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  • Saukkonen, Suvi (2015)
    Disruptive behavior is one of the most common psychiatric problems in children and adolescents. Psychopathic-like features designate a group of children and adolescents manifesting a severe, aggressive, and persistent pattern of disruptive behavior. These features have many similarities with adult psychopathy. More research is needed to gain an understanding of the different developmental trajectories for psychopathic-like behavior style in children and adolescents. The current study aimed to investigate cognitive, psychosocial, and personality-related characteristics associated with disruptive behavior in children and adolescents. In addition, psychometric properties of one of the psychopathy measures, Antisocial Process Screening Device Self-Report (APSD-SR), were evaluated. In the first study, the working memory (WM) function of school-aged children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)/Conduct Disorder (CD) was compared with age- and gender-matched normative controls. The comorbid diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was controlled for in the patient group. WM function was examined using n-back tasks. The main finding of this study was that patients performed worse on WM tasks than controls, even after controlling for the diagnosis of ADHD. The results suggest that children with disruptive behavior disorders (i.e. ODD and CD) have executive function (EF) deficits, like poor WM, that are not accounted for the comorbid diagnosis of ADHD. The second study, using the data from the Finnish Self-Report Delinquency Study 2012 (FSRD-12), assessed the factor structure and internal consistencies of the APSD-SR in a community sample of 15- to 16-year-old youth (n = 4,855, 51% girls). A three-factor structure of APSD-SR was found to fit the data best, with three meaningful subscales representing narcissism, impulsivity, and callous-unemotional features. The internal consistencies for these subscales were adequate. The results suggest that the self-report version of APSD is a promising screening tool for measuring psychopathic-like features in community youth. The third study used the same FSRD-12 data and examined different types of weapon carrying among youth, and psychosocial and personality-related factors associated with carrying a weapon, especially focusing on the relationship between psychopathic-like features and weapon carrying. The results showed that adolescents carrying weapons had a large cluster of problems in their lives, which were differentiated by the type of weapon carried. In addition, psychopathic-like features were associated with an increased likelihood of carrying any type of weapon (knife, gun, other weapon such as knuckleduster, chain, or pepperspray), but the association was strongest with carrying a gun. This association was significant even after controlling for a variety of psychosocial factors. The findings suggest that psychopathic-like features are strongly related to a higher risk of weapon carrying. Furthermore, the findings underscore the need for a comprehensive evaluation of an adolescent s psychosocial situation, when weapon carrying is identified. Finally, the fourth study investigated the relationship between victimization experiences and psychopathic-like features in youth by using the same FSRD-12 data. The results revealed that victimization was related to psychopathic-like features in youth, even more strongly in girls than in boys. Interestingly, the association between victimization and psychopathic-like features was stronger for recent experiences of victimization than past experiences. The results highlight the need for evaluating victimization experiences when psychopathic-like features are present in youth. Furthermore, some of the juveniles may show psychopathic-like behavior style as a means to cope with trauma.
  • Viholainen, Aila (Viholainen, Aila, 2015)
    My dissertation research concentrates on medieval Western Christian pictorial material presented in religious contexts. The common perspective of the different articles included in my research is make to believe/faire croire : the ways in which pictorial materials in medieval times persuaded, enticed and instructed viewers. My study is characterized by a rhetorical approach that focuses especially on the visuality of medieval images and its analysis. I participate in the study of the past. I see the past that I study as an alien entity located in its own historical context. I am looking for answers from a vantage point that feels strange from the position of the contemporary re-searcher. Questions that arise from consideration of this reveal a gap between the researcher s understanding of today and how things were under-stood in medieval times, a gap which motivates this research. In the first two articles of my work, the medieval world of imagery is perceived as a phenomenon on an abstract level. Here I study and evaluate discussions and studies that have been done in medieval times and subsequently: conceptually, theoretically and methodologically. In the latter two articles, the abstract phenomenon becomes concrete and the focus of analysis is actual pictorial material selected from the medieval world of imagery found in the Holy Cross Church of Hattula. In these articles, the mermaid motif functions as an object of analysis. Imagining is an important practice in the context of medieval art and religion, and it is presented in my work as a supporting theme. First, imagination has operated in the background of my study as a guiding frame of interpretation, as the researcher s own resource. In this case, as Markku Hyrkkänen describes it, imagination can be thought of as an imagining of possible contexts. Second, imagination has worked as a concrete conceptual tool: as Benedict Anderson's imagined communities and later as Barbara Newman's imaginative theology. Third, it is also a medieval concept (imaginatio), the primary task of which was to determine truth. Thus, imagination was a multi-leveled and many-faceted cognitive skill. I locate my research, as well as international studies that I use for dialogue, in a broader humanistic tradition and the research trends of the last decades. Used as the starting point are critical evaluations of previous studies in art history, the study of visual culture and medieval art history over the last decades. I also connect my work to the latest Finnish studies on medieval pictorial material, as well as to the latest research discussions in my own field of religious studies. These findings are definitively presented in the compilation.
  • Holma, Tanja (Tanja Holma, 2015)
    Outbreaks of bacteria causing hospital and community acquired infections have dramatically increased in number over the recent years. For example, travelers become colonized by resistant bacteria and may transmit the strains to other people and to medical care settings when they return home. The challenge is new and problematic for laboratories performing bacterial diagnostics. Fast and highly specific tools are needed to identify and characterize resistant bacterial strains in order to prevent outbreaks in local hospitals. This thesis studies the fast identification of virulence and resistance genes of the most important hospital acquired (HA) bacteria. In addition, the applicability of rapid outbreak analysis for HA-bacteria using molecular methods outside of the national reference laboratory was studied. The aim of the study was to establish a sensitive, reliable multiplex-PCR method suitable for daily use in a microbiological diagnostic laboratory and to speed up the reporting of bacteria causing outbreaks. Another aim was to study the usefulness and functionality of a commercial repetitive PCR (DiversiLab) and compare it with reference molecular typing methods. The thesis also gives an overall view of the occurrence of HA-bacteria witnessed in the district of Helsinki and Uusimaa over the recent years. The thesis consists of six studies on four different bacterial species/types causing outbreaks: MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), ESBL (Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Clostridium difficile. Consecutive and retrospective bacterial isolates of the each bacteria were collected and examined. The methods used were conventional multiplex PCR and real-time multiplex PCR. The typing methods were repetitive PCR (DiversiLab), PFGE (pulsed field gel electrophoresis), PCR ribotyping, spa typing, and sequencing-based methods. During this thesis three usable in-house multiplex PCRs were established for the detection of MRSA, carbapenemase genes, and virulence genes in C. difficile. The repetitive PCR method, DiversiLab, was found to be a fast and proprietary typing method, very beneficial in the first-line identification of outbreaks. In addition, the Diversilab system may be used in the comparison of resistant bacterial isolates. The method produced better results with Gram-negatives (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and A. baumannii). However, the reference methods still serve their purpose in global isolate comparison. In the future, whole genome sequencing will, however, most likely replace contemporary typing methods.
  • Tolonen, Hannele (Suomalainen Lakimiesyhdistys, 2015)
    This dissertation, which belongs to the field of procedural law, focuses on the procedural standing of children in custody proceedings and care proceedings. In the Finnish legal system, these proceedings are allocated to separate court systems. This study investigates the effects of this dual court system in situations where child welfare measures and the determination of custody, residence or contact overlap. The dissertation has two main goals: to systemize and compare the legal framework on children s standing in these court proceedings and to evaluate the procedural rights and the right to protection in each proceeding. The research is mainly based on legislative material, case law from the European Court of Human Rights and the national courts, and legal scholarship. In order to examine the effects of overlap of the proceedings at the level of individual cases and to illuminate children s participation in detail, court documents from 34 custody proceedings and 32 care proceedings were qualitatively studied. One of the main results of the study is that the overlap in the proceedings may cause several complications at the level of individual proceedings. In the cases that were studied, many children were affected by both the child welfare system and custody proceedings. In an acute situation, where concerns are raised for the safety of the child, but where the private and public parties disagree on the course of action, the dual process system adds to the complexity. The dual role of social agencies seemed problematic in the overlapping cases, where strong claims of partiality were voiced by the parties in the custody proceedings. In the studied care proceedings, the children who were assisted by a legal counsel participated most effectively and directly. To ensure that children are able to participate effectively in legal decision making, assistance should be provided for them in care proceedings. Especially for older children and in cases where the measures are motivated by the child s conduct, a lawyer should be appointed for the child. In the studied custody proceedings, children rarely participated directly in the proceedings. To enable individual assessment of the means of participation in light of the circumstances in each case, a more flexible approach should be adopted in determining children s procedural standing in custody proceedings. The need for impartial assistance should be considered, for example, in complicated custody cases or when a child is claimed to be at risk.
  • Kuronen, Tanja (Gaudeamus, 2015)
    The unloaders of the carebom is a study about carework for the home-dwelling elderly, using a method I call institutional autoethnography. The viewpoint stems from my own experiences in voluntary-based, semi-formal care work. Such work is organized in the so-called old third sector , helping the elderly in their domestic everyday chores, wherein the elderly themselves specify the chores needed. Care-workers are mainly women, working skills based on non-professional, (assumed) everyday skills. They receive a small benefit for their work, directly from the customers. Semi-formal care-work can offer accessible, affordable and attractive domestic help. It can also offer people with caring skills a way to use them for meaningful work and receive some benefit for it. However, the work has no legitimate role in the Finnish welfare-mix, where current trends mark a diminishing public sector and the rise marketization and familialism. The old third sector can offer no status in the labour market for the caretaker, and the small benefits do not offer sufficient subsistence. The caretaker faces expectations and demands that exceed the fact that the work is voluntary-based. The work can be described as grey care and a cash-in-hand job. During the next 25 years, the number of Finnish people over age 75 will double. All care-needers do not have access to market-based or family care. Labour market, however, does not see care as work; rather, care duties prevent people from working. On the contrary, from a necessary labor point of view, care-work is biology-based work that maintains life and is therefore one of the few tasks that necessarily needs to be done: Care is work par excellence. This contradiction is seen in the concept of voluntary work, the oxymoron that offers an unsatisfactory community-based solution to care problems, leaving the care-needers depending on other peoples voluntariness, and the care-workers lacking status or subsistence. In an ageing society it is urgent that care-work for the elderly be organized in a new way. Civil society work paid with civil salary, other benefits and the right to a pension, would offer semi-formal care-work a legitimate status in the labour market. In this new work, everyday skills would be given a new value, taught and utilized to offer everyday care for the elderly and other people who need care.
  • Tapola, Diana (Painosalama Oy, 2015)
    Scope of thesis lies in recognition and enforcement issues of foreign courts judgments and arbitral awards in Russia regarding commercial matters, which are arising from disputes between parties regarding their economic, trade, business and other commercial activities and resolved by a foreign court or arbitral tribunal. The thesis does not entail an actual discussion of the execution process conducted by a bailiffs service but presents: a background and introduction into Russian legal and judicial systems; consideration, analysis and systematization of legal grounds for enforcement of foreign judgments and arbitral awards; different enforcement regimes providing for manner of enforcement; requirements for enforcement leave and a competent authority for that; consideration, analysis and classification of grounds for refusals to enforce; review of judicial practice and its current tendencies. The thesis offers a deeper look into the most unusual and complicated issues of recognition and enforcement of foreign judgments and arbitral awards. To name few: to what extent a foreign judicial or arbitral act is empowered with the legal force of a national judicial act; correlation between international and national norms; if there is no particular specialized international treaty providing for those, what other treaties would suffice; on what grounds and how are recognition and enforcement possible in absence of international treaties; whether principles of comity and reciprocity are applicable in Russia and whether such application is imposed by international obligations. A part of the thesis addresses issues of enforcement leave and deals with some non-standard situations and their management in accordance with Russian law and practice. Several examples include issues when a foreign judgment, enforcement of which is sought in Russia: was already enforced or refused to be enforced in a third state; or if it is irreconcilable with another earlier judgment issued in Russia or another state; or the same dispute is currently under consideration by Russian or another foreign court; or if a party seeks enforcement of a court injunction of interim measure; or if it is required within the arbitral procedure. A substantial part of the thesis covers grounds for refusals to recognize and enforce foreign judgments and awards, where those are identified, analysed and grouped in accordance with the provisions of international and national legislation. The biggest part of the work is dedicated to the public policy. Despite guidance and interpretation of public policy in the international arena, the final word is after a national legislature. An attempt is made here, to describe a present situation and understanding of a public policy clause within the meaning of Russian legislation. A moderate part of the thesis is allocated to setting aside foreign arbitral awards and application of Article V(1)(e) of the New York Convention of 1958 on recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards in Russia, the last part of which wording under law of which may cause a problem.
  • Maliniemi, Pilvi (Pilvi Maliniemi, 2015)
    This thesis concentrates on exploring novel agents in the pathogenesis of cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCL) and reveals potential new biomarkers and therapeutic targets to improve diagnostics. CTCLs are also known as a heterogeneous group of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The clinical behavior of these lymphomas varies from benign forms of lymphoproliferative diseases such as lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) to non-progressive mycosis fungoides (MF) and further to rapidly-progressing leukaemic Sézary syndrome (SS). The incidence of the disease is growing, particularly in Western countries. The mechanisms underlying the disease are still largely unknown and thus far no curative therapy exists. Regarding pathogenesis, it has been suggested that persistent antigen stimulation leads to continuous stimulation of T cells and chronic inflammation, eventually causing the development of a malignant T cell clone. Another hypothesis suggests that a specific viral agent could serve as a triggering factor. The first part of this thesis explores the activity of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) in CTCLs. HERVs are retroviral sequences comprising about 8% of the human genome and are derived from ancient retrovirus infections of germ line cells. HERVs have their own promoter areas and genes, some of which encode functional proteins. HERVs may also affect the function of neighbouring genes and influence chromosomal instability (e.g. due to random positioning in the genome). However, HERVs are usually epigenetically silenced, but are reactivated in situtations such as cancer. Healthy tissues also show HERV activity. Moreover, tissue-specificity is typical feature of HERVs. We show that a skin-specific HERV pattern is actively transcribed in MF. We also found that the HERV-W-derived viral protein Syncytin-1 is expressed in morphologically malignant lymphocytes. The second part of this thesis is a unique molecular study on a rare subtype of CTCL. Known as subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma (SPTL), this subtype primarily affects young individuals. The diagnosis of SPTL is challenging and SPTL is usually confused with other panniculitis-related inflammatory diseases. The most important finding of the gene expression profiling was the high expression of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO-1), which catabolises the essential amino acid tryptophan (Trp) into kynurenine (Kyn) metabolites. The enzymatic activity of IDO-1 results in the depletion of Trp in the local microenvironment. Because T cells are particularly sensitive to low Trp levels, the process ultimately leads to immunosuppression and subsequent inhibition of T cell responses. Our results suggest that autoimmune inflammation is underlying the development the disease with the support of an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The last part of this thesis is focused on further studying IDO-1 expression in other CTCL subtypes and lymphoproliferative diseases and also how the tumor microenvironment could be involved in malignant transformation. In this study, we showed that distinct subpopulations of CTCL can be recognized based on IDO1-expressing cells. Especially interesting was the finding that IDO-1 is more extensively expressed in LyP rather than in MF, bearing in mind that LyP is a benign disease. Analyzing the Kyn/Trp ratio from patient sera also showed significant differences between MF and LyP. The Kyn/Trp ratio may therefore serve as a potential prognostic biomarker for evaluating disease activity. Taken together, this study revealed completely new information on gene and protein expression in CTCL. The results will likely be most useful in improving future diagnostics as well as patient care. The results may also be further applied in finding new therapeutic targets and developing novel therapies.
  • Tuunainen, Pekka (Talentum Oyj, 2015)
    The thesis Inheritance, testaments and debts covers both inheritance law and debt recovery law. The investigation method is based on law. It serves the interpretation and systematization of current legislation. The thesis constitutes an investigation of several branches of law. Recommendations for interpretation have been considered and evaluated in the light of general principles in various branches of law. A central theme of investigation is the compromise between the conflicting interests of an indebted heir and his/her creditors. For an excessively indebted person an inheritance evidently constitutes an increase of property, which could be used for satisfying the creditors. However, an indebted heir might wish to dispose of his/her inheritance in such a way that it is not used for satisfying the creditors interests. At the present time inheritances are economically important, because annually property to a value of approximately four billion euro is transferred in this way. Approximately 140 000 persons annually receive inheritances and it is evident that among them there are excessively indebted persons who receive inheritances of considerable economic value. I have examined the question how to dispose effectively of a future inheritance in relation to the creditors and after the decedent s death of a heir s share of the estate and how and at what stage his/her creditors can intervene in in this process. Another more extensive question from both the debtor s and the creditors point of view concerns the more advanced situation where the debtor s rights to the estate are subject to distraint, i.e. when his/her share of the estate has already been distrained. Private persons bankruptcies are rare in Finland and therefor I have left bankruptcy procedures outside the scope of this thesis. My examination concerns mainly situations where no partition of the estate has been made, i.e. the property is still subject to joint administration by the heirs and by the beneficiaries of the testament. In relation to a debtor s creditors he/she can in an effective way waive his/her right of inheritance and accept the decedent s testament. However, this has to be made in the proper and correct form. The debtor does not enjoy any period of protection for the waiver. The question is who reacts faster; the debtor by waiving his/her right of inheritance or the distraint officer by distraining the share of the estate. But on the other hand, a debtor can accept a testament that violates his/her right of inheritance without any time limit. This competition in the waiver of an inheritance may lead to problems of interpretation when the salient question is whether or not a heir has received his/her inheritance before waiving it. After the reception no waiver is possible and in that case the creditors can intervene in a disposal in the form of a donation and to revoke it by means of recovery. This demonstrates that although it is possible to waive an inheritance in an effective way in relation to the creditors, the general rules of property law otherwise apply to an inheritance, for example in relation to the creditors. In this respect the distinction is very strict, because the donation of an inheritance, where the creditors can intervene, from the parties point of view seems to be practically the same thing as a waiver of the inheritance, which is valid in relation to the creditors. My thesis demonstrates that a testament is an effective way of organizing an inheritance in such a way that the creditors cannot benefit from its value. The effectiveness of a testament is further emphasized by the circumstance that the separation in a testament of the rights of possession and of ownership in practice prevents the use of the inheritance to satisfy the claims of the creditors of both the owner and the possession holder. Also the fact that the debts of private persons are definitely time barred after a certain period (depending on the case either 15 years after a court payment order, or at the latest 25 years after the due date), makes testamentary arrangements a very effective way of protection against the creditors claims. It is also possible by a testament to separate possession and ownership for a certain period of time, or to postpone the time of transfer of ownership until the claims are time barred, in which case no effective recovery is possible any more. This is evidence of the conflicting objectives of different branches of law. The purpose of the legislator is naturally to protect the will of the testator in relation to other interested parties. My thesis also demonstrates that the distraint of the rights of one co-heir of the estate has extensive consequences for its administration. This constitutes a problem for the other co-heirs, who are external third parties in relation to the indebtedness of one of them. In the consideration of the legal consequences of the distraint of a share of an estate, the rights of the co-heirs of the debtor must also be taken into account. All in all, the use of property acquired by inheritance for the payment of a heir s personal debts seems to constitute a multidimensional whole and to require compromises between conflicting interests. Mostly compromises have been successful, but the problems of interpretation become more complicated and they affect more numerous interested parties when a part of an estate is distrained. These problems of interpretation can be solved by argumentation based on solid and reliable knowledge of several branches of law. The purpose of this thesis is to satisfy that need.
  • Nikki, Nina (2015)
    ABSTRACT The dissertation examines the opponents of Paul and the church in the letter to the Philippians from the three interrelated viewpoints of ancient polemical rhetoric, identity formation and historical reality behind the text. Despite its friendly and heartfelt tone, Philippians contains several passages where Paul turns his attention to people, whom he portrays as opponents of some kind, most notably Phil 1:15-18a; 1:27-30, and throughout Phil 3. The passages contain some of Paul s most belligerent polemic. In Phil 3, for example, Paul calls some, who value Jewish identity markers dogs and evil workers , and scornfully likens their circumcision to mutilation. At the end of the same chapter Paul also speaks of enemies of the cross of Christ , whose god is their belly and whose glory is in their shame . In order to avoid simplistic, literal readings of the polemical texts, the dissertation applies recent advances in the study of ancient vilification, which suggest that slanderous name-calling or sweeping accusations of moral depravity cannot be read as accurate depictions of the opponents. In this light, Paul s accusation about the opponents libertinistic lifestyle in Phil 3:18-19, for instance, should not be understood as a historically accurate description of the opponents. In fact, polemical rhetoric provides more in terms of identity formation than historical information. This dissertation applies the social psychological social identity approach (SIA) in order to understand the role of opponents in this process. The SIA helps to explain how and why Paul, for example, exaggerates differences (polarizes) between his own group and the opponents, and why the opponents are denigrated and ridiculed to such measure. These actions are explained as originating from the basic human need for a distinct and positive identity. Paul s estimate of his own identity in relation to Judaism in Phil 3:4-9 is, in turn, understood as reflecting his flexible social identity. In Philippians Paul conforms to a Gentile outlook in order to establish himself as a prototypical leader of the Gentile Philippian church. Guided by awareness of the problematic relationship between polemical text and history, the dissertation also seeks to establish a believable historical context for the letter to the Philippians. The study re-evaluates the relationship between Paul and the Jerusalem-based Jewish Christ-believing community from the time of the so-called Antioch incident and the Jerusalem meeting, through the Galatian crisis, to Paul s last visit in Jerusalem before his arrest and the writing of Philippians. The study argues that Paul was continuously on problematic terms with the Jerusalem-based community, which makes it highly likely that they are the Jewish Christ-believing opponents referred to in Philippians as well. Overall, the dissertation illustrates how Paul engages in identity formation through polemical rhetoric in Philippians, a letter written near the end of his career and amid disagreements in the earliest Christ-believing church.
  • Lotsari-Salomaa, Johanna (2015)
    Lynch syndrome (LS) is the most common hereditary colon cancer syndrome with germline mutated DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes predisposing to early onset colon tumors and various extracolonic tumors. Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a hallmark of the Lynch syndrome, but 15% of sporadic tumors show instability of repeated sequences, too. Endometrial carcinoma is the most common LS related extra-colonial tumor. Whether or not breast carcinoma belongs to the Lynch syndrome tumor spectrum has been under debate because of controversial study results. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate gene expression without altering the DNA sequence. DNA methylation is a well-established epigenetic modification. Colon, endometrial and breast carcinomas and endometrial hyperplasia from 256 Finnish Lynch syndrome families were examined for methylation changes as well as several types of genetic alterations. In addition, Finnish sporadic breast tumors with similar hormone receptor statuses to LS breast carcinomas were analyzed. Sporadic colon tumors with microsatellite unstable (MSI) and microsatellite stable (MSS) subgroups from Finnish and Australian populations were also investigated. The first aim was to investigate whether or not breast tumors belong to the Lynch syndrome tumor spectrum by studying the MMR status and the methylation profiles of several tumor suppressor genes. The second aim was to identify epigenetically regulated miRNA genes relevant for colon and endometrial tumorigenesis. The third aim was to examine tumorigenic mechanisms in the minor subset of colon carcinomas with inactive Wnt signaling. The candidate genes identified in the second and third studies were examined for promoter methylation in patient specimens. Breast carcinomas from LS mutation carriers showed significantly higher frequencies of MSI(35%) and loss of MMR protein expression (65%) compared to breast tumors from proven noncarriers (0%) and sporadic cases (0%). This suggested that breast carcinoma is a likely LS spectrum tumor. MMR deficient breast tumors were diagnosed at age 53. RASSF1, APC, CDH13, and GSTP1 genes were often methylated in LS breast tumors, the same as in tumors from several other organs from LS mutation carriers. The CDKN2B gene showed breast cancer specific methylation. A breast tumor may be the first sign of LS, and therefore female MMR mutation carriers should participate in mammographic surveillance. Novel associations between promoter methylation of tumor-suppressive miRNAs or protein coding tumor suppressor genes and clinical subtypes were observed. miR-132 was frequently hypermethylated in sporadic Finnish and Australian MSI tumors compared to paired normal mucosa. miR-132 hypermethylation correlated with traditional (so called CpG island methylator phenotype; CIMP) markers and were associated with the female gender, later onset, and tumors located in the proximal colon. miR-129-2 hypermethylation was seen in advanced endometrial hyperplasia and may be an early marker for endometrial tumorigenesis. The CMTM3, DGKI, and OPCML genes showed frequent hypermethylation in LS and sporadic colon tumors. The EPCAM and KLK10 genes had LS specific methylation. Colon tumors with inactive Wnt signaling were found to constitute a group of tumors with varying features of chromosomal instability and epigenetic dysregulation.
  • Vesala, Juha (IPR University Center, 2015)
    Innovation the development of new or improved products and technologies is a major source of economic welfare and growth. Due to its advantages, policy-makers seek to promote innovation in markets by addressing market failures that threaten innovation, such as the risk of free-riding through grant of intellectual property rights ( IPRs ) and concerns raised by market power in antitrust law. This article-based dissertation examines how antitrust (Articles 101 and 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union) could treat certain practices involving IPRs in a way amenable to innovation. This poses a major challenge because practices often simultaneously involve aspects that are desirable for innovation (e.g. as a means of recouping investments) and harmful to it (e.g. lessening competitive pressures to innovate). Therefore, trade-offs are required between these conflicting aspects. However, as many innovation aspects are theoretically and empirically ambiguous, antitrust choices must be made under considerable uncertainty. Using methods of theoretical legal dogmatics and arguments from economics, the study develops approaches for the antitrust treatment of certain practices involving IPRs (misuse of IPR application procedures, enforcement of standards-essential patents, and conditions of licensing). As its main result, the study offers analytical approaches and antitrust standards that allow courts, authorities and firms to assess practices. The study finds, for instance, that although antitrust normally does not limit enforcement of IPRs, recourse to injunctive relief by essential patent holders can violate antitrust due to the specific context of standard-setting in which failure to uphold promises to license essential patents threatens competition, standardization and innovation. The study also presents broader observations on the role of antitrust protection of innovation. EU antitrust breaks new ground in extending its scrutiny to conduct in IP application and enforcement procedures, but this does not diverge from the established premise of antitrust only exceptionally intervening in the core of IPR. While conventionally antitrust has mostly been seen as limiting the exercise of IPRs, some practices examined interestingly highlight the possibly increasing role of antitrust in protecting IP holders interests and safeguarding rewards of innovators.
  • Vlachopoulou, Efthymia (2015)
    The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) region is located on chromosome 6 (6p21.3) and its main function is to regulate the immune system. This region has been associated with several autoimmune and other inflammatory conditions. However, many aspects of these associations remain unknown due to high polymorphism, high linkage disequilibrium (LD) and high gene density of this region that increase the complexity and create computational challenges. In this Thesis, the aim is to investigate the HLA haplotype variation in the Finnish population, to evaluate the HLA imputation using two of the existed softwares and to analyze the HLA association with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). The main question in this study is whether the HLA region varies in the Finnish population compared to other populations and how this variation can influence the results of further analyses. The HLA haplotypes showed great variation in the Finnish population compared to other European populations due to different linkage disequilibrium (LD) structures and this highlights the diversity of the HLA haplotypes among different populations. The most common European haplotype HLA-A*01~HLA-B*08~HLA-DRB1*03 shows a lower frequency in Finland, whereas the enrichment of the haplotype HLA-A*03~HLA-B*35~HLA-DRB1*01 was observed (I). Furthermore, the poor imputation results of the HLA-DRB1 gene enhance the power of the previously mentioned arguments (from I) due to the inaccurate imputation from other European populations. The study emphasizes the need for population-specific reference materials for a successful imputation (II). The diversity of HLA alleles, the variability in the frequencies of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) among populations, the difference of the rare HLA alleles appearing in various populations and the extremely high amount of combinations of HLA alleles (due to high polymorphism) contribute to the low success rates of imputation. The association (OR = 4.43, 95% CI = 3.57-5.50) of a novel BTNL2;HLA-DRA;HLA-DRB1*01-haplotype with the risk of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) was identified (III). The analysis showed the implication of the HLA-DRB1*01 allele and the BTNL2 gene to the inflammation process. These two genes affect the antigen presentation and its immune response. Overall, the associated haplotype appeared approximately in 15% of ACS patients and in 5% of healthy individuals. Furthermore, the survival analysis shows that the HLA-DRB1*01 allele does not affect the survival time after an ACS event. Our results provide more insight into the detailed patterns of the haplotypes in the Finnish population, into the success of the imputation approaches and into the HLA association with ACS. Genetic diversity is depicted on these haplotypes which might lead to different immune responses. These findings help future development of appropriate statistical tools for the HLA region.
  • Rautiola, Juhana (2015)
    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the seventh most common cancer in men and the ninth most common in women and it comprises 2-3% of all malignant tumors in adults. In its localized form, the five-year survival is almost 60%. However, in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), the five-year survival has historically remained under 10%. Renal cell carcinoma is highly tolerant to traditional chemotherapy and and recent treatment has instead relied on inhibiting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. Since 2005, seven new agents have been approved for the treatment of metastatic RCC. Despite the increased knowledge of RCC, the molecular mechanisms behind acquired and intrinsic resistance to treatment remain largely unknown. Our results demonstrate that hypertension is a strong predictor of good prognosis and response to sunitinib treatment. In addition to hypertension we identified neutropenia and thrombocytopenia as predictive markers of good prognosis. A novel, triple biomarker profile consisting of these adverse events strongly predicts improved survival and outcome in mRCC patients. Results from our investigation of sequential treatment suggest that a newer VEGF receptor inhibitor, pazopanib, has clinically meaningful activity in a patient population where mRCC has progressed through sunitinib treatment and in patients who do not tolerate sunitinib. Encouraged by the fuller understanding of tumor biology, we then investigated the role of an endothelial-cell derived growth factor, angiopoietin-2 (Ang2), on patients outcome. High expression of Ang2 was demonstrated to correlate with a high vessel density and to predict a better response to sunitinib-based first-line therapy.
  • Gustafsson, Sofia (Finska Vetenskaps-Societeten, 2015)
    In 1748, the Swedish Crown began construction of the fortress Sveaborg outside Helsinki. This was an expensive military investment, but where did the money invested actually end up? Traditionally historians have claimed that the burghers of Helsinki benefitted economically from the construction. However, studies of early-modern Western European fortress construction sites show that local communities did not necessarily benefit directly; the money could just as easily have gone to large entrepreneurs from the central areas. The aim of this study is to identify which geographical areas and social groups sold the construction materials needed to build Sveaborg during the first period of construction in 1748-1756. It also discusses the institutional constraints, whether formal or informal, that limited the suppliers actions and choices. The main source material is the accounts of the Fortification Fund in Helsinki. However, to identify the sellers, we combined this material with local civil and private sources. The accounts rarely provided enough information for identification, and the key-question involved determining where to search for local and private sources. Alfred Weber s theory of location of economic activities claims that the optimal location for production depends on labour and transportation costs. The logistics of Sveaborg were water-based, so the search focused on coastal regions either near the fortress or with unique natural resources. With regard to the institutions, we used the theories of Douglass C. North. The laws of the period limited trade to certain groups in the cities, but equally important were the restrictions on suitable conduct for different estates. However, institutions constantly change, and according to Sten Carlsson, the traditional social system in 18th-century Sweden was already in decline. The results suggest that different economic zones specialising in certain products emerged around the fortress. Suppliers benefitting from Sveaborg could be found not only in the city of Helsinki, but also in the surrounding countryside. Other Finnish cities supplying the fortress include Porvoo, Turku and Loviisa. In Sweden, the main areas involved were Stockholm and Gotland. In contrast to the traditional view, one could definitely not claim that the burghers of Helsinki alone profited from the construction. Although formal constraints should have restricted the participation of other social groups, the informal constraints were obviously more permissive. Unlike in Western Europe, where the states tended to use large entrepreneurs from the central areas, the Swedish Crown used small entrepreneurs from the periphery. The money invested in Sveaborg was spread over large areas and many hands, including peasants, merchants, and noblemen.
  • von Boehm, Jukka (2015)
    The study analyses the performance history and Wirkungsgeschichte of Richard Wagner s Lohengrin (premiered 1850) in Germany and Russia in the 20th century. In Wagner s opera the mysterious knight arrives in medieval Brabant, where the people receive him as their redeemer . Lohengrin became one of Adolf Hitler s favourite operas. Through analysis of Lohengrin s influence, the study casts light on a broad and complex theme: how did Wagner s ideas and art become intertwined with Nazi ideology? Or how were they received in the context of other radical societal experiments, namely Soviet and East German socialism? This examination of different interpretations of the same text (Lohengrin) on stage and through its reception will reveal prevailing societal attitudes, taboos, values and hopes. Case study I discusses the reception of a few nationalist themes in Lohengrin. Specifically, the focus is on ultra-nationalist projections onto Lohengrin, which emerged during the resurgence of late 19th-century German Hurrah-patriotism and Nazi ideology. The focus of Case study II is on Heinz Tietjen s direction of Lohengrin at the Bayreuth Festival during the Third Reich (1936). The study demonstrates how Tietjen embedded Nazi ideology in his reading. Case study III takes another look at Lohengrin s influence on Soviet and East German socialism. The study scrutinises the ambivalent role of Lohengrin in the context of a dogmatic communist cultural policy that valued (socialist) realism. Another theme discussed is the problematic relationship of Lohengrin to the German Democratic Republic and its anti-fascism. Case study IV analyses Peter Konwitschny s innovative direction of Lohengrin in 1998. Characteristic of the deconstructive style of German director s theatre , the opera was set in a school classroom before the outbreak of the First World War. Konwitschny s interpretation offers an excellent case for analysing strategies by which a modern direction can take up the challenge of ideologically ambivalent opera. The study challenges the commonly oversimplified narrative that presents Wagner as a forerunner of Hitler and Nazism. Although there was irrational potential in Lohengrin, which became topical in the Third Reich, the relationship between Wagner s opera and National Socialism is much more complex, including the fact that Wagner s utopian ideas in Lohengrin also inspired the left. The main primary sources consist of German archival material, newspapers and journals.
  • Poikolainen, Janne (Nuorisotutkimusverkosto/Nuorisotutkimusseura, 2015)
    The study introduces a historical perspective to the discussion on fandom by examining the emergence of popular music fan culture in Finland from the 1950s to early 1970s. The analysis focuses on the ways the forms and meanings of music fandom, as well as the images attributed to fans, developed in the interaction between the music industry, publicity and audience. The source material consists mainly of written reminiscences on popular music and fandom, and music magazines from the research period. The material also includes e.g. fan letters and statistics. The historical context of the analysis is comprised of the substantial changes in youth brought about by the post-war social change. In the study, these changes are referred to as the modernization of youth. The study examines the technological, social and cultural changes linked to the change in youth that facilitated the emergence of the fan culture. Secondly, the study identifies the socio-cultural needs, created by modernization, to which music fandom as a phenomenon responded. In terms of content, the analysis focuses on three dimensions of fan culture. The first dimension comprises the musical and material settings of fandom, such as recordings, concerts and music magazines. The second consists of media discourses concerning the fan phenomenon. Here the study also questions and disassembles the gendered stereotypes constructed within the discourses. The third dimension comprises the socio-cultural meanings of fandom, particularly in respect of identity work taking place in the forms of identification and social distinction. Scrutiny of these dimensions also highlights the links between the fan phenomenon and the constituent phenomena of modernizing youth: for example, the mediatization, Anglo-Americanization and sexualization of youth culture, as well as the weakening of the traditional identity models. The study shows that the emergence of fan culture was a process where the media contents and ideas concerning fandom interacted in multi-dimensional ways between the various actors. The music industry, media publicity and fan audience formed the macro-level of this interactive network. The contents of fandom formed within this framework assumed their practical meaning in the daily lives of young people. These everyday meanings of fandom were concretized in the form of various consumption and production practices, through which the macro-level interrelationships were again redefined.
  • Creutz, Katja (Hakapaino, 2015)
    This thesis explores the law of state responsibility in international law from a critical standpoint. The main argument is that there are no longer justifications for holding state responsibility as the foremost responsibility system in international law. The importance of state responsibility has diminished; state responsibility has moved from a paradigm to the periphery in the international legal order. The thesis advances on two fronts to prove the veracity of the argument. First, it evaluates the law of state responsibility as adopted in the International Law Commission s 2001 Articles on State Responsibility in order to pinpoint problems in the general state responsibility rules. Second, the thesis explores how alternative constructions of responsibility, that is international liability and international criminal law, have overtaken portions of the state responsibility domain. Functionality is presented as the most suitable appraisal framework for an analysis of how state responsibility rules respond to challenges such as globalization and its actors, the diversity of responsibility ideas, and the normative fragmentation of responsibility in international law. The thesis thus prioritizes the practical usefulness of a responsibility regime in international law rather than abstract system-building functions. The exploration into the functionality of rules for state responsibility is preceded by an excursion into the evolution of state responsibility. The historical outlook will reveal how the rules developed, what dilemmas have characterized the state responsibility project and how these tensions have affected the formation of the ILC state responsibility rules. The critical appraisal of the general rules of state responsibility addresses a range of problems that relate to legal pluralization, form, function and implementation. It is argued that the state responsibility rules are unable to respond to the multi-actor and multi-issue world, to norm differentiation, and to the diversity of function, all of which contributes to the marginalization of the law of state responsibility. The thesis contends that the decision to create one all-embracing responsibility system for all kinds of violations of international law in order to build a credible international legal order actually led to lessened functionality. Real-world problems of crucial importance to the international community cannot be effectively handled under the state responsibility regime. From the demerits of state responsibility, the thesis proceeds to explore particularized responsibility regimes that have developed and strengthened as alternatives to state responsibility. International liability and international criminal law rules are explored from specific points of functionality that state responsibility is ill-suited to handle, i.e. social control, collectivity and the signalling effect. It is submitted that their particularity is an asset that allows regimes to deal with real problems in flexible and creative ways. They have thus effectively contributed to the side-tracking of state responsibility.
  • Korkka, Heli (Suomalainen Lakimiesyhdistys, 2015)
    The proceeds of crime shall be ordered forfeit to the State (Penal Code Chapter 10 Section 2 subsection 1). Crime shall not pay. Therefore, the offender or another person or entity that benefited from the offence must be ordered to forfeit the illegal proceeds. This doctoral thesis establishes a theoretically justified model on how the amount of the illegal proceeds should be quantified (the Theoretical Model). The doctoral thesis also demonstrates how the Theoretical Model functions in practice. The thesis analyses forfeiture in the context of corporate crime. A corporate offence is defined as an offence committed within legitimate business operations or in a business environment, for example, in the securities market. Forfeiture plays an important role as a consequence of a corporate offence, as the offence type typically generates considerable economic benefit. An activity qualifying as a corporate offence often produces both legal and illegal benefit. The Theoretical Model adopted in the doctoral thesis separates legal and illegal benefit and, thus, enables limiting the forfeiture to the illegal benefit only. The thesis is divided into three parts. The first part (Presentation of the Research Problem) sets out the regulatory basis of the Theoretical Model. Chapter 1 considers relevant regulation and the related main rules of interpretation. Chapter 2 analyses the nature of forfeiture as sanction by comparing forfeiture and punishment. The comparison is useful as, under the Finnish law, forfeiture cannot be used as a punishment. Chapter 3 establishes an interpretation method applied in the thesis. The provision on forfeiture entails an interpretative tension. On the other hand, forfeiture must not be used as a punishment (forfeiture must be limited to the benefit generated by an offence and not by other factors related to an offence), but, on the other hand, the crime cannot pay (forfeiture must cover all benefit an offence has generated, including indirect benefit). This tension between restrictive and expansive interpretation is managed in the thesis by forming two principles of interpretation: the prohibition of enrichment and the prohibition of punishment. The balance of the principles is relevant throughout the thesis, as it helps to calibrate the set of differing arguments applicable in a concrete situation. The second part of the thesis is devoted to the construction of the Theoretical Model. The model consists of four criteria: the causality requirement between an offense and benefit (Chapter 5), deductibility of expenses resulting from an offence (Chapter 6), estimation of the amount of the illegal proceeds (Chapter 7) and adjustment of forfeiture (Chapter 8). Amongst the criterion, the causality requirement is the most essential, as the causation criteria defines the subject of the forfeiture, i.e. the property a priori considered illegal proceeds to be ordered forfeit. The doctoral thesis adopts a two-phase causality model. At the first phase, the factual causality analyses empirically observable events. The aim is to establish what has happened and which factor in the surrounding world has had such a strong impact for the resulting event (here, illegal proceeds) that the factor can be considered a cause to the consequence. The latter phase analyses to what extent the factual causal connection established at the first phase is judicially relevant (the judicial relevance of the factual causality). At the second phase, the factual causal connection between the offence and the benefit is assessed against the objectives of the provision on forfeiture in order to establish whether the factual causal connection is relevant and, thus, whether the benefit qualifies as illegal proceeds under the Penal Code and, therefore, can be ordered forfeit. The third part of the thesis contextualises the Theoretical Model to the connection of selected corporate offences, i.e. abuse of insider information (Chapter 10) and environmental offences (Chapter 11). The aforementioned offences are selected due to their distinct nature as corporate offences. Abuse of insider information is committed in the business environment, i.e. in the securities market, whereas the environmental offences are most often committed within legal business operations. The contextualisation demonstrates the functionality of the Theoretical Model in practice. The different operational environment of the offences also entails diverging mechanisms of profit generation, which enables an analysis on how the theoretical model works in context of different types of offences. Through the Theoretical Model and its contextualisation, the doctoral thesis establishes that the forfeiture of proceeds of crime can and should be applied in accordance with certain general principles that are neutral as to the type of offence in question however, taking into account the diverging mechanisms of profit generation in different types of offences. The thesis guides the expedient and efficient application of the forfeiture of criminal proceeds, as well as furthers the consistency of legal practice in this respect.
  • Koskela, Elina (2015)
    Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) affect 2-3% of the population. In Finland, their rupture rate has been exceptionally high. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors affecting neuro-ophthalmic findings in patients undergoing treatment for IAs. We also investigate the utility of conventional head computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of Terson´s syndrome (TS, vitreous hemorrhage in association with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH)). Patients treated endovascularly or microsurgically for their IAs at the Department of Neurosurgery, Helsinki University Central Hospital, in 2011 prospectively underwent a neuro-ophthalmic examination preoperatively and at 3 days, 14 days, 2 to 4 months, and 6 months postoperatively. Findings suggestive of TS, as independently reviewed by two radiologists, on conventional CT head scans were compared with dilated fundoscopic findings. Participants comprised 121 patients with a ruptured aneurysm and 142 patients with an unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA). TS was present on fundoscopy in 13 patients (11%); the overall observed agreement between the two radiologists was 96% (116/121), with a substantial κ of 0.69 (95% CI 0.56-0.82). On average, CT demonstrated sensitivity of 42% and specificity of 97%. Factors independently predicting TS were female gender (OR 5.34, 95% CI 1.05-27.17) and World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade (OR 15.05 for grades IV-V vs. I-III, 95% CI 3.07-73.89). For patients with aSAH, the frequencies of a third, fourth, or sixth nerve palsy were 11 (9%; preoperatively), 16 (13%; immediately postoperatively), and 3 (3%; at the last follow-up), compared with corresponding frequencies of 6 (4%), 15 (11%), and 7 (5%) for patients with UIAs. Significant risk factors for postoperative eye movement disorders (EMDs) among patients with UIAs were aneurysm location in the posterior circulation (OR 142.02, 95% CI 20.13-1002.22) and aneurysm size (OR 1.28, for each 1-mm increase in diameter, 95% CI 1.12-1.47). After a follow-up time of 6 months, patients with aSAH presenting with visual field defects (VFDs) for aneurysm- or operation-related reasons numbered 20 (19%); homonymous VFDs were the most prevalent finding, and in logistic regression analysis, they were significantly associated with the Hunt and Hess (H and H) grade (OR 4.45 for grades IV-V vs. I-III, 95% CI 1.21-16.39) and presence of intracranial hemorrhage (OR 8.93, 95% CI 2.14-37.28). By contrast, seven patients (5%) treated for a UIA had VFDs. Poor-grade aSAH (H and H or WFNS grade IV-V) appears to be a strong predictive factor for TS and VFDs. With a high specificity value, conventional head CT scan might prove a useful tool in the diagnosis of TS. Although a common finding in the acute postoperative stage of ruptured and unruptured IAs, EMDs show marked improvement during follow-up.
  • Henriksson, Laura (Suomen Musiikkitieteellinen Seura, 2015)
    Summary Vocal humour and critique in the couplet recordings by J. Alfred Tanner, Matti Jurva, Reino Helismaa, Juha Vainio and Veikko Lavi The aim of this study is to research the lyrics and singing styles of five Finnish couplet singers who are connected to the Finnish schlager tradition. The material-oriented study is performed by analyzing altogether 160 couplet recordings sung by J. Alfred Tanner, Matti Jurva, Reino Helismaa, Juha Vainio, and Veikko Lavi. The study examines the singers humoristic and critical approaches to the lyrics and investigates how the attitudes are performed orally by the singers. The aim of the study is to analyze the singing styles of the songs together with the content of the songs lyrics. The history of the couplet and the previous studies of the subject are reviewed in the beginning of the first part of the work, which also contains the methodological background of the work, which is divided into cultural models and attitudes and to textual and musical conventions. The methodological section introduces a viewpoint which takes into account the couplet songs musical and textual practices alongside with the general cultural views such as attitudes advocating the culture of contestation and hegemonic masculinity. A detailed analysis of Juha Vainio s couplet song Käyn ahon laitaa demonstrates in practice how the couplet recordings can be analyzed. In the articles the couplets themes are examined by using scientific concepts and by analysing couplet recordings. In the first article couplets and their critical attitudes towards persons in power are examined by using the term of carnivalism. The second article deals with self-irony of the couplets characters which is investigated by using the concept of incongruity and the relief theory previously used in humour studies. The subject of the third article is female characters in the couplet songs. The subjects of the fourth article are masculinity and its vocal interpretation in the songs. The theoretical framework of the study is based on the Judith Butler s concept of performativity and Zygmunt Bauman s categories of the postmodern pilgrim and its followers. Keywords: Couplet, humour, carnivalism, culture of contestation, performativity