Five percent of all the girls in the cohort experienced underage pregnancy. Early-onset behavioral and emotional disorders and poor socioeconomic background were associated with higher risks of childbirth, and to a lesser degree, abortion. Specific risk factors of underage induced abortion were psychoactive substance use disorders (2.2 [1.3-3.5]), and having a mother who smoked during pregnancy (1.5 [1.3-1.8]) or had undergone induced abortion (1.8 [1.5-2.2.]) When the early adulthood outcomes of those who had experienced underage abortion were compared with those who gave birth, no significant differences in the risks of psychiatric disorders were found. Those who underwent abortion were more likely to achieve higher educational levels (2.4 [1.2-5.0]). When compared with those with no pregnancies, both pregnancy groups had elevated risks of most adverse conditions, but the risks were similar before and after conception. In conclusion, the low incidence of teenage pregnancy in Finland suggests that reproductive health services function comparatively well. To add, abortion or childbirth per se was not associated with mental ill-health. However, a substantial proportion of girls who experience a teenage pregnancy have a disadvantaged background and mostly for that reason, they seem to be a risk group for adverse outcomes in adulthood. These girls should be offered extra attention by social and healthcare professionals to prevent unplanned teenage pregnancies and further marginalization.
  • Martelius, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The occurrence and significance of vertical lung ultrasound artifacts known as B-lines were investigated in children. B-lines are a non-specific sign of lung pathology. They can be used to estimate lung liquid and to diagnose lung disease. Healthy term infants, children with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac surgery, and children undergoing computed tomography of the chest were included in the study. We examined whether the mode of delivery influences B-lines in healthy term infants and compared lung ultrasound with static lung compliance, computed tomography, and chest radiographs. B-lines were more numerous in infants born by elective cesarean section than in those born vaginally. Lung edema scores from lung ultrasound and chest radiographs correlated significantly, but B-lines and static lung compliance did not. A consistent association was present between the number of B-lines in ultrasound and the extent of parenchymal changes in computed tomography. B-lines appear suitable for documenting resolution of lung liquid during postnatal adaptation. They may indicate lung edema after cardiac surgery and detect lung disease in children.