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  • Pousi, Suvi Päivikki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Neurotrophic factors are essential for the development of the central nervous system. By signalling through Trk receptors, they have multiple effects on for example the survival of neurons, growth of axons and dendrites and stability of synapses. BDNF, which signals through TrkB receptor, is a neurotrophic factor with an important role in the formation and stabilization of glutamatergic synapses. It is also known to be released in an activity dependent manner. The mechanisms by which BDNF and TrkB signalling regulate synaptic transmission depend on the type and developmental stage of the synapse, and they are not well known. The electrical activity of immature networks consists of intrinsic activity with intermittent bursts of synchronous activity, which is believed to fine tune the synaptic connectivity through Hebbian plasticity mechanisms, which are stabilized by homeostatic mechanisms. Homeostatic regulation can be especially important during the development of the neural network while the glutamatergic transmisson is very labile. Little is known of the signalling routes that participate in the homeostatic plasticity during the development of the neural network. The aim of the thesis was to investigate how the long-term inhibition of TrkB signalling affects the glutamatergic transmission and the homeostatic regulation in area CA3 of neonatal hippocampus by using gene manipulated TrkBF616A mouse strain. The TrkB receptors in the TrkBF616A strain are modified so that they can be blocked with a kinase inhibitor (1NMPP1). In part of the work C57BL/6 -mice were used as control. In addition to the acute measurements the hippocampal slices were incubated in control conditions and with inhibitory drugs (TTX and 1NMPP1) for 15 to 20 hours, after which miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) were recorded with whole-cell patch clamp from area CA3 pyramidal cells. The research shows that continuous TrkB signalling is essential for the maintenance of AMPA receptor mediated synaptic transmission in CA3 area of neonatal hippocampus in TrkBF616A mice. Long-term inhibition of TrkB signalling decreases the amplitude of mEPSCs. TrkB-signalling seems to be needed also for the homeostatic response caused by network activity deprivation. The results also indicate that the inhibition of TrkB signalling increases the frequency of mEPSCs, possibly by a homeostatic mechanism. However, the results also show that the TrkBF616A mice strain might differ from wild type mice and the kinase inhibitor 1NMPP1 might have non-specific effects that are not currently known, so more extensive research on the matter is still needed to confirm the results.
  • Mäkelä, Mirka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Archaea are known to thrive in different kinds of extreme habitats. Halophilic archaea are found in environments where the salt concentration is high, like in salt lakes and solar salterns. The habitats of halophilic archaea have salt concentration varying from higher than sea water to the saturation of salt. In high salinity habitats, the biodiversity is typically low and archaea are dominant microorganisms. The cell density of haloarchaea can be up to 107 cell/ml.When there are no predators for archaea and other halophilic microbes, viruses are thought to be the driving agents for their evolution. To this date, 130 archaeal viruses are described and 90 of them are known infect halophilic archaea. Most of the isolated haloarchaeal viruses are head-tailed. These head-tailed viruses can be divided into three different groups by the properties of the tail structure. Those three types of head-tailed viruses are myo-, sipho- and podoviruses. The infection cycles, receptors or lysis mechanisms used by archaeal viruses are still poorly known. Few studied archaeal viruses use seemingly similar strategies to attach to the surface of the host cell, to penetrate the cell surface and to release new virions, as bacteriophages and viruses of eukaryotic cells do. Since archaeas differ so much from eukaryotic or bacterial cells, their viruses must have developed different strategies to carry out their infection cycle. Several filamentous viruses of archaea are known to attach to the pilus structures of their host cells and some of the enveloped archaeal viruses attach straight to the cell membrane of the host. These strategies are seemingly similar to those used by bacteriophages and viruses of eukaryotic cells. Strikingly different mechanism to release virions has been seen on SIRV-2, virus of a hyperthermophilic archaeon. The SIRV-2 infection induces pyramid shaped extrusions on the surface of the host cells. In the end of the infection cycle these pyramids open and release new virions from the cell. This is the first lysis mechanism described for an archaeal virus. In this work, the infection cycle of a head-tailed virus infecting extremely halophilic Haloarcula vallismortis was studied. The Haloarcula vallismortis tailed virus 1 (HVTV-1) is head-tailed siphovirus with a double stranded DNA genome. In previous studies the infection cycle of HVTV-1 is described to be lytic. The genome sequence, 3D-structure of the capsid and the major capsid protein of HVTV-1 is known. HVTV-1 infection has been seen to induce large, roundish structures on the surface of the infected cell. These structures may have a role in the course of the infection cycle. Several animal viruses are known to cause massive rearrangements in the host cell so that replication proteins, viral genome and the replication agents needed from the host are concentrated in specific locations. These rearrangements facilitates and enhances the viral replication. The roundish structures induced by HVTV-1 might play the same role as the virus factories of animal viruses do or these structures may be involved in the release of new virions in somewhat similar manner as those virus induced pyramid structures. In this study two main goals were set: 1.) To explore the adsorption of HVTV-1 in more details and see if the host cell receptor could be solved. 2.) To solve the possible role of the virus induced structure seen in the host cell and to find out, in which point of the infection cycle those structures appear. Based on this study, it can be said that the adsorption of HVTV-1 is efficient and very fast. The virus attaches to the archaella structures of the host cell and the attachment is mediated by the tail of the virus. One archaella may serve as a receptor for several viruses and they are not saturated. The intracellular phase of the infection cycle of HVTV-1 is long and the virus production starts 8 hours after infection. Virions are released when the host cells is lysed 12 hours after the infection. Two hours before the lysis, two virus induced structural changes of the cell are seen. The roundish structures at the surface of the cell and wide areas in the cytoplasm filled by a structure looking similar as lipid membranes. At the same time when the virus production begins, at least two virus induced or coded proteins are produced in the cell. The other one of these proteins was identified and it is predicted to be the virus encoded ribonucleotide reductase. Ribonucleotide reductase is an enzyme known to catalyse the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acids from ribonucleic acids. If the ribonucleotide reductase is a part of seen structures, the timing of their appearance and the known function of the enzyme, could suggest those structures to play a role in the maturation or release of the virions. Many questions still remains and there would be lot more details to study in the HVTV-1 infection. Especially interesting would be the identification of the other virus induced protein, purifying those roundish structures and analysing them in more details.
  • Mutanen, Justus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The International Biology Olympiad is a yearly science competition; hundreds of high school students from over 60 countries take part in it. In Finland, the students are chosen by the national biology competition and the national Olympiad training camp. The research subject of this study is Finnish training for International Biology Olympiad (IBO). About ten high school students who are interested in biology take part at each training camp. Science competitions, such as IBO and training camps, are classified as non-formal or out-of-school science education. Since there is very little scientific knowledge about non-formal biology education, especially about science competitions, the theoretical framework of this study consists of non-formal science education, the relevance of science education and the development of interest. In this study, design research methodology with three research cycles was applied to develop the course. In the study, both theoretical and empirical problem analyses were used. There were two main research questions: 1) What are the needs for the development of the training camp? 2) What kind of training is relevant for the participants? The first research question was elaborated by examining a) what kind of topics of interest the participants have, b) how the participants expect the training to be relevant for them, c) what kind of relevance the previous participants experienced, and d) what kind of effects the previous training camps had on the participants interest in biology and career choice. The features of relevant biology Olympiad training were searched in the second research question. The data was collected from pre-camp and post-camp questionnaires, post-camp interviews and a questionnaire sent for the previous camp participants. The qualitative data was analyzed by content analysis and quantitative data from the questionnaires was analyzed by statistical methods. The main results were following: 1) The biggest needs for development were diversifying the contents and balancing the workload of the camp. The participants of the training camps were interested mostly about medicine and human biology -related topics and cell and molecular biology. In addition, it was found out that the previous participants considered biology education to be individually, vocationally and societally relevant for them. According to them, the training camps were especially individually relevant and had some effects on the career choice. 2) The new training camp for biology Olympiad is especially individually relevant for the participants but it has also some vocational relevance. In the science Olympiad training, special attention should be directed towards developing vocational and societal relevance. A new model for Biology Olympiad training camps was developed based on the collected research data. The individual dimension can be improved by i) diversifying the contents of the camps, ii) including inquiry-based learning modules and by iii) taking a student-centered approach to the development process. The vocational and societal dimensions of relevance can be targeted by iv) allowing the teachers of the participants to take part at camps. The vocational dimension of relevance can be enhanced v) by organizing visits to research laboratories and companies and vi) by enabling the participants to meet university students. The results of this study can be applied to not only to Science Olympiad training but also to non-formal biology education. This research provides models for developing out-of-school biology education and its relevance. This is the first design research study about Biology Olympiad training and it opens up discussion about the relevance of science competitions and Science Olympiad training.
  • Viljanen, Samu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Autophagy is a eukaryotic cellular process where intracellular material is recycled by transporting it in newly formed vesicles to lysosomes for degradation. In normal conditions autophagy supports cellular homeostasis. Different stress conditions can induce autophagy and then it helps the cell to avoid an unnecessary or uncontrolled cell death. RAB proteins are small GTPases that regulate vesicle traffic and fusion events in endocytic and exocytic pathways. RAB24 has recently been shown to participate in autophagy, but there is very little information about how it works at the molecular level. GOSR1 is a Golgi SNARE protein that regulates membrane fusion events, and it has been observed to interact indirectly with RAB24. The participation of GOSR1 in autophagy has not been studied yet. The aim of the study was to find out if RAB24 and GOSR1 colocalize into the same vesicle structures and if they interact within each other. HeLa cells were used as a model organism, and to induce autophagy amino acid starvation was used. For GOSR1 detection a DNA construct was created where GOSR1 was tagged with green fluorescent protein GFP-sequence. Localization was studied with immunofluorescence staining where in addition to RAB24 and GOSR1 also the autophagosomal marker protein LC3 was labeled. The labeled cells were photographed with a confocal microscope. The pictures were analyzed with ImagePro software. Interaction between the proteins was studied using immunoprecipitation. GOSR1 and RAB24 were not observed to colocalize into same structures in significant amount. Instead it was found that GOSR1 colocalized into LC3-positive autophagic vesicles. In immunoprecipitation studies no interaction between RAB24 and GOSR1 could be shown. In order to ensure the results more immunofluorescence stainings should be done using several time points and GFP-tagged GOSR1. Also GOSR1 silencing with siRNA should be used in order to find out if GOSR1 is necessary for autophagy. The immunoprecipitation protocol should be optimized, and the possible interaction could be studied by using other methods, for example yeast-two hybride technology.
  • Rantala, Ville (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Tutkimuksessa haluttiin määrittää aikaisempaa tietämystä tarkemmin sytoplasmisen A2-tyypin fosfolipaasi α:n (cPLA2α) substraattispesifisyys sekä sitä rajoittavat tekijät. Tätä varten entsyymin geeniä ekspressoitiin bakulovirusmenetelmällä viljellyissä Spodoptera frugiperda- soluissa. Entsyymi eristettiin ja sen aktiivisuus määritettiin. Aktiivista puhdistettua entsyymiä käytettiin useissa pienillä unilamellaarisilla vesikkeleillä ja miselleillä (makrosubstraatteina) tehdyissä glyserofosfolipidien hydrolyysikokeissa, jotka analysoitiin massaspektrometrisellä menetelmällä. Tutkimuksissa selvitettiin glyserofosfolipidien tyydyttyneisyyden, asyyliketjujen pituuden ja polaaristen pääryhmien vaikutusta hydrolyysiin. Lisäksi tutkittiin keskenään positionaalisten isomeerien hydrolyysin eroja. Tutkimus vahvisti, että cPLA2α todellakin on spesifinen arakidonihappoa sisältäville glyserofosfolipideille. Lisäksi sen todettiin hydrolysoivan merkittävästi 1,2-dilinolenoyyli-sn- glysero-3-fosfatidyylikoliinia. Muita lyhytketjuisia ja tyydyttymättömiä glyserofosfolipidejä se hydrolysoi pieniä määriä. Eri glyserofosfolipidien polaarisista pääryhmistä se hydrolysoi parhaiten fosfatidihappoa, toiseksi parhaiten fosfatidyyliglyserolia ja kolmanneksi parhaiten fosfatidyylikoliinia. Tärkeimmäksi hydrolyysiä rajoittavaksi tekijäksi osoittautui substraattien sitoutuminen entsyymin aktiiviseen keskukseen ja toissijaiseksi niiden kyky irtautua kalvosta/misellistä. cPLA2α:n kohonnut aktiivisuus on yhdistetty muun muassa lukuisiin eri syöpiin, tulehduksellisiin autoimmuunisairauksiin ja neurodegenaratiivisiin sairauksiin. Tutkimuksesta saatua tietoa voitaneen käyttää tulevaisuudessa cPLA2α:a inhiboivien täsmälääkkeiden kehittelyyn kyseisten sairauksien hoitoon.
  • Kervinen, Anttoni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Viime vuosikymmeninä tiedonalakohtaista oppimista on tutkittu paljon käsitteellisen muutoksen näkökulmasta. Käsitteellinen muutos tarkoittaa oppijan tietorakenteiden muuttumista tai jäsentymistä virheellisistä kohti tieteellistä mallia. Käsitteellisen muutoksen teorioiden mukaan oppijoiden aikaisempien virhekäsitysten tunteminen ja huomioiminen on keskeistä oppimisen ja opetuksen onnistumisen kannalta. Tässä tutkimuksessa selvitettiin biologian yliopisto-opiskelijoiden fotosynteesiin liittyviä virhekäsityksiä, niiden muuttumista opetustekstin lukemisen seurauksena sekä biologian pääaineopiskelijoiden ja sivuaineopiskelijoiden virhekäsitysten eroja. Suomalaisten opiskelijoiden virhekäsityksiä on aiemmin tutkittu niukasti. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää virhekäsityksiä suomalaisten opetussuunnitelmien mukaan opiskelleilta opiskelijoilta sekä selvittää virhekäsitysten yksityiskohtaista muuttumista käsitteellisen muutoksen näkökulmasta. Tutkimuksen aineistona oli yliopiston biologian peruskurssin opiskelijoiden (n=171) vastaukset fotosynteesiä ja sen ekologista merkitystä koskeviin avoimiin kysymyksiin. Opiskelijat vastasivat kysymyksiin ennen opetustekstin lukemista, heti opetustekstin lukemisen jälkeen sekä kaksi viikkoa lukemisen jälkeen. Aineisto analysoitiin laadullisin menetelmin kuvaamalla, tyypittelemällä ja tulkitsemalla havaittuja virhekäsityksiä. Virhekäsitysten tulkinnassa hyödynnettiin tiedon ja ajattelutaitojen tasojen luokittelua. Opiskelijoilla havaittiin yhteensä 58 fotosynteesiä koskevaa selkeästi virheellistä käsitystä ja 14 puutteellista tai epämääräistä käsitystä. Virhekäsitykset liittyivät fotosynteesireaktioon, kasvien rakenteisiin, kasvin energiatalouteen ja fotosynteesin ekologiseen merkitykseen. Lähes kaikki virhekäsitykset ja puutteelliset käsitykset olivat yleisempiä biologian sivuaineopiskelijoilla kuin pääaineopiskelijoilla. Virhekäsitykset vähenivät opetustekstin lukemisen seurauksena, ja monimutkaisempia tiedon ja ajattelutaitojen tasoja ilmentävät virhekäsitykset vähenivät vähintään yhtä paljon kuin muutkin. Lukuisia virhekäsityksiä kuitenkin säilyi oikeat vastaukset antaneesta opetustekstistä huolimatta. Kaksi viikkoa opetustekstin lukemisen jälkeen osa jo virhekäsityksensä korjanneista opiskelijoista vastasi jälleen virheellisesti. Tutkimus osoittaa, että suomalaisen peruskoulun ja lukion fotosynteesin oppimista koskevat tavoitteet eivät täyty edes monen biologian yliopisto-opiskelijan kohdalla. Suomalaisilla opiskelijoilla on pitkälti samoja virhekäsityksiä kuin kansainvälisesti tehdyssä tutkimuksessa on havaittu. Fotosynteesin oppimisen kannalta keskeisin tutkimuksessa havaittu ymmärryksen puute on vaikeus ymmärtää fotosynteesin merkitys Auringon valoenergian ja ravintoketjujen energian välisenä linkkinä. Opiskelijoiden vaikeudet korjata virhekäsityksiään selittyvät käsitteellisen muutoksen prosessin haastavuudella ja hitaudella. Fotosynteesiä koskevan oppimisen edistämiseksi opetuksessa tulisi aiempaa paremmin huomioida käsitteellisen muutoksen haasteet kognitiivisesta, sosiaalisesta ja motivaatioon liittyvistä näkökulmista. Tämä tutkimus tarjoaa tietoa niistä fotosynteesin oppimista koskevista erityispiirteistä, joita ilmiön tehokkaaseen oppimiseen pyrkivän opetuksen tulee huomioida.
  • Hyvönen, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Northern aapa mires are important carbon sinks. Their CO2 exchange with the atmosphere is based on plant photosynthesis and respiration, and the decomposition of peat and other dead organic matter by microbial activity. The photosynthetic efficiency of plants depends on environmental factors and the amount and development of plant leaf area and biomass. There is not much research on the leaf area index and biomass of plants on aapa mires which makes them an interesting and important subject of research. This study investigated plant community composition, development and their effect on CO2 exchange at a northern aapa mire in Finland. The purpose of this study was to survey the biomass and leaf area index of plants within mire types and determine how they, together with water level and microbial activity, and explain the CO2 exchange between the mire and atmosphere. Another aim of this study was to construct regression models for predicting biomass and leaf area index using the plants height and coverage data. The study was conducted in summer 2014 at Halssiaapa, an aapa mire in Sodankylä. The mire was divided into oligotrophic, mesotrophic and eutrophic hummocks, lawns and hollows. The plant community species, their height and coverage were determined in early June, mid-July and mid-August. Moreover, the growth of plant groups was monitored weekly at 16 inventory squares between 6th June and 18th August. Biomass and leaf area samples were collected from different mire types in mid-July, and by the use of regression analysis, two equations were modelled for each plant group, one for predicting biomass and another for predicting leaf area index. The equations were used for predicting biomass and leaf area index for plant groups and mire types based on early June and mid-August data, and the weekly inventory squares. CO2 exchange, and factors controlling it, were measured via an eddy covariance method (measures exchange at ecosystem scale), and a closed chamber method (measures exchange from 1m2). Biomass, leaf area index, species composition, water level and soil factors (indicators of decomposer activity) were used to explain CO2 fluxes. The activity of decomposers in peat was measured via a decomposition test where litter bags containing tea or straw were placed at sampling sites on the mire. The regression models based on plant sample data explained well the biomass and leaf area indices of plant groups. The mire s overall and maximum biomass and leaf area indices were 147 g m-2and 0,73 m2 m-2 respectively for vascular plants, and 351 g m-2and 5,5 m2 m-2 respectively for mosses. Hollows displayed the lowest leaf area index and biomass values, whilst hummocks showed the highest values. Mesotrophic hummocks had the highest values for vascular plants and eutrophic lawns showed the highest values for mosses. Despite having a considerably higher level of biomass and leaf area index than vascular plants, Sphagnum mosses had a much lower gross photosynthetic capacity. Plant communities on lawns and hummocks with an abundancy of sedges (Cyperaceae) had a higher gross photosynthetic capacity and respiration level than plant communities in hollows. Factors leading to increased respiration were increasing vascular leaf area index, release of carbon from straw (indicating decomposer activity), decreasing water level (drier peat) and carbon content in surface peat. Factors leading to increased gross photosynthetic capacity were increasing vascular leaf area index, decreasing water level and decreased straw mass in surface peat (indicating decomposer activity). Temperature and PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation) explained 25 % of the variation in gross primary production and 39 % in respiration. The other environmental factors explained 55 % of the residual variation in gross primary production and 78 % in respiration. The mire s gross primary production showed highest increase rate in June and reached its maximum level in early August. Mean plant biomass and leaf area index had the same growth pattern as gross primary production, reaching peak levels at the end of July. The plants Menyanthes trifoliata , Potentilla palustris, Andromeda polifolia and the functional group containing sedges and Scheuchzeria palustris, had a similar growth pattern, but no change in biomass and leaf area index of Betula nana and Vaccinium oxycoccos was detected during the growing season. The models constructed in this study for predicting biomass and leaf area index can be used at Halssiaapa and other nearby aapa mires. Plant surveying and CO2 exchange measurements will be continued at the site in future. Longterm changes in plant community species and CO2 exchange can be researched by comparing results from year 2014 with in coming summers.
  • Autio, Mirka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Phosphorus is traditionally considered to be the primary nutrient limiting primary production in lakes. More recent studies show that sometimes nitrogen can be the limiting nutrient for phytoplankton production in temperate lakes. This study investigated whether the nitrogen has a major role along with phosphorus in the primary production of lakes. In addition, it was studied if the limiting nutrient changes during the growing season and does the residence time of the lake affect the level of nutrient limitation. The subject lakes were Ormajärvi, Suolijärvi, Lehee, Pyhäjärvi and Iso-Roine, which are the headwater lakes of the Kokemäenjoki in Kanta-Häme. The lakes were sampled for bioassays once a month from June to September in 2004 and in May 2005, a total of five times. There were four treatments: control, lake water + P, lake water + N, lake water + P + N. For each treatment there were five replicates. There was one concentration level for each nutrient treatment. The nutrient concentration of treatments depended on the nutrient content of the lakes. To determine the combined effect of nutrients both of them were added at the same time. Nitrogen treatment solution was prepared from potassium nitrate and phosphorus treatment solution from potassium dihydrogen phosphate. Bioassays were conducted as a pure culture of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata Prinz- algae. Zooplankton was removed from the lake water samples, which were then sampled for nutrient analysis. The water samples were autoclaved and filtered prior to the bioassays. Bioassays were carried out in Erlenmeyer flasks containing 60 ml of lake water, the nutrient solutions and 0.5 ml pure culture of P. subcapitata. Algae were grown in continuous illumination until the exponential growth stopped. Algal growth was monitored by taking samples of a few ml from the flasks roughly every other day. Algae in samples were counted by a microscope in Lund chambers. The actual variables were the maximum number of cells or yield and the growth rate. The limiting nutrient was found out by comparing the yield and the growth rate of different nutrient treatments to the control. The results of the bioassays were tested statistically with non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis H-test. Algal bioassays expressed only phosphorus limitation. Phosphorus limited the yield in the bioassays of Suolijärvi in August 2004 and May 2005. In Lehee and Pyhäjärvi phosphorus limited growth rate in May 2005. There was neither nitrogen limitation nor co-limitation in any of the bioassays. So the limiting nutrient didn t change during the growing season. Phosphorus treatments inhibited the growth of algae from time to time in 2004 in Ormajärvi, Suolijärvi, Pyhäjärvi and Lehee. In May 2005 there was no inhibition. Nutrient limitation was stronger in lakes with a long retention time. These bioassays indicate that reducing phosphorus loading would control eutrophication of this chain of lakes. The phosphorus treatments couldn t cause the inhibition. The cause of inhibition originated most likely from the drainage area due to heavy rains in summer 2004. It could be, for example, zinc or arsenic.
  • Kerminen, Sini (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Studies of population structure are motivated by the need to understand population history and to have well-characterised groups of individuals in studies of genetics of diseases and traits. A standard method to analyse genetic population structure is principal component analysis (PCA). A disadvantage of PCA is that it can reliably handle only independent genetic markers. This means that the genetic markers that are correlated with other genetic markers have to be excluded from the data. This leads to a loss of information. In 2012, Lawson et al. published a chromosome painting method that can utilise haplotype information, i.e. information from correlated markers, and thus it can detect more subtle differences in populations than the standard PCA. This thesis studies two questions. The first question is whether the chromosome painting method can provide more precise genetic clustering of geographically defined Finnish groups than the standard PCA method. The second question is whether the chromosome painting method can reveal new details of population structure in Finland. The data used in this study are from the FINRISK Study survey of 1997. This cohort includes the genotype data of about 4,000 individuals and the information about individuals and their parents birthplaces. 345 Individuals were randomly chosen from the cohort in such a way that both of their parents were originated from the same province. Ten provinces of Finland were used as study groups for the method comparison. First, the data were analysed with SmartPCA (a standard PCA method) and ChromoPainter (the chromosome painting method) and the results were compared both visually and quantitatively. Finally, the individuals were assigned to populations based on the ChromoPainter result using FineSTRUCTURE program and these genetic populations were compared to the geographic origin of the individuals. The results showed that the chromosome painting method clustered seven out of ten groups significantly tighter than the standard PCA. Nevertheless, SmartPCA was faster and easier to use than ChromoPainter. The main population genetic division was found between the eastern and western parts of Finland, which was consistent with earlier studies. All in all, 15 populations were detected and the results revealed that they were geographically clustered. The genetic populations correlated well with the borders of Finnish provinces and counties. As the first conclusion, the chromosome painting method was able to give more precise results than the standard PCA but the standard PCA is still more suitable for quick preliminary analyses of genetic data. As the second conclusion, the chromosome painting method was able to detect detailed subpopulation structure in Finland and these populations are geographically clustered. Results provide an excellent basis for the future studies of population structure and genetic diseases in Finland.
  • Raulo, Aura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Abstract Microbiota, the microbial communities living in the gut, skin and glands of vertebrates, is the functional link between a physiological individual and it s surrounding ecosystem. Mutualistic microbes play a role in social systems as well, since they are transmitted through social behaviors and claimed to affect host sociality and behavior. Furthermore, individual stress physiology can affect both behavior and microbiota. I took first steps to reveal the role of gut microbiota in the social dynamics of a group-living cooperative primate, the red-bellied lemur (Eulemur rubriventer). Gut microbiota was affected by seasonal change, stress hormonal profile and pregnancy, and individuals were found to have a strongly group-specific gut microbial composition, highlighting the role of social environment in determining gut microbial composition. Unlike expected, individual sociality was negatively associated with gut microbial diversity. Gut microbiota seems to be largely determined by social factors in this species, indicating that social transmission of beneficial microbiota might have played a role in the evolution of sociality.
  • Ketola, Katri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Darwinian selection can be measured and investigated from gene sequences. A certain gene form favored by positive selection will become more common in the population. Detecting strong positive selection is rare, but it has been found to affect genes involved in immune defense and perception of odorants. Genes under positive selection have a possible role in speciation or adaptation. This is why chemical communication, being based on the sense of smell, is an interesting topic for measuring natural selection and positive selection in particular. Social insects, such as ants, are model organisms for chemical communication. They use chemical communication not only for finding nutrition and detecting intruders, but also in coordinating the activities of several thousands of colony members. Insects perceive odorant signal molecules with their antennae. Odorant binding proteins (OBP) and chemosensory proteins (CSP) bind and transport odorant molecules through the sensillar lymph. OBPs and CSPs are also suspected to have a role in selecting odorants. This work focuses on two OBP genes and two CSP genes to study natural selection. All of these genes are conserved among all ant species. Three of these genes, OBP1, CSP1 and CSP7, are strongly expressed in the antennae suggesting that they function in chemical communication. CSP7 also has a known function in nest mate recognition in ants and OBP1 is known to bind a queen pheromone in the honeybee. The data includes gene sequences from 7 Formica ant species (270 sequences in total). The main goals of the research were to find out 1) the extent of variation between and within closely related ant species, 2) which evolutionary forces, natural selection or random drift, are behind the variation and 3) are there systematic differences between the two social forms of ants suggesting that these genes would affect the social structure of an ant colony. The variation in the sequence data was visualized by phylogenetic, principal coordinate and fixed differences analyses. Differences between populations were studied by FST values. The evolutionary forces shaping chemical communication genes within the species and populations, were studied by McDonald-Kreitman test, Tajima s D, Fu and Li test and MFDM test. The data shows that two of the species, F. cinerea and F. exsecta, significantly differ from the other five ant species, the F. rufa group species, and that the F. rufa group species don t significantly differ from each other based on these genes and this data. This could be due to their recent speciation or crossing between the species leading to hybrids in the data. The results of the evolutionary analyses are inconsistent. However, CSP7 has the strongest indication of selection based on all of the tests. Possible selection and sequence variation was detected at a predicted transcription factor binding site in F. cinerea. This indicates that selection might affect the regulation of CSP7. In the future it would be interesting to check the true transcription factor binding sites experimentally.
  • Tolvanen, Oula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Tutkielman tavoitteena oli laatia todennäköisyyspohjainen kanta-arviomalli merivaelteisen taimenen (Salmo trutta L.) juveniili vaiheen populaatiodynamiikan kuvaamiseksi. Mallin tarkoituksena on kuvata taimenen jokipoikasvaihe kuoriutumisesta merivaellukselle lähtöön tai sukukypsyyteen saakka, tiivistämällä saatavilla oleva tieto taimenen ekologiasta populaatioparametreiksi. Näitä parametreja olivat ikäryhmäkohtainen selviytymisen todennäköisyys ja ikäryhmäkohtainen syönnösvaellukselle lähdön todennäköisyys. Epävarmuuden huomioimiseksi mallin parametrien kuvaamiseen käytettiin todennäköisyysjakaumia. Ikäryhmäkohtainen syönnösvaellukselle lähdön todennäköisyys kuvattiin käyttämällä käyräfunktiota, jonka parametrit liitettiin aikaisemmin julkaistuihin aineistoihin taimenen keskimääräisen vaellusiän vaihtelusta leveyspiirin mukaan. Mallin muiden parametrien odotusarvojen asettaminen ja mallin rakenteen laatiminen perustui asiantuntija-arvioihin ja aikaisemmin julkaistuun taimenta tai sen sukulaislajeja koskevaan tutkimustietoon. Mallissa käytettyjen parametrien posteriorijakaumat ratkaistiin käyttämällä Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulointia. MCMC simuloinnin toimivuus tarkastettiin käyttämällä keinotekoisesti tuotettua havaintoaineistoa. Mallin yhteensopivuutta todellisiin havaintoaineistoihin tutkittiin sovittamalla malli kahdesta Suomenlahteen laskevasta joesta kerättyyn sähkökoekalastus ja vaelluspoikaspyyntiaineistoon. Viron puoleisen Pirita joen aineisto koostui vuosien 2005 2013 sähkökoekalastusaineistosta ja vuosien 2006 2014 vaelluspoikaspyyntiaineistosta. Suomen puoleisen Ingarskilan joen aineisto koostui vuosien 2009 2013 sähkökoekalastusaineistosta ja vuosien 2012 ja 2013 vaelluspoikaspyyntiaineistosta. Molempien jokien aineistojen, sekä kirjallisuudesta kerätyn 41 muun joen vaelluspoikasten keskimääräisistä i'istä koostuva aineiston analysointi toteutettiin samanaikaisesti hierarkkisena meta-analyysina. Mallin sovituksen yhteydessä havaittiin, että malli systemaattisesti yliarvioi keväisin tutkimusjoista alasvaeltavien taimenen poikasten määrän. Mallin havaittiin kuitenkin ennustavan onnistuneesti analyysistä poisjätetyn Piritajoen vuoden 2014 vaelluspoikaspyyntiaineiston ikäjakauman. Kirjallisuudesta kerätyn aineiston pohjalta taimenten syönnösvaellukselle lähtemisen todennäköisyyttä kuvaavan käyrän μ parametrin havaittiin korreloivan positiivisesti leveyspiirin kanssa. Kirjallisuuskatsauksen perusteella tämä työ on ensimmäinen yritys laatia todennäköisyyspohjainen populaatiodynamiikkaan perustuva kanta-arviomalli, joka pystyy huomioimaan myös taimen populaatioiden vaelluskäyttäytymisen. Mallin laajamittainen käyttö kalastuksen säätelyn tukemisessa vaatii vielä parannuksia mallin rakenteisiin.
  • Östman, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This interdisciplinary study seeks to raise awareness of and generate interest in projects that combine science and art. A number of such projects are discussed and analyzed with the help of the concept Ecovention . The concept is operationalized to include works of art that ecologically restore, reclaim, and remediate damaged ecosystems by physical actions and inventions. They transform the ecosystem and often slowly disappear into the environment, contributing to the overall wellbeing of the ecosystem. These works of art are long-lasting and site-specific. They are built outdoors by using material that is already available in the ecosystem or by bringing in environmental-friendly material into the ecosystem. The central research question for the study is as follows: How significantly does environmental art affect the local ecosystem when the starting point is ecological restoration? This is a qualitative study. The data for the study consist of interviews with experts together with analyses of the historical, cultural, and ecological background material for two Finnish environmental artworks. The two artworks are Agnes Denes's Puuvuori (Tree Mountain - A Living Time Capsule, 1996) and Jackie Brookner's Veden taika (The Magic of Water, 2007- 2010). These works of art were chosen because of the availability of historical and natural scientific research data about how they were planned and how they were constructed. The availability of this kind of data related to environmental art is rare in Finland. The Magic of Water consists of three floating islands in Salo. They are situated in a lagoon that was formerly used as a clarification pool at the Salo Municipal Sewage Treatment Facility. The artwork has succeeded in supplying a peaceful nesting habitat for the birdlife in the area. It has been shown that a colony of black-headed gulls (Larus ridibundus) is a new species nesting in the islands. The Magic of Water did not provide a significant improvement of the water quality by phytoremediation since the islands are relatively small in relation to the area of the lagoon. Tree Mountain - A Living Time Capsule is to be found in Pinsiönkangas, at the most important groundwater area in Ylöjärvi. The artwork reclaims a former gravel pit. Tree Mountain is a 28 meter tall hill in an area of elliptical shape that spans nine hectares. 10,600 pine tree saplings (Pinus sylvestris) and about 40,000 cubic meters of soil from the area was used to build the artwork. Tree Mountain is nowadays owned by the town of Ylöjärvi and Pinsiönkangas is principally a conservation area. The Tree Mountain - A Living Time Capsule is argued to fit well in the regionally precious ridgescenary since the work of art has enough of biological values. Most likely the building of the artwork has had a preventive effect on possible ecological harm and it has made the community take responsibility for taking care of the reclaimed environment in the long term. In the face of high-quality ecological restoration plans it is important to approach the restoration of ecosystems from a holistic perspective. The artist s vision of how an ecosystem can be restored adds a surplus value to ecological restoration work since also the aesthetic and ideological dimensions are reconstructed. The probable positive view of the community towards the restored ecosystem can promote not only the attendance by the community to that particular area in the future, but it can also promote the attendance of a community to other areas as well.
  • Lilleberg, Tuomas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Suoturpeen energiankäyttö kattaa n. 7 prosenttia Suomen energiantuotannosta. Tätä käytetään erityisesti talojen lämmitykseen kaupungeissa. Turpeenpoltto tuottaa kuitenkin runsaasti hiilidioksidia, kattaen n. 20 % koko energiasektorin hiilipäästöistä. Tämä taas kiihdyttää ilmastonmuutosta, joka tekee turpeenpoltosta kansainvälisen asian. Suomi on osana YK:n ilmastosopimusta sitoutunut vähentämään kasvihuonekaasupäästöjään. Vain noin 1 % Suomen suoalasta on turvetuotannossa, mutta silti sen vaikutukset paikallisesti suoekosysteemiin ja vesistöihin voivat olla huomattavat. Suomella on lisäksi kansainvälinen vastuu soiden säilyttämiseksi, sillä alun perin kolmannes pinta-alastamme on ollut suota. Soiden moniulotteisuuden vuoksi maa- ja metsätalousministeriö valmisteli vuonna 2011 soiden ja turvemaiden kestävän käytön strategian. Tässä pro gradu -tutkielmassa tarkastellaan turpeen energiakäytön ympärille muodostunutta konfliktia, jota kutsutaan aineistossani turvekiistaksi. Siihen ovat vaikuttaneet soiden käytön ristiriitainen luonne ja strategian julkaisu, joka on herättänyt keskustelua intressiryhmien, erityisesti turvetuotantosektorin ja luonnonsuojelijoiden, välille. Molempien osapuolten intressit ovat törmänneet toisiinsa monella tapaa, ja seurauksena keskustelu on jämähtänyt paikalleen. Tilanteen ratkaiseminen parantaa kestävää soiden käyttöä ja auttaa kestävän energiapolitiikan suunnittelussa. Jotta turvekeskustelussa päästään kehittävässä mielessä eteenpäin, on tärkeää selvittää Suomen turvekeskustelun kenttä. Siihen pohjaavat tutkimuskysymykseni: 1. Mistä turvekiista koostuu ja 2. millaisia ratkaisuja kiistalle on löydettävissä? Aineisto koostuu 2008 2014 aikana kerätystä kirjallisessa muodossa olevasta medianäytteestä aina sanomalehdistä adresseihin ja kommenttiketjuihin. Menetelmänä käytän laadullista sisällönanalyysiä, jonka avulla turvekiistan osapuolten intressikenttä ja kiistelyn takana olevat tulkintakehykset voidaan hahmottaa. Tulkintakehykset ovat yhtenäisiä tapoja ymmärtää ilmiö mielekkäänä kokonaisuutena, minkä kautta turvetuotannon kokonaisvaikutukset nähdään joko uhkana tai mahdollisuutena, mikä jakaa kiistan osapuolet turvetuotannon puoltajiin ja vastustajiin. Analyysin mukaan turvekiistan intressikentässä on teollisuutta edustava puoli, vesistön virkistyskäyttäjät sekä luonnonsuojeluorientoitunut puoli. Kiistan keskeiset vastakkainasettelut on jaettu ekologiseen ja teknis-taloudelliseen kestävyyteen sekä hallinnon heikkouksiin. Niissä kiistellään muun muassa turvetuotannon vesistövaikutuksista, suon luontoarvoista, turpeen uusiutuvuudesta, sen energiakäytön huoltovarmuudesta, ympäristöluvasta ja sen valituksista sekä poliittisen ohjauksen nykytilasta. Vesistön virkistyskäyttäjien hahmottuminen osana kiistaa oli tärkeä havainto, koska keskustelua tulkitaan helposti pelkästään luonnonsuojelijoiden ja teollisuuden väliseksi vastakkainasetteluksi. Kiistan osapuolia hahmottavat tulkintakehykset nimesin kotimaisen tuotannon ja luonnon kestävän käytön kehyksiksi, jotka omilla tulkinnoillaan osallistuvat edellä mainittuihin vastakkainasetteluihin. Turvekiistassa esiintynyttä retoriikkaa on havaittavissa muissakin ympäristökonflikteissa. Mahdolliset ratkaisut kiistan selvittämiseen ovat jaettavissa tiedolliseen, arvo- ja intressikiistaan. Ratkaisuja ovat esimerkiksi paikallisen tason huomiointi ympäristöluvassa, turvetuotannolle ominaisiin vesistövaikutuksiin keskittyvän tutkimuksen lisääminen ja osapuolia yhdistävän kehyksen tietoinen rakentaminen, joka toimisi ns. sillanrakentajana. Kiistassa on lopulta kyse siitä, kumpi osapuoli pystyy yhdistämään oman tulkintansa paremmin sosiokulttuuriseen kestävyyteen.
  • Pankkonen, Pietu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Heterotrophic bacteria are essential for carbon cycling in water ecosystems as they bind dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the biomass and return it to the classical food chain through microbial loop. The treated wastewater from Viikinmäki wastewater treatment plant is discharged to the Gulf of Finland where it increases the quantity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the water and furthermore can be an extra energy source for heterotrophic bacteria. There are not yet further studies how the heterotrophic bacteria exploit DOM in the treated wastewater or a monitoring programme for DOC concentrations in the wastewater treatment plants. DOC is the limiting factor for heterotrophic bacteria growth in the Gulf of Finland in the summer. As the bacteria exploit DOC, they consume oxygen and release carbon dioxide. DOM compounds may also diminish light penetration in water which can inhibit the growth and photosynthesis of phytoplankton and macrophytes. The aim of this thesis was to find out 1) the DOC concentrations in the treated wastewater and DOC load in the treated wastewater discharged to the the Gulf of Finland from Viikinmäki wastewater treatment plant, 2) the biodegradability of DOC and DOP in the treated wastewater and 3) how the disc filter about to be used in Viikinmäki wastewater treatment plant affects the quantity and quality of DOC and DOP in the treated wastewater. The DOC load entering the Gulf of Finland with the treated wastewater was quantified by measuring the DOC concentrations in the treated wastewater during the spring and summer 2014. The DOC concentrations correlated positively with chemical oxygen demand (COD) which is regurarly measured in wastewater treatment plants. By dividing the COD with 3,66, the DOC concentrations were successfully estimated for a longer period. In order to evaluate the biological degradability of DOC and DOP in the wastewater effluent, treated wastewater was incubated (+15 °C) for two months with surface water heterotrophic bacteria from the Gulf of Finland and changes in DOC concentrations, the biological oxygen demand and nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were measured. Furthermore the heterotrophic bacteria were incubated for one month in disc filtered wastewater effluent and also in regularly treated wastewater to find out the effect of the new filter on DOM quantity and quality. The yearly DOC load from Viikinmäki wastewater treatment plant to the Gulf of Finland was estimated to be about 1460 tons which is approximately one fifth of the annual DOC load from River Vantaanjoki. The ratio between DOC and COD concentrations calculated here can only be used to quantify the amount of DOC load from Viikinmäki wastewater treatment plant and similar ratio must be calculated individually for every point source. The biodegradability of DOC in the treated wastewater was equally low to the biodegradability of DOC in River Vantaanjoki. The quantity of DOC bound to the bacterial biomass was rather low and the amount of DOC lost via respiration was relatively high. Accordingly the DOC in Viikinmäki wastewater effluent does not become efficiently available to higher trophic levels. The disc filter has the potential to remove DOC and DOP from treated wastewater which would decrease the DOC and DOP load significantly in the Gulf of Finland. The disc filter decreased DOC concentrations 14 % in comparison to regularly treated wastewater. The disc filter didn t affect the quality of DOC, i.e. there was no difference in the biological degradability of DOC between the two wastewater treatment processes. However the disc filter was possibly able to remove the biologically available part of DOP from treated wastewater but the issue still needs further investigation.
  • Hirvikallio, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Ympäristön- ja luonnonsuojelu Suomessa on muuttunut merkittävästi sotien jälkeen. Puhtaasti luonnontuntemukseen ja harrastuneisuuteen pohjaavan luonnonsuojelun rinnalle on kehittynyt 1960- ja 1970-lukujen vaihteessa politisoitunut ja institutionalisoitunut ympäristönsuojelu. Vielä tuolloin ympäristön muutokset koettiin erillisinä ongelmina, kuten ilman saastumisena, elintarvikkeiden myrkkypitoisuuksina ja maiseman pilaantumisena, mutta yksittäisistä ongelmista alkoi kehittyä laajempi kokonaisuus eli ympäristökysymys. Ympäristökysymys käsittää negatiivisesti koettujen ympäristön muutosten tiedostamisen, problematisoinnin, hallinnan ja politiikat. Vaikka ympäristökysymys muodostui ja ympäristöongelmat tunnistettiin yhteiskunnallisiksi ongelmiksi jo 1960-luvun lopulla, kesti ympäristöhallinnon organisoituminen vuosikymmeniä ja ympäristöministeriö perustettiin vasta vuonna 1983. Tutkimuksessani selvitän, millaisena ympäristökysymyksen kehittyminen näyttäytyy Helsingin Sanomien pilapiirroksissa vuosina 1956-1985. Pilapiirros kertoo enemmän kuin pelkkä uutinen; siitä voi tulkita julkaisuajankohdan asenneilmapiiriä sekä ainakin piirtäjänsä mielipiteen, eli paljon sellaista, jota neutraaliin uutistekstiin ei paineta. Lisäksi se, että pilapiirros on tehty ja julkaistu, paljastaa piirroksessa kuvatun aiheen olevan ajankohtainen ja puhuttava. Tutkimuksen aineistona on Helsingin Sanomien pilapiirrokset vuosilta 1956-1985, jotka ovat kaikki Kari Suomalaisen käsialaa. Ajanjaksolle osuu monia suomalaisen ympäristökysymyksen suuria tapahtumia: yksittäisiä taisteluja, kuten Koijärvi, runsaasti uusien luonnon- ja ympäristönsuojeluun liittyvien lakien säätämisiä sekä ympäristöhallinnon organisaation uudistaminen ja oman ministeriön perustaminen. Tutkimus on yhteiskunnallista ympäristötutkimusta ympäristöhistorian kentällä, ympäristötietoisuuden ja ympäristöliikkeiden historiaan painottuen. Tutkimusote on teorialähtöinen, ja sisällönanalyysi on limittynyt aineistonkeruuvaiheeseen. Lopputuloksena on katselmus siitä, miten ympäristökysymys on kehittynyt Suomessa yksittäisten ympäristöongelmien käsittelystä yhteiskunnalliseksi kysymykseksi
  • Lönnberg, Kerstin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The purpose of this thesis was to explore the relationships between phytoplankton biomass in lake Pääjärvi and environmental factors. These factors were divided into two categories: external phosphorus loading (total phosphorus, PO4 and organic phosphorus) and thermal conditions (Schmidt stability, heat volume and parent thermocline depth). The data sets at my disposal spanned the years 1994-2010 and contained phytoplankton observations, measurements of lake water temperature and measurements of phosphorus loading from the main rivers and streams flowing into lake Pääjärvi. Heat volume and stability were calculated based on the provided temperature data using a macro for Microsoft Office. The same data were used to calculate parent thermocline depth using LakeAnalyzer. The main statistical analysis performed on these data sets was Redundancy Analysis (RDA) in Canoco for Windows. The data were divided into three different periods: June, July-August and September-October. Each period was examined separately. In addition to total phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton main groups and selected diatom and flagellate taxa were also examined in relation to the environmental factors. Heat volume proved statistically significant in June in the analysis of total biomass and the main groups and in September-October in the analysis of selected diatom taxa. A statistically significant relationship between PO4 loading and phytoplankton biomass was only detected for Peridinium sp, Rhodomonas lacustris and Mallomonas caudata for July-August. The lack of significance for phosphorus loading in the other contexts may in part be attributed to the distances between the phytoplankton sampling location and the loading measurement sites. The loading would have to drift some time in the lake to traverse these distances before it would come into contact with the measured phytoplankton. During that time, the loading would be susceptible to variations in weather or hydrological conditions as well as susceptible to uptake by other organisms. This may be the reason, or a contributing reason, why phosphorus loading was not significant for most of the contexts explored. However, since phosphorus loading was significant in at least one context, it clearly exerts some influence on the phytoplankton in Pääjärvi. The greater significance for heat volume could be attributed to the cumulative nature of the variable as well as the lack of spatial distance between the temperature sampling distance and phytoplankton sampling location.
  • Jernström, Janni (2015)
    Makrolevien kemiallinen koostumus vaihtelee paljon lajien, elinympäristön ja ympäristötekijöiden mukaan. Erityisesti makrolevien lipidimäärä vaihtelee vuodenajoittain ja eri ympäristömuuttujien, kuten valon, ravinteiden, suolaisuuden ja lämpötilan mukaan. Makrolevien lipidit voidaan jakaa varastolipideihin eli neutraaleihin lipideihin, glykolipideihin ja fosfolipideihin. Talvella ja keväällä makrolevät sisältävät enemmän lipidejä kuin kesällä. Kylmissä vesissä makrolevät sisältävät enemmän monityydyttymättömiä rasvahappoja (PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acid) kuin lämpimien vesien levät. Niukkaravinteisuus lisää makrolevien lipidien tuotantoa perustuotannon kustannuksella. Makroleväryhmistä ruskolevät (Phaeophyceae) sisältävät enemmän lipidejä kuin viherlevät (Chlorophyta) ja punalevät (Rhodophyta). Makrolevien lipideistä erityisesti neutraaleista lipideistä ollaan kiinnostuneita biopolttoaineiden raaka-aineena. Neutraalilipideistä triasyyliglyserolit (TAG) ovat hyvä biodieselin raaka-aine. Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin Itämeren makrolevien soveltavuutta biodieselin raaka-aineeksi. Samalla tutkittiin, miten veden erilaiset ravinnekäsittelyt vaikuttavat makrolevien lipidimäärään ja rasvahappokoostumukseen. Tutkimuksen oletuksena oli, että makrolevät tuottavat enemmän lipidejä niukkaravinteisissa kuin ravinnekylläisissä olosuhteissa. Kokeessa tutkittiin myös makroleväryhmien välisiä eroja lipidimäärissä. Kokeessa tutkittiin Ulva intestinalis ja Cladophora glomerata -viherlevien sekä Ceramium tenuicorne -punalevän lipidimäärää ja rasvahappokoostumusta, koska kyseiset levälajit ovat yleisiä makrolevälajeja Itämeren litoraalivyöhykkeessä. Akvaariokokeet toteutettiin elokuussa sekä lokakuussa 10 päivää kestävänä faktorikokeena Tvärminnen eläintieteellisellä asemalla. Koejärjestelyssä ravinnekäsittelyinä käytettiin kontrolli- (C), typpilisäys- (N), fosforilisäys- (P) ja typen ja fosforin yhteisvaikutuksen käsittelyitä (N+P). Makrolevien lipidit eristettiin kloroformi:metanoli (2:1 -vol/vol) -liuoksella. Makrolevien lipidit ja rasvahappokoostumus määritettiin kaasukromatografi-massaspektrometrin (GC-MS) avulla lipidien metyloiduista rasvahapon metyyliestereistä (FAME, fatty acid methyl ester). Kokonaislipideistä fraktioitiin neutraalilipidit, jotta pystyttiin arvioimaan makrolevien soveltavuutta biodieselin raaka-aineeksi. Makrolevien kokonaislipidimäärät erosivat lajeittain, mutta eivät käsittelyittäin toisistaan. Makrolevien kokonaislipidimäärät vaihtelivat välillä 31–193 mg l-1 siten, että lokakuussa U. intestinalis -viherlevä sisälsi vähiten kokonaislipidejä verrattuna muihin tutkittuihin makroleviin. Tutkittujen makrolevien kokonaislipidimäärät käsittivät vain alle 2% makrolevien kuivapainosta. Makrolevien kokonaisrasvahappomäärät erosivat toisistaan lajeittain, mutta eivät käsittelyittäin. Makrolevien kokonaisrasvahappomäärät vaihtelivat välillä 0,7-9,0 mg l-1 siten, että pienimmät määrät löytyivät lokakuun U. intestinalis -viherlevältä ja suurimmat määrät C. glomerata -viherlevältä. Makrolevien rasvahappokoostumukset erosivat hieman toisistaan, mutta tyydyttyneet rasvahapot (SFA, saturated fatty acid) olivat makrolevälajien suurin rasvahapporyhmä (42,0–49,7%). Elokuun ja lokakuun U. intestinalis -viherlevät sisälsivät enemmän monityydyttymättömiä rasvahappoja (45,1%; 46,9%) kuin C. glomerata (23,2%) ja C. tenuicorne (22,8%) -levät. Kaikilla tutkituilla makrolevälajeilla rasvahapon C16:0 osuus oli korkein (32,3–45,7 % kokonaisrasvahapoista). U. intestinalis -viherlevän eri tutkimusajankohtina mitatut neutraalilipidifraktion rasvahappomäärät erosivat toisistaan merkitsevästi, mutta ravinnekäsittelyt eivät vaikuttaneet neutraalilipidifraktion rasvahappomääriin. Neutraalilipidifraktion rasvahappomäärät olivat pienet ja ne vaihtelivat välillä 0,6-4,2 mg l-1. Elokuun ja lokakuun U. intestinalis -levän neutraalilipidifraktioiden rasvahappokoostumuksissa ei havaittu eroja. Tutkimuksen makrolevälajien kokonaislipidimäärät erosivat muiden tutkimuksien tuloksista, koska makrolevien näytteenottoajankohta sekä näytteenottopaikka vaikuttavat makrolevien lipidimääriin. Lokakuun U. intestinalis -viherlevän alhainen lipidimäärä voi selittyä sillä, että viherlevä ei ollut enää myöhään syksyllä elinvoimainen, joten makroleväryhmien välisiä lipidimäärän eroja oli vaikea todeta. Tutkitut makrolevälajit eivät tuottaneet merkitsevästi enemmän lipidejä niukkaravinteisissa kuin ravinnekylläisissä olosuhteissa. Kontrolli- ja fosforilisäyskäsittelyissä makrolevien väri muuttui haaleammaksi eli levät eivät saaneet tarpeeksi typpeä klorofyllin tuotantoon. Makrolevälajien olisi mahdollisesti voinut antaa sopeutua uusiin olosuhteisiin ennen kokeen alkua. Akvaariokokeiden erilainen veden lämpötila elo- ja lokakuun kokeissa saattoi vaikuttaa enemmän makrolevien kokonaislipidimäärään kuin ravinnekäsittelyt. Makrolevälajien alhainen rasvahappojen määrä tukee muiden tutkimuksien tuloksia, joissa lipidiryhmistä poolisia lipidejä on eniten. Suuri tyydyttyneiden rasvahappojen osuus kertoo, että tutkitut makrolevälajit olivat stressaantuneita. U. intestinalis -viherlevän neutraalilipidifraktion rasvahappomäärä suhteessa kokonaislipidimäärään oli pieni. Makrolevät voisivat olla sovelias raaka-aine biodieselin tuotantoon korkean kokonaislipidimäärän ja tyydyttyneiden rasvahappojen osuuden vuoksi. Näiden ominaisuuksien avulla voitaisiin valmistaa hyvälaatuista biodieseliä. Makrolevät olisi mahdollista saada tuottamaan enemmän lipidejä niukkaravinteisissa kuin ravinnekylläisissä oloissa, jos valittaisiin oikeat makrolevälajit ja näytteenottoajankohta olisi otollinen lipidien tuotantoon. Makrolevien lipidituotantoa voisi nostaa myös kaksivaiheisen kasvatustavan kautta, kuten Chlorella vulgaris -mikrolevällä lipidituotannon paraneminen on osoitettu. Makrolevien perustuotantoa voisi mahdollisesti lisätä ravinnekylläisissä olosuhteissa, jonka jälkeen makrolevät siirrettäisiin niukkaravinteisiin olosuhteisiin lipidituotannon parantamiseksi.
  • Silvennoinen, Emmi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Infiltration rates in urban areas are low due to a high proportion of impervious structures. Impermeability results in increased rates of urban runoff, which often leads to degradation in receiving waters. Stormwater retention in urban areas can be increased, for instance, with green, vegetated roofs. While impervious, normal roofs produce the runoff immediately, studies with green roofs have shown that they cause delays in peak runoff and reduce the runoff rate and volume by water retention and attenuation. The water retaining capacity of green roofs vary due to local weather conditions and roof characteristics. Several studies and experiments considering stormwater management and other ecosystem services that green roofs provide have been performed worldwide, mainly in temperate regions, while more studies are needed in cold climates especially to quantify the performance of green roofs in winter. The purpose of this thesis was to evaluate the effects of various types of precipitation events on runoff rates, timing and water retention in locally built new green roofs from late summer to early winter in southern Finland. Data on precipitation and green roof runoff as well as soil temperature and humidity were monitored automatically. Green roofs included a) precultivated readymade vegetation mats and b) built on site novel substrate mixture with plug plants and seedlings. My principal aim was to study the capability of green roofs in retaining and attenuating water in relation to the intensity and duration of precipitation, the length of the antecedent dry weather period as well as to temperature and moisture of the green roof substrate. I hypothesised that green roofs retain low intensity events better than high intensity events and more effectively in dry and warm than in wet and cold weather, being negligible at temperatures below 0 ºC. Furthermore, I studied whether retention capacity can be improved by the amendment of biochar. Finally, readymade green roofs with dense vegetation was hypothesised to have better retention capacity than the newly created roofs with very sparse vegetation but only in summer due to evaporation. Based on cumulative runoff, green roofs retained 52 % of rainfall, which is close to the retention capability found in previous studies. Retention was generally higher at warm temperatures and for biochar-amended roofs,in agreement with my hypothesis. Against expectations, roofs with readymade vegetation mats had lower retention than those built on site. In summer and autumn, before freezing temperatures occurred, results were generally according to the hypotheses and previous research: retention rates decreased as rain depth or rain peak intensity increased. When the amount of rain preceding the measurement event was low, and the substrate moisture content was low, retention was better. During wintertime, results were contrary to my hypotheses: Total retention rates increased with the amount of rain and rain intensity, or when substrate moisture content increased. However, a long antecedent dry weather period resulted in better retention, especially during winter. Mean peak flow attenuation for rain events in this study was 64 % and results are in accordance with my hypothesis and previous research. Furthermore, delay times from when the rain event started to when runoff started and from rain peak to runoff peak were detected in this study, mean values of more than 1 h being comparable to what has been reported in the literature. Results from my thesis can be used to improve hydrological models for local stormwater management purposes. Furthermore, results can be compared with those of other ecological stormwater treatment methods. Possible future research topics include the functioning of green roofs during different seasons and especially during freezing and melting periods with assumedly complex hydrological interactions.
  • Sairanen, Eeva Elisa (2015)
    Sound travels faster and further in water than in air while electromagnetic radiation, among it visible light, attenuates fast. Marine animals have adapted to use sound in foraging, predator avoidance, orientation and communication with conspecifics. The underwater soundscape of the Baltic Sea remains largely undiscovered. The area is a unique acoustic environment due to its variant hydrography, broken coastline, shallowness, low salinity and the resulting strong stratifications. The harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is the only cetacean inhabiting the area, and its Baltic Sea subpopulation is critically endangered. This work is based on first sound pressure measurements of BIAS (Baltic Sea Information on the Acoustic Soundscape) -project by Finnish Environment Institute and other project participants. Measured sound pressure levels are compared to weather and shipping observations to collect information about the contributions of natural and anthropogenic sound sources to underwater sound pressure levels in the Baltic Sea. In addition porpoise observations collected at the Universities of Southern Denmark and Århus are compared to measured sound pressure levels and shipping data to examine if increased noise levels or increased shipping activity have an impact on harbor porpoise echolocation activity. The results show that at the Gulf of Finland both weather and shipping drive the levels of ambient noise at low frequencies (63 and 125 Hz third-octave bands). However the sound pressure levels caused by ships near the stations (up to 5 km) always exceeded all natural variation. Increased sound pressure levels and ship proximity seemed to have an impact on porpoise activity at the area. When a ship was very close (2 km), the registrations of porpoise echolocation clicks decreased with decreasing proximity to ship. On the other hand during spring months an increase in porpoise echolocation was recorded in relation to increased sound pressure levels, which might indicate the porpoises compensating to increased background noise by echolocating more frequently or loudly.