Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry


Recent Submissions

  • Nummela, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Campylobacter cause human campylobacteriosis, a gastroenteritis characterised by symptomps that range from abdominal pain to bloody diarrhea. The most common species behind human infections is Campylobavter jejuni, the infective dose of which has been recognized to be low. Warm-blooded animals are found to be common carriers of Campylobacter in their intestinal tract. As susceptible to environmental stress factors, Campylobacter is unable to multiply outside the host; it spreads to the environment through feces. Cattle has been recognised as an important reservoir of Campylobacter and raw milk the leading cause of Campylobacter outbreaks along with water and poultry. Most commonly, contamination of raw milk derive from fecal contamination during milking. The prevalence of Campylobacter was examined in three dairy farms, of which two, farms B and C, had faced an outbreak carried by raw milk right before the monitoring period of the study commenced. In the third farm A, Campylobacter hadn’t been detected either from raw milk or milk filters, and the prevalence in cattle was found to be low. Cattle were sampled 1-2 times and both milk as well as milk filter samples were obtained weekly during the monitoring period. Furthermore, environmental samples were collected. Samples were examined according to the modified NMKL 119:2007 cultivation method and MPN technique was used to quantify Campylobacter in raw milk samples. C. jejuni isolates were genotyped applying PFGE typing with SmaI enzyme. Moreover, concerning the hygienic control of raw milk, suitability of milk filters in detecting Campylobacter from bulk tank milk was examined in a shelf life experiment, in which milk filters were first divided in two parts, then spiked with four different concentrations of C. jejuni. In order to examine how well C. jejuni survives in storage conditions, spiked milk filters were packed into cool bags stored in room temperature for four different time intervals. Campylobacter was detected in cattle from all three dairy farms, yet the prevalence in control farm A was substantially lower than in the farms of the outbreak B and C, in which more than half of the cattle shed Campylobacter in feces. In farm A as well as farm C Campylobacter was not detected in milk or milk filters during the monitoring period. In outbreak farm C, the milk was most likely to be contaminated due to poor short-term milking hygiene conditions, as the C. jejuni genotype that most of the cattle shed proved to be identical with C. jejuni strain isolated from bulk tank milk during the investigation of the outbreak. Then again, outbreak farm B faced a rare, long-lasting Campylobacter contamination, as milk and milk filters were still found positive for Campylobacter six months after the outbreak. Up to 35 MPN / ml of Campylobacter was quantified from milk. The genotype detected from the milk and milk filters was dominant in the cattle as well. Nevertheless, the source of the contamination remained unclear and hadn’t been eliminated in time for the last sampling in spite of the satination and renovation operations made. Continous fecal contamination, biofilm harboured in the milking machine and direct extraction of Campylobacter to milk due to an udder infection were suspected as potential causes of the long-lasting contamination. In the shelf life experiment of milkfilters the background microflora, which was resistant to the selective supplement of Bolton Broth used in this study, proved a bigger problem for the detection of Campylobacter than its susceptibility to environmental stress. Accordingly, with the protocol used in this study, the experiences gained detecting the samples obtained from farm B suggest that milk is a superior sample matrix over milk filters.
  • Mäkelä, Tommi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The great web-spinning pine-sawfly is a common species in Finland. Few mass outbreaks have occurred in Europe, but they have last a long time. Yet first outbreak in Finland was observed at Yyteri region near Pori in 2006. Larvae use pine needles as nutrient. It is estimated that 100–200 larvae/m2 is a level for severe forest damage. There have been many locations containing 200–500 larvae/m2 at the Yyteri region. There is tourism and nature value in Yyteri and so chemical control was not the first option. That is why biological control was used and the most promising seem to be Steinernema feltiae. It was commercially available and spraying it was simple. The purpose of the research was to find out how S. feltiae could be used to reduce the great web-spinning pine-sawfly on a large scale. Spraying was done by using agricultural spraying equipment attached to tractors. Photoelecton traps were used and soil samples of larvae were collected. Control traps gathered 65.0 % of adults in 2011 while treatment traps gathered 35.0 %. In 2012 traps collected 48.6 % and 51.4 %, respectively. Traps gathered 120 adults in 2011. Main swarming was 2012 and 469 adults were caught. Some unreliability is involved in results because of the high spatial distribution of larvae in soil. Differences between years might be explained by earlier metamorphosis of the great web-spinning pine-sawfly to adult, increased deviation of trap results and grassier field conditions. Chilly weather might also have prevented nematodes performing at maximum capacity in 2012. In soil samples 88.6 % of the great web-spinning pine-sawflies were alive. It seems that most of them would be overwinter for fourth year. Most of the dead great web-spinning pine-sawflies (90.3 %) were found in organic soil layers. However, the clear-cut area has stayed at 200 ha for now.
  • Toivola, Johanna Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the structure of ice cream, especially the effects of temperature, sugar composition and stabilizer-emulsifier concentration on the melt down, hardness and moulding properties of ice cream. The aim was to produce a soft and easily mouldable ice cream that suits the intended purpose. A sensory evaluation was conducted to the ice creams with desired structural properties. The literature review deals with ice cream ingredients, manufacturing process and factors affecting ice cream structure. For the experimental study, 16 ice creams with different compositions were made. The ice creams contained 12 or 6 % fat, different types of sugar compositions (A, B, C, D, E, F) and different concentrations of two types of stabilizer and emulsifier blends (A, B). Ice creams were stored at different temperatures. The hardness of ice cream was measured with a Texture Analyser, the melting rate was determined and the moulding properties were analysed with a moulding test. The two ice creams with desired structure were compared to a commercial ice cream in a sensory evaluation. The results of the hardness measurements revealed, that temperature and sugar composition affected hardness the most. Stabilizer and emulsifier concentration and type did not have an effect. The softest ice creams were those stored at higher temperatures and those made with sugar composition C, D, E and F. The slowest melting ice creams were the ones containing greater amounts of stabilizers and emulsifiers. The ice cream made with sugar composition D melted the fastest. For the moulding test, the softer ice creams were the easiest to mould. The ice cream made with sugar composition D was found to be too soft, almost runny, and the ones made with sugar composition A and B were found to be too hard. The ice creams made with sugar composition C, E and F were found pleasing. The batches containing a greater amount of stabilizer and emulsifier were found to be a bit gummy. In the sensory evaluation there were only one difference in sweetness found between the study ice creams and the commercial one. There were no differences found in creaminess and over all liking. From this can be concluded that the study ice creams are accepted by the consumers as well.
  • Andersson, Nina (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Crop rotation is an important farming practice in organic agriculture. In the research it has been shown that diverse crop rotations enhance productivity as well as agrobiodiversity, and thus the organic regulations of EU obliges the farmers to have diverse rotations on their farms. However, it is unclear what kinds of crop rotations have been implemented on Finnish farms. In this master’s thesis the aim was to find out what kinds of crop rotations plans there were used on 21 organic arable farms on Uusimaa and Satakunta regions in the Southern Finland and how the plans were put into practice during 2008–2012. The aim was also to study, if there were differences between the regions. The study material consisted of the crop rotation plans which are required from the farmers in the beginning of 5-year organic subsidy period and of the information from EU’s IACS-database about the crops grown on farms. The typical crop rotation on the organic farms was the alternation between cereals and ley, in different pace on different field plots. Also the winter rye – oat – two- or three-year ley was a typical crop rotation. Crop rotation plans and realized crop rotations were compared with each other by “realization index”, which was developed by this study. The realization index showed that the plans were followed every year less and less on the average, but on the same time it was also typical to come back to the plans. However, as a consequence of the changes made into the plans, the field area of the farm was usually not an entity, bound together by crop rotation, but the crop rotation was planned for the each field plot separately. There were statistically significant differences in crop rotations plans between regions. In Uusimaa region the crop rotations were based on crop types whereas in Satakunta region the crops to be grown were identified more precisely. Several future research topics emerged, such as the significance of crop rotations in organic agriculture, farmer’s strategies in crop rotation design and the sustainability as well as productivity of those strategies.
  • Suryanarayanan, Tilak (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The objective of the thesis was to investigate the effect of carbohydrates on solubility, emulsifying, gelling and water holding properties of proteins. Faba bean is a readily available pulse crop with high protein content similar to soy bean and there is a lot of potential for a novel, high protein fermented gel product to be made from a pulse crop like faba bean. This is mainly due to its remarkable nutritional properties, functional properties and low cost, the demand for faba bean protein ingredients will grow. The current study was an attempt to develop pulse protein based products – emulsion (milk-like) and emulsion gel (yogurt-like) from faba bean. It seeks to expand the field of application of faba bean protein based products. Faba bean was pretreated, dehulled and milled. The flour was made into suspensions and the starch in faba bean was subjected to amylolytic treatments (addition of alpha amylase and glucoamylase) to breakdown the starch into smaller particles. These treated suspensions were then homogenized to obtain emulsion. A protein based gel network was produced with the gelation of amylolytically treated faba bean proteins. The emulsion properties, specifically droplet size, stability and activity were tested by PAMAS Particle Counter System. Light microscopy was applied to reveal the microstructure of emulsion and emulsion gel. Emulsion gel texture properties were studied by texture analysis. The emulsions were relatively stable over a period of a month and had white ‘milk’ like appearance. The emulsion gels prepared (amylolytic treatment) had slightly higher water holding capacities than the control A (entire starch present) and control B (starch removed by filtration) emulsion gels. Texture analysis of the emulsion gels showed that more force was required by probe to penetrate the yogurt produced from amylolytically treated samples and less force was required to penetrate the yogurt produced from controls A and B. The yield of the emulsion gels were higher for the amylolytically treated samples. It can be concluded that amylolytic treatment has increased the water holding capacity and also resulted in stronger gel systems.
  • Antell, Saara (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    In the past few decades, free time has increased considerably. And yet leisure has still an ever growing importance for Finnish consumers. Nonetheless, it is not an explicit matter. People experience leisure in different ways. The economic depression has brought forward the leisure practices of unemployed or temporarily laid-off and this is also the basis for my thesis. This thesis is a qualitative research using semi-structured theme-centered interviews to collect the data. Total of 10 consumers, who were or had been laid-off, were interviewed and this data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Temporarily laid-off consumers had three ways of reacting to their status. First group experienced a lot of stress and worry about coping and their future possibilities. Second group, on the other hand, thought of it as an extra holiday during which they could rest and pursue their hobbies. Thirdly, temporal lay-off was seen as a necessary evil: unenjoyable but nonetheless somewhat useful experience. Changes could be observed regarding leisure: daily routines disappeared or changed their importance and social relationships decreased whereas the time with the television increased. This passive leisure showed the importance of activities and being active as a way of coping. Hobbies were an important way to relax and forget. Many temporarily laid-off consumers had problems with their income. Some of them decreased their consumption and begun saving, reconsidering their consumption patterns. On the other hand some turned to impulsive consumption as a means to rebel. As a whole, the shorter the lay-off period, the less it affected consumption. Whichever the case, the changes in consumption during a temporal lay-off had an effect on the surrounding society as well. Leisure, consumption and the reaction to temporal lay-off are strongly linked. Good economical situation is followed by positive reactions and coping as well as active leisure. At the same time positive or negative attitude combined with consumption possibilities have a great effect on leisure activities.
  • Kuittinen, Vesa (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    The thesis focuses on football from the perspective of experience consumption. Experience consumption is used in this context to describe events and moments when one experiences unusual and memorable emotions. As a counterweight to everyday rationality, consumption of experiences has become ever more popular. The subject is dealt with experience society, sense of community and consumer tribe concepts. Special attention is given to cultural events, spectator sports as a social phenomenon as well as various football-related consumption patterns. The study is a phenomenological-ethnographic descriptive research. The methods used were participant observation and interviews. In the research tradition, understanding and describing of phenomenon as well as writing are essential. Observational data was collected in three different events by monitoring the behavior of spectators and the factors creating the atmosphere. The interviewees have been selected discretionary. Interviews were open by nature. Fascination of sports as a pastime is based on creating strong emotions; therefore spectator sports is experience consumption at its purest form. Sports is an excellent experience product because of its large number of patterns of consumption and because sports events build up an endless continuum. Also my own data indicates that a common history creates a bond with community, and future events help to keep up the enthusiasm. Even the moments of disappointment are essential, because every experience enhances the feelings for the “own” sport and community. In the sports events the experience itself is always subjective, but the existence of the community is necessary. Spectators have ambiguous desire to belong to a group and at the same time to be an outsider. They can choose to observe the game quietly themselves in the middle of the crowd or cheer with other spectators. Evidence suggests that a football fan's enthusiasm can gush from two sources: from the sense of community and from the interest in the game. Sense of community arises from the feeling of belonging to the global football community, to your own team and to a circle of friends. The interest in the game includes football as a sport, regular events watched actively and supporting your own team. Neo-tribe theories are not very relevant in this context, because football supporters are very loyal to the game and to their own club. It is more important to create tight bonds with a small collective, with whom they share a common history and they can share experiences through discussions and by memorizing.
  • Partanen, Tommi (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Environmental issues have become an important part of today’s business. Some companies have made the decision to strive towards environmental friendliness of operation; others have decided to take a more reactive approach. Even though environmental issues have gotten much attention lately, the portion of green products out of total production is still very small. The purpose of this study is to find out using a single company case study if environmentalism adds value in the print business. From managerial perspective, the aim of the study is also to find out if the possible added value of environmentalism could be further enhanced. The main questions are: What are customers’ main selection criteria for making purchasing decisions? In what respect are customers’ purchasing decisions based on environmental values? Do customers feel that there is added value in environmentally friendly processes and materials? Data for the study is collected from thematic customer interviews, a newsletter survey and a literature review of previous research. Companies in the study include multinational, national and local ones. The study will use a mixed method approach with qualitative data from the interviews and quantitative data from the survey. By gathering data from two different sources with mainly qualitative and theory driven method of analysis, the reliability of the results is greater. Based on the results, environmental and sustainability issues are important issues for some customer companies in printing business, but not everyone wants to pay extra for environmental friendliness. Interestingly, there is clear evidence that also smaller companies are acknowledging the importance of environmental friendliness, so it is not only for large export-orineted companies. Some companies can be identified as proactively pursuing competitive advantages from sustainability and environmental friendliness. The results of the study are used to further develop the case company’s environmental marketing, for example by developing environmental management.
  • Viitanen-Fält, Susanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Laihduttamiseen ja painonhallintaan on tarjolla lukuisia eri keinoja, menetelmiä ja apuvälineitä. Myös internetissä voi nykypäivänä laihduttaa ja hallita painoaan. Internetin ilmaiset ja maksulliset painonhallintapalvelut tarjoavatkin kuluttajille monenlaisia palveluja. Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan internetin painonhallintapalvelujen antamia lupauksia, mielikuvia sekä palvelujen asettamia ehtoja käytölle eli käyttäjän vastuuta onnistumisesta. Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan myös palvelun maksullisuuden vaikutusta lupausten antamiselle. Lisäksi tutkimus käsittelee palvelujen internetsivuilla olevia onnistumiskertomuksia ja sitä kuinka kertomusten kautta suostutellaan. Tutkielman laadullinen aineisto koostuu yhdeksän internetin painonhallintapalvelun sivus-toista. Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan sivustojen mainos- ja mediatekstiä. Aineiston analyysi-menetelmänä on käytetty aineistolähtöistä sisällönanalyysiä sekä sisällönerittelyä. Internetin painonhallintapalvelujen antamat lupaukset liittyvät palvelujen ominaisuuksiin sekä ohjelmien tarjoamiin palveluihin. Lupauksia esiintyi huomattavasti enemmän maksul-listen palveluiden sivuilla. Palvelujen ominaisuuksiin liittyviä lupauksia olivat tehokas, helppo ja onnistumisen mahdollistava. Painonhallintaohjelmien tarjoamiin palveluihin liit-tyviä lupauksia olivat puolestaan tuen, tiedon ja opastamisen antaminen sekä ohjelmien erilaisten työkalujen tarjoaminen. Käyttäjän vastuulle jäi omien tavoitteiden asettaminen, ohjeiden noudattaminen sekä mittaaminen ja raportointi. Palvelujen käyttäjien kokemuksiin perustuvissa onnistumiskertomuksissa luodaan mielikuvia menestyjistä ja onnistujista, jotka suostuttelevat uusia palvelunkäyttäjiä. Kertomuksissa korostetaan tuen ja tiedon saamista osana onnistumista sekä uusien elämäntapojen elinikäistä oppimista. Onnistumisen seurauksena ulkonäöllisten tekijöiden ja uusien, pienempien vaatteiden merkitystä tuotiin runsaasti esille. Nykypäivän internetin painonhallintapalvelut tarjoavat kätevän apuvälineen laihduttamiseen ja painonhallintaan. Tarjolla on monia ilmaisia ja maksullisia palveluja. Palvelujen käyttämiseksi tarvitaan lähinnä toimiva internetyhteys sekä käyttäjän omaa aktiivisuutta. Internetin painonhallintapalvelut korostavat uusien elinikäisten elämäntapojen oppimista, jotka saavutetaan tarjoamalla ravitsemuksellista, liikunnallista sekä henkistä tietoa. Tämän uuden elämäntavan saavuttaminen eli onnistuminen tehdään helpoksi, tehokkaaksi ja mahdolliseksi – ainakin mainosmielessä.
  • Hannola, Jussi (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Tutkielmassa tarkastellaan perusteita ja taustatekijöitä, jotka ovat osa-aikaisten naislääkäreiden elämänkokonaisuudessa vaikuttaneet päätökseen työskennellä osa-aikaisesti kokoaikaisuuden sijaan. Lisäksi tutkitaan, millaiseksi haastateltujen naislääkärien ilmentämä työeetos muotoutuu haastatteluaineistossa sekä arvioidaan, missä määrin naislääkäreiden osa-aikatyö asettuu osaksi kohtuullistamisilmiötä (downshifting) ja sen taustalla vaikuttavaa vapaaehtoisen vaatimattomuuden ihannetta. Laadullisen tutkimuksen aineisto koostuu 11 osa-aikatyötä tekevän tai tehneen naislääkärin puolistrukturoiduista haastatteluista, joiden analyysimenetelminä yhdistellään teemoittelua ja tyypittelyä. Tutkielman teoreettinen viitekehys rakentuu suomalaista työeetosta ja sen muutosta käsittelevästä tutkimuskirjallisuudesta sekä kohtuullistamisilmiötä tutkivasta teoriaperinteestä. Tutkimuksessa julkisella sektorilla työskentelevät naislääkärit ovat päätyneet osa-aikaiseen työsuhteeseen ennen kaikkea perhesyistä sekä terveysasemaympäristössä koetun työkuormituksen vuoksi. Naislääkäreiden osa-aikaisen työskentelyn ovat mahdollistaneet lääkäreiden korkea palkkataso, hyvän työmarkkina-aseman tuoma neuvotteluvalta ja työnantajaosapuolen joustavuus. Naislääkäreiden näkemyksissä esiin nousee perhekeskeisten ammattilaisten työeetos, jolle on keskeistä lääkärintyön merkityksellisyys sekä perheen ja läheisten priorisointi työelämää tärkeämpänä elämän ulottuvuutena. Tunnistetun eetoksen erityispiirre on haastateltavien osin ideologinen suhtautuminen julkiseen terveydenhuoltoon puolustamisen arvoisena järjestelmänä. Aineistossa naislääkäreiden osa-aikatyö näyttäytyy kohtuullistamisilmiön maltillisena ilmenemismuotona. Vaikka kulutuskulttuuriin liittyvät kestävyyden ja materialismin ongelmat tiedostetaan, ohjaavat haastateltavien kohtuullistamispäätöksiä ensisijaisesti henkilökohtaiset syyt. Osa-aikaisuudesta huolimatta verrattain muuttumattomina säilyvät elintasostandardit ja ammattitaidon ylläpitämisen vaatimus estävät toteutunutta voimakkaamman elämän kohtuullistamisen.
  • Laaksonen, Julia (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Ammattikuljettajien elintavoissa ja terveydessä on parantamisen varaa. Ammattikuljettajien elintapojen taustalla vaikuttavat epäsäännölliset ja pitkät työajat, yötyö ja vähäinen liikunta. Monet ammattikuljettajista ovat ylipainoisia, mikä altistaa sairauksille, kuten diabeteksen, uniapnean, tukija liikuntaelinongelmien synnylle. Kuljetusalan ammattilaisten työ sisältää ominaisuuksia, jotka heikentävät terveellistä ruokailua. Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää, minkälaisia käsityksiä ammattikuljettajilla on terveellisestä ruoasta ja aterioista ja minkälaisia mielikuvia heillä on terveellisyydestä. Tutkimuksen teoriaosassa terveellisyyden käsityksiä tarkasteltiin aikaisempien tutkimusten pohjalta ja terveellisyyden merkitystä ja ruoan valintaa ohjaavia tekijöitä selvitettiin terveyskäyttäytymiseen sovellettavien mallien kautta. Tutkimusmenetelmänä oli kvalitatiivinen tutkimus. Tutkimusta varten haastateltiin 12 taksiautoilijaa pääkaupunkiseudulta, jotka kuuluivat Työterveyslaitoksen ”Virkeänä ratissa- ruoasta terveyttä tien päälle” hankkeeseen. Haastattelut suoritettiin joulukuussa 2009 ja tammikuussa 2010 ja ne analysoitiin sisällönanalyysillä. Haastateltavat tiedostivat ruoan terveellisyyden tärkeyden hyvin, mutta terveellisyys ei ohjannut ruoan valintaa ensisijaisesti. Haastateltavat tunnistivat epäkohtia omissa ruoan valinnoissaan, mutta kukaan ei sanonut syövänsä pelkästään epäterveellisesti. Työn aikainen ruokailu koettiin hankalana, eikä silloin tarkkailtu ruokailua. Usein vasta terveysongelma herätti miettimään syömistä ja sen vaikutusta omaan terveyteen. Terveellisten ateriavalintojen tekeminen koettiin hankalampana, kuin epäterveellisten. Terveellisyys koettiin suhteellisena käsitteenä. Tärkeimmät terveellisyyteen liitetyt käsitykset olivat oma hyvinvointi, vaihtelua työjaksoon, tankkaus, tunnesidonnaisuus, valinnan vaikeus, taloudellinen uhrautuminen, luopuminen ja epäluulo. Tulosten mukaan kehittämistarpeita olisi etenkin työaikaisen ruokailun mahdollisuuksien parantamisessa, jossa tienvarsiateriapalveluilla on tärkeä rooli terveellisempien tuotteiden tarjonnalla asiakkailleen. Aineiston mukaan kysyntää olisi pienemmille annoksille, keitoille ja puuroille, joiden saatavuus koettiin etenkin yöaikaan heikoksi.
  • Korhonen, Tuuli (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Johdanto: Raskaudenaikaisen D-vitamiinin puutoksen on havaittu vaikuttavan negatiivisesti syntyvän lapsen luuston kasvuun. Myös lapsen riittävä D-vitamiinin saanti on merkittävä tekijä lapsen luuston hyvinvoinnissa. Suomalaisten odottavien äitien D-vitamiinin saanti on usein puutteellista, eikä D-vitamiinia muodostu iholla talvikuukausina Suomen pohjoisen sijainnin vuoksi. Suomalaisten raskaana olevien naisten heikko D-vitamiinitilanne saattaa vaikuttaa lasten luuston terveyteen. Tavoitteet: Työn tavoitteena oli tutkia ovatko raskauden aikainen D-vitamiinitilanne, lapsen D-vitamiinitilanne ja D-vitamiinin saanti vuoden iässä yhteydessä luuntiheyden ja -mineraalipitoisuuden muutoksiin lapsen ensimmäisen elinvuoden aikana. Aineisto ja menetelmät: Raskausaikana rekrytoiduista 126 äiti-lapsi-parista vuoden iässä seurantakäynnille saapui 89 (69 %). Lapsilta otettiin verinäyte ja siitä määritettiin D-vitamiinitilannetta kuvaava seerumin 25-hydroksi-D-vitamiinipitoisuus (25(OH)D) immunoentsymometrisellä menetelmällä. Lasten sääriluu tutkittiin pQCT-menetelmällä. Vastaavat tutkimukset oli suoritettu sekä lapsille että äideille synnytyksen jälkeen. Äitien seerumin 25(OH)D-pitoisuus alkuraskauden aikana määritettiin THL:n keräämistä verinäytteistä. Lapsilta kerättiin kolmen vuorokauden ruokapäiväkirja sekä kyselylomake, joiden avulla selvitettiin D-vitamiinin saanti ruokavaliosta, D-vitamiinilisän käyttö ja taustatekijöitä. Äideille suoritettiin lyhyt haastattelu koskien lapsen terveyttä ja kehitystä. Tilastollinen tarkastelu suoritettiin SPSS (versio 16.0) –ohjelmalla. Korrelaatioanalyysilla selvitettiin minkä tekijöiden kanssa 1-vuotiaan luuston laatua kuvaavat muuttujat ja niissä tapahtuneet muutokset korreloivat. Regressioanalyysilla tutkittiin selittääkö raskausajan D-vitamiinitilanne, lapsen D-vitamiinitilanteen muutos tai lapsen D-vitamiinin saanti yhden vuoden iässä luustomuuttujien muutoksia. Monimuuttujamallin avulla tarkasteltiin, onko raskaudenaikainen D-vitamiinitilanne lineaarisesti yhteydessä luumuuttujien arvoihin. Tulokset: Lasten D-vitamiinin saanti ylitti keskimäärin suositukset (KA 12,3 ?g/vrk), mutta 20 %:lla seerumin 25(OH)D-pitoisuus oli riittämätön (< 50 nmol/l). Seurantakäynnin aikaan yhä imetetyillä lapsilla Dvitamiinitilanne oli heikompi kuin ei-imetetyillä (p=0,044). Luun mineraalimäärä (BMC, engl. bone mineral content) oli kasvanut eniten niillä lapsilla, joiden äitien D-vitamiinitilanne oli ollut heikoin raskauden aikana ja vähiten niillä, joilla D-vitamiinitilanne raskausaikana oli ollut riittävä. Tulos ei kuitenkaan yltänyt merkitsevälle tasolle (p=0.069). Muissa luumuuttujissa viitteitä yhteyksistä ei löytynyt. Taustatietoja tarkastellessa havaittiin merkitsevä negatiivinen yhteys raskausajan D-vitamiinitilanteen ja lapsen sairastamien nuhakuumeiden lukumäärän välillä (p=0.044). Johtopäätökset: Lasten D-vitamiinin saanti oli suositusten mukaista, mutta siitä huolimatta osalla lapsista Dvitamiinitilanne ei ollut optimaalinen. Erot BMC:n muutoksessa ryhmien välillä viittaavat saavutuskasvuun eli heikomman D-vitamiinitilanteen vaikutus luustoon kompensoituu BMC:n osalta ensimmäisen elinvuoden aikana. Pitkäkestoisia lisätutkimuksia raskausajan D-vitamiinitilanteen ja lapsen luuston yhteyksistä suuremmilla tutkimusotoksilla tarvitaan.
  • Kangas, Jaakko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    New primary tillage methods have appeared alongside traditional ploughing. Objectives of primary tillage can nowadays be achieved with other methods such as by exploiting nature’s own processes or with chemical weed control. The endeavor of farmers to save time and money has caused conservation tillage to become more common. Different methods of conservation tillage and no-tillage has been replacing traditional ploughing. Conservation tillage has had various kinds of effects to achieved yields. Some international studies reported that conservation tillage had reduced yields. On the other hand, the rest of the studies point out that either the yield remained at the same level or at times, yield levels rose with reduced tillage. The aim of this study was to determine the profitability of different tillage methods. The profitability of three different primary tillage methods were compared at three farm sizes (50, 100 and 200 ha). Retail prices of farming machinery and Luke’s on-going field experiments on clay soil in Jokioinen were drawn on for data used in this study. Luke has been running no-tillage field experiments in Jokioinen since 2000. Yield data of spring barley from Jokioinen field experiment was used in this study. No-tillage was the most profitable tillage method on every farm size. The costs of no-tillage was 145?279 €/hectare lower than the costs with ploughing and 111?234 €/hectare lower than the costs with cultivation. The surplus of no-tillage was 93–226 €/hectare greater than surplus with ploughing and 69?192 €/hectare bigger than the surplus achieved with cultivation as a primary tillage. The profitability of cultivation was 16–34 €/hectare bigger than the surplus acquired through ploughing. No-tillage was more economically beneficial on a field which had less clay in its texture. The no-tillage’s surplus was 183?317 €/hectare bigger than the ploughing’s surplus and it was 161?284 €/hectare bigger than the cultivation’s surplus. Fields of similar size were used when analyzing the difference of profitability between ploughing and cultivation. This study asserts that the profitability of primary tillage method depends on machinery, weather conditions, soil type and the size of the farm. In this study, no-tillage was more profitable even though the yields produced were less than with traditional primary tillage. The profitability of the different primary tillage methods varied erratically between farms and for this reason, an unambiguous answer for profitability cannot be given.
  • Hakkarainen, Teija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Tällä hetkellä luomusektorilla on ongelmana epäsuhta peltoviljelyn ja kuluttajalle tarjolla olevan luomuvalikoiman kesken. Nykyisin luomutiloilla on yleistä se, että kasvintuotantoa harjoitetaan luonnonmukaisesti ja kotieläintuotantoa ei. Näin ollen valtaosa luomurehusta käytetään tavanomaisen kotieläintuotannon rehuna. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää, onko erilaisten maitotilojen kannattavuudessa eroa. Vertailtavina ovat luomumaitotilat, tavanomaiset maitotilat sekä tilat, joilla lypsykarja on tavanomaisessa tuotannossa ja pellot ovat luomutuotannossa. Viimeisenä esitetystä ryhmästä käytetään tutkimuksessa nimitystä välitilat. Kannattavuutta tarkastellaan käyttäen eri kannattavuustunnuslukuja. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on lisäksi selvittää, mitkä tekijät vaikuttavat näiden ryhmien eroihin, jos eroja löytyy. Tutkimuksen aineistona käytetään kvantitatiivista MTT:n kannattavuuskirjanpitotilojen aineistoja vuosilta 2008–2012. Tuotantoryhmistä etsitään samankaltaisia tiloja käyttäen propensity score matching -menetelmää (PSM). Tutkimuskysymyksiin etsitään vastausta käyttämällä kuvailevaa tilastotiedettä sekä tilastollisia analyysejä. Syitä mahdollisille kannattavuuseroille etsitään käyttämällä tuotantofunktioita ja regressioanalyysiä sekä tarkastelemalla tuotto- ja kulurakenteita. Kannattavuuden tunnuslukuja tarkasteltaessa luomutilat ovat ainoita, jotka eroavat muista tarkasteluryhmistä. Luomutilojen kannattavuuskertoimet sekä työtuntiansiot ovat korkeampia, kuin tavanomaisten tai välitilojen vastaavat arvot. Väli- ja tavanomaiset tilat ovat kannattavuutta tarkasteltaessa samankaltaisia. Luomutilat ovat suurempia ja töitä tehdään vähemmän, joten luomutiloilla tuotto työtuntia kohden on paremmalla tasolla kuin muissa ryhmissä. Luomutilat saivat keskimäärin eniten tukia ja näin ollen tuotot olivat keskimäärin suurimmat tässä ryhmässä. Luomu- ja välitilojen kustannusrakenne oli hyvin samankaltainen. Tavanomaisilla tiloilla tarvikekustannukset olivat muita ryhmiä suuremmat. Luomu- ja välitilojen konekustannukset olivat tavanomaisten vastaavia suuremmat. Maitotilojen lehmämäärä vaikuttaa tavanomaisilla ja välitiloilla tuotokseen enemmän verrattuna luomutiloihin. Lehmämäärän vaikutus väli- ja tavanomaisten tilojen välillä vaihteli riippuen siitä, mitä mallia estimoinnissa käytettiin. Tavanomaisilla ja välitiloilla ostorehujen kustannusten vaikutus tuotokseen on suurempaa kuin luomutiloilla.
  • Johansson, Ari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Emakonlihaa käytetään kestomakkaran valmistuksessa ympäri maailmaa (Pidcock ym. 2002; Rason ym. 2007). Emakonlihan käyttö ei ole kuitenkaan vakiintunut kestomakkaroiden lihalajitelmien lähteeksi Suomessa. Suuri syy tähän ovat emakonlihaan liittyvät ennakkoluulot, sillä. emakonliha poikkeaa väriltään ja aromiltaan lihasian lihasta (Sindelar ym. 2003). Vingolon ym. (2010) mukaan lihalajitelmien voimakkaan punainen väri on kestomakkaroissa haluttu ominaisuus, mikä voisi tukea myös emakonlihan käyttöä kestomakkaroiden raaka-aineena Suomessa. Kestomakkaroissa on valmistustavasta riippuen usein voimakkaan savuinen sekä suolainen aromi, joka saattaa peittää emakonlihalle tyypillisen metallisen ja happaman maun. Calkins ja Hodgens (2007) havaitsivat, että myoglobiinin määrän kasvu aiheuttaa naudanlihaan metallisen maun. Myoglobiini on lihan tärkein väripigmentti, ja sitä on emakonlihassa enemmän kuin lihasian lihassa (Bader 1983). Tutkielman kokeellinen osuus jakaantui kahteen osioon: ensimmäisessä osiossa verrattiin lihasian ja emakon M. longissimus dorsia keskenään laboratorio-olosuhteissa. Toisessa osiossa valmistettiin kestomakkaroita, joiden emakonlihapitoisuus vaihteli. Kestomakkaroiden kypsytystä seurattiin kolmen viikon ajan (pH-arvo, kosteus, kiinteys ja veden aktiivisuus). Valmiille kestomakkaroille tehtiin myös aistivaraiset arvioinnit, joissa kestomakkaroiden väriä, kiinteyttä ja aromia verrattiin keskenään. Kypsymisen seuraamisesta pystyttiin havaitsemaan, että osa kestomakkaroista poikkesi tilastollisesti merkitsevästi (p < 0,05) pH-arvoltaan ja kiinteydeltään kypsytyksen aikana. Aistinvaraisen arvioinnin tuloksista pystyttiin havaitsemaan, että kestomakkarat poikkesivat toisistaan tilastollisesti merkitsevästi värin osalta (p < 0,05), mutta kiinteyden ja aromin osalta eivät. Tutkimuksen tulosten ja kirjallisuuskatsauksen perusteella voidaan todeta emakonlihan sopivan kestomakkaroiden raaka-aineeksi
  • Hämäläinen, Miia-Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In Finland approximately 80 000 kg of beef is produced annually. Most of the beef originates from the dairy industry, and only a small portion comes from farms specialised in beef production. It is therefore important that in addition to beef cattle and cross-bred animals also the dairy breeds have good carcass qualities. Only then will it be profitable for the farmer to improve animal welfare. In this master’s thesis I studied the heritability of carcass qualities in Finnish Ayrshire bulls. The effect of on-farm welfare on carcass qualities was also evaluated. The studied carcass traits were muscularity (fleshiness), carcass weight and fatness. Animal welfare was measured with A-index, which evaluates on-farm welfare. The A-index has been developed to suit the needs of the Finnish beef production, and by measuring the envinroment of cows of a certain age it brings forward the differences in animal welfare between farms. The effect of genetics was evaluated by heritability and genetic variance. The statistical analysis was done using generalised linear models and the REML-method. According to the results muscularity, fatness and carcass weight have average heritability. The heritability for muscularity, depending on the model used, was 0,26–0,27. For fatness the heritability was 0,28–0,30 and for carcass weight 0,25–0,27. The traits were both genetically and phenotypically correlated; the strongest genetic correlation (0,57) was between muscularity and carcass weight. On-farm welfare seems to be connected to carcass qualities. Different versions were statistically significant to every carcass trait. Individual categories of the A-index had mainly a positive regression towards carcass qualities, which indicates that while welfare improves, muscularity and carcass weight increase as well. The only negative connection was found between fatness and locomotion abilities. Increased possibilities for locomotion thus decrease fatness. Based on the results we can deduce that by improving welfare carcass quality can be changed. This could have an impact on the income received from slaughtered animals.
  • Martikainen, Katja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In pig breeding many important traits are measurable only on females or after slaughter, which makes it difficult to observe these traits for the estimation of traditional estimated breeding values (EBVs). Genomic selection is expected to overcome these difficulties, since it makes use of large number of genetic markers called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Dense genotyping of SNPs is needed for sufficient accuracy, but the costs increase with the density of the panel. It is possible to reduce the costs by genotyping some animals with a low-density SNP panels. Missing genotypes can then be imputed to correspond to the information of the denser SNP panel. The choice of optimal imputation program is dependent on structure of the population. The aim of this study was to compare performance of two imputation programs (BEAGLE and fastPHASE) to impute genotypes in the Finnish Yorkshire pig population. Data consisted of 809 boars. In data set 1 imputation was performed for all boars born after 2007 and in data set 2 for all boars born after 2005. Genotypes of the remaining boars were used as a reference population. Performance of these programs was evaluated by the allele error rate and computing time. The effect of SNP location, average distance between adjacent SNPs, size of the chromosome and MAF on the allele error rate was also studied. The average allele error rate using BEAGLE for the data set 1 was 2,88 % and time required for imputation was 8min 38s. Results using BEAGLE for the data set 2 were 2,58 % and 11min 50s. The average allele error rate using fastPHASE for the data set 1 was 4,02 % and time required for imputation for chromosome 1 was 1d 16h 11min 4s. Results using fastPHASE for the data set 2 were 3,71 % and 11d 11h 2min 31s. Allele error rates were highest at the end of the chromosome and lowest at the centre of the chromosomes. The average distance between adjacent SNPs did not have a notable effect on error rates. Error rates tended to be lower in large chromosomes than in small chromosomes. Error rates increased with increasing MAF. According to this study, BEAGLE is recommendable program for genotype imputation because of its good accuracy and short computational time.
  • Piili, Noora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Tämän pro gradu- tutkielman tarkoituksena on tehdä selvitys erilaisista investointilaskentamenetelmistä ja erityisesti reaalioptiomenetelmästä ja sen käytöstä maitotilan tuotantorakennusinvestoinnin riskien hinnoittelussa. Teoriaosuus koostuu investointilaskennan menetelmien esittelystä kirjallisuuden pohjalta. Tutkielman empiirisessä osuudessa tehdään katelaskelma esimerkkitilalle ja MTK:n Tyyppinavetta-hankkeen esimerkkien avulla määritetään maitotilan tuotantorakennuksen rakentamiskustannukset. Riskeiksi investoinnille, reaalioptiomenetelmää varten, määritetään maidon tuottajahinnan taso ja vaihtelu. Tuottajahintojen tarkasteluajanjakso on 1/2012 - 12/2014. Esimerkkilaskenta suoritetaan reaalioptiomenetelmää käyttämällä ja muuta-malla eri maidon tuottajahintatasolla, tuottajahinnan vaihtelusta määritetyllä epävarmuusprosentilla sekä eri lehmäpaikkamäärällä. Esimerkkien tulokseksi saadaan, kannattaako investointi käynnistää vai siirtää se myöhemmin toteutettavaksi, kun maidon hintariski otetaan huomioon. Tuloksena reaalioptiomenetelmälaskennasta saatiin, että esimerkkituotantorakennusinvestointi ei ole kannattava vuoden 2014 maidon tuottajahinnan keskiarvolla, ei vuosien 2012 - 2014 tuottajahinnan keskiarvolla, eikä useilla eri variaatioilla riskitasoja tai lehmäpaikkamäärää nostamalla. Investointi on kannattava riski huomioiden, mikäli maidon tuottajahinta olisi 0,49 €/l, jota se ei ole ollut koko tarkasteluajanjaksolla vuosina 2012 - 2014. Reaalioptiomenetelmä soveltuu hyvin maatalouden investointilaskentaan, sillä se on menetelmä, jonka avulla myös riskit saadaan hinnoiteltua ja otettua mukaan tarkasteluun, mikä on erityisen tärkeää isoja investointeja laskettaessa. Tutkimus on ajankohtainen sekä kiinnostava maitokiintiöiden poistumisen, maidon hintavaihtelun sekä tilakoon kasvun myötä.
  • Härkönen, Susanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    In my thesis I study fashion bloggers’ consumption speech. The aim of this study is to clarify.what kind of consumption is expressed in fashion blogs and what kind of development has happened in fashion blogs since 2007 until this study, based on the research material and my own observations. I have applied qualitative research method in this study. I have collected my research material from ten fashion blogs which were written by women in two different time periods in year 2009. In addition the study has etnography and netnography features. I have used typecasting and typology in analyzing the research material. The findings of the study indicate that seeing fashion bloggers as identity-seekers is associated with searching of own style and desire to differentiate. Traditional view of consumers as choosers and passive agents in the market is receding since in this study fashion bloggers appear to be active actors and producers. Also fashion bloggers are constantly seeking new consumer experiences and communicate with each other by conveying meanings through their consumption. In this study fashion bloggers’ consumption speeches appear to be rational in the frame of the consumer ethos of economism and traditional Finnish consumption speech. Economy is a virtue and prices influence buying decisions. However fashion bloggers know how to enjoy consumption in a controlled way. Consumption speeches follow also tradition of the consumer ethos of green consumerism which is manifested in avoiding fanaticism and preference of traditional and social media flea markets. Fashion bloggers’ consumer speeches imply social necessity because maintaining a fashion blog interesting requires continuous passion for new consumer products. On the basis of this study fashion blogs emphasize collectivity and consumption is very feminine. Based on research material and my own observations fashion blogs are changing into lifestyle blogs because they tell more and more of other than consumption related issues. At the same time fashion bloggers are developing from ordinary consumers towards expertise, in other words they are professionalising. Professionalised fashion bloggers act as new age consumer informants and new words and meanings are created in fashion blogs. Also fashion bloggers have develop such knowledge and abilities which can be sold. Fashion bloggers are becoming fashion professionals who are paid for blogging in the future.
  • Hytönen, Outi (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    This thesis deals with public opinion of the decision making concerning forest policy in Finland. The data used was part of a nationwide mail survey examining the perceptions of the legitimacy of forest policy and its predictors in Finland. The data comprised of the answers to the question “What would you like to focus on in the decision making concerning forest use?”. The answers were analysed using inductive content analysis. The topics from the data were categorised under four themes: values, political decision-making, actors and practises. Based on the answers forests are regarded as multifunctional and the different value conceptions are equally respected. However, the existing value conflict between economic and ecological values was evident. The forest policy cannot be legitimised only on the basis of economic use of the forest resources. The biodiversity, nature protection and the recreational benefits of the forests must also be taken into account according the citizens. The results were analysed in the light of the goals and procedures set in the main documents of the Finnish forest policy. The aim was to compare the similarities and differences between current forest policy and citizens’ perspectives, and to find out if one can make any judgements about the acceptability and legitimacy of the forest policy. In general, citizens know what is included in forest policy decisionmaking, and the opinions are consistent with current policy. Certain forestry actions and forest owners’ decision-making power are the main points of conflict. Clear cuttings and especially the objection of them was the most essential topic in the data. This is against the prevailing forestry practises, since clear cuttings are the most used method in final felling. Citizens suggest alternative forestry practises like thinning and uneven-age management to be used in the felling of timber. According to the results concerning political decision making the main conflict arises from forest owners’ participation possibilities and the distribution of power. The procedural justice of the forest policy is not fully justified and legitimate, since citizens feel forest owners have too little decision-making power on their own forest property.

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