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  • Holopainen, Tanja (Unigrafia, 2016)
    Angiopoietins (Angs) and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) regulate angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, and lymphangiogenesis, the formation of new lymphatic vessels. Angiogenesis is important in cancer, because for continuous growth a primary tumor needs a supply of oxygen and nutrients delivered via blood vessels. In physiological conditions, the lymphatic vasculature serves to collect interstitial fluid as well as to absorb lipid particles. In the context of cancer, lymphatic vessels serve as a route for the metastatic dissemination of tumor cells. This dissertation aimed to explore the role of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 3 (VEGFR3) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) in cancer progression. In particular, the roles of these proteins in the context of tumor angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis as well as metastasis were investigated in two separate studies. In addition, the effects of the photodynamic ablation of intralymphatic cancer cells and lymphatic vessels on the development of metastases were explored. Furthermore, the effect of the endothelial bone marrow tyrosine kinase in chromosome X (Bmx) on tumor angiogenesis was investigated. We found that the inhibition of VEGFR3 reduces tumor blood vasculature and primary tumor growth. In the second study we found that in-transit tumor cells can be targeted with verteporfin-induced photodynamic therapy. The photodynamic ablation of lymphatic vessels was improved by combining this strategy with anti-lymphangiogenic therapies via the adenovirally mediated soluble expression of the VEGF-C/D trap. Bmx, a member of the Tec non-receptor tyrosine kinase family, was previously shown to promote tumor cell survival, but relatively little is known about the effect of this kinase on tumor biology. Here, we studied the effects of Bmx tumor angiogenesis by using Bmx gene-deleted mice. Some reduction of primary tumor growth in Bmx-/- mice was detected in several isogenic and oncogenic tumor models, along with some attenuation of tumor angiogenesis. Conversely, overexpression of Bmx resulted in increased tumor progression and angiogenesis. Ang2 is known to be a context-dependent agonist of the tyrosine kinase of the Tie2 receptor. Here, we analyzed the effect of Ang2 on metastatic dissemination into the lungs, finding that the overexpression of Ang2 enhanced lung metastasis. In contrast, Ang2 inhibition decreased the occurrence of lung metastases. In the ultrastructural analysis of the metastatic lungs using transmission electron microscopy, anti-Ang2 treatment attenuated tumor-associated changes in metastasis-associated lung capillaries. This dissertation demonstrates that the blockade of VEGFR3 inhibits tumor angiogenesis, and that the inhibition of Ang2 inhibits lymphatic and lung metastasis and improves endothelial integrity. Furthermore, we demonstrated the ability of photodynamic therapy to eradicate lymphatic vessels and intralymphatic cancer cells. These data provide a rationale for developing new cancer therapies targeting the lymphatics in order to reduce metastasis and tumor progression. Taken together, these results provide new insights into endothelial tyrosine kinase-mediated angiogenesis, tumor lymphangiogenesis, and vascular-based therapeutic strategies in cancer.
  • Nissel, Tzvika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    State responsibility is the doctrine that regulates international enforcement actions. Among international lawyers, there is a shared sense of mystery about State responsibility. While the doctrine clearly guarantees the enforceability of international law, its practice consistently languishes from a lack of international policemen. History is one lens through which to view this paradox. In this study, I describe the three most influential efforts to establish a legal standard for international enforcement actions: U.S. diplomatic practice, German legal theory and U.N. codification. In the late nineteenth century, lawyers in the U.S. State Department turned to international tribunals to redress alien injuries. These lawyers relied on international law to justify their legal intervention. Latin Americans, who were frequently the respondents of such claims, disputed the relevance of international law to its treatment of aliens; to them, alien protection was essentially a domestic affair. However, by the twentieth century, a U.S. practice of arbitration had established that States could be held responsible for breaching their international duties to protect aliens. The resulting awards were professional but haphazard. States were ordered to pay reparations for alien injuries, but why and how much they had to pay remained largely unarticulated. The first systematic treatment of State responsibility surfaced in late-nineteenth century Germany. These early writings were extrapolations from domestic principles of law rather than inductions of international awards. German lawyers viewed the U.S. practice of international arbitration as ad hoc settlements of private disputes rather than as the adjudication of public disputes. Thus, the German approach to State responsibility was not restricted to the field of alien protection in particular; it provide for the preconditions of international liability in general. When the U.N. undertook to codify the field, it chose to base its efforts on German theory rather than on the U.S. practice. This strategy divided State responsibility into general and specific parts. Generally, enforcement actions were subject to the U.N. doctrine. Exceptionally, a specific practice (e.g., alien protection) was permitted to continue as lex specialis. Contrary to many commentators, I see no crisis in this result. No singular doctrine has ever encapsulated the practice of international enforcement. Since the 1870s, international lawyers have employed State responsibility as a pliable concept to suit particular ends. By providing these perspectives, I hope to illustrate how three groups of lawyers practitioners, theorists and doctrinalists have been able to cope with the enduring mystery of State responsibility.
  • Al-Qaisi, Feda'a (2016)
    The conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2), an abundant renewable carbon reagent, into cyclic carbonate is of academic and industrial interest. Cyclic carbonate serve as green solvent and have some outstanding properties such as a high boiling point and low toxicity. Titanium and iron would be attractive metal candidates as benign and efficient alternative to other metal catalysis for CO2 conversion to cyclic carbonate, due combination of low toxicity and high Lewis acidity. In the present work the coupling reactions of carbon dioxide with epoxides to produce five-membered cyclic carbonates (propylene, 1-hexene, cyclohexene, styrene, and epichlorohydrin carbonates) were efficiently catalyzed either by sustainable metal-based catalysts of: (1) titanium alkoxide complexes/tetrabutylammonium salts; (2) Schiff base iron(III) complexes/onium salts; (3) bifunctional imidazole-Schiff base iron(III) complex; and (4) metal-free systems consisting of a simple, preferably primary or secondary, amines and halides with organic or inorganic cations (such as tetrabutylammonium or lithium chloride, bromide or iodide). Reactivity of the four above-mentioned catalytic systems was further studied and compared in the coupling reactions.
  • Chen, Qiuzhen (University of Helsinki, 2016)
    Abstract: In spite of references to agricultural externalities that usually focus more on the negative impacts of agricultural inputs on the environment, the inclusion of preferred benefit externalities on society and the environment has been highlighted in the presence of multifunctional agriculture. When externalities of multifunctional attributes of agriculture are placed in normative contexts, research questions are raised regarding how agricultural externalities in connection to multifunctional agriculture are understood differently in different countries, how different agricultural and agri-environmental policies affect agricultural inputs that crucially contribute to environmentally-negative externalities, and what alternative approach is possible to evaluate agri-environmental externalities, given that no comprehensive monetary assessment for the costs and benefits of externalities currently exists. The objectives of the study are: first to empirically present how agricultural externalities are performed in a multiple-dimensions that include experts perspectives, synthetic assessment levels, and policy impacts examined nationally, regionally and over time; second, to demonstrate a practical understanding in diverse interpretations of agricultural-externality components in different countries in the context of different agricultural, socio-economic, and societal development levels. The study focuses on four specific objectives that have been demonstrated in four articles. More specifically, Article I examines the experts perspectives on agricultural externalities in terms of the perceptions of multifunctional agriculture in China and Finland through cross-table and factor analysis methods based upon surveys with Chinese and Finnish experts, in order to know what different highlights are given in the two countries. Article II illustrates the evolution of policies associated with elements of multifunctional agriculture and rural areas in the past twenty years in China and Finland, and explains reasons for the differences in policy implementation. Article III assesses agri-environmental externalities at the regional level in Finland through a synthetic evaluation method with a relative index that enables the measurement of aggregated effects of several environmental externalities generated by agricultural activities in a concise way. Article IV investigates how measures and payments associated with Finnish Agri-environment Schemes (AESs) performed in N application at different regions. Meanwhile, Finnish policy measures on N use were compared with agricultural policies in China that stress perpetual concern for food security by subsidizing in fertilizers to influence price-ratio of input and output and contribute to high intensity of N use. The different goals of policy and policy measures implemented explained the variation of application rates of fertilizer N both nationally, regionally, and over time. Different perceptions of their profitability, efficiency, and environmental effects implied disparity in N use. This study reveals empirically comparative analysis on agricultural externalities, rather than attempting to build a new theoretical framework for externalities analysis. This thesis contributes to the development of an integrated and comparative structure to review the commonalities and differences in perceptions of agricultural externalities and the impacts of agricultural policies implemented on agricultural input in two countries, and interprets their interrelationships. In addition, this thesis develops a synthetic evaluation approach by using a relative index that stems from the fuzzy logic theory to measure the aggregated effects of several agri-environmental externalities in a concise way. The findings demonstrate that it is essential to have a deeper and practical understanding in different public-policy interference orientations in different countries on the basis of agriculture, environment, and society contexts through a comprehensive empirically comparative study. Key words: agricultural externality, multifunctional agriculture, policy impact, synthetic evaluation, panel data, Finland, China.
  • Saarinen, Sirkka (Edita Publishing Oy, 2016)
    OSAKEYHTIÖN JAKAMINEN TULOVEROTUKSESSA (TIIVISTELMÄ) Osakeyhtiön jakamisella tarkoitetaan normaalisti sellaista yritysrakenteen hajauttamista, jossa osakeyhtiön liiketoiminta tai liiketoimintoja siirretään yhdelle tai useammalle vastaanottavalle osakeyhtiölle, ja näiden yhtiöiden osakkeet siirtyvät vastaavasti jaettavan yhtiön tai sen omistustahon käsiin. Tässä tutkimuksessa painopistealueena ovat EU-oikeudellisen taustan omaavat yritysjärjestelymallit jakautuminen ja liiketoimintasiirto. Näitä yritysjärjestelymalleja verrataan tutkimuksessa myös kansallisen lainsäädäntötaustan omaaviin osakeyhtiön jakamisen tapoihin. Tutkimus painottuu tuloverotukseen, ja siinä on käytetty oikeusdogmaattista, kriittiseen arviointiin perustuvaa sekä veropoliittista lähestymistapaa. Osakeyhtiön jakamisella on monia liittymäkohtia yhtiöoikeudelliseen sääntelyyn. Yhtiöoikeutta tarkasteltaessa on otettu huomioon myös tähän alaan vaikuttavat EU-oikeuden yleisen järjestelmätason ominaispiirteet sekä erityisesti direktiivimuotoisen lainsäädäntöinstrumentin vaikutukset. Vero-oikeudellista järjestelmää tarkasteltaessa EU-oikeudella on samalla tavoin merkitystä, koska esimerkiksi osakeyhtiön kansainvälisiä jakamisia koskevat verotuksen sääntelymallit pohjautuvat EU-direktiiviin. Tämä direktiivi on toiminut lainsäädännöllisenä mallina myös kansallisia jakamisia koskevaa sääntelyä toteutettaessa, jolloin direktiivi voi ulottaa tulkintaa koskevia vaikutuksia myös tiettyihin Suomen sisäisiin, kansallisesti toteutettaviin toimintamalleihin. Tutkimuksessa on oikeudellista järjestelmää tutkittaessa ja arvioitaessa selvitetty myös EU:n integraatioprosessin yleistä merkitystä ja direktiivien vaikutustapoja sekä EU-oikeuden tulkintaongelmia erityisesti suomalaisen oikeustradition näkökulmasta. Tutkimuksessa pyritään selvittämään sitä, miten hyvän verojärjestelmän ominaisuudet (esimerkiksi neutraalisuus, maksukykyisyys, verovelvollisten yhdenmukainen kohtelu sekä oikeusvarmuus) ovat toteutuneet osakeyhtiön jakamista koskevan sääntelyn yhteydessä. Osakeyhtiön jakamisia toteutettaessa ilmenee erilaisia osakeyhtiölainsäädännön ja verolainsäädännön välisiä yhteensopimattomuustilanteita, ja niitä pyritään selvittämään ja arvioimaan myös veropoliittiselta kannalta. Yhtenä keskeisenä tutkimusongelmana on se, millaisia tulkintaongelmia on osakeyhtiön ja sen osakkeenomistajan verotuksessa osakeyhtiön jakamista koskevia verosäännöksiä sovellettaessa, ja millaisia ovat tulkintaongelmien ratkaisut käytännössä. Tutkimus painottuu kansallisiin osakeyhtiön jakamisiin, mutta siihen on lisäksi sisällytetty myös kansainvälistä vero-oikeutta koskeva lyhyehkö osa. Kansainvälisillä kysymyksillä on olennainen liittymä tutkimusaiheeseen, ja niiden avulla voidaan edistää myös EU-oikeuden vaikutusten selvittämistä kansallisen oikeusjärjestelmän tasolla. Osakeyhtiön jakamista koskeva keskeinen sääntely on luonteeltaan veronhuojennusperusteista, ja tätä taustaa vasten tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan myös veron kiertämistä ja veron välttämistä koskevia ilmiöitä sekä sitä, millaisia ratkaisutapoja veronkierto-ongelmiin on olemassa. Tutkimuksessa on selvitetty myös EU-oikeudellista oikeuksien väärinkäyttöä koskevaa ilmiötä ja sen merkitystä Suomen oikeusjärjestelmän näkökulmasta. Tutkimuksessa on tarkasteltu toisaalta lainsäädännön tasoa ja toisaalta lain soveltamisen tasoa. Esimerkiksi yhtiö- ja verolainsäädännön välisiä yhteensovittamisongelmia ilmenee käytännössä, ja ne synnyttävät jonkin verran ongelmia. Lisäksi etenkin kansainvälisen vero-oikeuden alalla on havaittavissa joitakin tarpeita lainsäädännön kehittämiseen. Suomen lainsäätäjä näyttää yleisesti onnistuneen melko hyvin yritysjärjestelydirektiivin implementoinnissa. Verolain soveltamiskäytännössä on kuitenkin ilmennyt joitakin ongelmia. Yritysjärjestelyiden monitahoinen luonne, niitä koskevan sääntelyn monimutkaisuus sekä etenkin kansainvälisissä yhteyksissä ilmenevä sääntelyn monikerroksisuus voivat toisinaan synnyttää käytännössä ongelmatilanteita, ja tältä pohjalta esimerkiksi ylimmän oikeusasteen linjanvetoihin ei voida kaikissa tapauksissa suhtautua kritiikittömästi. ASIASANAT: osakeyhtiö, yritysjärjestely, elinkeinoverotus, EU-oikeus, yhtiöoikeus
  • Heikkilä, Satu (Wolf Legal Publishers, 2016)
    This study focuses on the execution of the judgments of the European Court of Human Rights (Court) in Finland and especially on its effectiveness. The Court has so far delivered 138 judgments against Finland in which one or more violations of the Convention articles were found. The aim of this thesis is to study how these judgments have been executed by the Finnish authorities. The study showed that in Finland the national execution procedure was not very bureaucratic and that it seemed to work well. Most of the procedural shortcomings identified at the European level did not exist in Finland, and the majority of the proposed new ideas for increasing the procedural effectiveness seemed to already be in use. The research revealed that the overall effectiveness of execution in Finland was therefore at a very advanced level compared to some other countries. However, in absolute terms, there still seemed to be room for some improvement, especially in the co-operation between the Committee of Ministers and the Finnish government. When looking at the payment of just satisfaction and the taking of individual measures, the study showed that their execution was fairly effective in Finland, except in a few exceptional cases. In general the domestic authorities acted quickly and effectively when executing the Court s judgments as far as the payment of just satisfaction and the taking of individual measures were concerned. In these respects the execution could be qualified as effective both in the temporal and in the material sense. However, as far as reopening was concerned, it appeared that the Supreme Court s interpretations did not always demonstrate the most effective attitude towards the execution of judgments. It could thus be deduced that there was occasionally some reluctance on the part of the Supreme Court to actively give full effect to the Convention and the Court s case-law, especially in the context of reopening. The study also revealed that although the taking of general measures in Finland was mostly sometimes even extremely effective, both in a temporal and a material sense, in some situations there were certain visible signs of reluctance to take execution measures. This manifested itself as a certain wait and see mentality, which was visible in particular in situations in which more proactive attitudes would have been required. However, most of the general measures were taken effectively in Finland. One of the best examples of the effectiveness of the Finnish execution of general measures was the execution of the ne bis in idem cases, in which the execution was done long before the first judgments against Finland were even rendered. On the other hand, the taking of general measures in the length of proceedings cases represented a group of cases in which the temporal and material effectiveness of the execution was at its lowest.
  • Katajamäki, Sakari (ntamo, 2016)
    Kukunor. Dream and the tradition of nonsense literature in Lauri Viitaʼs long poem This study examines Lauri Viita s (1916 1965) long poem Kukunor. Satu ihmislapsille [‛Koko Nor. A fairy tale for human children ] (1949) and its dream features from the perspective of the European tradition of literary nonsense. Here nonsense literature is defined as language-centred and play- or game-like literature, which balances meaning or a multiplicity of meaning with an absence of meaning. Usually, nonsense literature is topsy-turvy and self-reflective and it frequently represents emotions that are at odds with current events. In addition to earlier research on nonsense literature, the present study uses the three most canonical European nonsense writers Edward Lear, Lewis Carroll and Christian Morgenstern as the corpus for defining and analysing this literary genre. This study analyses the kind of relations Kukunorʼs dream features (i.e., structures and themes connected with dreaming) have with its nonsensical features. It examines Viitaʼs long poem from several structural and thematic perspectives. Most of the essential structural phenomena analysed in this survey include topsy-turvydom, palimpsest structures, and autocentricity. Other topics of analysis include epistemological matters and the instability of the subject or its identity. The main linguistic research themes of this study focus on anomalies regarding referentiality and arbitrariness, the concreteness of language and literature, and linguistic generation. The epithet dream has seen repeated use in the context of nonsense literature, and many surveys have dealt with the relations between dreaming and nonsense, though not in depth. Thus, this study is both an analysis of Viitaʼs long poem and a survey of the interrelation between dreams and nonsensicality in the European canon of literary nonsense. The present study argues that many confusing or incoherent features in Kukunor embody many structures of dreams and nonsense literature. The survey of these intertwining structural, stylistic and thematic characteristics helps to perceive Viitaʼs long poem and the relations between its parts in new ways. Contrary to the view of Elizabeth Sewellʼs eminent book The Field of Nonsense (1952), the key features of the nonsense genre correspond in various ways with many characteristics of dreaming. In Kukunor, Lauri Viita masters both the structural features of dreaming and the poetics of nonsense literature. Kukunor is exceptional among Viita s literary works, but analysing it offers new perspectives for understanding Viita s entire oeuvre.
  • Syrjä, Kari-Pekka (IPR University Center, 2016)
    The doctoral dissertation under the title Protection of the Service Concept and Intellectual Property Rights The service product and unfair imitation belongs to the field of intellectual property law. The dissertation consists of three parts and seven chapters. Firstly, the study focuses on whether the supplementary protection of achievement in relation to a service concept, in particular, a service product granted on the basis of article 1.1 under the Finnish Unfair Business Practices Act (SopMenL 1§ 1 mom.), can be justified and legitimized. Secondly, the study systemizes the general and specific criteria necessary for the supplementary protection of achievement under special circumstances and in a situation beyond IPR laws as well as provides an interpretation of these criteria. Thirdly, under the assumption that the respective law can be applied, the study investigates the substance and the form of protection arising from it in this context. The methods applied are the traditional approach of the normative theory of law (legal dogmatics) together with the method of comparative law, as demonstrated in a comparison to the respective laws of Germany and Sweden. The first part is the introduction to the topic. The second part includes Chapters 2 through 6. In Chapter 2 the legal framework of a service concept is introduced. This includes among other things how a service concept is positioned in legal dogmatics and in which way the legal right arising from the supplementary protection of achievement pursuant to article 1.1 under Finnish Unfair Business Practices Act (SopMenL 1§ 1 mom.) can be considered in legal doctrine de lege lata. Chapter 3 deals with the international legislative framework for unfair competition law, especially its general clause. The purpose of Chapter 4 is to deal with the historical development of the general clause [i.e. article 1.1 under the Finnish Unfair Business Practices Act (SopMenL 1§ 1 mom.] by drawing a comparison with the respective law in Germany (UWG). The specific emphasis is to examine how ratio legis and the secured interests of this law have changed over the course of social progress and what the impact has been in the context of the interpretation of law, especially in the context of the general clause. In Chapter 5 the general and specific criteria necessary for the supplementary protection of achievement under the general clause are systematized and interpreted for the application of those criteria in Chapter 6 in respect of the service concept. The third part comprises Chapter 7, which concludes the main remarks. Based on my research, the following can be concluded: Firstly, the study argues that a service concept may be protected under IPRs, but only in part. The supplementary protection of achievement according to Finnish Unfair Business Practices Act (Art. 1.1) beyond IPRs does not confer on the proprietor of a service concept an exclusive and absolute right, but only to the extent of relative intellectual property position (Art und Weise). Secondly, the comparison made between Finnish and German laws and their historical development proves that despite the almost identical ratio legis at the times of the enactment of the law in Germany and the law in Finland, the secured interests of the law diversified in the 1970s as the ideology of consumer protection penetrated into the Nordic countries, especially into Finland. At the same time, the German courts retained their attitude unchanged towards the secured interests. The UWG 2004 reform finally codified Schutzzwecktrias (i.e. the various secured interests for protection). Thirdly, although the general criteria regarding the application of the general clause are mostly parallel, the statutory law de lege lata differs [e.g. the Finnish Unfair Business Practices Act ( Art. 1.1) does not include any special criteria for application in case of unfair imitation] from the respective laws in Germany (UWG) and (MFL) in Sweden. Finally, the study argues that the supplementary protection of achievement in relation to a service concept, in particular a service product granted on the basis of Article 1.1 under the Finnish Unfair Business Practices Act against unfair imitation, is not excluded in a case, provided that (i) any of the respective IPRs cannot be applied to the case, (ii) the general and special criteria for protection are present, and (iii) there are special circumstances available such as the risk of distorted competition and market failure.
  • Robinson, Richard (Nord Print, 2016)
    This thesis is a social and cultural history of the drinking cultures that co-existed in Brighton, the biggest seaside resort in England, between 1880 and 1939. Its case study approach uses a distinct spatial setting to examine a plethora of perspectives on alcohol consumption, ones which extend well beyond the traditional foci of the public house and the temperance movement. Indeed, rather than seeing the licensed house as exclusively representative of the town s public drinking, it takes it as merely the most obvious form, before going on to consider tourist consumption, drunkenness, advertising and licensed clubs. These analyses are based on a close reading of both regulatory sources like licensing registers, police records and magistrates minutes and an array of regional publications, including newspapers, tourist guides and entertainment weeklies. Aside from expanding the scope of drink history, this study also offers an alternative history of the seaside resort, situating alcohol s paradoxical roles at the heart of its identity. Since Brighton attracted both high society and lowly day-trippers, it demonstrates this paradox well: it accepted alcohol s role in refined leisure experiences while simultaneously trying to quell the intoxicated excesses of the excursionist mass. However, one of the main findings of this thesis is that Brighton s eclectic mix of classes and relatively condensed tourist landscape ultimately resulted in more homogeneous drinking cultures than in other types of towns, particularly in the interwar period. The other significant finding of this study concerns drink history more directly. The period from 1880 to the end of the First World War is commonly seen as the most turbulent in the history of alcohol in England, and has been set in stark contrast to the more sober and more middle-class drinking climate of the interwar years. However, this study challenges the extent to which this mollified atmosphere was founded on more refined conduct, showing that transgressive drinking activities did not entirely die away. On the contrary, because drink was now an acceptable leisure option rather than a potential threat to the very fabric of society, disreputable drinking cultures whether those of working-class tourists or middle-class women were viewed in a more permissive light.
  • Yrjölä, Jukka (2016)
    Jukka Yrjölä: A bridge of faith across the Gulf of Finland: Ecclesiastical connections between Finns and Estonians from 1918 to 1939 The independence of Finland and Estonia created the conditions for the emergence and development of ecclesiastical connections between the two countries. Initially, these connections were established primarily by associations that represented various ecclesiastical operations. Such associations had already been set up in Finland during the period of autonomy (1809−1917), but similar activities did not begin in Estonia until the country s independence in 1918. The first connections were created by missionary workers, the YMCA, Suomen Kirkon Seurakuntatyön Keskusliitto (the Central Association for Parish Work of the Church of Finland) and the Laestadian new revival movement. The initial difficulties of the Church of Estonia meant that more organised forms of contact were not established until the late 1920s, when the collaboration expanded to include parish youth work, Sunday schools, Christian student activities and the Christian work of the railway mission. Other efforts included the Finnish diaspora activities in Narva and Tallinn as well as the meetings of clergymen in the recreational groups at Finno-Ugric cultural conferences and the convocations of Finnish and Estonian clergy. For the Finns, the rise of nationalism and the resulting interest in kindred peoples, the Finno-Ugrians, provided the ideological basis for developing connections. The ecclesiastical connections to Estonia were not motivated by a single goal. Whereas the Finnish Evangelical Lutheran Mission shared an operational basis with the YMCA, the railway mission and Sunday schools, the connections of the Laestadian new revival movement were rooted in the revivalist movement, and the contacts of Finnish university students and the Finnish Christian Youth Organisation developed on the same basis from the late 1920s onwards by incorporating national revivalist efforts with the then-prevalent ideas of the Norwegian revivalist preacher Ole Hallesby. The recreational groups at Finno-Ugric cultural conferences, the Finnish-Estonian convocations of the Suomen Kirkon Pappisliitto (the Clerical Association of the Church of Finland), the Hungarian-organised Finno-Ugric convocation in Budapest, and the Lappeenranta kindred peoples camp represented the connection that was perhaps most genuinely inspired by the kindred peoples ideology. The symbols of the kindred connection between the churches included common roots, blood relations, cultural heritage, people s suffering and the Evangelical faith. Separate from the kindred peoples activities per se, the activities of the Herättäjä-Yhdistys (the Awakening Society) in Estonian Ingria had such a strong Finnish nationalist tone that they led to a head-on confrontation with the Estonian regime headed by Konstantin Päts.
  • Kivelä, Juhani (Väittelijä, 2016)
    Abstract Silent alarm how incidents in society have been managed between 2012 and 2014 According to the government resolution on comprehensive security of 2012, situation snapshots are among of the most important bases of decision-making at all levels of operations. The resolution finds that preparedness arrangements related to Finnish security are well-functioning and do not require large-scale reforms; neither is there any reason to develop regulations related to specific procedures or incident management systems. In 2000s prior to 2010 and subsequently numerous regulatory and structural reforms applying to all security operators. The point of departure of the study was the researcher s view based on administrative experiences that the decision-makers lacked knowledge about the effects of reforms in the practical management of incidents. The aim of the study was to update the situation snapshot presented in the government resolution with the perspective of competent practical security operators. Incident management is a new concept and used as a sub-area of security management in government resolutions in the 2010s. The upper framework of the study is the framework of the management of overall security, which includes the security management of normal circumstances, incidents and war-time conditions. The main question posed by the study is: What did the state of incident management look like from the perspective of competent authorities after the administrative reforms and changes in the security environment that took place in the 2000s at the end of 2014? The empirical study focused on years 2012 2014. The study was a qualitative case study. The study object was selected as the macro and operative micro level of practical operations. At both levels, the aim was to gather comprehensive empirical data. In all 130 security operators were interviewed for the study. The micro level data comprises in all 79 interviews of emergency centre, rescue, police, border guard and municipal employees. These are supplemented by 11 regional level interviews with Regional State Administrative Agency and Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment employees. The macro level interview data comprises 38 interviews with the management of ministries, central government and NGOs. The document sources at macro level comprise government programmes, government resolutions, committee reports, regulative and structural reform decisions made in the 2000s and investigation reports of crisis and incident situations experienced. The interpretation of the sources is based on theory-based content analysis, for the purpose of which a loose interpretative framework based on international research literature was created. Its strategic management analyses are derived from T.E. Drabek s strategic management roadmap as well as concepts belonging to L. Johnston and C. Shearing s management theory. Operative management criteria are based on concepts formulated by Johnson and Shearing, which have been supplemented with H. de Bruijn and E.F. ten Heuvelhof s hybrid management criteria. Finally, the study observations have been analysed from the perspective of Drabek s main concept related to incident situations; coordination. Based on the analyses performed, the answer to the main question of the study, can be summarised as follows: 1.From the perspective of the competent authorities, incident management during the study period was administratively disorganised. The view presented in the 2012 resolution about the functioning of the arrangements during normal circumstances did not correspond to the management demands in 2012, or at the end of 2014. 2. The state of management exhibited significant deficiencies in both the strategic management coordination capabilities at the end of 2014. The hierarchical and network management arrangements related to incidents did not correspond to the hybrid management requirements of the incidents. 3. During the study period, the threats related to incidents increased and their management became an increasingly important area of comprehensive security. The deficiencies found in the study also weakened the management preconditions of comprehensive security. The practical conclusion of the study is that the management of incidents and comprehensive security require significant corrective measures and reforms. Moreover, the study revealed that the necessary reforms do not require large additional resources; some of the corrective measures can be performed with existing resources and some by reallocating resources. Based on the study findings, it appears that the loose theoretical framework created for content analysis seemed to suit the object of study and the analysis of data collected for it. Keywords: Comprehensive security, incident management, coordination, strategic, operative, hierarchical, network and hybrid management
  • Lahtela, Jenni (Helsingin Yliopisto, 2016)
    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. It is characterised with a high level of intra- and intertumour heterogeneity. Large lung cancer sequencing efforts have identified clear histopathology-specific genetic alteration patterns, which in the cases of lung adenocarcinomas are applied in clinics to direct treatment. Furthermore, lung cancer immunotherapy approaches have recently shown promising results in clinical trials. However, a deeper understanding of the functional importance of novel lung cancer genes as well as the lung cancer-related niche and cell type specific propensities leading to molecular and microenvironmental tumour heterogeneity is needed to better translate the growing amount of information to patient stratified treatments. The first part of this thesis work concentrated on the functional in vitro and in vivo investigation of putative tumour suppressive characteristics of the EPH receptor A3 (EPHA3), a gene commonly mutated in human lung cancers. Our in vitro findings supported the tumour suppressive characteristics of EPHA3 and indicated that EPHA3-mediated tumour suppression was specifically dependent on its kinase activity. However, our in vivo investigation demonstrated that loss of EphA3 does not co-operate with two known genetic alterations of human lung cancer in murine lung tumourigenesis nor it effects lung morphogenesis. Hence, we conclude that our study demonstrates how functional validation of putative cancer genes can be challenged by biological complexity, which may result in acquired compensation or different functional roles in human and mice. The results from the second part of this thesis work showed that cells in the airways of mouse lungs had a higher propensity to develop faster growing and progressing lung tumours than the cells in the distal alveolar space when exposed to known lung cancer genetic alterations, namely expression of oncogenic Kras and loss of Lkb1 (KL). The lung tumours originated from the airways were predominantly classified as adenosquamous carcinomas (ASCs). ASCs showed elevated levels of genes associated with immunosuppression and a notable immune cell infiltration with an increase in the amount of possible myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). The KL ASC model may thus represent a relevant preclinical model for the study of anti-MDSC immune therapy as a treatment for ASCs, which in humans represent a rare but aggressive type of lung cancer. Thus, the findings in this thesis work highlight the importance of the functional niche in the progression of lung cancer and, therefore, possibly affecting a response to treatment. Niche-specific investigation of lung cancer genetic alterations thus leads to a more accurate stratification of the preclinical in vivo models, simultaneously revealing relevant molecular mechanisms underlying lung cancer heterogeneity.
  • Fränti-Pitkäranta, Marttiina (2016)
    Abstract This doctoral dissertation in metrological terminology is entitled Mittayksiköistä, maa-alojen mitoista ja arkkitehtonisista mittasuhteista antiikin Roomassa (On units of measurement, measures of land area and architectural dimensions in ancient Rome) and is included in the field of ancient languages and cultures within the Doctoral Programme for History and Cultural Heritage. This dissertation is based on Latin-language primary sources, i.e., texts that concern the ancient unit of the foot, measurements and names of land area, architectural symmetry relationships and metrological and terminological material related to the design of the Italic atrium-style house. The dissertation also discussis several Greek-language terms for units of measurement as well as words for land area and boundary markers in different languages. A significant part focuses on Vitruvius s concept of scaenographia, which was used by ancient architects and visual artists and was a precedent of what is today called perspective drawing. Because I will also explore these themes as an architect, my method and approach can be described as a combination of the linguistic, the mathematical and the visual.The dissertation includes 47 Latin-language citations drawn from critical editions of the following 12 authors: Varro, Vitruvius, Pliny, Columella, Frontinus, Balbus, Pseudo-Balbus, Festus, Boethius, Isidore, Pseudo-Boethius and Gerbert. I have translated into Finnish these previously untranslated citations, explained their content and meaning and, in some cases, described terminological continuums as part of the cultural heritage. Persons relevant to the topic in the classical and later periods include the following: Adelbold, Agatharchus, Alberti, Anaxagoras, Apuleius, Archimedes, Archytas, Augustine, Augustus, Barbaro, Vincent of Beauvois, Bede, Poggio Bracciolini, Bramante, Brunelleschi, Caesar, Calcidius, Cato, Cerceau, Cesariano, Cetius Faventinus, Chrysippus, Cicero, Circe, Claudius, Clodius Pulcher, Dante, Democritus, Diophantus, Dürer, Eratosthenes, Euclid, Fannius Synistor, Fibonacci, Piero della Francesca, Fulvius Nobilius, Gaius, Galen, Gellius, Geminus, Fra Giocondo, Hadrian, Heron, Hyginus, Justinian, Leonardo da Vinci, Lorenzetti, Marcus Lucretius, Lucretius Fronto, Martial, Masaccio, Nero, Nicomachus, Novius, Octavia, Odysseus, Luca Pacioli, Plato, Polybius, Polykleitos, Priscus, Proclus, Pseudo-Hyginus, Pseudo-Nipsus, Pythagoras, Quintilian, Romulus, Seneca, Septimius Severus, Siculus Flaccus, Solinus, Solon, Strabo, Sulpicius Rufus, Suetonius, Symmachus, Theodora, Trajan and the author of the fragments of Varro.The research literature includes not only primary sources, but also publications in the fields of archaelogy and architecture, the visual arts, metrology and terminology in several languages (English, Finnish, French, German, Italian, Latin, Spanish and Swedish). Morover, the dissertation comprises 40 research images used to illustrade my writing. Of them, 27 include scenographic and geometric vistas I have reconstructed from Roman and Campanian architectural wall paintings. Three of the images feature my drawings related to Vitruvius s instructions for the dimensions of an Italic atrium house. In ten of the images, I explore the dimensions of the atrium and its adjoinining rooms based on Vitruvius s instructions. The images are based on my plan drawing of Marcus Lucretius s atrium house in Pompeii.
  • Kari, Markus (Into Kustannus Oy, 2016)
    Why did the norms governing the Finnish financial markets changed fundamentally over the 1980 s? To answer, this study applies the methodological framework of contemporary legal history: legal change is being placed to its relevant societal contexts. The 1980 s is a central decade in the transformation of the post-war Finnish society known as the Second republic to the Third republic, integrated to Europe. Also the nationalistic Finnish financial system characterized by regulation of interest rates, foreign exchange controls, and bank-centrality was transformed by creating new financial markets. The economic decision makers began to see Finland in the reference group of industrialized western or Nordic nations. The first perspective to the legal change is deregulation: dismantling the controls over interest rates and foreign exchange. Deregulation was in essence a long line of minor decisions taken by Bank of Finland. As a result, the law regarding finance was on a change. The second perspective to the change is reregulation: the birth of laws governing new markets and reformation of existing financial market laws. Such process was led by the senior officials of ministry of justice and ministry of finance. Reregulation was needed to create new financial markets. Such development was accepted by the main stream politicians. The process of change can be divided into three phases. The prime operator during the first period (end of the 1970 s around 1985) was Bank of Finland. Based on the analysis done by its economists, the central bank allowed more room for the private actors in the market. There is no evidence suggesting that Bank of Finland communicated its market creating plans to other economic policy makers or the general public. During the second period, (about 1986 87) two consecutive majority governments gave the mandate of legislating the stock markets and the option markets. Bank of Finland continued its deregulation. During the third period (from around 1988), the deregulation was finalized by Bank of Finland. A new round of legislation was passed, following closely the example of the European Communities. The third period can be labeled pre-integration, as Europeanization of the market took place before any political decisions to join the accelerating integration were taken. The three periods of legal change reflect pragmatic reactions to the 1980´s grand political changes in Finland and in Europe. The economic and political force of the Soviet Union was diminishing and European integration was accelerating. By the end of the decade a hubris of European integration existed in the Finnish society. A change parallel to the change in the financial markets can be seen within the human rights paradigm: Europeanization and more international perspective caused fundamental changes.
  • Kokkonen, Jarmo (Kirkon tutkimuskeskus, 2016)
    Sukupuoli ja yhteisöllisyys rippikoulun rituaaleissa Tässä tutkimuksessa kysyn, miten ja millaisina sukupuoli ja yhteisöllisyys rakentuvat rippikoulun rituaaleissa. Tutkimus paikantuu monitieteisesti uskontososiologian ja uskonnonpedagogiikan, etnografisen tutkimusperinteen sekä sukupuolentutkimuksen leikkauspisteisiin. Rituaalitutkimuksen käsitteiden ja lähestymistapojen hyödyntäminen tuo sävyjä myös antropologian puolelta. Tutkijanpositioni nousee feminististä sukupuolen- ja seksuaalisuudentutkimusta hyödyntävästä uskontososiologiasta. Lähestyn sukupuolta sosiaalisessa vuorovaikutuksessa rakentuvana, tilannesidonnaisena tekemisen ja toistamisen ilmiönä. Sukupuolta tuotetaan rituaalinomaisesti puheessa, arjen toiminnoissa ja kulttuurisissa esityksissä. Korostan rippikouluinstituution tarkastelussa sukupuolisensitiivisyyttä ja uskonnollisen yhteisön eettisen toiminnan tarpeellisuutta. Rippikoulua lähestyn kulttuurisena siirtymäriittinä. Sen sisällä sosiaaliset suhteet, inhimillinen toiminta sekä ajan ja paikan hahmotukset saavat erilaisen sävyn kuin siirtymäriitin ulkopuolella. Kyse on ritualisaatiosta, toiminnan tavasta ja prosessista. Toiseksi on kyse konkreettisista rituaaliakteista, esimerkiksi leikeistä, lauluista, rukouksista ja näytelmistä. Rituaalit voivat olla sukupuolittuneita ja sukupuolen erilaiset esitykset ritualisoituja. Siirtymäriitin kolmivaiheisessa jäsennyksessä (irtautuminen kynnys- eli liminaalivaihe takaisin liittyminen) tarkastelu keskittyy liminaalivaiheeseen eli rippikoulun leirijaksoon. Yhteisöllisyys on yhtäältä konkreettista toiminnallista vuorovaikutusta (ritualisaatio), toisaalta symbolista yhteisyyttä (rituaalit). Tutkimuksellinen lähestymistapa ja tutkimusote on etnografia. Osallistuin kahden rippikouluyhteisön elämään. Keskeisin tutkimusaineisto muodostuu rippikoululaisten, isosten ja työntekijöiden haastatteluista, tutkimuspäiväkirjoista sekä nuorten omista teksteistä. Teoreettisesti Émile Durkheimin ajatukset auttavat jäsentämään rituaalista yhteisöä, Judith Butlerin performatiivisuuden teoria avaa sukupuolen tarkastelua, Victor Turnerin tuotanto rituaalien tulkintaa ja Erving Goffmanin ajattelu leikkien ja esitysten purkamista. Käyn tutkimuksessani keskustelua, osin myös vertailua, kouluetnografioiden kanssa. Lähes kaikki rippikoulunsa aloittavat ovat peruskoulun kahdeksasluokkalaisia. Rippikoulu ja koulu ovat rinnakkaisia instituutioita. Tutkimuksessa käy ilmi, että sukupuoli ja yhteisöllisyys rakentuvat vastavuoroisesti. Sukupuoli dramatisoi yhteisöllisyyden tiivistymistä. Yhteisöllisyyden dramaturgiassa sukupuolen ja seksuaalisuuden teemat saavat erityisen paikan sekä päivittäisessä rytmityksessä (iltaohjelmat) että leirin kokonaisuudessa (leirin loppua edeltävä ilta). Nämä teemat eivät asetu muiden rippikoulun teemojen rinnalle vaan niistä erilleen. Rippikoulussa tapahtuu sekä sukupuolirajan liudentumista että sen korostumista. Epävirallisessa rippikoulussa (nuorten vapaa-aika, ystävyyssuhteet) ritualisaatio liudentaa sukupuolten välistä rajaa. Turvallisuuden, rentouden ja hauskuuden sävyttämä esteettinen yhteisöllisyys mahdollistaa karnevalistisen kokeilun ja sukupuolirajoilla leikkimisen. Leirielämässä sukupuoli on tavallisimmin läsnä korostumattomalla tavalla sukupuolten rinnakkaisuutena ja yhteistyönä. Rituaaleissa vastaavasti sukupuolten välinen raja korostuu virallisessa rippikoulussa (ohjelma, opetus, säännöt). Yksittäiset rituaalit ennen kaikkea laulut, leikit ja näytelmät sukupuolittuvat ja seksualisoituvat tavalla, jota työntekijät heikosti tunnistavat. Virallinen seksuaaliopetus nojautuu osin sukupuolittuneisiin konventioihin. Uskonnon tekstit ovat usein sukupuolittuneita. Molemmista rippikouluista jäi puuttumaan aikuisten eksplisiittinen puhe sukupuolen ja seksuaalisuuden suhteesta hengellisyyteen. Seksuaalisuuden ja seurustelun kysymyksiä käydään rippikoulussa läpi, mutta sukupuolen käsittely on vähäistä. Intersukupuolisuutta ja transsukupuolisuutta ei mainittu lainkaan. Avioliitto ja häärituaali kytkeytyivät kysymykseen samaa sukupuolta olevien avioliiton mahdollisuudesta. Rippikoulun opettajien ja isosten enemmistö suhtautui sallivasti homoseksuaalisuuteen, ja he näkivät mahdollisena häärituaalin toistamisen myös saman sukupuolen edustajien välillä.
  • Vauhkonen, Ville Aleksi (Ville Vauhkonen, 2016)
    Book history in Old Finland Ville Vauhkonen s dissertation examines the development of literacy and the literary world in the areas that Russia gained from Sweden following the peace treaties of Uusikaupunki (1721) and Turku (1743), territories now known as Old Finland (or the Viipuri Governorate), and analyzes the literary world in these areas. The 18th century expressly characterizes a major turning point in the progress of literacy and the literary world in Old Finland. The process could be termed a spreading of peasant literacy . This dissertation studies the shift by examining how literacy was taught in Old Finland, how popular education was governed and administered, how literacy skills were taught, what kind of a literary world opened to the local people who had learnt to read and where these books came from. Church registers serve as the main source of research data providing references in to literacy skills. These references, which are rather open to interpretation, are analysed by comparing them to notes in consistory inspection records and records on book possessions in estate inventory deeds. In Old Finland popular teaching was led by the diocesan chapters of Viipuri and Hamina. That is why their decision making processes are here investigated by inspecting data from consistory records. The Crown of Russia showed an increasing interest in popular education throughout the century. Familiarity with the background of the Russian Empire is necessary in order to understand the decision making processes of the diocesan chapters in Old Finland. I have also studied the history of the birth of Finnish-language literature and book trade routes in Old Finland. These, in turn, offer insight into what the literary-cultural world was like in the area, a Lutheran intersection between the Kingdom of Sweden and the Russian Empire. In the Uusikaupunki Peace Treaty Estonia and Livonia south of the Gulf of Finland were also annexed to Russia. They stand out as the most important points of comparison for the development of literacy in Old Finland. Popular education in these regions was governed by the same colleges of justice, and the developments in Estonia and Livonia reveal that the aspects that distinguish popular education in Old Finland from its Swedish counterpart are explicitly rooted in the 18th-century modernization efforts of the Russian Crown. Lutheranism in the Russian Empire had a tangible effect on the literary world of Old Finland. The centres of Russian Lutheranism were Livonia and St Petersburg. Direct sources on the history of Old Finland can also be found in Estonia, since both the town schools and book censorship in old Finland came under the governance of the University of Tartu in 1804. These sources have been carefully studied for this dissertation. Comparisons especially in terms of literacy skills are also made with Ingria, St Petersburg and the Finnish territories under Swedish rule. The study of the development of literacy clearly points out the dispersion among the territories of Old Finland. These were, after all, an area arbitrarily defined by the two peace treaties, including parts of Karelia north of Lake Ladoga, parts of southern Savonia (central/eastern Finland), traditional core areas of the Kingdom of Sweden like the Vyborg region but also the county of Käkisalmi (Kexholm) which had not become Lutheran until the 17th century. This regional diversity of Old Finland has very rarely been dealt with in academic research. Finally, the Finnish-language literature produced in Old Finland especially illustrates the large extent to which literary influences were passed on to Finland through Estonia. The issue entails broader significances, too, but in the case of Old Finland the importance is evident. In Old Finland, Estonia and Livonia the systematic efforts of to establish literacy that had begun in the late 17th century continued throughout the 18th century. The teaching was based on a church law issued in 1686 which remained in force in the mentioned regions after the peace treaties. It yielded results slowly and laboriously but surely. Pietistic Lutheranism, favoured by the Russian Empire, reformed the practisees of popular education significantly over the course of the century. Genuine literacy finally became the goal of the teaching and started to gain ground. Hence these efforts in the 18th century give root to literacy eventually led to the birth of the press in the next century, as well as national and religious revivalism and the emergence of peasant writers. All these developments presupposed a peasant audience who knew their alphabet. This makes popular education in the 18th century a topic well worth the research
  • Asikainen, Susanna (2016)
    ABSTRACT This study examines ideal masculinities in the Synoptic Gospels, focusing especially on the masculinity of Jesus. In addition, since masculinity is defined in relation to other masculinities and femininities, other male and female characters in the Synoptic Gospels are studied as well. The focus of this study is not the historical Jesus, but instead it attempts to determine how the Synoptic Gospels portray Jesus and the other characters as masculine and what kind of masculinity the Synoptic Gospels present as the ideal. As a theoretical framework for the study of masculinities, I employ a revised version of R. W. Connell s concepts of hegemonic and non-hegemonic masculinities. I suggest that the most fruitful approach is to see the masculinities of early Christianity as marginalized. Marginalized masculinities may have several strategies in relation to hegemonic masculinities, ranging from acceptance or complicity to resistance and voluntary marginality. In this study, my intention is to see whether these different strategies can be found in the Synoptic Gospels. This approach confirms that the Synoptic Gospels indeed had several potential strategies vis-à-vis hegemonic masculinities. In the ancient Greco-Roman world, there appears to have been at least two ideals of masculinity competing for the hegemonic position. One advocated self-assertive behavior, whereas the other emphasized the importance of self-control. Both of these ideals are found in a wide variety of sources, although the self-controlled ideal is more widespread in philosophical writings, especially Stoic texts. In contrast to the opponents of Jesus, who are presented as unmasculine, the Synoptic Gospels argue that Jesus and the disciples offer superior methods of fulfilling the ideals of masculinity. The ideal masculinity of the Synoptic Gospels presented in Jesus teaching is close to the self-controlled ideal of masculinity. Nevertheless, there are also occasions where Jesus teaching goes further than the self-controlled ideal of masculinity into what seems like voluntary acceptance of the marginal position of the early Christians. The disciples are instructed to adopt the social position of marginal groups, such as children, slaves, and eunuchs. This idea of voluntary marginalization is advocated especially in the Gospels of Matthew and Mark, with Matthew occasionally advocating an even more voluntarily marginal ideal than Mark. Luke, on the other hand, seems to be closer to the hegemonic ideals. In this study, I show that the Gospel of Luke is closest and most complicit with the ancient Greco-Roman ideal of self-controlled masculinity. This can be seen throughout Luke s Gospel, but it is most evident in the way that Luke changes the passion narrative and Mark s depictions of Jesus emotions. The Gospel of Mark, on the other hand, portrays both Jesus and the disciples as examples of voluntarily marginalized masculinity. Matthew enhances the depiction of Jesus by moving it closer to the ancient Greco-Roman ideal of self-controlled masculinity, but at the same time he maintains that the disciples should voluntarily accept the marginalized position of the early Christians.
  • Paakkinen, Ilse (Omakustanne, 2016)
    In this study I analyse Christine de Pizan's (1364/1365-1430/1431) ideas on gender and the legal allegories in her defence of women, especially in the Cité des dames. The method of this study is philosophical analysis, which focuses on the analysis of basic terms, concepts and argumentation. The first chapter deals with the historical background of the conceptions of gender that influenced Christine. The most influential were the Aristotelian-Scholastic conception of gender, according to which women are defective men, and the Augustinian conception of gender, which emphasizes the equal rational capacities of the sexes, but also women s subservient role in the social hierarchy. The second chapter concerns Christine s conception of gender, including the origins of gender, the function of gender and gender change. Christine's conception is based on an ontological dualism, according to which material bodies are reflections of divine ideas. As a form, gender is a universal idea in the divine mind. As a body, gender is a particular, material reflection of the universal form of a man or a woman. Christine's conception of the function of gender is based on the complementary characteristics of women and men. She thought that the humoral complexion of material bodies is gendered, which affects their characteristics. The possibility of gender change is based on Christine's idea that gendered characteristics are also a result of habituation, where learning new practices changes the humoral complexion of the body. The third chapter concerns Christine's ideas on law and the legal allegories in her defence of women in Cité des dames. Christine's legal allegories are based on the Thomistic fourfold division of law as eternal, natural, human and revealed divine law. The first book of Cité des dames, where Christine sets the foundational stones and builds a protective wall with the help of Lady Reason, symbolizes natural law and human law. The second book, in which Christine builds houses with the help of Lady Rectitude, symbolizes divine law. Establishing the citizenship of women symbolizes drawing the constitution of the city of ladies. The third book, where Christine appoints the Virgin Mary as the Queen with the help of Lady Justice, symbolizes the Thomistic conception of a just ruler. My main argument is that, according to Christine, the understanding of the nature of women is connected to the understanding of God's law. Because law is God's plan of government, which contains the ideas of created things, including the ideas of a woman and a man, gender is a part of God's law. Therefore, in a society where the importance of women is not recognized, the interpretation of law is also faulty. This requires the simultaneous reinterpretation of both gender and law in order for society to be equitable.
  • Sallila, Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This dissertation investigates the history of bankruptcy law in Sweden and Finland from the late seventeenth century to the 1860s. Because of the long time frame, the study focuses on fundamental questions of bankruptcy law. One can distinguish three such questions. First, the law must balance the possibility of giving the debtor a fresh start against the need to uphold creditor interests. Second, the legislation must determine the extent of public control of the management of insolvencies and the scope of the private autonomy of creditors. Third, when the proceeds of the insolvent estate are distributed, a balance must be struck between equal distribution and the differentiated treatment of creditors. The study focuses primarily on the treatment of the insolvent debtor, which was the most controversial question when Finland reformed its bankruptcy legislation in the 1860s. The new legislation differed from contemporary foreign models in that a composition accepted by the majority of the creditors could not limit the liability of the insolvent debtor by. Critics of the legislation argued that the possibility of a fresh start for the debtor was important for the needs of commerce and industry, and limiting such relief to cases where all creditors were unanimous conflicted with the standards of the civilized world. However, the legislation was defended with arguments underlining the sanctity of property rights and individual freedom. The drafters of the legislation also valued historical continuity, building on the tradition of Swedish law before 1809, when Finland was part of the Swedish realm. In Sweden, new bankruptcy legislation enacted in 1862 had departed from this tradition. In order to explain why Finland did not follow the example of other countries it is necessary to study the history of bankruptcy law over long haul, an analysis which reveals the ideological contrast between commercial utility and principles of justice in its social and political context. The main sources used in this study are the preparatory materials of Swedish and Finnish legislation, including proposals that did not go beyond the drafting stage. Parliamentary debates, newspaper commentary and legal literature have also been used. In a comparative perspective, one of the striking characteristics of early modern Swedish bankruptcy law was its uniformity. Attempts to establish special jurisdictions managing insolvencies did not lead to lasting results, and legislation was applied in general courts in both rural and urban areas. In most European countries, bankruptcy law had emerged as a special regime for persons engaged in commerce in a legal environment characterized by a plurality of jurisdictions and legal sources. In the nineteenth century, this commercial approach to insolvency was modernized, as commercial law and commercial jurisdiction began to regulate business transactions in a depersonalized sense. In such settings, regulating insolvency was also a matter of commercial utility. Sweden s decision to adopt the commercial model of bankruptcy law was criticised by high-ranking judges. The arguments of the Swedish reformers and critics resembled those in Finland a few years later and were indeed used as source material by the Finns. However, the relative influence of people promoting commercial utility and the standards of the civilized world was greater in Sweden than in Finland, while jurists upholding the strictly legal principles of individual rights were in a weaker position. The difference between the two countries is explained by the economic and political setting. Sweden was more closely connected to the expanding world trade, and commercial interests could shape legislation through public debate. In Finland, government policy was not similarly challenged by public opinion. Legal authorities had greater political influence, partly because of the importance of the legal tradition as a cornerstone of Finnish autonomy within the Russian Empire.
  • Saukkonen, Suvi (2015)
    Disruptive behavior is one of the most common psychiatric problems in children and adolescents. Psychopathic-like features designate a group of children and adolescents manifesting a severe, aggressive, and persistent pattern of disruptive behavior. These features have many similarities with adult psychopathy. More research is needed to gain an understanding of the different developmental trajectories for psychopathic-like behavior style in children and adolescents. The current study aimed to investigate cognitive, psychosocial, and personality-related characteristics associated with disruptive behavior in children and adolescents. In addition, psychometric properties of one of the psychopathy measures, Antisocial Process Screening Device Self-Report (APSD-SR), were evaluated. In the first study, the working memory (WM) function of school-aged children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)/Conduct Disorder (CD) was compared with age- and gender-matched normative controls. The comorbid diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was controlled for in the patient group. WM function was examined using n-back tasks. The main finding of this study was that patients performed worse on WM tasks than controls, even after controlling for the diagnosis of ADHD. The results suggest that children with disruptive behavior disorders (i.e. ODD and CD) have executive function (EF) deficits, like poor WM, that are not accounted for the comorbid diagnosis of ADHD. The second study, using the data from the Finnish Self-Report Delinquency Study 2012 (FSRD-12), assessed the factor structure and internal consistencies of the APSD-SR in a community sample of 15- to 16-year-old youth (n = 4,855, 51% girls). A three-factor structure of APSD-SR was found to fit the data best, with three meaningful subscales representing narcissism, impulsivity, and callous-unemotional features. The internal consistencies for these subscales were adequate. The results suggest that the self-report version of APSD is a promising screening tool for measuring psychopathic-like features in community youth. The third study used the same FSRD-12 data and examined different types of weapon carrying among youth, and psychosocial and personality-related factors associated with carrying a weapon, especially focusing on the relationship between psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying. The results showed that adolescents carrying weapons had a large cluster of problems in their lives, which were differentiated by the type of weapon carried. In addition, psychopathic-like features were associated with an increased likelihood of carrying any type of weapon (knife, gun, other weapon such as knuckleduster, chain, or pepperspray), but the association was strongest with carrying a gun. This association was significant even after controlling for a variety of psychosocial factors. The findings suggest that psychopathic-like features are strongly related to a higher risk of weapon carrying. Furthermore, the findings underscore the need for a comprehensive evaluation of an adolescent s psychosocial situation, when weapon carrying is identified. Finally, the fourth study investigated the relationship between victimization experiences and psychopathic-like features in youth by using the same FSRD-12 data. The results revealed that victimization was related to psychopathic-like features in youth, even more strongly in girls than in boys. Interestingly, the association between victimization and psychopathic-like features was stronger for recent experiences of victimization than past experiences. The results highlight the need for evaluating victimization experiences when psychopathic-like features are present in youth. Furthermore, some of the juveniles may show psychopathic-like behavior style as a means to cope with trauma.