Maatalous- metsätieteellinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Suominen, Tiia (2015)
    The changing environment causes new needs and objectives for which new plans and strategies have to be created. The importance of the residents increases during these planning processes, and therefore utilizing different participatory methods comes more and more important. There are two parts in this research; the first part examines how the resident survey, from participatory methods, can be used in the strategical planning of the city’s forests’ use and management, and in the second part, the resident survey has been implemented to find out the opinions, wishes, and proposals of the residents con-cerning the city’s forests’ use and management in Vantaa. The first part of the research examines how the resident survey can be used in the achieving the objec-tives, what is the content that the resident survey is able to bring into the planning process, and to find out how and in which phase, or in which way, the resident survey can be used in the planning process. In this part, the qualitative methods were used, and the results are mainly based on the existing litera-ture together with the implemented survey in the certain aspects. From the results, it is possible to find out that the resident survey may achieve very well the objectives of the municipality and the objec-tives relating residents’ local knowledge and possibilities to influence by certain criteria. The objectives related to the residents’ spiritual or psychological characteristics, like building the trust, are more dif-ficult to achieve. On the other hand, the implemented resident survey cannot be used to achieve all the objectives of the international or institutional parts, like the objectives related to the Forest Act. It is possible to use the resident survey in every phase of the planning process, but according to the re-sults of this research, it will not be able to bring all the objectives in every phase. The second part of the research was to implement the resident survey to find out the residents’ opin-ions, wishes, and proposals concerning the forests of Vantaa city. It enabled to gather the knowledge and the information about the meaning and the use of the forests, the acceptable forest management methods, the participatory in the forest management and planning, and the local information about the forests. Vantaa city was divided into the seven areas. The sample size was 2 100 – so 300 residents of the age 15 to 75 from each area. In total 950 answers were received with the respond rate 45 %. The results were created by using the quantitative methods. They show that the meaning of the forests for recreation and outdoor activities is remarkable; the most important characteristics are naturalness and feeling of the forest, calmness and silence, and the opportunities to outdoor activities and sport; the residents mostly use forests nearby home; and the most acceptable forest management methods cause less changes in the environment, like thinning, uneven-aged forest management, and harvesting. The participatory is quite unknown for most of the respondents, and the most of the residents think that this resident survey will not influence to the final decisions. Further studies about how the criteria, used in this research, could work with different resident sur¬veys is needed, and if they can be used in the other phases of the planning process that have been found out in this research.
  • Xiao, Kun (2015)
    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a lactic acid bacterium that is widely used as probiotic products in the dairy industry. To gain insights into the genome stability of the L. rhamnosus GG in the human gastrointestinal tract and the possible adaption mechanism under different stresses, we first examined the genotype and phenotype of the L. rhamnosus GG grown over 1000 generations under various stresses, including bile salts, osmotic stress or shearing forces. Immunoblotting analysis of L. rhamnosus grown over 1000 generations showed that the production of mucus-binding pili by L. rhamnosus GG was the most impaired when exposed to bile salts. Complementary PCR screening of 13 highly variable chromosomal regions in GG confirmed that the pilus gene cluster had been lost when exposed to bile stress over time. In vitro bile-induced genomic changes observed in GG possibly reflects the genome plasticity and stability of GG in the human intestinal tract. Still, we showed that these changes only occurred after more than 100 generations, a period of time relatively long compared to the observed time of persistence and transit of GG in the intestinal tract. Although damages and stresses may be caused by bile salts, L. rhamnosus GG still has the ability to tolerate bile salts. The resistance mechanism is still unclear but, based on previous studies, we identified one ABC transporter encoded by the gene operon called tauABC that may be involved in bile resistance. In an effort to demonstrate its function, a tauB-null mutant derivative was generated and phenotypically characterized in terms of metabolic, signaling and functional properties. The data revealed that the tauB-null mutant significantly grow slower than L. rhamnosus GG wild-type strain in the presence of ox bile extracts. Additional screenings using various bile conjugates specifically revealed that two compounds of bile salts, i.e. taurodeoxycholic and taurochenodeoxycholic acid, may be processed by the TauABC transporter, contributing at least partially to the tolerance of GG to bile salts. Overall, we showed that bile salts constitute an important stress factor for GG that causes genomic alterations, although it has bile tolerance mechanisms to bile, such as the newly-characterized tauABC operon.
  • Marjanen, Mikael (2015)
    Spruce stumps have been harvested in large scale for combustion in heat and power plants since the beginning of the 21th century. Normally the stump harvesting operations are done by excavators. On stump harvesting areas the risk to serious soil damage is greater because there are more driving tracks on the ground than in original logging operations. In stump harvesting areas machines cannot get benefit from frozen soil or coarse roots to increase bearing capacity. Compacted soil can reduce tree root penetration, increase nutrient leaching and affect soil water properties. The aim of this study was to clarify if the stump harvesting compacts the forest soil and if it possibly recovers in the long run. I also studied how much the soil surface will be disturbed after stump harvesting operations. In this study there were three stump harvesting sites which varied in the time passed since harvesting. Comparable reference sites were chosen from nearby areas where the stumps were not harvested. All sites were located in Southern and Central Finland. Every site had three 5 x 5 meter study plots in which soil strength was measured by a cone penetrometer. Soil core samples were also taken from every study plot. The soil surface disturbance proportions were estimated visually and using a soil sampling probe. Measurements were carried out under summer of 2014. The results indicate that the soil has been compacted by stump harvesting in the 4-year-old site but differences were statistically significant (p<0.05) only in 2 of 6 depth classes. In the middle aged (7 years) site the impacts were the opposite. In the oldest (13 years) site there were no differences between the treatments. The soil surface in stump harvesting sites has been disturbed most in the youngest site (50 %), and at the other sites the disturbed soil surface proportion was about 40 %. About 25 % of soil surface was disturbed in all reference sites. The soil disturbance results in this study were minor compared to other studies in the literature. In the upper depth classes soils were not too compacted for tree growth, root penetration and nutrient uptake. This indicates that the changes in soil structural properties caused by stump harvesting are not harmful for forest growth but more long-term studies are needed.
  • Niinikoski, Paula (2015)
    Haitalliset vieraslajit aiheuttavat vahinkoa kotoperäisille lajeille, eliöyhteisöille ja ekosys-teemeille. Vieraslajeja pidetään elinympäristöjen häviämisen ja pirstoutumisen ohella yhtenä suurim¬mista uhista luonnon monimuotoisuudelle. Suomessa on 157 haitallista vieraslajia. Jättiputket (Heracleum sp.) ja kurttu¬ruusu (Rosa rugosa) ovat ainoita erityisen haitallisiksi luokiteltuja vieraskasvilajeja. Jättiputkea käytetään yleisnimityksenä kolmelle Heracleum suvun (Apiaceae) lajille: kaukasianjättiputki (H. mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier), persianjättiputki (H. persicum Desf. ex Fish.) ja armenianjättiputki (H. sosnowskyi Manden). Jättiputket ovat monivuotisia diploideja kasveja ja niiden kotoperäinen levinneisyysalue on Kaukasiassa ja Luoteis-Aasi¬assa. Populaatiogeneettisillä tutkimuksilla voidaan arvioida lajin evolutiivista potentiaalia, leviämistä ja haitallisuutta. Tä¬män maisterintutkielman tavoitteena oli selvittää viiden jättiputki populaation geneettistä monimuotoisuutta ja rakennetta populaatioiden sisällä ja välillä. Tutkimuksessa käytettiin yhdeksää mikrosatelliittimerkkiä. Näytteitä kerättiin viidestä populaatiosta (yhteensä 140), jotka genotyypitettiin kullakin mikrosatelliitilla. Aineisto analysoitiin Arlequin- ja Structure-ohjelmilla. Odotetun heterotsygotian perusteella geneettinen muuntelu oli melko vähäistä (HE = 0.47). Hardy-Weinbergin testin perusteella heterotsygotia oli merkitsevästi vähentynyt kaikissa populaatioissa suhteessa odotettuun heterotsygotiaan ja FIS-arvot olivat korkeita. Havaitusta muuntelusta suurin osa oli populaatioiden sisäistä. Tulokset voivat olla seurausta sisäsiitoksesta tai hyvin pienistä perustajapopulaatioista. Bayesilainen rakenneanalyysi jakoi populaatiot kahteen klusteriin, joista toinen klusteri voitiin jakaa vielä kolmeen klusteriin.
  • Tavi, Laura (2015)
    Tämän Pro gradu–tutkielman tavoitteena oli kartoittaa suomalaisten nuorten kulutuskäyttäytymiseen vaikuttavia tekijöitä aiheesta julkaistun kirjallisuuden, tieteellisten artikkeleiden ja aiempien tutkimuksien pohjalta. Tavoitteena oli myös yhdistää jo olemassa olevaa teoriaa tutkielmaa varten suoritetusta kyselytutkimuksesta saatuun informaatioon ja tarkastella niiden avulla kulutuksessa ilmeneviä eroja ja yhtäläisyyksiä lukiolaisten ja ammattikoululaisten nuorten keskuudessa. Nuoret tekevät yhä enemmän kulutuspäätöksiä yhä nuoremmalla iällä. Päätöksiä kuluttaa tehdään tiedostaen ja tiedostamatta kuluttajan koko elämänkaaren aikana. Nuoriin ja heidän kulutuskäyttäytymiseen vaikuttavat niin perhe, ystävät, sosiaalinen media ja internet, kuin mainonta ja eettiset arvot. Koko ympäröivä maailma viestii kuluttajalle ja nuoret ovat vaikutus-alttiissa iässä omaksumaan erilaisia kulutustapoja. Tätä tutkielmaa varten suoritettiin sähköinen kyselytutkimus, jotta voitaisiin selvittää helsinkiläisten ammattikoulua ja lukiota käyvien nuorten kulutuskäyttäytymisen piirteitä. Kyselytutkimuksen avulla haluttiin selvittää, kuinka teoriasta nousseet tekijät vaikuttavat nuoren kulutukseen, ja onko lukiolaisten ja ammattikoululaisten nuorten keskuudessa yhteneväisyyksiä tai eroja näissä tekijöissä. Sähköinen kyselylomake lähetettiin viidelle helsinkiläiselle lukiolle ja viidelle ammattikoululle. Aikaa vastaamiseen annettiin 12.3.2014–4.4.2014 ja valideja vastauksia saatiin 120 kappaletta, kun haluttiin vas-tauksia 16–25-vuotiailta opiskelijoilta. Aineiston analysointityökaluna käytettiin SPSS–ohjelmaa, jonka avulla kyettiin mallintamaan nuorten vastaukset kuvioiksi ja taulukoiksi. Aineiston analyysimenetelmänä käytettiin lukujen, kuvioiden ja tau-lukkojen avulla selittävää ja kuvailevaa analyysimenetelmää. Määrällisessä analyysissä pyritään selvittämään ilmiöiden välisiä yhteyksiä ja syy-seuraus –suhteita, jonka vuoksi sen ottaminen osaksi tätä tutkielmaa oli luonnollista. Tavallisesti määrällinen analyysi aloitetaan tilastollisella kuvaavalla analyysillä, ja näin toimittiin myös tässä tutkimuksessa. Tutkimuksessa käytettiin myös luokitteluanalyysia. Suoritetun tutkimuksen perusteella voidaan todeta, että helsinkiläiset lukiolaiset ja ammattikoululaiset nuoret kuluttavat samalla tavalla. Ammattikoululaiset ovat itsenäisempiä, mitä tulee muiden mielipiteisiin ja neuvoihin koskien kulutusta ja lukiolaiset arvostavat enemmän ystäviensä mielipiteitä. Nuoret kokevat, että sosiaalisen median avulla kulutuskäyttäytyminen helpottuu, mutta he suosivat silti perinteisiä kivijalkamyymälöitä internetkauppojen sijaan. Nuorten mielestä televisiossa, lehdissä ja internetissä nähdyt mainokset houkuttelevat ostamaan, mutta samaan aikaan he sanovat, etteivät osta tuottei-ta ja palveluita näkemiensä mainoksien perusteella. Eettiset arvot, kestävä kulutus ja luomuruoka ovat tärkeitä nuorille, mutta rajoitettujen käyttövarojen takia he eivät voi vielä kuluttaa niiden osa-alueella haluamallaan tavalla.
  • Hietarinta, Elina (2015)
    Oats is one of the most cultivated grains in the world. Oat contains 5 to 8 % of lipids, which is a lot compared to many other cereals. Most of the oat lipids are triacylglycerols and about 80 % of its fatty acids are nutritionally significant unsaturated fatty acids. Due to high fat content and high amount of unsaturated fatty acids both the processing of oats and the development of new oat products are challenging. Oat lipids and their reactions during the processing and storage are a significant reason for the changes in oat quality and the unpleasant flavour. It is possible to either decrease or increase the stability of lipids with different processing methods. The objective of this study was to examine oat lipid reactions and stability during the storage. Ravintoraisio Oy gave all the samples for the research. There were seven oat products, which all were differently processed. Samples of different ages of these products were analysed. Short-term storage test was made for four samples, over 16 weeks at 40 °C. At first, all the oat samples were milled to small particles and then total lipids of these products were extracted by accelerated-solvent-extraction. Neutral lipid classes, volatile compounds and tocols were measured from the samples. Neutral lipid classes were analysed by the high performance liquid chromatography method with evaporative light scattering detector. Volatile compounds were measured by a solid phase microextraction method with GC-MS. Tocols were measured by the high performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detector. All the oat samples contained about 5 % of lipids. Most of the lipids were still triacylglycerols after a long-term storage. Free fatty acids were detected only from non-heat-treated samples. Content of tocols decreased significantly in oat samples during storage. Tocol content decreased when degree of processing rose. The content of oxidation products of oat lipids, like hexanal, also rose during the storage. Hexanal and 2-pentylfuran were the most abundant volatiles in the samples. The highest amount of oxidation products were found in extrudates which were stored for 16 weeks at 40 °C. Based on the results, storing oat products for 16 weeks at 40°C, corresponds with over one year storage at natural storage temperature. The effects of extrusion and heat treatment have strong influence on reactions of oat lipids and storage stability. The lipids of unprocessed oat grains were the most stable. More information is required to identify the exact reason for off-odors and off-flavours.
  • Jalkanen, Laura (2015)
    Kaasut, aromiyhdisteet ja rasva läpäisevät kartongin, joten kartonki tulee päällystää elintarvikepakkausmateriaalina käytettäessä. Tällä hetkellä päällystemateriaalit valmistetaan uusiutumattomista raaka-ainesta ja ovat vaikeasti kierrätettäviä. Näiden tekijöiden ja yhdyskuntajätteen määrän vähentämisen vuoksi päällystemateriaalit pyritään korvaamaan uusiutuvilla biopohjaisilla materiaalilla. Tutkielman kirjallisuusosassa perehdyttiin kartonkiin pakkausmateriaalina, mineraaliöljyn migraatioon ja biopohjaisilla materiaaleilla päällystetyn kartongin suojaominaisuuksiin. Kokeellisen tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää, estääkö kartongin tärkkelyspohjainen päällyste mineraaliöljyn migraatiota ja hapen- tai vesihöyrynläpäisyä. Kartonkinäytteet, joiden dispersiopäällysteet sisälsivät tärkkelystä ja osa tärkkelyksen lisäksi lateksia, silikaattia tai kaoliinia ja karboksimetyyliselluloosaa (CMC), saatiin Lappeenrannan teknillisen yliopiston kuitu- ja paperitekniikan tutkimusryhmältä. Päällystemateriaaleista määritettiin termisiä ominaisuuksia ja vesihöyryn sorptio. Kartonkinäytteistä mitattiin paksuuden muutos suhteellisen kosteuden kasvaessa ja veden sekä mineraaliöljyn kontaktikulmat. Lisäksi päällystettyjen näytteiden mineraaliöljyn migraatio ja vesihöyrynläpäisevyydet määritettiin. Kahden päällystetyn kartonkinäytteen poikkileikkauksen rakennetta kuvannettiin kenttäemissiopyyhkäisyelektronimikroskoopilla ja näiden näytteiden hapenläpäisevyys määritettiin. Päällystemateriaalien analyysin perusteella tärkkelys, joka oli päällysteiden pääkomponentti, oli todennäköisesti kumitilassa suurimmassa osassa mittauksista (23 °C, 55 %:n suhteellinen kosteus). Tärkkelyksellä 55 %:n suhteellisessa kosteudessa havaitun kiteisyyden vuoksi päällysteet olivat luultavasti osittain kiteisiä. Tärkkelyksen suuren vesihöyryn absorption ja päällysteiden melko matalien veden kontaktikulmien perusteella pääteltiin, että päällysteet olivat hydrofiilisiä. Kaikki näytteiden päällysteet vähensivät kaasumaisen mineraaliöljyn migraatiota. Osa päällysteistä esti nestemäisen mineraaliöljyn läpäisyä. Mineraaliöljyn hiilivetyjen migraatio riippuu pääosin migraatiosta kaasufaasissa, joten todennäköisesti kaikki päällysteet vähensivät mineraaliöljyn migraation kartongin läpi. Matalan mineraaliöljyn migraation syyksi oletettiin päällysteiden hydrofiilisyyttä ja kiteisyyttä, mineraaliöljyn hiilivetyjen suurta molekyylikokoa sekä mineraalipigmenttilevyjen eksfolioitumista eli pigmenttilevyjen erkanemista toisistaan ja levittäytymistä satunnaisesti päällysteissä. Päällysteet eivät toimineet vesihöyryn- tai hapenläpäisynestokerroksina. Todennäköisesti vesihöyrynläpäisynopeudet olivat korkeita päällysteiden hydrofiilisyyden vuoksi.
  • Myllykoski, Anna-Kaisa (2015)
    The experiment was a part of a project concerning national adaptation of the European Union directive on the protection of chickens kept for meat production. One of the aims of the project was to improve broiler chickens’ welfare by exploiting Welfare Quality® assessment system. The objective of this thesis was to find environment and management factors that could explain the differences in broiler flocks’ cleanliness, foot pad and hock health and walking ability. The hypothesis was that the distinction between the results obtained from animal-based measurements can be explained by the differences in environment and management factors. The experiment conducted in winter 2013 and a total of 22 farms and 45 broiler flocks participated in the experiment. The research sample represents about a 10 percentage of the all the Finnish farms that rear broiler chickens. The broilers were Ross 508 or Ross 308 hybrids. At the time of the visit flocks were expected to be slaughtered within a week. The flocks were assessed by using Welfare Quality® assessment system. Cleanliness of the birds was assessed by using a scale from 0 (clean) to 3 (very dirty). Foot pad and hock lesions were assessed by using a scale from 0 (no lesions) to 4 (severe). The walking ability of the broilers was assessed by using a scale from 0 (smooth) to 5 (unable to walk). Litter quality was good and the mean value was 0.66 when the scale ranged from 0 (dry) to 4 (wet). Air quality was quite good as measured by dustiness. There were only a few panting birds, which indicated that the temperature of the houses was right for the birds. All the flocks were clean, the mean value was 0.97. Older and heavier birds were slightly dirtier. The foot pad and hock health was overall good, because over 70 % of the birds had a score of 0. The mean value for foot pads was 0.40 and for hocks 0.31. The good litter quality correlated with better foot pads and hocks. Heavier birds had a better foot pad score and the hock score was better, when the birds were younger. The walking ability was impaired by the age of the birds and by the low stocking density (birds/m2). A regression analysis was conducted to find the relationships among variables. The analysis could create prediction models for broiler flocks’ cleanliness, foot pad score, hock score and walking ability that only had a weak or a moderate coefficient of determination. All the models had independent variables that were obtained from the data collected at the slaughter house. An interesting finding was that the variable “percentage of the birds discarded because of emaciation” was among all the created prediction models. This experiment suggests that the emaciation percentage of the flock reflects the overall health and the level of management of the flock. There are not many differences in rearing conditions between Finnish broiler houses and therefor it was difficult to find any statistical relationship between the measurements. All the flocks were quite clean and had healthy foot pads and hocks.
  • Larjo, Nina (2015)
    Tutkielman tavoitteena oli selvittää, minkälaisia vaikutuksia makeisverolla on ollut makeisalalla toimiviin pk-yrityksiin sekä makeisalan kilpailutilanteeseen. Makeisvero on makeisille, jäätelölle ja virvoitusjuomille asetettu valmistevero, jota on Suomessa kerätty nykyisenkaltaisena vuodesta 2011 lähtien. Tämä tutkimus on rajattu koskemaan vain pk-yrityksiä, jotka toimivat makeisalalla. Tutkielman teoriaosuus käsittelee makeisveroa, valtion ohjauskeinoja sekä yrityksen kilpailukykyä ja –etua. Johtopäätöksenä teoriaosuudesta todetaan, ettei makeisveroa voida pitää puhtaasti valtion ohjauskeinona, koska sen avulla ei pyritä ohjaamaan kuluttajia terveellisempiin valintoihin. Tutkielma on kvalitatiivinen ja sen empiirinen osuus toteutettiin teemahaastatteluna. Haastateltavina oli pk-yritysten johtohenkilöitä sekä elintarviketeollisuusliiton asiamies. Haastattelujen tavoitteena oli saavuttaa syvällinen käsitys siitä, minkälaisia vaikutuksia makeisverolla on ollut haastateltaviin pk-yrityksiin. Hinta on tärkeä tekijä elintarvikkeiden ostopäätöksissä ja haastateltavat uskoivat kulutuksen siirtyvän makeisveron johdosta yhä vahvemmin halvempiin kaupan omien merkkien tuotteisiin sekä mahdollisesti muihin makeisia korvaaviin tuotteisiin. Hinnankorotusten tulisi olla todella merkittäviä, jotta kulutus siirtyisi makeisista kokonaan toisiin tuoteryhmiin. Teoriaosuudessa todettiin, että arvonlisävero olisi tehokkain ja oikeudenmukaisin keino verotulojen keräämiseen, mutta valmisteverotus taas tehokkaampaa jos halutaan esimerkiksi vähentää tietyn ravintoaineen kulutusta. Makeisveron tapauksessa terveydellisiä tavoitteita ei ole asetettu, joten arvonlisäverotuksen nostaminen olisi tehokkaampi keino verojen keräämiselle. Myös kaikkien haastateltavien mielestä tämä olisi oikea keino. Haastateltavat pitivät makeisveroa epäselvänä, kilpailua vääristävänä ja tietyille tuoteryhmille asetettuna kilpailuhaittana. Haastateltavat olivat turhautuneita muun muassa siihen, ettei makeisveron vaikutuksia yrityksiin selvitetty ennen veron täytäntöönpanoa. Makeisveroa ei voida pitää terveysperusteisena verona koska sillä ei pyritä ohjaamaan kuluttajia terveellisempään ruokavalioon. Makeisvero ei ole hyväksytty verotuskeino haastateltavien joukossa.
  • Anna K, Häkämies (2014)
    The literature review examined barley (Hordeum vulgare) hordein, starch granule-associated proteins and gelprotein, dough formation during mixing and starch-protein interaction in the dough. The aim of this study was to define the structure of barley dough and specify barley hordeins that form the dough structure. The purpose of the preliminary studies was to find out can ascorbic acid change barley dough structure. Mixograph was used to mix barley dough and to study dough formation. Barley dough rheology was studied using dynamic oscillation measurements. 1.5 % SDS-solution and centrifugation was used to isolate proteins from barley dough. The protein composition of the separated dough phases was analysed by SDS-PAGE. SDS sedimentation value was also determined. Ascorbic acid (120 ppm flour weight) did not change the rheological properties of the barley dough. Centrifugation separated four solid phases from barley dough; gelprotein, white layer, bran and starch. Results from the Bradford protein assay and the iodine test showed that white layer under gelprotein in the centrifuge tube contained protein and starch while gelprotein contained only proteins. SDS-PAGE showed that reduced gelprotein from barley dough consisted of D- and B-hordein but only minor amount of C-hordein. C-hordein was found, however in the dough liquid phase. The protein composition of the gelprotein was identical with the white layer. In the non-reduced gelprotein and the white layer hordeins were in polymeric form because they did not penetrate in the SDS-PAGE gel. Two studied barley doughs with the same protein content (12.0 %) differed they protein composition. In SDS-PAGE one band more B-hordeins (35 kDa) was showed in the dough which area (cm2) of the mixogramm, sedimentation value and storage modulus (G´) and loss modulus (G´´) were higher. The storage modulus (G´) of the barley dough increased during 160 min dough rest. G´ and G´´ values of the barley dough were frequency (Hz) dependent and they increased when frequency increased. Sedimentation value positively correlated with modulus (G´, G´´) and area (cm2) of the mixogramm. Based on dough rheology this study showed that barley dough structure was a weak gel. Barley hordein, especially certain B-hordeins seems to be significant in the formation of dough structure. In addition results indicated the interaction between starch and hordein in the barley dough. This study clearly showed that barley dough contained high molecular weight hordein polymers stabilized by interchain and intrachain disulfide bonds. Hordein polymer size remained unknown but the rheological properties of barley dough support the conclusion that high molecular weight gelprotein structure formed in the barley dough.
  • Zhang, Yiling (2014)
    Oat protein is a valuable cereal protein with high protein content and a good balance of amino acids profile. However, the inflexible molecular structure and poor watersolubility of oat protein limit its application in food industry. To exploit the food use of oat, the functionalities of oat proteins should be improved. α-chymotrypsin, a proteolytic enzyme, has been proven as being able to deamidate some food proteins without severe hydrolysis under alkaline pH conditions, hence to improve the protein functionalities. The aim of this research was to test whether oat protein could be deamidated by α- chymotrypsin under alkaline pH conditions. The extent of α-chymotrypsin-induced proteolysis on oat protein was also studied. Oat protein was treated by α-chymotrypsin under alkaline conditions from pH 8 to 11 at room temperature for 2 hours. The deamidation degrees of the proteins were measured by ammonia quantification. The hydrolysis degrees of proteins were analyzed by trichloroacetic acid precipitation and protein quantification method. The changes of molecular weights were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and SE-HPLC. The action of α-chymotrypsin under alkaline pH conditions induced slight deamidation of oat protein to low deamidation degrees (9-12%). On the other hand, α-chymotrypsin mainly caused hydrolysis of oat protein to hydrolysis degrees between 49% and 62%. SDS-PAGE and SE-HPLC analysis also revealed that significant hydrolysis of oat protein occurred during the reaction. The hydrolysis mainly caused the shift of oat protein fractions from molecular weight above 20 kDa to molecular weight below 15 kDa. Change in pH did not cause significant differences on deamidation degrees and hydrolysis degrees of oat protein In conclusion, oat protein could not be effectively deamidated by α-chymotrypsin under alkaline pH conditions, while the proteolysis was severe.
  • Bleyer, Maja (2015)
    The low population density and consequent high land availability in Niassa, Mozambique have attracted foreign private forest investments. Since 2005 forest companies have acquired the right to establish forest plantations in the area, which naturally affects the livelihoods in communities located close by. This study aimed to analyse the impact of forest plantations on the livelihood and wealth of local communities. The main objectives were the evaluation of impacts on natural resources, livelihood strategies and differences in the experienced impacts between different wealth groups. With these objectives, household interviews, focus group meetings and key informant interviews were held in five different villages in the province of Niassa. With principal component analysis (PCA) weights for valuable assets possessed by households were created and summed up to a factor score. On the basis of these scores the households were divided into three wealth groups, which were used to analyse differences in the perception of different groups of households. The main analysis of the perception of impacts on the natural resources, livelihood strategies and overall livelihood was carried out with binomial and multinomial logistic regression models. The results showed that while the natural capitals were impacted negatively by the establishment of forest plantations, households benefited from more diversified livelihood strategies. Furthermore, it was discovered that the wealth of a household does not have a major impact on the perception of impacts of a household. Instead relocation of farm plots and formal employment have been identified as determining factors. The study showed that the perception of the impacts differs greatly between the villages due to different initial resource endowment and different forest companies. Throughout the study it became evident that the weak implementation of land use rights is an underlying cause for many conflicts between companies and local communities.
  • Hakala, Inkeri (2014)
    The purpose of this study is to examine young consumers’ experiences of wooden furniture and home decoration in Germany and Finland. This topic is approached from the point of view of taste, lifestyle and consumers’ goods relation. Qualitative data was gathered with ethnographic fieldwork in furniture stores and fairs and with 22 guided interviews conducted among consumers between 23-34 years of age. The observation material was used as background information to draw the cultural context of the study, while the interview data was content analysed using thematisation and characterisation. Based on the results, when new pieces of furniture are acquired appearance, price and quality are found to be three main attributes in both countries, followed by functionality and ecological aspects. While the use of rainforest wood species was heavily criticized in both countries, especially in Germany, the domestic country of origin was emphasized as an essential attribute only among Finnish consumers. In addition, interviewees expressed a degree of cynicism towards current eco-labels in use. The study has shown furniture retail chain Ikea to have a special role in consumers’ furniture discourse in both Finland and Germany. The talk about Ikea’s furniture offers a useful tool to decode the meanings and expectations consumers have concerning furniture also on more general level. Concerns regarding Ikea furniture are origin and eco-issues and the lack of individuality. In addition the low quality and durability of the Ikea furniture were compared to the stamina of the inherited or second-hand furniture made from solid-wood material. To express their stance towards environmental and ethical values, due to budgetary reasons, the consumers were found to favour second hand, inherited, and recycled furniture instead of eco-labelled, often high-end market, furniture. The furnishing tastes and skills evolve in phases. The individual taste is not perceived before receiving own experiences on the matter. According to this study the life phase of the consumers seems to have more influence than their nationality on the acquiring of furniture. The life phases detected are: (1) moving to first own home and starting the student life; (2) middle phase, where student life represents a conscious, style wise experimenting, but economically limited period; (3) adulthood and working life, in which the incomes are expected to rise and the furniture consumption to reflect more ecological and socially aware values.
  • Laamanen, Ville (2014)
    1950-luvulta alkaen metsätalous Suomessa on nojautunut tasaikäisrakenteisuuteen. Asenneilmapiiri on sittemmin muuttunut kohti vapaampaa metsien käsittelyä, minkä myötä metsälakia muutettiin vuoden 2014 alussa. Uudistettu laki vastaa paremmin metsänomistajien erilaisiin tarpeisiin mahdollistaen aiempaa vapaamman metsien käsittelyn, kuten eri-ikäisrakenteeseen perustuvan metsänhoidon ja poimintahakkuut. Poimintahakkuiden korjuuolosuhteet poikkeavat tasarakenteisista metsistä ja tutkimustieto aihepiiristä on niukkaa. Tässä tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan puuston määrää ja rakennetta ennen hakkuuta ja hakkuun jälkeen, poistuman määrää, laskennallisesti korjuun tuottavuutta ja kustannuksia sekä korjuujälkeä. Aineisto koostuu kahdeksasta loppuvuodesta 2012 mitatusta metsiköstä, joissa oli tehty poimintahakkuu kahden edellisvuoden aikana. Poistuma mallinnettiin kantojen perusteella. Tasarakenteisia metsiä kuvaava vertailuaineisto määritettiin Motti-simulaattorilla. Puuston pohjapinta-ala kohteilla ennen hakkuuta oli 19,0 - 29,7 m2 ha-1 ja tilavuus 157 - 285 m3 ha-1, hakkuun jälkeen vastaavasti 6,6 - 14,3 m2 ha -1 ja 46 - 121 m3 ha-1. Hakkuupoistuma oli 110 - 231 m3 ha-1 ja poistuman keskijäreys 251 - 410 dm3. Laskennallinen korjuukustannus oli 9,9 - 12,4 € (m3)-1 ja keskiarvo 10,9 € (m3)-1. Kun vertailumetsiköiden koko kiertoajan keskimääräinen korjuukustannus oli 9,8 € (m3)-1, on tämän tutkimuksen valossa poimintahakkuu noin 10 % kalliimpaa kuin tasaikäisrakenteisissa metsissä tehtävät hakkuut keskimäärin. Lainsäädännön määritelmän mukainen puustovaurioiden määrä oli 1,8 - 11,2 % ja keskiarvo 5,7 %. Taimien määrä oli 560 - 2597 kpl ha-1, mutta niiden tilajakauma oli epätasainen. Näiden tulosten valossa poimintahakkuut tarjoavat kertymän määrän ja keskijäreyden puolesta hyvät edellytykset kannattavalle puunkorjuulle, joskin asiaan sisältyy lukuisia epävarmuustekijöitä. Korjuuvaurioihin on kiinnitettävä erityistä huomiota.
  • Lukkarinen, Vaula (2014)
    Northern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis L.) (NWC) swamps are valuable both commercially and ecologically. Unfortunately, many NWC swamps are degraded and information about them is not abundant. Especially there have been no definitive studies about mosses in northern white cedar swamps and how they react to disturbances. Mosses are sensitive to changes in their environment and thus they could be used to assess ecosystem conditions of NWC swamps. The objective of this study was to determine if mosses could be used to asses conditions in NWC swamps and if there are differences between moss communities in disturbed and undisturbed sites. Seventeen sample plots were taken from 12 disturbed and undisturbed sites around upper Michigan and northern Minnesota in the summer of 2012. All mosses occurring on the plots were identified and several associated environmental parameters were measured. The main environmental conditions affecting moss communities were identified with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS). Multiple response permutation procedures (MRPP) were run to ascertain if there were significant differences in community composition between disturbances. Indicator species analysis was then done to identify species that are related to different types of disturbances. A one-way ANOVA was used to check for significant differences between species richness and moss cover of undisturbed and disturbed sites. Over all sixty-two moss species were identified. The results indicate that there was no significant difference in species richness or moss cover between disturbed and undisturbed sites. However, moss community composition was affected by disturbance and strongly divided by a wetness gradient. Dicranum fuscescens was found to indicate undisturbed conditions. Calliergon cordifolium and Climacium dendroides indicated disturbed sites with wet conditions. Brotherella recurvans and Eurhynchium pulchellum indicated swamps with other disturbances.