Väitöstiivistelmät

Recent Submissions

  • Hilander, Taru (Hansaprint, 2017)
    Proteins, consisting of amino acids, work as building blocks in the cells. In addition, they carry out vast amounts of cellular functions. Accurate protein synthesis is thus crucial for the normal function of cells. The first step of protein synthesis is the charging of transfer-RNAs (tRNAs) with their cognate amino acids. Evolutionarily conserved and extremely old proteins, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), carry out this step and each amino acid-tRNA pair has its own synthetase for the task. However, in some cases the amino acids are so similar in size and structure that they cannot be separated well enough by the aaRSs. To avoid mischarging and the subsequent protein misfolding, some of the synthetases have an editing domain, which recognizes and hydrolyses incorrect amino acid-tRNA pairs. In addition, cells have other important quality control mechanisms to ensure protein homeostasis, the capacity of cells to maintain internal stability of the proteome. Patient mutations in genes connected to protein synthesis and quality control are found to cause different diseases, the mechanisms of which are not yet, however, well known. Research on these topics is thus important. The aim of this thesis was to study the molecular mechanisms of different tRNA-charging defects and protein quality control mechanisms in both protein-translating compartments of a eukaryotic cell, cytosol and mitochondria. The first part of the thesis describes the molecular mechanism and the clinical phenotype of a special cytosolic tRNA charging defect caused by mutations in SEPSECS gene. The corresponding protein is involved in charging of the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine, to its tRNA. We identified mutations in this gene and showed them to lead to a decreased amount of selenocysteine-containing proteins, selenoproteins, in the brain of a patient with a severe early onset encephalopathy. Our study also indicated increased protein oxidation in the patient brain. This study extends the clinical phenotypes connected to SEPSECS mutations, and indicates that selenoprotein synthesis defect can resemble mitochondrial disease with lactate elevation. In the second part of this thesis, the potential of an amino acid analogue of arginine, canavanine, to induce protein misfolding in mitochondria was studied. The results demonstrated that mitochondrial protein translation machinery does not distinguish canavanine from arginine. The amino acid analog was incorporated into mitochondrially encoded proteins causing protein instability and formation of aberrant polypeptides. Surprisingly, however, canavanine did not induce mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt), a previously described signalling pathway induced by accumulation of misfolded proteins inside mitochondria. The study showed that none of the protein quality control mechanisms were able to solve protein misfolding caused by canavanine, which led to a severe respiratory chain defect. Canavanine has been used previously in a large number of studies to induce cytosolic protein misfolding, but the impact of canavanine for mitochondrial function has been largely ignored. Canavanine can be used in future as a tool to study further the consequences of protein misfolding in mitochondria, and for studying how mitochondria solve stalled ribosomes, which was also detected to be a consequence of canavanine in our study. The goal of the third part of the thesis was to study UPRmt in an animal model. The purpose was to generate a mouse model that has a mutation in the editing domain of mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetase, leading to amino acid mischarging and formation of unfolded proteins inside mitochondria in vivo. The result of the study indicated for the first time the importance of amino acid editing by a tRNA synthetase as an essential quality control mechanism in mammalian mitochondria. The work presented in this thesis provides new information concerning the mechanisms of different tRNA charging defects and their consequences for the cell and organism. Special emphasis was on mitochondrial function.
  • McKeough, Andreas (Työväen historian ja perinteen tutkimuksen seura, 2017)
    A War Reprocessed Through Writing. A Study on the Narrative Processing of Experience in First-person Narratives on the Finnish Civil War In my doctoral dissertation I have studied archived writings – memoirs, diaries and an autobiography – depicting the Finnish Civil War fought in the winter and spring of 1918. The war, fought between the socialistic “Reds”, mostly of working-class background, and the politically bourgeoisie “Whites“, led to over 36,000 casualties and is still regarded as one of the most traumatic periods in the history of the nation. The Whites won the war and gained control of its official historical presentation and commemoration. My research focuses on first-person narration of the war in texts written between 1918 and 1937, in a time period from the Civil War to the years just before the Second World War. The data of the study consists of texts by 6 “White” and 6 “Red” narrators. I have analyzed each text thoroughly and then utilized a comparative view-point. My main analytical focus is threefold. Firstly I have looked at the ideosyncrasies of each text: their themes, style and intentions of narration, and key experiences. Then I have analyzed the “socio-cultural structuring” of the texts; the ways and means in which the narrators refer to social and cultural, often ideological knowledge and depict it in their texts when describing and interpreting their personal experiences, as well as the Civil War in general. Thirdly I have compared the texts to gain insight into the narrative processing of personal, hard-to-grasp, even traumatic experiences of the war, and the structuring of narrated experience. To do so, I have categorized the texts according to the narrative strategies the narrators employ, examined the qualities of narrated experience, analyzed the effect of the distance to the narrated events, and looked at the social and cultural contexts of narration. Finally, on the basis of my three-fold analysis, I have elicited the narratorsʼ modes of perceiving the Civil War and the ideological knowledge affecting these personal, yet culture-linked perceptions. I established that both the narrative processing of experience and the ideological comprehension which the narrators convey with their texts are determined mainly by two factors: the key experiences of the war and the cultural background of the narrators. Furthermore, the intentions of narration are closely linked to the genre of writing, collective historical interpretations of the war, and the social and political contexts of narration. The victorious Whites wrote prolifically of the war shortly after it, to shape and fortify their ideological interpretations and unity. This became the culturally hegemonic “master narrative“ of the Civil War. The Reds, who lost the war and had to pay dearly for their loss, write both to process their traumatic experiences and to contest this aforementioned master narrative.
  • Selin, Sinikka (Nuorisotutkimusverkosto/Nuorisotutkimusseura, 2017)
    Young people s educational decisions and entrance into the labour market are constantly topical issues, perhaps partly because one can only guess what the future labour market will be like. Educational and occupational decisions have wide and far-reaching consequences in an individual s life. These decisions are influenced by the social structure, but at the same time they shape social development. The study at hand deals with Finnish young people s educational and occupational aspirations in the rapidly changing society of the 1950s and 1960s. The study analyses and demonstrates how gender, family background and educational history influenced what the young people perceived as possible, desirable and/or likely to happen in their lives. The sample group for the study consisted of 15 17-year-olds who were finishing mandatory schooling in the capital of Finland, Helsinki. The main source material comprised vocational guidance counselling forms that the young people had completed. Documents for 1,350 young people were sampled from three periods (1950, 1960 and 1968 1971). The data were analysed with descriptive statistics to form a general view of the phenomenon. To explain the observations more deeply, smaller groups and individuals were analysed. In Helsinki, the diverse economic structure and ample schooling options at the time offered many alternatives. The young people s opportunities and willingness to seize upon them were, however, constrained by many factors. The selective school system divided the pupils into two cohorts when the children were 10 years old. The family s social class was strongly related to this division. The mostly middle-class young people in theoretically oriented secondary schools had wider education and employment options to choose from than the young people in more practically oriented elementary schools. The family s economic, cultural and social capital outlined and channelled the young people s perceptions of education and working life as well as their attitudes towards the different options available to them. Further, their plans strictly adhered to a gendered division of trades. The environment in which the young people were considering their future was being revolutionised by many changes: the transformation of economic and occupational structures, rapidly developing technology, a rising standard of living, an increasing emphasis on occupational skills, improvements in social security, and married women becoming more and more frequently employed. The significance and demand for formal education increased substantially in the 1950s and 1960s, and both secondary school and occupational education became more popular. Work was central to young people s aspirations in the early 1950s, but during the next two decades it gave way to education. Vocational guidance counselling went through a change as well, and here the young people s own opinions gained more importance. As part of the slowly emerging individualisation, young people functioned more as independent actors instead of being entirely dependent on the family. The rapid and forceful societal change expanded the scope of the young people s educational and occupational aspirations both qualitatively and quantitatively. At the same time, it increased young people s uncertainty regarding the future. Keywords: vocational guidance counselling, young people, education, choice of a career, aspiration, Helsinki, 1950s, 1960s, societal change, selective school system, social class, gender
  • Myllymaa, Antti (2017)
    This dissertation addresses the tripartite question concerning the relationship between a globalizing capitalist market economy, a territorial states system and a supranational European Union. Specifically, this study explains how different societal actors approach the question of the vertical division of competences between the supranational EU institutions and the Member States while juxtaposing this in the pursuit of desired models of socio-economic regulation. Whereas previous studies have paid attention to issues concerning the form of integration, this study seeks to contribute to more nuanced discussions concerning federalism by focusing on issues of content. It also challenges the view that economic globalization is an exogenous development arguing that what is understood as economic globalization can in fact be traced back to specific national policies that are enacted in order to facilitate the state s international competitiveness, thus making economic globalization an endogenous process. The empirical part of this dissertation addresses the emergence of a cross-border online gambling market in Europe. Although such a de facto market exists, its existence has not been recognized de jure by the European Union. This untenable situation results from EU Member States having diametrically opposing views concerning the legality of this market. In order to explain this development, this study takes a step back and asks how the cross-border online gambling market emerged in Europe. This study employs the process-tracing method in order to identify critical turning points that were necessary for the emergence of this market. It is argued that it was the neoliberal export-oriented competitiveness policies of the Malta and Gibraltar tax havens, enacted following the suggestions of the cross-border online gambling industry, which was a necessary condition for the emergence of the de facto market. The cross-border online gambling operators incorporation in Malta and Gibraltar guaranteed these operators access to the Single Market as they were protected by the fundamental freedoms enshrined in the EU Treaties. The successful business operations subsequently enabled interest representation for these operators and the ability to challenge the protectionist gambling regimes of Member States by making complaints to the EU Commission. As the Guardian of the Treaty, the EU Commission launched infringement proceedings against over a dozen Member States. Partially as a result of these infringement proceedings many Member States have opted for what is called controlled liberalization , thus allowing gambling to be organized for private profit. This nudges the socio-economic regulation of gambling towards neoliberalism. Several contrarian EU Member States, including Finland, are still strongly protectionist thus displaying their commitment to social democratic socio-economic regulation and have decided to fight the liberalization trend that has become prevalent in the field of gambling services. They have resisted the EU Commission s attempts to bring gambling into the Single Market program de jure. Gambling has been omitted from the EU s binding secondary legislation because of the resistance displayed by these protectionist Member States. This resistance has included bringing gambling issues to the EU Council, the EU s multilateral forum, so as to produce non-liberalizing EU level initiatives and regulation of gambling services. It is telling that those Member States, primarily Malta and the UK, who have championed the Single Market perspective for gambling, have fought against such developments. This study confirms the support of neoliberal societal actors for so-called negative EU integration, i.e., the dismantling of national barriers. The novelty of this study is to contribute to recent theoretical discussions by confirming, as these recent discussions have suggested, that following the transnationalization of business activities, social democratic societal actors would not only resist negative integration, but also work towards social democratic multilateralism, i.e., a specific form of so-called positive integration. This has been true in gambling services as was described above. However, this study also confirms the EU s bias towards negative integration, finding that the individual Member States policy space in regulating gambling services is being diminished due to the EU s fundamental freedoms and the EU Court s judge-made law. The protectionist Member States have had to resort to organized hypocrisy in order to protect the de facto socialized or nationalized means of production of gambling services in order to thwart the liberalization trend. Although the reasons for protection are in reality mostly financial, the EU Court and the EU Commission only accepts non-financial overriding public interest reasons for protection. As the stated reasons for protection of protectionist Member States are in fact hypocritical, this study finds that, although there are several potential futures, the most likely future scenario will be the slow neoliberalization of gambling services in the European Union with the sector s de jure inclusion in the Single Market program as the end result.
  • Kemppi, Hanna (Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistys, 2017)
    This dissertation examines the complex and sensitive issue of shaping a Finnish style for Orthodox church architecture in Finland in the interwar period 1918 1939. It is argued in the dissertation that the phenomenon of effacing the Russianness of Orthodox church architecture of Finland proceeded in two stages and, in its entirety, was more complex than previously assumed. Firstly, the dissertation explores the growing anti-Russian atmosphere during and shortly after the Civil War of 1918 and measures taken against unwanted Orthodox cultural heritage in Finland. In particular, the garrison churches of the Russian Imperial Army were explicated as disfiguring objects representing foreign influence in Finnish national culture that had to be cleaned away by eliminating them from the landscape. Secondly, the plans and realisation of creating a Karelian-Finnish style for Orthodox church architecture in the 1920s and 1930s are investigated, revealing designs commissioned from architect Veikko Kyander by the Orthodox Church of Finland. The research reconstructs the Orthodox church architecture of the period with the mapping of 21 churches and chapels built in Finland in the interwar years. The core actors in demarcating the Finnish style included not only church authorities but also antiquarian and state authorities. The analysis of the plans and realisation of the churches and chapels shows the significance of negative choice and the great impact of the building authorities in creating suitable de-Russified designs. It appears that the Finnish style was based on the eclecticism of contemporary Finnish architecture. The analysis of the new ascetic chapel interiors of the Border Karelia region reveals in concrete terms the poor financial situation of the congregations, but it also seems to imply a new uncluttered way of organising the interior. On the other hand, the interiors were based on ecclesiastical artefacts of Russian origin. There was thus a significant dichotomy between the foreign interior and the Finnish national exterior. It seems that also the first example of a new vernacular Karelian-style wooden chapel (1937) was planned by the state building authorities, despite the fact that it was based on a direct traditional vernacular Karelian model. Moreover, it seems that the discourse on the Byzantine roots of the Orthodox heritage in Finland already emerged in the 1930s although it has been prominent after the Second World War. In addition, it is pointed out in the dissertation that despite the dominance of the Finnish discourse it seems that in isolated cases the Orthodox church architecture of the 1930s reflected the influence of Russia Abroad.
  • Haara, Heikki (2017)
    Samuel Pufendorf's (1632 1694) theory of sociability has lately become the subject of renewed interest among intellectual historians and philosophers. Nevertheless, its moral psychological underpinnings have not been explored thoroughly in their own right. The present work is the first study devoted to the role of passions and inclinations in Pufendorf's moral and political philosophy. It examines Pufendorf's scattered remarks and observations on human psychology and evaluates the moral psychological assumptions underlying his theory of human sociability. Pufendorf's acknowledgement of the limits of individual rationality and the fact that people are always deeply embedded in the social and moral practices of particular societies reduces the role of internal moral obligations in his account of moral action. The application of agent-focused morality is relatively limited because Pufendorf believes that, in a large-scale society, most individuals govern their moral behaviour primarily through habitually-acquired dispositions rather than conscientious internal motivations. The central argument of this study is that Pufendorf's natural law theory includes a mechanism by which social interaction, guided by political governance, habituates people to internalize moral norms and govern their passions and actions so as to maintain and cultivate sociability. Pufendorf's theory of sociability intriguingly combines two conficting approaches to morality. On the one hand, he is a natural law theorist who bases the obligation to cultivate sociability on the commands of God, which are recognised by reason. On the other hand, sociability is not merely a normative rule discovered by reason. It is trough the set of social practises that humans in practise adopt sociability as their moral standard. Though Pufendorf's main aim is to demonstrate what the divinely imposed universal natural law norms are, his numerous perceptive remarks and observations on moral conduct as an internalized product of society points towards to the moral-psychological emphasis on habits and passions as a mechanism of sociability that became so important for numerous eighteenth-century authors.
  • Finell, Lisbe (2017)
    The overall aim of the Ph.D. research is to assess the risks of lifting the sector-specific competition provisions in European Union telecommunications from compliance theory perspective. The dissertation examines principally in which manner the competition law pillar at the European Union level, driven by the European Commission s policy, shape compliance with Article 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) on abuse of a dominant position. The multiple factors affecting corporate misconduct are examined in the light of mainly seminal general Anglo-Saxon corporate compliance theories and empirical studies, which are completed with competition law specific respective material. Regarding specific analysis of the legitimacy of a certain Article 102 prohibition, a supplementary external benchmark is chosen from the European Convention on Human Rights provisions. The research data and analysis may be characterised as being legal, economic, and sociological. The research results show first of all that the recognisable industry related incentives and opportunities to breach Article 102 are generally high in European Union telecommunications. As to the regulatory response, the study emphasises that the content of regulatory objectives and the manner of their communication play an important part in grounding the various compliance motives of the target group members characterised as normative, economic, and social. Nevertheless, neither the content nor the prioritisation of Article 102 objectives, being able to lead to contradictory results, is clearly communicated overall within the European Union institutions. With respect to substantive legal norms, the clarity and administrability of a prohibition, both relating to ability to comply and awareness of risks of non-compliance, are further important for all three motivational categories. The level of precision of Article 102 prohibitions concerning exclusionary conducts has undoubtedly arisen by the issuance of the Commission Article 102 Guidance Paper. The current assessment criteria of Article 102 Guidance Paper seem, however, to raise still a concern about their level of clarity and easiness to apply even for exclusionary abuses. Regarding legitimacy aspects of the Article 102 regulatory regime, the study has focused on assessing the vast mandated access criteria set for former public utilities by the Article 102 Guidance Paper. The results show that these mandated access criteria do not have a full, unequivocal back-up from European Union Courts case-law. They, nonetheless, may be seen on a principle and general level to satisfy the minimum requirements contained in Article 1 of Protocol No. 1 of European Convention of Human Rights for property right interferences. The nature and level of expected sanctions as well as the enforcement pressure are traditional means to affect compliance. The overall research results show, nonetheless, that the Commission s expected sanctioning and enforcement policy do not, as such, give predominantly strong incentives to invest in compliance with the Article 102 regime. As a consequence, the risks of lifting the sector-specific competition provisions in European Union telecommunications from our research perspective are considered generally high in the short or medium term.
  • Tarkka-Robinson, Laura (2017)
    Abstract This thesis examines the construction of national characters during the Enlightenment period. The aim of the thesis is to show how eighteenth-century writers employed the notion of nations as characters in intercultural exchanges, for the benefit of their own particular nation and of themselves. Focusing on the transnational career of the Hanoverian scholar Rudolf Erich Raspe (1736-1794), the author argues that while late eighteenth-century Enlightenment culture promoted material progress and emphasised the importance of disseminating knowledge, it also nurtured national particularism, because progress was often represented with the help of national characters. Following Raspe s career through the period from the Seven Years War to the French Revolution and from the German Electorate of Hanover to the extremities of the United Kingdom, the study examines nationally-oriented argumentation in both learned discourses and the world of improvement and industry. It combines a biographical focus with methods from contextual intellectual history and textual analysis to demonstrate that the language of nations could serve the specific purposes of individual writers, but, as a complex web of historically intertwined references, it could not be kept entirely in control. On the whole, the study considers the eighteenth-century construction of national characters as cultural transfer, because this practice always defined cultures interactively and relative to each other. The various debates surrounding Raspe s career reveal how it was possible for him to use the language of nations to his advantage, and how he also faced difficulties due to stereotypes inherent to such language. Drawing on both private correspondence and printed material relating to the transnational context of the Anglo-Hanoverian personal union, the dissertation not only recognises the significance of the national rhetoric in eighteenth-century writing, but also seeks to illuminate the specific circumstances in which it was used.
  • Katto, Jonna (2017)
    This study is about the shifting landscape perceptions and senses of socio-spatial belonging in the life narratives of female ex-combatants in the northwestern province of Niassa. Between 1964 and 1974 thousands of young people in the rural areas of northern Mozambique were mobilized by the guerrilla army FRELIMO to fight against Portuguese colonial rule. Hundreds of girls and young women also became engaged as guerrilla fighters in FRELIMO s political-military campaign for national independence. My study explores the relationship between FRELIMO nationalism and the female bodies that it sought to represent and mobilize. It is based on twelve months of multi-sited fieldwork among Ciyaawo-speaking communities in northern Niassa between 2012 and 2014. My main research material consists of life history interviews with thirty-four female ex-combatants. Bringing feminist scholarship on nationalism and spatial theorizing in conversation, this study problematizes the concept of space often reproduced in feminist scholarship on nationalism. I argue that this notion of space builds on an understanding of a dichotomous relationship between space/time and male/female. Moreover, space conceptualized as feminine is defined as stasis and in binary opposition to masculine time and history. While these notions often implicitly shape the histories of gendered nationalism that we write, they seldom receive explicit analytical attention. This is the analytical task to which my research has sought to contribute. In my analysis of the female ex-combatants sense of socio-spatial belonging, I have worked on a concept of lived landscape . It draws from Doreen Massey s theorization of space-time, the notion of the lived gendered body in feminist phenomenology, and Henri Lefebvre s spatial triad. I suggest that as a concept, lived landscape allows us to look beyond teleological narratives of liberation (/ oppression ), and explore the women s life trajectories as non-linear spatial histories. Lived landscape , moreover, allows us to interrogate the in-between , that is, the ways that discourse and materiality intersect, the personal and national intertwine, and body and landscape shape each other. It is in this in-betweenness that I also locate and conceptualize belonging. Belonging is not a subjective experience but is shaped and negotiated in a multiscalar, reciprocal relationship between body and world. As my analysis shows, aesthetic sensibility (which following Arnold Berleant denotes sensory engagement) is deeply intertwined with the ex-combatants experiences of socio-spatial attachment/detachment. It influences the way belonging is negotiated at different scales (e.g. nation, province, village, family, and globe). In the female ex-combatants narratives, the national often intertwines with the personal in a violent relationship, evoking what I call the haptics of the bush. Still, the Mozambique that emerges from the ex-combatants narratives is not a homogenous, unified landscape; it is perceived as consisting of multiple and unequal landscapes that are valued according to different scales of beauty. Apart from enriching our understanding of the gendered history of the liberation struggle in Mozambique and informing discussions in feminist theory on gender and nationalism, this interdisciplinary research contributes to the study of the body and sensory experiences in war memories/histories and the political field, moreover, to the study of African landscape histories.
  • Säämänen, Juuso (Maanpuolustuskorkeakoulu, 2017)
    From the Threat of a Large-scale Landing to Repelling a Strategic Strike The Development of Finland s Naval Defence from the Continuation War to the 1960 s This research explains how Finland s ability to repel landing operations developed from the end of the Continuation War to 1966 when the Defence Forces adopted the territorial defence doctrine. The development of this ability is examined on the basis of war experiences, threat estimates, operational plans, procurement plans and the changes that took place in Finnish naval and coastal warfare tactics. The research method is the traditional method in history research: the research problem has been solved qualitatively by analyzing and comparing the chosen sources. The sources are mostly primary sources, the most important being the Defence Forces Archives stored in the National Archives and articles in military publications. The development of the Finnish Navy s ability to repel landing operations happened in three stages during 1944 - 1966. The end of the 1940 s was a time of uncertainty and unestablished planning principles. The early 1950 s was a period of adjustment. Long-term development began in the mid 1950 s. The work was done by General Staff Officers or naval and coastal artillery officers who had worked in command positions. They wrote memorandums, articles and research which later developed into development programs, field manuals and operational plans. The principles of how to develop the ability to repel landing operations began to take form at the beginning of the 1950 s as the decision to adopt a new peacetime organization had been made. The decision to merge the coastal forces with the Army temporarily interrupted the development of coastal warfare tactics and organizations. Also, a strong naval defence was no longer considered necessary since an attack by western countries - the prevailing threat scenario since the end of the 1940 s - had become a theoretical possibility by the beginning of the 1950 s. Long-term work to develop the ability to repel landing operations began in the middle of the 1950 s. It was mostly based on up-to-date operational plans as well as the development of operational art and tactics. Materiel procurement was considered secondary since it did not enable defensive warfare against a numerically superior enemy. In addition, the quite modest procurement budget of the Defence Forces forced to focus the effort on operational art. Despite the poor starting point, by the mid 1960 s the Defence Forces was able to conduct coordinated repelling operations. All the services were capable of joint action both in the planning and practical phase of operations.
  • Viljanen, Elina (Acta Semiotica Fennica, 2017)
    The critic, composer, and musicologist Boris Asafiev (1884 - 1949) played a central role in the development of Soviet conceptions of music. Next to his critical analyses on Russian nineteenth century musical tradition, Asafiev became the literary voice of his generation of musicians, such as Prokofiev and Stravinsky. Elected to the Soviet Academy of Sciences in 1943 in and as the head of the Soviet Composers Union in 1947, Asafiev s literary works of the 1940s came to be considered influential Stalin era classics. However, these writings built upon his modernist theory of music, which he developed over the course of the 1920s. Asafiev s theoretical output has still an influential position in the contemporary Russian musical thought. This is the first English language analytical monograph to examine Asafiev s literary output (1916 - 1930) and the development of his theory of Intonation (1947). His works are explored against the backdrop of Russian cultural history, and within the European intellectual historical context. The author demonstrates how Asafiev became an established Soviet cultural theoretician of music, a celebrated but also a persecuted Soviet musicologist. More broadly, the book The Problem of the Modern and Tradition explores how the Russian Silver Age philosophical interpretation of music was transferred to the Soviet era and what kind of new ideas and practices were generated through this process. The thesis characterizes the methodology of early Soviet cultural nationalism from an individualized perspective of the Russian cultural revolution and revolutionary culture of the 1920s. The author addresses the previously contested question of Asafiev s relationship with Soviet politics by tracing a many-sided cultural process in his output, something that can be branded in retrospect as a Sovietization process of Silver Age aesthetics. She argues that in Asafiev s writings this process appears not as a mere political process but a complex interplay of aesthetics, politics, scientific postulates, and cultural mission. Participating in the early Soviet modernization project of Russian culture, Asafiev modernizes the Russian music tradition by bringing it under the critical lens of modern European scientific theories. Meanwhile his theoretical development appears also as a linguistic process. He rewrites his ideas in different forms in order to present them in varying contexts. This was done not only to mask his philosophical views before the political authorities, but it was also part of his theoretical search for founding a new cultural theory of music that would answer the most urgent social challenges of the new Soviet society.
  • Pohjola, Annakaisa (Suomalainen Lakimiesyhdistys, 2017)
    DANGEROUS OFFENDER? A study on offender risk assessment within the Finnish penal system In certain situations, the Finnish Penal System requires a future dangerousness evaluation to be made of criminal offenders. A future dangerousness evaluation is a risk assessment of the probability of an offender guilty of a serious violent crime or sexual offence committing a similar crime in the future. In this multidisciplinary research, I critically examine and interpret the criminal law legislation concerning the risk assessment of offenders, the psychiatric-psychological and normative practices applied to evaluations, the relevant legal principles and basic and human rights as well as the challenges these might raise in this context. In addition, the research introduces empirical research data concerning especially (1) offenders who have been evaluated in terms of their dangerousness in Finland, (2) respective expert statements based on their risk assessments and (3) judgments and decisions where the court has taken into account the dangerousness of these offenders. A positive future dangerousness evaluation has considerable consequences on the right to liberty of an offender. A consequence of an attempt to prevent dangerous offenders from reoffending is that the offenders are required to serve their entire sentence in prison or are banned from getting on regular parole for a life or entire prison sentence. This means that the time to be served in prison is longer than in the case of a normal sentence given on the basis of act culpability and the principle of proportionality. Because an offender who is assessed to be dangerous is punished in part for something which he has not yet committed, the criminal law system requires strong justifiable criteria to be established for these risk assessments. Due to criminal law principles as well as basic and human rights considerations, evaluating the dangerousness of offenders is complicated, as it is necessary to weigh against each other the concrete elements of dangerousness, formal and substantive justice along with the overall legal safeguards of the justice system. This research shows the interconnectedness of different fields of science legal, psychiatric and psychological in evaluating dangerousness. In forensic psychiatry, the medical, especially psychiatric, and psychological aspects are in the foreground whereas in legal proceedings the matter is evaluated on legal grounds. These different approaches in the evaluation of dangerousness present the serious challenge of compatibility. It follows that forensic psychiatry specialists need to be aware of the relevant legal preconditions for a dangerousness assessment of an offender and, on the other hand, judges who evaluate the case in normative terms have to be familiar with the basic principles and premises of forensic psychiatry evaluations. Central to the attempt to assess the dangerousness of offenders and reduce their violent behaviour is to identify relevant risk and protective factors. The future violent behaviour of an offender is difficult to predict with certainty, as it often depends on the changeable situational context and various individual risk and protective factors, all of which have different weight in a risk assessment. The primary risk factors which can be used to predict reoffending include former violent behaviour, substance abuse, psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder and other mental disorders. Psychiatrists and psychologists usually cite these factors in their statements indicating a person s dangerousness. A future dangerousness evaluation is challenging in many ways. Particularly problematic is the possibility of false positive assessment, meaning that an offender is deemed dangerous when he actually is not. For this reason, carrying out a risk assessment requires special diligence, exactness and taking into account all relevant requirements during the entire evaluation process. There is a need for exact and comprehensive legislation which would define the requirements for conducting valid forensic psychiatric evaluations of the future dangerousness of offenders. In this way, the legal rights of offenders would be protected more effectively because there would be a greater certainty of forensic psychiatric evaluations of offenders being reliable in whatever situation. This research introduces a four-step scale for establishing risk levels for violence. It combines qualitative and numeric probabilities and thus defines the dangerousness of an offender taking into account all elements of dangerousness. This scale should be used in the assessments required by Finnish criminal law legislation. It can define the probability of serious violent behaviour of a person based on the risk and protective factors that the offender manifests. The four-step scale determines the risk of violence more accurately than the three-step scale, which means that the court receives more evidence to deliberate upon, which in turn lowers the possibility of erroneous dangerousness evaluations. This study shows that the statements provided by forensic psychiatry experts have gained a huge practical significance in judges work of normatively evaluating dangerousness, which is why the opinion of the court rarely differs from that given by experts. However, while the court is deliberating on the dangerousness evaluations made by forensic psychiatrists, it should consider all the evidence and make the decision on the question of dangerousness independently on normative grounds. Any evidence provided of the dangerousness of an offender is projected to the future, which is why it can never be certain. As a precondition for determining an offender to be dangerous, the court should apply a standard of proof which requires the risk of the offender s violent behaviour to be at least high if not absolute. In other words, the court requires the dangerousness of the offender to be shown with such a high probability that the offender s dangerousness is proven; otherwise, the offender cannot be deemed as dangerous. Therefore, more extensive pro et contra argumentation is recommended to the courts when ruling on the issue of dangerousness. As a statement of dangerousness is projected to the future and as the court has extensive powers of discretion, the court has an obligation to give detailed reasons for an evaluation of dangerousness.
  • Porkholm, Mikaela (Unigrafia Oy, 2017)
    Although most children with cancer can be cured, every fifth patient still succumb from their disease. The need for new treatments and more refined diagnostic methods are thus understandable. Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is an essential phenomenon in many malignancies. The first study in this thesis evaluated the role of two regulators of angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), during allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in 67 children. High levels of VEGF and Ang-2 in plasma samples collected after allogenic HSCT correlated with severe acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). High Ang-2 post-HSCT was associated with increased non-relapse mortality and, together with concomitantly high VEGF, correlated with inferior event-free survival. However, methodological challenges should prompt cautious interpretation of these results. The second study summarized results of the anti-angiogenic Angiocomb protocol in the treatment of pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs). The survival of study patients (N = 41) did not differ from that of controls (N = 8), but the ability to attend school or daycare and walk was maintained for a longer time after the diagnosis in the study cohort. The Angiocomb protocol was generally well tolerated, with the most frequent adverse event being neutropenia. The third study explored the effect of the Extended Angiocomb protocol in a cohort of 17 heavily pre-treated children with high-risk or end-stage malignancies. Although a significant increase in Karnofsky-Lansky performance scores occurred in patients during therapy, the protocol was more toxic than anticipated. This underlines the importance of careful patient selection and close monitoring during metronomic therapy in heavily pre-treated patients. The fourth study analyzed genetic alterations by next-generation sequencing and protein expression and microvessel density (MVD) by immunohistochemistry in 26 DIPG tumor samples. 87% of the patients had mutations in H3-K27M, excluding two rarely encountered long-term survivors. One of the long-term survivors had an IDH1 mutation, an alteration formerly considered to be absent in DIPGs. Angiogenesis-related genes were altered in 40% of the patients, whereas MVD showed up to 6-fold variation. The clinical significance of these findings requires further studies in the future.
  • Häkkänen, Martti (Suomalainen Lakimiesyhdistys, 2017)
    The Regulation of Building Rights A Study of the Municipal Land Use Planning Function and the Preconditions for Construction from the Perspective of the Landowner's Legal Position The research task is to examine building rights in various legal contexts and, based on this, to formulate general doctrines regarding the regulatory system. Special emphasis is placed on the legal relationship between the municipality as a regulatory authority and the private landowner. The primary objective of the study is to analyse some of the fundamental legal concepts of land use planning and landownership, such as the municipal planning monopoly and building rights, from the substantive law point of view. As a historical framework, the study highlights the manner in which the landowner's right to build has gradually transitioned from the early 20th century through to the 21st century from uncontrolled activity, to a rather strictly regulated one. During the same time period, the objectives for building restrictions have expanded in a remarkable way to encompass everything from the promotion of fire safety to the management of sustainable development. Furthermore, the so-called municipal planning monopoly has gained strength in a variety of ways, particularly in the course of the past decades, as have the expropriation measures available in relation to privately owned land. The land use planning system and building rights are fundamentally connected to the economic value of land. Thus building rights are often the most interesting land userelated factor from the landowner's perspective. At the level of general doctrines, the central question is how the connection between regulation and land value should be understood. The study asserts that land use planning should not be understood as the creator of economic values, but, rather, as the facilitator or inhibitor of the materialization of land values based on demand and supply. This premise has fundamental relevance in interpreting the legal provisions governing the economic rights and obligations of landowners. The study shows that the legal formation of building rights within the land use planning and building regulation system is both materially and procedurally a phased series of events. It is also contingent upon the legal reactions of various persons, namely, upon whether they also actually exercise their rights. The central critique of the study focuses upon the legal reasoning, where the landowner's right to build in this complex system may have been in some cases primarily deduced from the concepts of a subjective right or a municipal planning monopoly. Based on a substantive law examination, the study asserts that such a deduction method is likely to produce a blurred and even distorted picture of the substantive law governing the land use planning system. Instead of concepts, the legal assessment should be focused on the manner in which the substantive provisions, on the one hand, set objectives for, and on the other hand limit the municipality's administrative discretion as the regulator of building rights in the relevant case. For example, the study argues that the answer to the question of the landowner's right to compensation due to the prohibition of construction should not be deduced from the concept of a municipal planning monopoly or from the laconism that the landowner does not have the subjective right to build. On the other hand, as the provisions of the planning and building regulation system are conceptually vague, the formation of building rights is de facto significantly dependent upon the manner in which the municipality exercises its administrative discretion in practice. For instance, the level of land policy activity with which the municipality strives to purchase or expropriate land areas prior to the land being subject to local detailed planning, inversely restricts the possibilities of the private landowner to use their land for construction purposes. The study also discusses several other general doctrines associated with building rights. One of the most fundamental ones is the idea that a building right is formulated in the land use planning system without any charges and thus the legal nature of it is gratuitous. Inversely, it may have been deduced that building rights are not gained benefits, and therefore there is a possibility to weaken or remove them by altering the local detailed plan without compensating the landowner. However, the study asserts that the formation of building rights is in fact linked to a number of payment obligations attached to landownership. This calls for a revision of the doctrine of the gratuitous nature of building rights in such a manner that the formation of building rights can be seen performed for economic consideration. The study, furthermore, argues based on a substantive law examination that the doctrine whereby the weakening or removal of building rights is seen as not being subject to any compensation should be treated with caution. In addition to the formation of building rights, the study examines general doctrines also from the point of view of building, i.e. the exercise of building rights. In this respect, the study shows that despite the strong legal effects of a local detailed plan, several of the flexible norms included in a detailed plan are finally concretized in the building permit. In addition, it is possible to diverge from the defined building rights under restricted conditions. From this point of view, building rights are elastic. On the other hand, it is also brought forth that as such, it is possible to agree upon the exercise of building rights among private parties, but only on a limited basis. Building rights may not be sold or transferred from one property to another without the participation of the municipality.
  • Järvinen, Riikka (Unigrafia, 2016)
    Non-muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma (NMIBC) should be treated with a transurethral resection of the bladder tumour (TURBT). The need for an adjuvant intravesical treatment is evaluated after TURBT and is based on various tumour characteristics. The aim of the adjuvant intravesical treatment is to reduce the number of recurrences and the risk of progression. This thesis consists of four individual FinnBladder (FB) studies that compared different intravesical regimens of chemo- and immunotherapy among patients with intermediate- or high-risk NMIBC. The present thesis analyses the long-term results of those studies. Patients in these studies belonged to the intermediate- or to the high-risk group of NMIBC. Patients in study I were treated with mitomycin C (MMC) or bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) instillations for up to one year, whereas the patients in study II had one perioperative plus four weekly MMC instillations followed by MMC or alternating MMC and BCG instillations. The patients in study III had one perioperative MMC plus four weekly MMC instillations followed by either BCG or alternating BCG and interferon-α2b (IFN) instillations. The patients of study IV had one perioperative epirubicin (EPI) followed by BCG or combination of EPI and IFN. The follow-up times of the patients that were still alive were between 8.0 (study IV) and 19.4 years (study II). The median follow-up times of all patients were between 7.2 (study II) and 8.6 years (study III). In study I, we found that BCG significantly reduced the time to recurrence but had no effect on progression, disease specific survival or overall survival compared to MMC. In study II, we found no difference between the study groups (one perioperative MMC and four weekly MMC followed by BCG or alternating MMC and BCG). However, the risk of dying of BC appeared to be markedly lower than observed in the series of untreated patients. In study III, we found that one perioperative and four weekly MMC instillations followed by a monthly maintenance with BCG significantly reduced the probability of recurrence compared to maintenance with alternating BCG and IFN. In study IV, we found that one perioperative EPI administration followed by five weekly BCG and a 1- to 2-yr BCG maintenance treatment was significantly better in reducing recurrence than was a combination of EPI and IFN using the same schedule. Two subgroup analyses of our studies revealed a lower probability of recurrence in patients that had been treated with a single perioperative chemotherapy instillation compared to those without the single instillation. The risk of progression was very low in the best treatment groups of our studies after 10 years, which might question the benefit of a recommended life-long follow-up for all patients. Three out of four patients who progressed died of BC despite the relatively meticulous follow-up. Better methods are still needed to recognize the progression in NMIBC early enough to be able to lower the mortality of this disease.