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  • Lehtinen, Lasse (2014)
    The purpose of this research is to compare the rights and duties of a legal counsel in legal aid cases. The main principle concerning the rights and duties of the counsel is that there must be a balance between these rights and duties. The counsel has a right to charge a reasonable fee for legal work in the case, and has a duty to carry out this work with such care expected of a professional lawyer. The counsel's duty must be to act in a way that benefits the client and ensures his or her rights. This dissertation focuses on the question of how the rights of the counsel to reasonable remuneration for necessary actions, lost time and expenses are actually realised. A comparison is made of the ways in which the principles of reasonable fee compensation for necessary actions is realised in chargeable cases, when courts have determined what amount the losing party is ordered to pay to cover the winning party's legal costs. The results of this research show that the most important criterion in Finland for reasonableness of the fee is the present general attorney fee level. This has caused a countinuing rise of counsels' fees because lawyers are charging rates at the top attorney fee level. Therefore no fee competition exists between lawyers in Finland. Neither there are fixed tables or even recommendations which could guide the courts in determining limits for reasonable fees in cases of other than legal aid. The lack of competition and fixed tables means that nothing prevents lawyers from charging higher and higher fees when claiming client costs from the opposing party in cases where their clients are without legal aid. In legal aid cases the counsel has the right to charge 110 /hour plus Vat as a reasonable fee for necessary actions, lost time and expenses. Absolute reasonableness requires that the legal aid lawyer shall receive such fees that he can run his law office and have an income equal to the general lawyer salary level in Finland. This research shows that legal aid lawyers earn a much lover income compared to the fee level, what absolute reasonableness requires. In same type of court case, but instead involving legal aid, the fee that the legal aid counsel is able to charge, can be much lower that the above-mentioned compensation for lawyers in chargeable cases. Therefore legal aid lawyers may be paid less than what relative reasonableness requires. Legal aid lawyers have similar legal duties as lawyers in non-legal aid cases. This research shows that despite purpose of the law, a balance between the rights and duties of legal aid lawyers does not exist in practice. This is creating a contradiction between legal aid lawyers' rights and duties.
  • Kraenker, Sabine (Publications romanes de l'Université de Helsinki, 2014)
    The study examines unpublished writings and literary works which belong mostly either to novelistic or autobiographical genre. The study is divided into three parts: after the introduction, a Preamble presents the theoretical framework used in the study. The other two parts deal with break-up narratives, and, to a lesser extent, with Dear John Letters . The introduction presents the research questions and asks whether it is possible to find a typology and a rhetoric in the way leaving someone is expressed. The central notion of falling out of love in the Western tradition is defined, connected with passion, adulterous love and the image of impossible love. In this context, the dominant narrative is the one which describes the suffering of the one left more than the one leaving. The choice of texts, both among published and unpublished writings, is intended to give the possibility to compare fiction and non-fiction, ordinary writings and literary writings, and to find common features between them, which, if proved true, would confirm that there is a specific way to write about break-up and to write a break-up letter. The frames of references for the study, presented in the Preamble, are numerous: rhetorics and pragmatics, linguistics, and the theory of enunciation. Furthermore, some approaches are also based on sociology and psychology. The part concerning the analysis of break-up narratives shows that among the published break-up narratives, the difference between fictional and non-fictional writings is clear in the older texts, but more complex in the contemporary literature. The conclusion is that a hybrid status can be observed, at the border between fiction and non-fiction. Most of the texts are autobiographical without being called so. The notion of self-fiction, however convenient a label it may be, is not relevant. The genre description appearing on the front page or as a subtitle only reflects how frequently the novel genre is alluded to, which can be interpreted in different ways. Only one thing is common to all the texts: they are all written in the first person singular. Many break-up narratives have fragmentary structure, with letters and diaries as components. Pictures also play an important role in certain texts. The structure of the narratives, their openings and closings, the fact that they are addressing someone, and the close link between letter and diary is examined. Letters and diaries are shown to be the most appropriate forms when dealing with break-up, they are the most commonly used forms. The last part of the study focuses on the examination of break-up letters. The study shows their formal characteristics, noting how brief the letters frequently are, and also how contradictory too, because writing to someone, the mere act of writing a letter, tends to make people closer, when, at the same time, the content of the letter is meant to express distance. The examples in this part of the study come mainly from the unpublished writings. Choosing to break up by writing a letter leads to thinking about argumentation. Some micro analyses elucidate how the arguments work and how they are used to hide the end of a feeling by giving logical reasons for a change in the sentiments of the one writing the letter. The study shows that there are specific characteristics in break-up writing, both in narratives and break-up letters, but it is not possible to talk about a break-up genre.
  • Kotakallio, Juho (2014)
    Present All Over: Secret Service of London - The Secret Intelligence Service and Finland 1918-1941 This study gives new information about lesser known aspects of British intelligence relations with Finland, 1918-1941. The purpose of this research is to explore the relations between the British Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) and Finland. The study shows the main function of the intelligence organisation, and how it was organized. British intelligence in Finland is also evaluated. The main focus is placed on the agents of the SIS and how they gathered information. For this reason, HUMINT activities have been closely researched. The main obstacle to intelligence history research is the lack of archival material. The archives of the British Secret Intelligence Service remain closed and other official material has been weeded out. Despite the lack of sources, it has been possible to gather information about British intelligence and Finland through extensive archive research. The present research follows the line of a traditional historical study based on primary sources with source criticism. In general, intelligence history has concentrated on the Great Powers and relations between the SIS and Finland have not previously been the main focus of historical studies. After World War I Finland became an important watching post. The main target of British intelligence operating from Finland was Soviet Russia. The British and the Finns were anti-Bolsheviks. Intelligence gathering was directed from the Passport Control Offices of the legations. The present study argues that the British intelligence was based on confidential and long-term relations. The SIS created its contacts, among others, with Finnish politicians, officers and important businessmen. One main source of intelligence was Russian emigrants, who were also recruited to the SIS. The research demonstrates that the work of SIS in Finland was based on a few individuals, since the number of possible recruits was limited. As circumstances changed, the intelligence work was adapted. During the Winter War, the SIS operated in Finland and continued to use its old and reliable agents. The Interim Peace created difficulties for Finnish and British relations and at the time of the Continuation War Finland became a target of British intelligence. In spite of the war, the SIS officers who had served in Finland remained personally sympathetic to Finland. From the results of this research it can be concluded that location played an important role in intelligence. Researching minor countries and their intelligence environment allows more light to be shed on different intelligence organisations.
  • Nenonen, Anne (Helsingin yliopiston oikeustieteellinen tiedekunta, 2014)
    Remedies in public procurement beyond the scope of the procurement legislation The subject-matter of the thesis concerns administrative appeal as a remedy in public procurement beyond the scope of the procurement legislation. This subject-matter is approached from three different perspectives. First, the traditional jurisprudential method is applied so as to examine the requirements of EU law, the European Convention on Human Rights and the Constitution of Finland as regards remedies in respect of public procurement beyond the scope of the procurement legislation. These requirements provide a background for evaluating how the domestic remedies provisions should properly be interpreted. The second perspective is that of the Europeanisation of the law and its impact on the interpretations of judicial review in procurement cases. And thirdly, the subject-matter is approached from a regulatory point of view, looking especially into the effectiveness of administrative appeal as an avenue of judicial review in procurement. There are differences in the scope and the preconditions of application of the basic rights provisions and human rights provisions on due process, which may lead to variation in the requirements for remedies in procurement cases. Where a procurement process falling beyond the scope of the procurement legislation nonetheless falls within the scope of EU law, it is necessary to provide an effective remedy for rights arising from the principles of equal treatment and transparency. In turn, procurement processes falling solely within the scope of domestic law are governed by the general principles of good government, which means that the tenderer acquires the procedural right to proper and equal treatment in the procurement process. The Human Rights Convention guarantees access to justice at least in cases of discrimination. As a matter of fact, there would be reason to adopt one and the same interpretation of when and how a procurement decision can be appealed, regardless of which basic right or human right is concerned or of which contracting authority made the decision in question. The assessment of avenues of appeal should be based on the nature of a procurement decision as a choice of supplier and on the aspects of public law governing this choice. The Europeanisation of law has increased the regulation of public procurement and emphasised the need for effective access to justice. In procurement beyond the scope of procurement legislation this means the application of the norms of judicial review to a new type of case. The thesis contains an examination of relevant cases from Finland, Sweden and the United Kingdom, concerning the application of general administrative judicial measures on a procurement case beyond the scope of the procurement legislation. The criteria that administrative appeal sets on an official decision that can be appealed, and the prohibition in municipal appeal to present new claims once the appeal deadline has passed may, in certain situations, result in problems as regards the requirement of effective remedies in EU law. Moreover, administrative appeal may prove ineffective in practice also because there are no remedies that would be in compliance with the procurement legislation and ensure the elimination of errors in procurement procedure. In order for judicial review beyond the scope of the procurement legislation to be equally effective as judicial review within the scope of that legislation, there would be need for more precise regulation of procurement procedures and also for the adoption of remedies regulations similar to those appearing in the procurement legislation. It would hardly be expedient to make the scope of the procurement legislation narrower and at the same time to create corresponding, but separate procedural provisions for procurement that falls beyond the scope of that legislation.
  • Alén-Savikko, Anette (Anette Alén-Savikko, 2014)
    This doctoral dissertation focuses on audiovisual sport coverage in the new media landscape and provides a critical, EU level analysis. Multiple layers of exclusive aspirations exist alongside a striving for maximum exposure and public appeal: sport broadcasting rights in particular have been questioned as their costs have risen and sport content has been moved behind conditional access. These tendencies have then provoked fundamental rights discussions on access by the public to information, pluralism of the media, and freedom of expression. Business is an inseparable part of the modern sport and media gestalt. However, other dimensions to European audiovisual sport coverage exist that do not operate in terms of finance and the market economy alone. In the EU, audiovisual media are regarded as economic services, but they are also acknowledged important role in societies, democracy, and culture. Also European sport has strong socio-cultural dimensions alongside its economic aspects. As regards the new media landscape, media convergence is allegedly influencing sports related media rights and commercial exploitation of sporting events. On the other hand, the Internet and social media are utilized by ordinary citizens, consumers, and supporters. Various demands and regulatory requirements arguably co-exist on many levels. This research aims at providing in-depth analysis of the role of law and alleged changes in the new media landscape, especially concerning various demands and regulatory requirements in the field of audiovisual sport coverage. The focus is on media law and copyright law whereas sport is treated as a particular kind of content with many legally interesting dimensions. Various proprietary rights and exclusive tendencies are mapped out in light of legislation, case law, and legal literature. In addition, fundamental rights, free and fair competition, copyright, and the public interest are analyzed as "law in action." Legal issues related to the Internet and social media are discussed as well. Legal texts are analyzed in the research and research interests are primarily theoretical. A law-and-community approach, elaborated on the basis of Roger Cotterrell's (2006) typology, is utilized in the analysis of legal texts while media and communications studies in particular are utilized in the analysis of (new) media. In particular, the ideas of Jay Bolter and Richard Grusin on 'remediation' are elaborated. New media present a continuation rather than a complete transcendence: new media achieve their 'newness' and cultural significance by refashioning earlier media and the process is mutual (e.g., the Internet/TV). The interrelations between various legal regimes prove highly complex, and EU law in the context of audiovisual sport coverage is often a mixture of Union-level and national-level instruments; there is no overall concept. Moreover, the Internet and social media provide additional dimensions. To conclude with statements on the dominance of economic and instrumental considerations is not surprising. Moreover, audiovisual media and the sport industry also appear to be challenged time and again by technological development and the activities of new entrants or members of the public. As regards the role of law, the research argues that some demands and regulatory requirements have changed in the new media landscape and that the law has difficulty in meeting those demands. With the traditional media mode, inclusion is less in degree and allowed mainly on industry terms whereas the new media mode allows for 'convergence' including in the meaning of media-related roles and practices. Alongside cross-border issues, especially difficult for law is this relativization of binaries in the new media landscape.
  • Dopie, Joseph (2014)
    Actin controls numerous nuclear events including transcription factor activity, chromatin remodeling and RNA polymerase activity. As a component of the cytoskeleton in the cytoplasm, actin traditionally influences cell motility, cell division, cell shape and intracellular transport. In the cytoplasm, actin-binding proteins (ABPs) regulate the dynamic interplay between actin polymerization into filaments and depolymerization into monomers, a process that is central to the cytoplasmic functions of actin. Details of the nuclear functions of actin are unclear and it remains unknown whether actin polymerization and depolymerization in the nucleus is directly linked to the nuclear functions of actin. Many cytoplasmic ABPs have also been identified in the nucleus and shown to influence gene expression, yet their nuclear function in relation to actin is not clear. Actin utilizes an active mechanism to exit the nucleus, however, the nuclear import mechanism for actin has not been characterized. This work provides evidence to support an active nuclear shuttling mechanism for actin and identify novel regulators of nuclear actin. Our live cell imaging data show that actin actively and constantly shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Using RNA interference (RNAi) mediated loss-of-function analysis, we show that unphosphorylated cofilin, an ABP, and importin 9, a member of the karyopherin β family of transport receptors, are required for nuclear localization of actin. Protein interaction experiments show that importin 9, cofilin and actin form an import complex that mediates nuclear localization of actin to promote efficient transcriptional activity. Our genome-wide RNAi screens have identified novel and conserved regulators of nucleocytoplasmic transport of actin. Notably, we identified cell division cycle (CDC)73, also known as parafibromin, a component of the RNA polymerase II associated factor homolog (PAF)1 complex and cyclin-dependent kinase 13 (CDK13), a protein that controls cell fate, as regulators of nuclear export of actin. On the other hand our data implicate protein kinase activated gamma subunit 1 (PRKAG1), a regulatory subunit of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and RAB18, a member of the ras-related protein family, as factors that promote nuclear import of actin. Also, we identify novel regulators of cofilin phosphorylation that influence nuclear localization of actin. These include; Capping protein B (CPB), an actin filament barbed end capping protein; shibire (SHI)/dynamin, involved in endocytosis; BTB and CNC homology 2 (BACH2), a Pox virus and Zinc finger domain-containing transcriptional regulator; receptor for protein kinase C 1 (RACK1) and structure-specific recognition protein (SSRP), a member of the facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT) complex. BACH2 promotes cofilin dephosphorylation via repression of Lim kinase (LIMK) and testis-specific kinase (TESK) expression, while CPB promotes cofilin dephosphorylation via activation of the expression of slingshot. This study has thus provided essential insights into the regulatory mechanism of nuclear actin and identified several routes through which nuclear actin levels could be regulated.
  • Konstenius , Reetta Alexandra (2014)
    This dissertation is interested in the metatheory and ethics of linguistics. The research questions are concerned with the use of methodological terms and concepts. They study the question of whether the term experiment currently used in linguistics, e.g. experimental syntax and experimental semantics, corresponds to the conventional meaning of the term in methodology and other human sciences. This question is of interest as since the 1990's an increasing amount of studies in linguistics are presented under the term experiment. Experiments also often involve humans and therefore face ethical questions concerning their applications. At the moment, there is little or no actual knowledge about whether experiments in linguistics face the same ethical problems as in, for example, biomedicine. The aim of this study is to 1) discover the philosophy of linguistics as applicable to experiments 2) define the correct use of the term and 3) clarify those concepts with which the ethics of experiments in linguistics can be adequately discussed. This study takes as its starting point the unconventional term loose experiment coined by Itkonen and Pajunen (2010). By analyzing one particular unconventional use of the term experiment, this study seeks to reveal the conceptual background systems through which empirical methods, particularly experiments, are conceptualized in linguistics. The initial hypothesis is that a conflict between differing conceptual systems in the philosophy of linguistics is motivating the terminology. A systematic analysis of empirical and experiment in Itkonen AND Pajunen (2010) reveals how the meaning of the concept of empirical is build up by several conceptual systems. The rejection of both positivism and Chomskyan methodological naturalism leads to methodological dualism. A lack of hermeneutic philosophy seems to leave the qualitative methods in linguistics without conceptual support, resulting in unconventional interpretations of the empirical methods with human participants. These conceptual systems and lack of other concepts motivate the use of terms such as loose experiments. The distinctions between an experiment and qualitative research are lost in the conceptual system that Itkonen AND Pajunen (2010) rely on. It seems like maintaining a positivist, naturalist or methodological dualistic position in linguistics would entail conceptual problems regarding the understanding of experiments in linguistics. This points to a necessity to study further the metatheoretical frameworks for empirical research. Finally, the question of whether or not linguistics should apply conventional methodological terminology is to some extent also an ethical one. To answer ethical questions concerning empirical methods, it is essential to understand the relation the method has to human subjects. The current conventional terminology used in human sciences seems to be more apt to consider and explicate the distinctive relations the scientific technique has to humans than that of Itkonen AND Pajunen (2010), for example. It is also necessary that third parties, such as ethical committees, are able to understand the relation the method has to human participants.
  • Kepsu, Kasper Eskil Olavi (Finska Vetenskaps-Societeten, 2014)
    The Swedish province of Ingria was a turbulent region in the 17th century. This thesis examines the position of the province in the Swedish Empire, mainly by investigating the relations between peasants and authorities. In addition, this thesis discusses other themes, such as the reduction of the estates, the initiation of tax farming, the manorial economy, the character of Ingria as a border region, and the objective of the Swedish authorities to unify its provinces to the realm. Sweden was a typical conglomerate state that comprised different territories. This thesis demonstrates that military competition between states was the main driving force in the early modern European state building process. Ingria had a pivotal military importance for Sweden as a buffer zone against Russia. The income that the state gained out of the reduction and the initiation of tax farming was almost entirely invested in Ingrian fortresses. The Crown also attempted to integrate Ingria closer to the realm. Tax farming demonstrates nevertheless that the Crown was not strong enough to carry out a coherent integration process. Thus Ingria was still treated as a province. During the 1680s, there were numerous quarrels between peasants and leaseholders who administrated the manors. This thesis argues that bargaining was an essential part of the political culture in the Swedish provinces. The Crown officials negotiated with the peasants and took their opinions into account. Peasants were irritated by the heavy tax burden, the obligation to statute labour, the arbitrariness of the manorial officials, and the tax farming system itself. Peasants used both legal and illegal methods in trying to get a fixed rent and to get rid of the tax farming system. A typical legal method was to write complaints. However, there were many forms of illegal resistance from collective strikes to violent assaults. The mobility of the Ingrian population made it very difficult for the authorities to control the region. This study shows that the Ingrian peasants used borders in a very tactical manner in order to avoid various obligations both from the Crown and the manors. This thesis sheds new light on the early modern Swedish state. Previous studies perceive Sweden as a representative example of a power state. This thesis however shows that in the periphery the Swedish Empire was more like a powerless state.
  • Petty, Aaron (2014)
    The production of energy wood from small-diameter (DBH < 9 cm) forests in Finland through separate energy wood and integrated energy wood and pulpwood production often face cost pressures that inhibit economic viability of many operations. Systemic factors, such as small stem sizes, limited removals, and high density of young forest stands limit the efficiency of many operations resulting in low productivity and high operating costs, particularly within cutting operations. Within the study, means to increase efficiency and mitigate costs of small-diameter energy wood and integrated energy wood and pulpwood operations by identifying optimal methods, technologies, and policy that may be applied were investigated. Studies of integrated and delimbed stemwood cutting methods including the use of multi-tree handling and combined timber assortments in forest stands with stem size (DBH) of removals varying between 5-17 cm were investigated and compared against separate pulpwood production. Findings suggest that the methods provide increases in productivity and decreases in costs, particularly in < 11 cm DBH conditions. Crane scale measuring was investigated as a technical solution in timber logistics to be applied in energy wood and industrial roundwood procurement. The measuring method, used as a basis of payment, was found to provide a reliable, accurate, and cost effective method when compared with a manual timber pile measurement system. Policies, in the form of financial incentives were investigated to determine the effects of applicable subsidies on the profitability of energy wood production based on stem size of removal, finding possibilities for profitable operations with reduction in subsidies, however, with stem sizes (DBH) of removal ≤ 7 cm incentives played an important role in increasing profitability. Cost reductions were identified through: The utilization of integrated and delimbed stemwood harvesting methods with multi-tree handling, decreasing harvesting costs by 0.1-52.4% dependent on stem size (DBH) of removal between 7-17 cm when compared to a traditional pulpwood harvesting method; Combining timber assortments providing harvesting cost reductions between 1.5-8.0% between 5-17 cm; Crane scale measurement use provided increased accuracy and a 18.2-45.5% reduction in costs when compared to a manual timber pile measurement system when dependent on estimated working volumes between 20,000-30,000 cubic meters; Financial incentives under the PETU system were applied increasing profit margins of integrated supply chain operations by 14.3-19.9% dependent on stem size of removal, particularly with stem size of removals between 5-7 cm. Through rationalization of supply chains, harvesting methods, technologies, and policy which exhibit the ability to reduce costs should be utilized throughout the whole supply chain where implementation is possible. Keywords: Energy wood production, integrated forest operations, supply chain profitability, productivity, small-diameter forest stands, subsidies, crane scale measurement.
  • Peltola, Marja (Nuorisotutkimusverkosto/Nuorisotutkimusseura, 2014)
    Respectable families - Immigration, generations and social position The objective of the study is to determine how two generations of people with an immigrant background talk about their families and how they see their families positioned as a community. The study asks, on the one hand, what position the families have in the intersecting hierarchical orders of ethnicity and social class and, on the other hand, how the hierarchical differences defined by generation and gender within the family are interpreted and negotiated. Theoretically the study falls within various fields of research: ethnic and migration research; Bourdieuian research on social class and research on the intersectionality of social distinctions; sociological family research; and youth research. By means of a frame of reference composed of these fields, the lives of families with an immigrant background is examined from an angle that challenges problem-centred interpretations that stress issues pertaining to culture and integration . The core of the research data consists of 45 interviews of an ethnographic nature, which have been conducted with the parents and children of 16 families. The parents interviewed had moved to Finland from outside Western affluent societies as adults. The representatives of the young generation are their children, young people and young adults who were born in Finland or had moved to Finland as children. Observations made in the interviewees homes serve as background material for the interviews. In the empirical chapters of the study, I take up the following themes: socio-economic status; ways of speaking about the family; relations between generations; gender equality; and the future of the young generation. The supporting overarching theme is the idea that presenting one s own way of life and family as respectable and good is an important element of the social positioning carried out by the interviewees. Interpretations concerning the interviewees social status were not constructed only in relation to Finnish society - where their socio-economic and discursively produced status was rather weak - but were also based on their middle-class background in their former home countries. The organization of relations between generations and genders takes place through negotiation and in ways moulded by situation-specific requirements. They are also organized in relation to the (class) structures and hierarchies of the former home country and Finnish society. Although the generations differed from each other in terms of their relations with Finnish society and the former home country, there was also significant inter-generational continuity. This was visible, for instance, in efforts to convert the existing social and cultural resources into legitimate capital in Finnish society, and in the discursive techniques whereby interviewees presented their own family as respectable and distanced themselves from the problem-centred immigrant category.
  • Helenius, Dan (Suomalainen Lakimiesyhdistys, 2014)
    CRIMINAL JURISDICTION This thesis deals with the criminal jurisdiction of states. Legal examinations of the topic have been somewhat fragmentary in the Nordic legal community. The focus has rather been on certain sets of problems than comprehensive systematization. This can be seen in contrast to legal doctrine, especially in Germany. As the thesis deals with construction and systematization, it has a clear legal dogmatic character. However, the analysis is not directed at a particular country s legal system, but rather at criminal jurisdiction as a general legal phenomenon. This also requires elements of legal comparison. The comparative method used can be characterized as functional comparison, with the Finnish, Swedish, Danish and German legal systems to the fore. Chapter 2 analyses criminal jurisdiction in a broader legal context. In order to get a comprehensive picture of criminal jurisdiction, one must take into consideration the interplay between questions of jurisdiction and questions that relate to other legal areas with an international character. The concept of international criminal law is often used to indicate the totality of norms that regulate a state s criminal jurisdiction. However, this can be considered misleading. Rather, it is warranted to use the concept of international criminal law as an unspecified collective term for norms that have a certain functional relationship. Given this understanding of the concept, one can generally distinguish four separate areas: the law of criminal jurisdiction, international legal assistance in criminal matters, supranational, including European, criminal law, and international offences. When examining the collective term international criminal law, one must consider the numerous points of contact between these separate areas and, indeed, places where they overlap. The meaning of criminal jurisdiction is examined in chapter 3. The purpose is to provide a structure and an understanding of the scope and legal implications of the law of criminal jurisdiction. The concept of jurisdiction usually refers to the exercise of state power in some form. This exercise of power can refer to the relationship between states and individuals as well as the relationship between states. Consequently, the law of criminal jurisdiction has a national as well as an international dimension and there is a continuous process of interaction between these dimensions. The law of criminal jurisdiction also has a dual legal character. The law of jurisdiction has a material as well as a procedural side. The concepts used to indicate these components are penal authority and judicial authority. Penal authority refers to the state s claim on criminal appraisal of certain determined circumstances. Judicial authority, on the other hand, refers to the state s claim on realizing its penal authority. As long as national courts only apply national criminal law, the scope of a state s penal authority is the same as the scope of the application of its criminal law. By legislating on the scope of the application of national criminal law, the state, consequently, also establishes its penal authority. In order to understand the law of criminal jurisdiction, one must distinguish between these components. The question of how states legislate on matters of criminal jurisdiction is also examined. This leads to the question of the dogmatic position of the norms on jurisdiction as well as the question of the so-called factors of the scope of application encompassed in these norms. Legal doctrine is divided on these issues, and the thesis strives for a more thorough analysis of them. How one answers these questions has a direct implication for a set of other questions of criminal law, including the principle of legality, the principle of guilt as well as criminal intent and mistake. Chapter 4 analyses the bounds of criminal jurisdiction, primarily with regard to limitations stemming from international law. States usually claim jurisdiction not only with regard to offences committed within their own state borders, but also with regard to offences committed abroad. According to the opinion presented in the thesis, the limitations must be sought in the principle of nonintervention and the doctrine of meaningful connection stemming from this principle, both found in international law. The international principle of the sovereign equality of states entails a demand for states to respect each other s internal affairs. Sovereignty in a material sense encompasses a state s self-determination over its own internal affairs. These affairs also include a state s criminal policy. In a positive respect, the demand for states to respect each other s sovereignty gives states the right to determine their own internal affairs. In a negative respect, there also follows a prohibition not to intervene in the internal affairs of other states (the principle of nonintervention). Any interference with another state s right to self-determination has to be justified by reference to a meaningful connection that expresses an acceptable interest between the extraterritorial circumstance and the state that makes use of its power of criminal regulation. Generally, one can presuppose that the so-called principles of jurisdiction express such meaningful connections. In order to render it possible to examine these principles, one must make a distinction between national principles of jurisdiction and international principles of jurisdiction. National principles are the results of attempts to identify and systematize overall elements in the national rules on jurisdiction. Therefore, they have a descriptive function. On the other hand, the function of international principles is to establish constituently which connections the national legislator may refer to when extending the state s penal authority. Therefore, they also have a normative function. In the course of their development, international principles have become detached from national principles and have acquired an independent meaning as norms of permission in international law. They are based on and form typical examples of balancing a state s self-determination and the principle of nonintervention. As such, they facilitate the need of national legislators and judiciaries to conduct a new exercise in balancing these two interests in every single case. The scope and meaning of the individual principles of jurisdiction are also examined. Additionally, I also analyze certain other aspects of importance for the scope of the law on criminal jurisdiction, such as international immunity and international jurisdictional obligations. Chapter 5 focuses on a particular problem complex in relation to the law on criminal jurisdiction, namely, the question of overlapping jurisdiction and conflicts of jurisdiction. First of all, the state s unilateral regulation on jurisdiction inevitably brings about a situation in which the law on jurisdiction in several states can cover the same act. Secondly, international conventions and EU legal acts also result in jurisdictional networks that give states overlapping jurisdictional competence. The problem has been discussed intensively with regard to EU member states, which are presupposed to practice a close legal cooperation based on trust. The focus is, therefore, on conflicts of jurisdiction between EU member states. Conflicts of jurisdiction can have negative consequences for a state s measures regarding criminal procedure as well as for individuals that are thereby affected. Consequently, the question arises as to what degree it is possible to prevent and solve conflicts of jurisdiction. Different models and legal mechanisms exist for this purpose, and these are examined more closely. An appropriate model for the solving of conflicts requires above all a sufficient level of transparency and predictability.
  • Hannikainen, Matti O. (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This thesis analyses the main trends in the development of public green spaces in London from the mid-1920s to the late 1990s. With a broad approach, that combines perspectives of urban, planning, environmental and leisure history this thesis sheds new light on the processes, through which public green spaces have been created and used in the city. This thesis focuses on two London boroughs, Camden and Southwark, but despite its nominal focus, it deals with ten municipal authorities and the Royal Parks Department providing a comparative perspective on the official policies about creating and managing various public green spaces in London. The interaction between national, regional, and local authorities provides the framework for a coherent analysis of the development of public green spaces. Based on extensive archive work on administrative sources including departmental memoranda and reports, and the Minutes of Proceedings of the Councils studied, this thesis shows that the number and acreage of public green spaces in the city grew substantially during the period studied. Vested with new legal powers, municipal authorities were the main providers of new green space between the late 1940s and the early 1970s having replaced the private landowners and associations. Yet there were crucial differences between the authorities studied on the creation of new public green spaces. Moreover, from the 1970s, the legal and financial powers, the scope of new town plans, and the reason for creating new public green spaces fragmented due to sharpened political ideologies and the structural changes of British society. National governments also tightened their control over municipal authorities and, from the 1980s, the creation of new green spaces was again based on opportunity and co-operation between municipal authorities and local associations. This thesis argues that one reason for creating new green spaces in London was to promote physical recreation and sport, as there was an intense demand for sport and playing facilities. As a result, sport dominated the use of most municipal green spaces between the 1920s and the 1960s, whereas the Royal Parks were kept for general recreation. London s public green spaces were the centres for non-commercial outdoor leisure underlining the role of the municipal authorities, instead of the state, in organising leisure. From the 1950s, however, commercialisation, growing personal affluence and mobility, and domestic leisure affected the popularity of various outdoor entertainments. Yet some activities, like football, remained popular apparently due to the loss of private facilities. The official reason for the use of public green spaces fragmented, and, from the 1970s, new concepts like ecology challenged their prevailing uses and perceptions. The management of public green spaces was also plagued by the lack of funding and staff from the 1950s explaining why local associations and external funding became vital for their maintenance and why they were perceived as unsafe. The development of public green spaces in London is currently at a cross roads as the lack of financial and legal muscle for their provision is accompanied by the lack of dominant reason for their development.
  • Snellman, Alex (Omakustanne, 2014)
    The dissertation is based on a simple observation: in the beginning of the nineteenth century the nobility ruled the Grand Duchy of Finland. The nobles were on the top of the society. A social group that represented 0.2 percent of the population controlled 30-40 percent of manors and higher offices. Three-quarters of the government council members were nobles. The Finnish society has changed drastically since then. Today the nobility is of no relevance, and the nobles have all but disappeared from public life. The members of parliament, government ministers and business leaders are all non-nobles. It is evident that, at least, after the Second Wold War the nobility did not have any social significance. When did the nobility loose its social standing, through which mechanisms and why? How did it move from the top of the society to new roles? Alex Snellman studies this fundamental social transformation in his doctoral dissertation. The approach of the dissertation is socio-historical: the main source for historical analysis is an extensive dataset that includes all the members of the Finnish nobility (nearly 20,000 persons). Statistical findings are complemented and illustrated by case studies that portray eight noble families: Armfelt, Furuhjelm, Järnefelt, Mannerheim, Ramsay, Soisalon-Soininen, Törngren and von Wendt. The dissertation suggests that the Finnish nobility lost its dominant role in the society at the turn of the century 1800-1900 and disappeared completely from the political elite when the first republic was replaced by the second republic after the Second Wold War. A few nobles have had some influence in the economic elite to this day, but for the most part nobles have lost their economic positions as well. The Finnish nobility has turned into a middle-class social group. In part, the nobility lost its influence because of political upheavals: the alliance between the Russian emperor and the Finnish nobility was severed during the russification period at the turn of the century. Key events include also the abolition of the old legislative assembly (the four-estate diet) in 1906, the dissolution of the monarchy in 1917 and the failure to re-establish monarchy, when Finland gained independence. In part, the nobility lost its position because of legislative reforms, such as the abolition of noble privileges from the 1860s onwards. And finally, the influence of the nobility vanished in the minds of the people: as it became more and more common to cross the dividing line between nobles and non-nobles in marriages and as the noble rank lost its value and esteem as status capital. The Finnish nobility did not perish in a revolution, whereas its peaceful withdrawal from the top of the society has been an important factor in the formation of the current egalitarian Finnish society. Finland did not become a rigid class society in the British manner. The old elite renounced its power - albeit under social pressure - for the most part voluntarily.
  • Talja, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Sport, Recreation and Space in Urban Policy: Helsinki and Dublin from the 1940s to the 1980s This study analyses the development of sport and recreation facilities in Helsinki and Dublin. The period of the study, from the end of the Second World War until the 1980s, was an era of rapid urbanisation and modernisation in both Finnish and Irish societies, with 1960s and 1970s being the watershed decades. This is a comparative study combining perspectives from the fields of urban and sport history. Particular focus is given on the actions of the municipal authorities of the Helsinki City, and those of the Dublin County Borough and Dublin County. However, the development of sport and recreation facilities is not only looked at through the planning and urban policy framework, but the evolution of sport and recreation cultures is incorporated in the study. The primary sources analysed in this study comprise official local authority minutes and reports, urban plans, surveys, and to some extent national level documents. In addition, this study uses professional publications, magazines and newspapers, as well as histories and archival materials produced by sports associations. Whereas postwar urbanisation and suburbanisation as well as the development of associational sports and more unorganised recreation are topics that have attracted historical research, studies combining these aspects and setting them in a comparative framework are less common. This is particularly the case in Dublin. This study argues that although leisure and sporting trends increasingly converged during this period in Helsinki and Dublin, urban policies towards these issues remained different. Planners and professionals in both cities were influenced by wider international models, but in the realisation of facilities, differences in local authority resources and in how public authorities saw their role in the sphere of sport and recreation, played equally significant role. In Helsinki, the role of the local authority became particularly influential in planning and financing urban sport facilities, whereas in Dublin, there remained a stronger continuity from the earlier late nineteenth century and early twentieth century situation where private and voluntary actors were the prominent providers of facilities. Local authorities in Dublin focused predominantly on local authority housing areas, and were more dependent on national level funding schemes. In particular, this was evident in indoor facilities. In Helsinki, there was a stronger ideal of planning sport facilities for all. There were also differences in how knowledge of participation in sport and recreation was produced. Through the detailed case studies this study unravelled the complex nature of patterns of actors involved. The strong municipal policies in Helsinki were influenced by private interests, and the municipality was involved in private projects. In Dublin, these connections remained less institutionalised, and private investors and voluntary actors remained more independent when providing indoor and outdoor facilities.
  • Korppi-Tommola, Riikka (2013)
    Other Movements, New Currents. The Process of Change in Finnish Modern Dance during the 1960s. The study examines the process of change in Finnish modern dance during the 1960s. It focuses on the phenomena, and their characteristics, that influenced the transforming genre. While the early modern dance style, free dance, was still vigorous in the prevailing system - expressed in the dancers bodies and evident in critics opinion, for example - new foreign influences from the United States were affecting Finnish dance. The study highlights the polyphony that existed in Finnish dance during the 1960s. The article-based dissertation includes six articles and a summarising report. Two choreographers, Riitta Vainio (b. 1936) and Ritva Arvelo (1921-2013), are examined using historiographical methods. The latter choreographer is also observed in terms of dance generations. However, the main viewpoint of the study is on the dancers. Applying the concept of the historical body, four active dancers from the period (Kirsi Arajärvi, Sinikka Gripenberg, Liisa Priha, and Pirjo Viitanen) are investigated. With this method, the body memory is revealed in an interactive situation: through semi-structured interviews. The dance identity emerges in the concrete dance work while rehearsing or co-operating with the choreographer. The other research material consists of the newspaper reviews of the performance events. The American dance groups who visited Helsinki included the Martha Graham Dance Company (1962), Merce Cunningham Dance Company and John Cage (1964), Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater, and Anna Halprin JA Dancers Workshop (1965). The analysis of the critics reviews exposes the differences between phases of the genre s national development. The transnational aspect of the research identifies the cross-cultural interactions between the United States and Finland. Exchanges occurred between institutions and within the networks of dance agents, and the politics of the Cold War was involved. The new modern dance techniques were thus taught mainly by American dance teachers. As well, some of the transnational factors were also textual: straight translations from the American dance literature, introducing new dance styles to Finland. The investigation shows that in these different processes, transnational phenomena were transformed to become part of local dance. Dancers bodies assimilated American dance techniques, already hybrid methods, into the dancers own personal movements. The dance generational research shows that not only was it young dancers who were influenced: through interactions with their younger counterparts, older dancers were affected as well. Co-operation between the generations produced new dance works featuring a fusion of the new and the old.
  • Kulmala, Meri (Deaprtment of Social Research, 2013)
    This study explores state-society interrelations in contemporary Russia through citizens involvement in civil society by asking: What kinds of organizational civic activities occur? How are these forms of civic activity interwoven with the state and public structures? Finally, why do particular forms occur? The state-society relationship is analyzed through the following concepts: 1) state-society patterns, 2) role of civil society organizations, 3) transnational interaction, and 4) gender. Instead of the conventional sectoral thinking, the society is treated as spaces interdependent of one another. Messy conceptions of civil society and the state are opened up empirically. The analysis is grounded on an extensive ethnographic investigation within the Sortavala district (incl. villages) in Russian Karelia. The data includes more than 150 interviews; participant observation in many events; over 500 pages of field notes; and documents. Sortavala s location on one hand in Russian Karelia, outside big Russian cities, and on the other hand on the border of Finland and the EU allows a fascinating view that is peripheral and transnational at the same time. By zooming in on a very local setting allows revealing what really goes on concerning the studied relationship in its daily practices. Nevertheless, the analysis is not restricted to this micro world but is extended to a larger macro-level environment. The study performed a thorough consideration of a wide set of citizens organizations, explored the understanding and disaggregation of the state, thus concentrated on both sides of the studied relationship, and focused on the boundaries and convergences of those two spheres. In doing so, it diversified the rather stereotypical picture of the weak and apolitical Russian civil society co-opted by the state. The research showed complexities of the Russian state-society relationship: perhaps the most compelling finding concerns the significant overlap and interdependence between the state structures and civil society organizations when it came to the social organizations in particular. Sometimes it is impossible to draw the line where the state ends and society begin. The study also illuminated the multiple parallel roles of Russian socially oriented civil society organizations, which were solely apolitical in their activities. It diversified also the picture in terms of gender: women dominated the sphere, but also men participated, in membership organizations in particular. Concerning the transnational (Finnish, in particular) impact, the study showed some benefits of foreign support. Through differentiation of the studied organizations into the categories of the social and membership organizations, the study showed the ignorance of such support for the Soviet-type membership organizations that have large constituencies and, consequently, potentially the ability to challenge state policies.
  • Rydenfelt, Henrik (Philosophical Studies from the University of Helsinki, 2013)
    Questions of normativity are among the most vexing in philosophy, and among the philosophical questions that most concern us in our everyday life. What is it to maintain that something is correct or incorrect, right or wrong, good or bad? Is normative opinion (rationally or objectively) constrained in any fashion, or merely the product of the history of ourselves and our societies? What, if anything, can be said to those with whom we find ourselves in deep disagreement over normative questions? How does normativity fit in a scientific or philosophically naturalist world-view? Is science itself dependent on norms, and how can those norms be justified in light of its own project and theories? The five articles that comprise this thesis outline a perspective from which to answer these questions. Two features are common to all of them. Firstly, they are inspired by the tradition of philosophical pragmatism, especially by its origins in Charles S. Peirce s ideas and its outgrowth in contemporary non-representationalism. Secondly, when taken together, these articles lay the ground for a scientific approach to norms a normative science. The first three articles are mainly critical in nature. The first two concern contemporary pragmatist arguments which attempt to justify a democratic political outlook by drawing from epistemic norms, putting forward a rebuttal of Robert B. Talisse s and Cheryl Misak s arguments that we all are bound by similar epistemic norms. The third article considers a widespread philosophical approach to normativity which maintains that normative principles are valid when they are shared by all agents. It is argued that this constructivist stance - shared by thinkers such as John Rawls, Jürgen Habermas and Christine Korsgaard - faces a dilemma between what I call historicist relativism and conceptual chauvinism, the choice between relying on either our contingent moral agreements or artificial stipulations of key terms. The last two articles are more constructive in nature. The fourth article argues, both in a historical and a systematic vein, that contemporary non-representationalism, such as developed by Huw Price, fits the notion of truth and realism developed by the classical pragmatists, especially Peirce, and that this combination can be exploited to reconceptualize normative realism. Finally, the fifth article offers a reconsideration of philosophical naturalism, and attempts to show that the notion of normative science developed can be fitted to a broadly speaking naturalist framework.
  • Zheng, Wei (2013)
    Blood vessels deliver nutrients and oxygen to tissues, whereas lymphatic vessels collect interstitial fluid and absorb lipids. Both types of vessels are involved in immune surveillance. Malformation or malfunction of either vasculature is closely associated with various diseases. Although the molecular mechanisms regulating the growth, development and function of these vessels have begun to emerge in recent decades, many questions remain. This study aimed to understand if and how the growth of new blood and lymphatic vessels (angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, respectively) is regulated by the endothelial signaling molecules BMX, VEGFR-3, notch 1 and angiopoietin-2. BMX, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, is upregulated in some types of cancer and promotes cell survival, migration and proliferation. Under physiological conditions, it is also highly expressed in blood endothelial cells (BECs). Thus, we hypothesized that BMX might contribute to tumor growth by promoting tumor angiogenesis. Using multiple tumor implantation and spontaneous tumor models in Bmx gene-deleted mice, we found that tumor angiogenesis and growth were significantly reduced in the absence of BMX. Conversely, when BMX was overexpressed in epithelial keratinocytes, chemical carcinogen led to increased tumor angiogenesis and growth. VEGFR-3 is a growth factor receptor on the surface of endothelial cells (ECs). Here, we characterized a blocking antibody that inhibits VEGFR-3 signaling by a novel mechanism. In contrast to conventional blocking antibodies that prevent ligand-receptor binding, this new antibody inhibited dimerization of two identical VEGFR-3 molecules, thereby impairing signaling activation and sprouting of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). These inhibitory effects persisted even at ligand concentrations so high that conventional blocking antibodies were no longer effective. Importantly, concurrent treatment with both types of antibodies yielded combined additive benefits. Notch signaling regulates angiogenic sprouting. We found in this study that Notch inhibitors enhance VEGF-induced lymphatic sprouting in 3-dimensional EC sprouting assays in vitro. In vivo, VEGF alone induced only lymphatic dilation but not sprouting. However, concomitant treatment with a Notch inhibitor induced both vascular events. In addition, a mosaic-sprouting assay showed that Notch signaling also determined the fates of tip/stalk cells (the cell leading a vessel sprout and the following cells, respectively) during lymphatic sprouting. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang2) is an endothelial growth factor required for proper lymphatic remodeling during development, but the exact mechanisms of this process have previously remained unclear. In contrast to the zipper-like pattern of cell-cell junctions (zippers) in collecting lymphatic vessels, mature lymphatic capillaries have a distinct pattern of button-like junctions (buttons), which transform from zippers during development. We found in this study that Ang2 is indispensable for such transformation of the junctional patterns during embryogenesis. At the molecular level, Ang2 is required for phosphorylation of the adherens junction marker vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) at the tyrosine residue 685. Ang2 blocking antibody treatment of mouse neonates disrupted cell-cell junctions in the mesenteric lymphatic vessels, causing leakage of chyle (milky fluids containing fat droplets and lymph). Ang2 blockade also inhibited lymphatic valve formation and maturation and resulted in abnormal smooth muscle recruitment. Together, these results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Elucidation of these mechanisms is important in developing new drugs for the treatment of vessel-related diseases, including cancer and pathological inflammation. Moreover, these findings introduce the reorganization of cell-cell junctions as a novel parameter for evaluating lymphatic development and call for future research into this new field.
  • Rosato, Paolo (The International Semiotics Institute, 2013)
    Music analysis is an expression that covers a wide field of meanings and phenomena. We can analyze music as an anthropological condition of human beings; or as a set of historically determined social systems; or finally, as a concrete, individual musical expression. The latter can be regarded from the sides of enunciation and of utterance, which in turn take the opposing forms of text-system (not necessarily written) and performed-text. My aim is to demonstrate that a common organic principle joins together all these different musical facts. That principle is homeostasis, a term coined by Walter Bradford Cannon at the end of the 1920s, and first applied to music by Fulvio Delli Pizzi in 1984. Homeostasis is the property that a system or an organism must maintain in a stable and constant condition in its own internal environment. When applied to analysis of musical utterances, homeostasis allows us to give to musical signs a proper content: composers, performers, and listeners can deal with musical signs as people usually do with all the signs of natural languages. The proper homeostatic content in turn finds its roots in tensional-relaxation processes within human body. Homeostasis regulates both melodic and harmonic processes, at least of the Western musical tradition, and allows them to obtain an internal syntactic meaning that is neither merely structural nor merely formal. Pitches, as our analyses demonstrate, are not neutral in their interactions and relationships. In fact, homeostasis arranges melodic and harmonic elements - as it can do with all musical parameters - into significant units that act as organic parts of a musical whole. I do not deny that musical signs are also historically, socially, and culturally codified. I only claim that historical, social, and cultural internal musical meanings result from a dialectical process between natural , transcendental conditions, and their actualization in space and time. (In this respect, it seems that Raymond Monelle's theory of topics can cover just a part of the problem of musical meaning.) Main references in my research are drawn from the semiotic perspectives of Umberto Eco and Eero Tarasti, from Louis Hjelmslev's linguistic theory, and from Delli Pizzi's musical theory, this last adapted to my personal approach. In most of this book, I present my original analyses of music of the Western tradition, from ancient plainchant to contemporary music. In Chapter 1, I elaborate an enlarged musical-organic model: like other complex natural phenomena, music may be comprised of organic and/or inorganic parts, and regarded as a complex system endowed with living properties. In Chapters 2 and 3, respectively, I present melody and harmony as two systems. Starting from sound waves as a physical system, I analyze the evolution of melody as a symbolic, syntactic, and semantic system. Moreover, I develop Delli Pizzi's harmonic theory, while arguing that Schenker's, Riemann's, and de la Motte's approaches are neither organic nor functionalist in the strict sense. In Chapter 4, I point out the strong relations between Tarasti's existential semiotics and my homeostatic perspective; this allows me to apply the model constructed in Chapter 1 to musical pieces regarded as organic text-systems. Finally, I elaborate in Chapter 5 a new model capable of explaining relations among musical subjects - entrepreneurs, composers, performers, customers, and so on - who can interact, even though very distant from each other in space and time. To do this, I introduce the concept of Manifestum, drawn from Martin Heidegger's thought, but adapted to my specific aims.
  • Hintikka, Marianna (Uusfilologinen yhdistys r.y., 2013)
    It is a well-established fact that the human body and its various aspects have provided a source domain for metaphor throughout recorded history. One of the most salient instantiations of the body-metaphor is the concept of the Body Politic, the idea that society is analogous to the human body. In addition to society, however, the body can stand as a model for other, more abstract, target domains, too. One of these is the human mind and other facets of what could be characterised as inner life . This dissertation is a corpus-based study of metaphors that draw from the human body and corporeality in Early Modern and Present-day English texts. The focus is on the development of conceptual mappings between source and target domains from the EModE to the PDE period. The primary research questions concern metaphor extendedness and SOCIETY AS BODY and MIND AS BODY mappings. By extendedness I mean instances of metaphor use which consist of more than one instantiation of metaphor in a given context. By SOCIETY AS BODY and MIND AS BODY mappings I mean instances of metaphor where the target domain is either the society or the mind. Using electronic corpora I have compared metaphor use in the two periods in order to establish whether there are notable differences in these two above mentioned respects. As key concepts I have adopted metaphor strength (the clustering of source domain items in given contexts to form systematic extended metaphors) and metaphor productivity (the occurrence of many terms with similar meanings, i.e. items pertaining to the same source concept, in metaphor across the language) so that I view metaphor extendedness as indicative of metaphor strength, and the proliferation of source domain items in either target domain (SOCIETY or MIND) as indicative of metaphor productivity within that target domain. My findings indicate that there are significant differences between the two periods studied as regards both these aspects. In terms of metaphor extendedness (and strength), the material shows a marked decline from EModE to PDE. This might be due to a more faithful adherence to the idea of the Body Politic (governed by more formulaic rhetorical conventions) in the Early Modern period as compared to the present. This would have made an extended analogy drawn between these particular source and target domains to be felt as meaningful. In terms of SOCIETY AS BODY and MIND AS BODY mappings, the material indicates a shift towards less SOCIETY-dominated metaphorical network: while the SOCIETY AS BODY mapping is clearly more common in both periods, the difference in strength and productivity is less pronounced in the PDE material. This seems to be in keeping with the modern, foregrounded role of the individual, as opposed to a group of people, as the basic social unit.