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  • Bleyer, Maja (2015)
    The low population density and consequent high land availability in Niassa, Mozambique have attracted foreign private forest investments. Since 2005 forest companies have acquired the right to establish forest plantations in the area, which naturally affects the livelihoods in communities located close by. This study aimed to analyse the impact of forest plantations on the livelihood and wealth of local communities. The main objectives were the evaluation of impacts on natural resources, livelihood strategies and differences in the experienced impacts between different wealth groups. With these objectives, household interviews, focus group meetings and key informant interviews were held in five different villages in the province of Niassa. With principal component analysis (PCA) weights for valuable assets possessed by households were created and summed up to a factor score. On the basis of these scores the households were divided into three wealth groups, which were used to analyse differences in the perception of different groups of households. The main analysis of the perception of impacts on the natural resources, livelihood strategies and overall livelihood was carried out with binomial and multinomial logistic regression models. The results showed that while the natural capitals were impacted negatively by the establishment of forest plantations, households benefited from more diversified livelihood strategies. Furthermore, it was discovered that the wealth of a household does not have a major impact on the perception of impacts of a household. Instead relocation of farm plots and formal employment have been identified as determining factors. The study showed that the perception of the impacts differs greatly between the villages due to different initial resource endowment and different forest companies. Throughout the study it became evident that the weak implementation of land use rights is an underlying cause for many conflicts between companies and local communities.
  • Alestalo, Antti (2015)
    According to the Statistics Finland the Finnish furniture industry’s value of production sold in 2012 was around 762 million Euros, of which wooden furniture accounted for about 72 %. In 2012 approximately 85 % of the production was sold in the domestic market. Therefore, Finnish furniture industry has a great interest to understand for which kinds of product attributes the Finnish consumers are willing to pay. This study examines the Finnish consumers’ willingness to pay for different quality characteristics of wooden furniture from the consumers’ demographical background point of view. The aim is to highlight potential customer segments in the wooden furniture market in Finland. The survey data was collected for a joint study project of the Finnish Forest Research Institute and Pellervo Society during the summer 2004 in Eastern Finland from two different sources: home retail centres selling building materials and the annual home construction fair. The survey data consists of 147 form interviews of Finnish consumers of 18-75 years of age. In the survey the respondents were asked to express the importance of different attributes of wooden furniture in relation to the price of product in the scale 1-7. The interviews were carried out using the Exit-technique, which means that the survey data is being collected in the vicinity of the examined object so that the interviewers may clarify the questions and present concrete examples related to them if necessary. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using the SPSS software. Cross-tabulation and mean were used as statistical methods in the research. According to the results the most important attributes for the consumers in relation to the price of wooden furniture were appearance, use properties and technical quality. The least important attributes were brand name and image of the producer. Environmental friendliness was the fourth least important attribute for the consumers of the 12 attributes, and somewhat surprisingly, older generations were more willing to pay for it than the younger generations. The domestic origin of the wooden furniture was very important attribute for consumers of over 40 years of age. The results indicate that the consumers are distributed to different segments depending on their demographic background factors, which should be taken into account in the manufacturing process as well as in the marketing and sale actions of wooden furniture.
  • Xiao, Kun (2015)
    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a lactic acid bacterium that is widely used as probiotic products in the dairy industry. To gain insights into the genome stability of the L. rhamnosus GG in the human gastrointestinal tract and the possible adaption mechanism under different stresses, we first examined the genotype and phenotype of the L. rhamnosus GG grown over 1000 generations under various stresses, including bile salts, osmotic stress or shearing forces. Immunoblotting analysis of L. rhamnosus grown over 1000 generations showed that the production of mucus-binding pili by L. rhamnosus GG was the most impaired when exposed to bile salts. Complementary PCR screening of 13 highly variable chromosomal regions in GG confirmed that the pilus gene cluster had been lost when exposed to bile stress over time. In vitro bile-induced genomic changes observed in GG possibly reflects the genome plasticity and stability of GG in the human intestinal tract. Still, we showed that these changes only occurred after more than 100 generations, a period of time relatively long compared to the observed time of persistence and transit of GG in the intestinal tract. Although damages and stresses may be caused by bile salts, L. rhamnosus GG still has the ability to tolerate bile salts. The resistance mechanism is still unclear but, based on previous studies, we identified one ABC transporter encoded by the gene operon called tauABC that may be involved in bile resistance. In an effort to demonstrate its function, a tauB-null mutant derivative was generated and phenotypically characterized in terms of metabolic, signaling and functional properties. The data revealed that the tauB-null mutant significantly grow slower than L. rhamnosus GG wild-type strain in the presence of ox bile extracts. Additional screenings using various bile conjugates specifically revealed that two compounds of bile salts, i.e. taurodeoxycholic and taurochenodeoxycholic acid, may be processed by the TauABC transporter, contributing at least partially to the tolerance of GG to bile salts. Overall, we showed that bile salts constitute an important stress factor for GG that causes genomic alterations, although it has bile tolerance mechanisms to bile, such as the newly-characterized tauABC operon.
  • Kara, Tuomas (2015)
    Trees play an important ecological role also after their death. Earlier studies have introduced various methods of modelling coarse woody debris (CWD). However, CWD models that would consider different types of CWD, and their decay class dynamics are lacking from the Finnish commercial forests. The aim of this study was to predict the development of CWD for UPM-Kymmene owned FSC-certified forests in Finland. For that purpose, models for simulating CWD dynamics in Finnish commercial forests were developed for Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and hardwoods. Trees were classified to different decay classes based on their visual appearance and softness of the wood. The mean residence time of each decay class was used to develop transition matrix model for predicting the possibilities of transitions between different decay classes. In the generated model a tree can stay in the class m or move to classes m+1 or m+2 in a time frame of five years. In addition snags had a possibility to fall i.e. move to down woody debris pool. The results showed that within all the studied tree species, the half-life of snags was 15–20 years. Hardwood logs decomposed faster than softwoods: the half-life of softwood logs was 35–40 years and the half-life of hardwoods was about 25 years. In a hypothetical equilibrium state reached by a continuous CWD input, most snags were in early decay class, whereas most logs were in the advanced decay class. Volume and quality of future CWD in UPM-Kymmene owned FSC-certified forests was predicted, using their current CWD pool and future tree mortality predicted by the forest simulation system MELA. In these simulations, the volume of CWD increased in the future. At the end of the 50-year simulation period, the predicted volume of CWD was 5,9 m3 ha-1. Pinus sylvesris was the dominant CWD species and advanced decayed wood was dominant decay class. The simulation approach demonstrated here has much potential as a useful decision-making tool for CWD management in commercial forests. Incorporating these models into forest management planning could provide valuable information about the effects of management practices on CWD dynamics in commercial forests.
  • Jauhiainen, Heta (2015)
    Tämän tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli tarkastella henkilöstöjohtamista suomalaisissa maatalousyrityksissä. Tutkimuksessa selvitettiin, millaisia henkilöstöjohtamisen käytänteitä yrittäjillä oli käytössään. Lisäksi selvitettiin yrittäjien kokemuksia henkilöstöjohtamiseen liittyvistä haasteista. Tutkimuksen lähestymistavaksi valittiin kvalitatiivinen tutkimusote. Tutkimusotteen valintaan vaikutti tutkimusongelma tutkimuskysymyksineen sekä aikaisemman tutkimuksen vähäinen määrä. Tutkimusstrategiaksi valikoitui tapaustutkimus, jossa aineisto hankittiin teemahaastattelujen avulla. Haastateltavina oli yrittäjiä yhteensä kahdeksasta keskimääräistä suuremmasta maidon- ja sianlihantuotantoyrityksestä, joissa oli palkattuna vähintään yksi vakituinen ulkopuolinen työntekijä. Tulosten perusteella henkilöstöjohtaminen vaihteli tapauksittain tutkituissa yrityksissä. Tapauksia yhdisti kuitenkin yrittäjä-johtajan toimenkuva ja työntekijöiden lukumäärä. Näiden perusteella henkilöstöjohtamista tarkasteltiin kahdessa luokassa: ’pienissä maatalousyrityksissä’ ja ’suurissa maatalousyrityksissä’. Henkilöstöjohtamisen käytänteet luokiteltiin kirjallisuuden perusteella rekrytointiin, perehdyttämiseen ja kouluttamiseen, työsuorituksen johtamiseen sekä sitouttamiseen. Aineistoa tarkasteltiin teoriasidonnaisesti. Henkilöstöjohtamisen haasteet muodostettiin puolestaan aineistolähtöisesti. Haasteet kategorisoitiin erityisosaamiseen, osaavan työvoiman rekrytointiin sekä oman toimenkuvaan muuttumiseen. Tutkielma toteutettiin yhteistyössä ProAgria Keskusten Liiton kanssa, joten tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on tuottaa tietoutta ilmiöstä asiantuntijatyön kehittämiseksi.
  • Tilli, Kim (2015)
    HELSINGIN YLIOPISTO * HELSINGFORS UNIVERSITET * UNIVERSITY OF HELSINKI Tiedekunta/Osasto Fakultet/Sektion – Faculty Maatalous-metsätieteellinen tiedekunta Laitos/Institution– Department Maataloustieteiden laitos Tekijä/Författare – Author Kim Tilli Työn nimi / Arbetets titel – Title Lehden värin vaikutus kasvin houkuttelevuuteen tuhohyönteisille Oppiaine /Läroämne – Subject Kasvintuotantotieteet / Maatalouseläintiede Työn laji/Arbetets art – Level Maisterintutkielma Aika/Datum – Month and year Joulukuu 2014 Sivumäärä/ Sidoantal – Number of pages 91 s. Tiivistelmä/Referat – Abstract Kasvinsuojeluaineiden käyttöä kasvintuhoojien torjuntaan pyritään muun muassa Euroopan Unionissa vähentämään maatalouspoliittisin keinoin ja lisäksi torjuntakäyttöön sallittujen kemikaalien määrä vähenee koko ajan. Jotta tuotanto ei samanaikaisesti vähene, on kehitettävä uusia keinoja edelleen tuottaa tehokkaasti. Käytössä on jo kemikaalien käytön vaihtoehdoiksi useita viljelyteknisiä keinoja, kuten muokkaustavat, viljelykierto, katteet, houkutuskasvustot ja harsot. Tämä tutkimus pyrki selvittämään osaltaan onko kasvin värillä merkitystä eli voiko oikealla lajikevalinnalla vähentää hyönteistuhoja. Värin vaikutusta hyönteisten syönti- ja munintakäyttäytymiseen on tutkittu suhteellisen vähän. Lisäksi erilaisia teorioita ja hypoteeseja tästä käyttäytymisestä on esitetty pääasiallisesti kirjallisuustutkimusten perusteella ilman kenttäkokeita. Muutamat suoritetut kokeet ovat olleet usein ainoastaan yhdellä hyönteis- tai kasvilajilla järjestettyjä, joten vertailtavaa aineistoa on ollut hyvin vähän käytettävissä. Tämän kokeen tarkoitus oli verrata samanaikaisesti useiden hyönteislajien käyttäytymistä, koska eri lajeilla voi olla erilaiset isäntäkasvin etsintästrategiat. Peltokoe suoritettiin käyttäen sekä hyöty- että koristekasvilajeja. Kasvatuskaapissa tehdyllä syöntikokeella haluttiin lisäksi testata eriväristen ravintokasvien vaikutusta hyönteisen, tässä tapauksessa kaaliperhosen, kehittymiseen. Kasvukauden alun suurten lämpötilanvaihteluiden sekä alhaisten lämpötilojen vuoksi peltokokeen viidestä kasvilajista yksi käytännössä kuoli pois kokeen aikana ja vain kaksi lajeista kasvoi hyvin. Toisaalta nämä kaksi lajia antoivat selkeän tuloksen lajikkeen värin vaikutuksesta eli korrelaatiosta värin ja hyönteistuhojen välillä. Syöntikokeessa sama trendi näkyi toukkien punnituspainossa; vaaleinta kaalia syöneet toukat kasvoivat eniten ja punaista kaalia syöneet vähiten. Värillä tai sen indikoimilla yhdisteillä näyttäisi olevan siis vaikutusta myös hyönteisen kehitykseen. Avainsanat – Nyckelord – Keywords Väri, hyönteisvioitus, sekundaarimetaboliitti, kehitys Säilytyspaikka – Förvaringställe – Where deposited Maataloustieteiden laitos ja Viikin kampuskirjasto Muita tietoja – Övriga uppgifter – Additional information Työtä ohjasi maatalouseläintieteen professori, PhD Heikki M.T. Hokkanen HELSINGIN YLIOPISTO * HELSINGFORS UNIVERSITET * UNIVERSITY OF HELSINKI
  • Åberg, Minna-Maaria (2015)
    Tässä pro gradu -tutkielmassa perehdytään luomun markkinointiin mainoskuvan analyysin keinoin. Tutkielmassa tutkitaan kvalitatiivista mainosanalyysiä apuna käyttäen, mitä mainoskuvat viestivät luomusta ja millä keinoin. Luomumainokset ovat elintarvikemainonnan osa ja luomu yhä nousevan ekologisen tietoisuuden aikana ajankohtainen tutkielman aihe. Tutkielmassa syvennytään mainoskuvan katselukokemukseen siten, että tutkija tekee analyysin kuudesta (6) luomumainoksesta, jotka ovat Finfood – Suomen Ruokatieto Ry:n (nykyinen Ruokatieto Ry) toimeksi antamia tai sellaisia, joissa näkyy luomumerkki. Mainokset on kerätty vuosilta 1998–2004, joten niistä saadaan näkökulma siihen, miten luomumainostaminen on tapahtunut aiemmin ja miten mainonta on kehittynyt näiden vuosien aikana. Tutkielman tavoite on selvittää, mitä ja miten luomumainoksilla on viestitty luomusta. Erityistä huomiota kiinnitetään visuaaliseen rakenteeseen ja yhteneväisyyteen ja pohditaan, millaisia mielikuvia mainokset herättävät. Elintarvikemainosten tehokkuutta tutkitaan usein kvantitatiivisesti, esimerkiksi myynnin kehitystä seuraamalla. Mainoskuvassa on kuitenkin myös kvalitatiiviselle tutkimukselle hyvää aineistoa löydettävissä, sillä mainoskuvat ovat sisällöltään rikkaita. Tavoite saavutetaan tutkimalla, mitkä elementit aiheuttavat mainoskuvassa tämän sanattoman kommunikaation ja miten päällisin puolin yksinkertaiselta tuntuvan kuvan kielioppi kertoo mainostettavasta aiheesta. Tutkielmasta saadaan tätä ajatusta kuljettamalla sivutuotteena tulokseksi, mitä luomusta on mainoskuvilla viestitty. Tulevaisuudessa on tärkeää, että mainostaja ymmärtää tuottamansa visuaalisen materiaalin vaikutukset ja syyt syvällisesti. Suomessa on monia erilaisia mainosalan ja media-alan toimijoita, jotka tuottavat tutkimusdataa ja mainonnan mittaristoja. Suurasiakkaat, kuten Ruokakesko Oy, tilaavat mittaristoja, sekä ylläpitävät omia mainonnan mittaristojaan. Samat tahot myös tilaavat mainokset. On tilaa tutkielmalle, jossa perehdytään elintarvikemainontaan tuorein silmin, syvästi sisällölliseltä näkökannalta. Mainoskuvan analyysillä visuaalisen kieliopin avulla voidaan avata uusia näkökulmia mainoksiin. Tutkielmassa halutaan myös tuottaa lisää materiaalia mainoskuvan tutkimuksen saralla. Tutkielman pääkysymys oli; mitä ja miten luomumainoksilla on viestitty luomusta, johon löytyi monia vastauksia mainoksista. Luomusta on viestitty, että luomun ostaminen on erilainen tapa ajatella kotitalouden ruokaostoksia. Luomukuluttajalle on viestitty vahvasta ja uskaliaasta valinnasta, jolla on vaikutusta. Mainoskuvat luokittelevat luomun luonnonläheisyyteen, lisäaineettomuuteen ja turvallisuuteen kulutusvalinnoissa. Monessa tutkielman mainoksessa luomun vihreä värimaailma ja sloganit, www-sivut sekä tiedottavuus ovat mainoksen pääelementtejä. Mainokset kertovat luomun olevan ennen muuta turvallinen valinta, joka perustuu tulevaisuuteen.
  • Myllykoski, Anna-Kaisa (2015)
    The experiment was a part of a project concerning national adaptation of the European Union directive on the protection of chickens kept for meat production. One of the aims of the project was to improve broiler chickens’ welfare by exploiting Welfare Quality® assessment system. The objective of this thesis was to find environment and management factors that could explain the differences in broiler flocks’ cleanliness, foot pad and hock health and walking ability. The hypothesis was that the distinction between the results obtained from animal-based measurements can be explained by the differences in environment and management factors. The experiment conducted in winter 2013 and a total of 22 farms and 45 broiler flocks participated in the experiment. The research sample represents about a 10 percentage of the all the Finnish farms that rear broiler chickens. The broilers were Ross 508 or Ross 308 hybrids. At the time of the visit flocks were expected to be slaughtered within a week. The flocks were assessed by using Welfare Quality® assessment system. Cleanliness of the birds was assessed by using a scale from 0 (clean) to 3 (very dirty). Foot pad and hock lesions were assessed by using a scale from 0 (no lesions) to 4 (severe). The walking ability of the broilers was assessed by using a scale from 0 (smooth) to 5 (unable to walk). Litter quality was good and the mean value was 0.66 when the scale ranged from 0 (dry) to 4 (wet). Air quality was quite good as measured by dustiness. There were only a few panting birds, which indicated that the temperature of the houses was right for the birds. All the flocks were clean, the mean value was 0.97. Older and heavier birds were slightly dirtier. The foot pad and hock health was overall good, because over 70 % of the birds had a score of 0. The mean value for foot pads was 0.40 and for hocks 0.31. The good litter quality correlated with better foot pads and hocks. Heavier birds had a better foot pad score and the hock score was better, when the birds were younger. The walking ability was impaired by the age of the birds and by the low stocking density (birds/m2). A regression analysis was conducted to find the relationships among variables. The analysis could create prediction models for broiler flocks’ cleanliness, foot pad score, hock score and walking ability that only had a weak or a moderate coefficient of determination. All the models had independent variables that were obtained from the data collected at the slaughter house. An interesting finding was that the variable “percentage of the birds discarded because of emaciation” was among all the created prediction models. This experiment suggests that the emaciation percentage of the flock reflects the overall health and the level of management of the flock. There are not many differences in rearing conditions between Finnish broiler houses and therefor it was difficult to find any statistical relationship between the measurements. All the flocks were quite clean and had healthy foot pads and hocks.
  • Marjanen, Mikael (2015)
    Spruce stumps have been harvested in large scale for combustion in heat and power plants since the beginning of the 21th century. Normally the stump harvesting operations are done by excavators. On stump harvesting areas the risk to serious soil damage is greater because there are more driving tracks on the ground than in original logging operations. In stump harvesting areas machines cannot get benefit from frozen soil or coarse roots to increase bearing capacity. Compacted soil can reduce tree root penetration, increase nutrient leaching and affect soil water properties. The aim of this study was to clarify if the stump harvesting compacts the forest soil and if it possibly recovers in the long run. I also studied how much the soil surface will be disturbed after stump harvesting operations. In this study there were three stump harvesting sites which varied in the time passed since harvesting. Comparable reference sites were chosen from nearby areas where the stumps were not harvested. All sites were located in Southern and Central Finland. Every site had three 5 x 5 meter study plots in which soil strength was measured by a cone penetrometer. Soil core samples were also taken from every study plot. The soil surface disturbance proportions were estimated visually and using a soil sampling probe. Measurements were carried out under summer of 2014. The results indicate that the soil has been compacted by stump harvesting in the 4-year-old site but differences were statistically significant (p<0.05) only in 2 of 6 depth classes. In the middle aged (7 years) site the impacts were the opposite. In the oldest (13 years) site there were no differences between the treatments. The soil surface in stump harvesting sites has been disturbed most in the youngest site (50 %), and at the other sites the disturbed soil surface proportion was about 40 %. About 25 % of soil surface was disturbed in all reference sites. The soil disturbance results in this study were minor compared to other studies in the literature. In the upper depth classes soils were not too compacted for tree growth, root penetration and nutrient uptake. This indicates that the changes in soil structural properties caused by stump harvesting are not harmful for forest growth but more long-term studies are needed.
  • Jalkanen, Laura (2015)
    Kaasut, aromiyhdisteet ja rasva läpäisevät kartongin, joten kartonki tulee päällystää elintarvikepakkausmateriaalina käytettäessä. Tällä hetkellä päällystemateriaalit valmistetaan uusiutumattomista raaka-ainesta ja ovat vaikeasti kierrätettäviä. Näiden tekijöiden ja yhdyskuntajätteen määrän vähentämisen vuoksi päällystemateriaalit pyritään korvaamaan uusiutuvilla biopohjaisilla materiaalilla. Tutkielman kirjallisuusosassa perehdyttiin kartonkiin pakkausmateriaalina, mineraaliöljyn migraatioon ja biopohjaisilla materiaaleilla päällystetyn kartongin suojaominaisuuksiin. Kokeellisen tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää, estääkö kartongin tärkkelyspohjainen päällyste mineraaliöljyn migraatiota ja hapen- tai vesihöyrynläpäisyä. Kartonkinäytteet, joiden dispersiopäällysteet sisälsivät tärkkelystä ja osa tärkkelyksen lisäksi lateksia, silikaattia tai kaoliinia ja karboksimetyyliselluloosaa (CMC), saatiin Lappeenrannan teknillisen yliopiston kuitu- ja paperitekniikan tutkimusryhmältä. Päällystemateriaaleista määritettiin termisiä ominaisuuksia ja vesihöyryn sorptio. Kartonkinäytteistä mitattiin paksuuden muutos suhteellisen kosteuden kasvaessa ja veden sekä mineraaliöljyn kontaktikulmat. Lisäksi päällystettyjen näytteiden mineraaliöljyn migraatio ja vesihöyrynläpäisevyydet määritettiin. Kahden päällystetyn kartonkinäytteen poikkileikkauksen rakennetta kuvannettiin kenttäemissiopyyhkäisyelektronimikroskoopilla ja näiden näytteiden hapenläpäisevyys määritettiin. Päällystemateriaalien analyysin perusteella tärkkelys, joka oli päällysteiden pääkomponentti, oli todennäköisesti kumitilassa suurimmassa osassa mittauksista (23 °C, 55 %:n suhteellinen kosteus). Tärkkelyksellä 55 %:n suhteellisessa kosteudessa havaitun kiteisyyden vuoksi päällysteet olivat luultavasti osittain kiteisiä. Tärkkelyksen suuren vesihöyryn absorption ja päällysteiden melko matalien veden kontaktikulmien perusteella pääteltiin, että päällysteet olivat hydrofiilisiä. Kaikki näytteiden päällysteet vähensivät kaasumaisen mineraaliöljyn migraatiota. Osa päällysteistä esti nestemäisen mineraaliöljyn läpäisyä. Mineraaliöljyn hiilivetyjen migraatio riippuu pääosin migraatiosta kaasufaasissa, joten todennäköisesti kaikki päällysteet vähensivät mineraaliöljyn migraation kartongin läpi. Matalan mineraaliöljyn migraation syyksi oletettiin päällysteiden hydrofiilisyyttä ja kiteisyyttä, mineraaliöljyn hiilivetyjen suurta molekyylikokoa sekä mineraalipigmenttilevyjen eksfolioitumista eli pigmenttilevyjen erkanemista toisistaan ja levittäytymistä satunnaisesti päällysteissä. Päällysteet eivät toimineet vesihöyryn- tai hapenläpäisynestokerroksina. Todennäköisesti vesihöyrynläpäisynopeudet olivat korkeita päällysteiden hydrofiilisyyden vuoksi.
  • Antturi, Jim (2015)
    The International Maritime Organization's sulfur emissions regulations for shipping were implemented in the European Union with the so called Sulfur Directive. According to the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL), as of January 1, 2015, in Sulfur Emission Control Areas (SECAs) the maximum sulfur content in maritime fuel is lowered to 0.1%. In Europe the Baltic Sea, the English Channel and the North Sea are declared SECAs, where the standard was previously 1.0%. The current worldwide non-SECA standard is 3.5% which will be lowered to 0.5% by 2020. This study examines the net benefits of reducing shipping-based sulfur emissions and the effect on industrial competitiveness for Finland. In order to do this, abatement costs as well as monetized health benefits related to improved air quality are calculated. The effect on competitiveness is defined by comparing the figures obtained with the hypothetical case in which the Baltic Sea had not been declared SECA and 0.5% regulation had been imposed. In this study, shipowners adapt to the regulation by switching to low-sulfur fuel or by installing a sulfur scrubber. A net present value comparison between low sulfur fuel and a sulfur scrubber is conducted individually for each ship visiting Finland and then individual costs are aggregated to industry-wide costs. Health benefits for Finland are calculated for emissions reductions applied to Baltic Sea shipping as whole. Reduced sulfur emissions lead to lowered ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) which has a positive impact on human health. The analysis conducted takes into account the effect PM2.5 has on the incidences of cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and restricted activity days. These effects are measured in one figure in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) and monetized by multiplying by the Value of a Life Year (VOLY). The results suggest that the annual benefits of emissions reduction are expected to be circa 246 saved DALYs or monetized €12 million. The average annual abatement cost for Finland is approximately €228 million which indicates negative net benefits for the policy. Assuming that Finland will bear 100% of the costs, the same figure also represents the effect on competitiveness. When the global 0.5% cap comes into effect the impact on competitiveness decreases to an annual €93 million. The results imply that the abatement costs are lower than previously thought and the effect on competitiveness is milder than expected. A partial sensitivity analysis does not change the ratio between the costs and the benefits.
  • Hietarinta, Elina (2015)
    Oats is one of the most cultivated grains in the world. Oat contains 5 to 8 % of lipids, which is a lot compared to many other cereals. Most of the oat lipids are triacylglycerols and about 80 % of its fatty acids are nutritionally significant unsaturated fatty acids. Due to high fat content and high amount of unsaturated fatty acids both the processing of oats and the development of new oat products are challenging. Oat lipids and their reactions during the processing and storage are a significant reason for the changes in oat quality and the unpleasant flavour. It is possible to either decrease or increase the stability of lipids with different processing methods. The objective of this study was to examine oat lipid reactions and stability during the storage. Ravintoraisio Oy gave all the samples for the research. There were seven oat products, which all were differently processed. Samples of different ages of these products were analysed. Short-term storage test was made for four samples, over 16 weeks at 40 °C. At first, all the oat samples were milled to small particles and then total lipids of these products were extracted by accelerated-solvent-extraction. Neutral lipid classes, volatile compounds and tocols were measured from the samples. Neutral lipid classes were analysed by the high performance liquid chromatography method with evaporative light scattering detector. Volatile compounds were measured by a solid phase microextraction method with GC-MS. Tocols were measured by the high performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detector. All the oat samples contained about 5 % of lipids. Most of the lipids were still triacylglycerols after a long-term storage. Free fatty acids were detected only from non-heat-treated samples. Content of tocols decreased significantly in oat samples during storage. Tocol content decreased when degree of processing rose. The content of oxidation products of oat lipids, like hexanal, also rose during the storage. Hexanal and 2-pentylfuran were the most abundant volatiles in the samples. The highest amount of oxidation products were found in extrudates which were stored for 16 weeks at 40 °C. Based on the results, storing oat products for 16 weeks at 40°C, corresponds with over one year storage at natural storage temperature. The effects of extrusion and heat treatment have strong influence on reactions of oat lipids and storage stability. The lipids of unprocessed oat grains were the most stable. More information is required to identify the exact reason for off-odors and off-flavours.
  • Suominen, Tiia (2015)
    The changing environment causes new needs and objectives for which new plans and strategies have to be created. The importance of the residents increases during these planning processes, and therefore utilizing different participatory methods comes more and more important. There are two parts in this research; the first part examines how the resident survey, from participatory methods, can be used in the strategical planning of the city’s forests’ use and management, and in the second part, the resident survey has been implemented to find out the opinions, wishes, and proposals of the residents con-cerning the city’s forests’ use and management in Vantaa. The first part of the research examines how the resident survey can be used in the achieving the objec-tives, what is the content that the resident survey is able to bring into the planning process, and to find out how and in which phase, or in which way, the resident survey can be used in the planning process. In this part, the qualitative methods were used, and the results are mainly based on the existing litera-ture together with the implemented survey in the certain aspects. From the results, it is possible to find out that the resident survey may achieve very well the objectives of the municipality and the objec-tives relating residents’ local knowledge and possibilities to influence by certain criteria. The objectives related to the residents’ spiritual or psychological characteristics, like building the trust, are more dif-ficult to achieve. On the other hand, the implemented resident survey cannot be used to achieve all the objectives of the international or institutional parts, like the objectives related to the Forest Act. It is possible to use the resident survey in every phase of the planning process, but according to the re-sults of this research, it will not be able to bring all the objectives in every phase. The second part of the research was to implement the resident survey to find out the residents’ opin-ions, wishes, and proposals concerning the forests of Vantaa city. It enabled to gather the knowledge and the information about the meaning and the use of the forests, the acceptable forest management methods, the participatory in the forest management and planning, and the local information about the forests. Vantaa city was divided into the seven areas. The sample size was 2 100 – so 300 residents of the age 15 to 75 from each area. In total 950 answers were received with the respond rate 45 %. The results were created by using the quantitative methods. They show that the meaning of the forests for recreation and outdoor activities is remarkable; the most important characteristics are naturalness and feeling of the forest, calmness and silence, and the opportunities to outdoor activities and sport; the residents mostly use forests nearby home; and the most acceptable forest management methods cause less changes in the environment, like thinning, uneven-aged forest management, and harvesting. The participatory is quite unknown for most of the respondents, and the most of the residents think that this resident survey will not influence to the final decisions. Further studies about how the criteria, used in this research, could work with different resident sur¬veys is needed, and if they can be used in the other phases of the planning process that have been found out in this research.
  • Malkamäki, Arttu J. (2015)
    This thesis aims to assess the state and development of beekeeping in Uruguay. Uruguay exports more than 90% of its honey and supplies regularly to the demanding markets in the EU and the US. As marginalized actors in the global honey chain, the beekeepers' livelihoods are largely dependent on the shifts of globalization, predominantly on the patterns of global economy. Proliferation of voluntary certification schemes such as Fairtrade International and European Union Organic Farming have become evident features of these patterns. Adoption of voluntary certification schemes has impacted particularly the development trajectories of smallholders, which is why particular attention in this thesis was laid on them. It was, however, quickly understood the development is dependent on several factors on different levels. To conceptualize these levels, value chain governance and voluntary certification schemes in them were seen shaping the livelihood outcomes of the smallholders. Combining governance and horizontal livelihood approaches, which represents the main innovation of this thesis, was used to identify action points and upgrading strategies feasible for the beekeepers as actors engaged in the global honey chain. In addition, this thesis further highlights the context of beekeeping as a livelihood, honey as a commodity with certain features and market dynamics, as well as Uruguay as the main geographical scope. Research methods were qualitative. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2014 with four different respondent groups along the global honey chain: importers of honey in the EU; representatives of local institutions and export agencies in Uruguay; and the beekeepers themselves, which of some were organized in cooperatives. From the collected data, the development trajectories were analyzed deductively to identify the viable strategies to improve sustainable livelihood outcomes. Based on results, the global honey chain was found buyer-driven since the buyers bear the most powerful role. The structure replicates features of market and captive types of governance, suggesting there is a high degree of power asymmetry and coordination. Higher coordination, however, favors successful upgrading. By identifying the activities performed by actors in the chain, the action point was found in the production node due to the recent increase in activities. High costs of inputs and low margins throughout the chain were observed, particularly in the export node. Beekeepers' baseline conditions were determined as access to livelihood assets, which were found generally weak. State of the fundamental aspect of beekeeping, access to natural assets, was found alarming. The decreased floral resources in Uruguay are due to the rapid proliferation of changes in land use, accelerated by the main vulnerability causing shocks in production and with implications on prices: the climate variability. A key finding, however, was that the proliferation of Eucalyptus grandis in Uruguay has created a dependency by compensating the losses in production based on other flowerings. Furthermore, the emergence of pests has brought risk of losing colonies and increasing costs in treatment and prevention. Natural assets set the main constraint over sustainability of beekeeping in Uruguay, but possibilities to compensate smallholders was found among social assets, which clearly were not optimized at their current levels. This notion largely represents the main conclusion in this thesis: horizontal contractualization of the beekeepers through collective action is the only strategy with a reasonable balance between revenues and risks. In all other scenarios, the risks are likely to become unbearable, unless an external agent would be willing to guarantee the risks up to some point to initiate the process. Collective action was found as a precondition of vertical contractualization, which could include affiliation in voluntary certification schemes. Fairtrade International was predominantly found as a more attractive scheme, but could in this context benefit only a large cooperative with already good resources. Affiliation in a certification scheme, however, would not remove the main constraints faced by the sector in Uruguay, which are the decreasing production per hive and the costs running relatively faster than the prices received, resulting in a decreasing profitability. Whereas more beekeepers are excluded from the chain, the ones remaining practice beekeeping largely based on love and tradition. Future research is suggested to take a more sophisticated approach to cost-benefit analyses to support further decision-making on the level of the beekeepers, as well as on the level of policy-makers. In addition, prospective approaches to develop and assess the potential of systems such as payments for ecosystem services in the context of beekeeping are highly recommended.
  • Riuttala, Mari (2015)
    In humans, various allergies and intolerances have increased in recent years. Many people think that they have a variety of symptoms from eating grain products. Cereal protease inhibitors are believed to be possibly one of the factors that can cause these reactions. The aim of the experimental part of the study was to isolate serine peptidase inhibitors serpins from barley and study different hydrolysis to it. Serpins are very stable at hydrolyse. The litera-ture review deals characteristics of serine protease inhibitors serpins and other allergens from cereals. And examine the celiac harmful proteins and their cleavage, gluten sensitivity and celiac disease. Cereals proteins can trigger variety hypersensitivity or immunological symptoms for humans. Many of cereal inhibitor proteins are allergens and storage proteins prolamins cause immuno-logical inflammation in the coeliac patient’s intestines. Cereal serpins are very strong binding inhibitors that behave like substrates and reactive centre cleaved during inhibition. After serpins reactive centre degraded, they become very stable to heat and subsequent degradation. Serpins are almost the only protein in beer. It remains hydrolysed and undenatured through the malting and brewing process. The aim of this study was to isolate serpins from barley and eliminate them from gluten-free beer using the Aspergillus niger- fungus produced prolyl endopeptidase AN-PEP, Tritirachium album- fungus produced serine endopeptidase Protease K and hydrogen peroxide oxidation. Serpin cleavage was monitored by SDS-gel electrophoresis and size exclu-sion chromatography (SEC). In this study, it was shown that AN-PEP and protease K made it possible to degrade serpins from gluten-free beer. Serpins from gluten-free beer did not degrade with oxidation. AN-PEP makes it possible to eliminate the majority of beer serpins. AN-PEP can be used to make beer suitable for allergy sufferers in the future.
  • Tavi, Laura (2015)
    Tämän Pro gradu–tutkielman tavoitteena oli kartoittaa suomalaisten nuorten kulutuskäyttäytymiseen vaikuttavia tekijöitä aiheesta julkaistun kirjallisuuden, tieteellisten artikkeleiden ja aiempien tutkimuksien pohjalta. Tavoitteena oli myös yhdistää jo olemassa olevaa teoriaa tutkielmaa varten suoritetusta kyselytutkimuksesta saatuun informaatioon ja tarkastella niiden avulla kulutuksessa ilmeneviä eroja ja yhtäläisyyksiä lukiolaisten ja ammattikoululaisten nuorten keskuudessa. Nuoret tekevät yhä enemmän kulutuspäätöksiä yhä nuoremmalla iällä. Päätöksiä kuluttaa tehdään tiedostaen ja tiedostamatta kuluttajan koko elämänkaaren aikana. Nuoriin ja heidän kulutuskäyttäytymiseen vaikuttavat niin perhe, ystävät, sosiaalinen media ja internet, kuin mainonta ja eettiset arvot. Koko ympäröivä maailma viestii kuluttajalle ja nuoret ovat vaikutus-alttiissa iässä omaksumaan erilaisia kulutustapoja. Tätä tutkielmaa varten suoritettiin sähköinen kyselytutkimus, jotta voitaisiin selvittää helsinkiläisten ammattikoulua ja lukiota käyvien nuorten kulutuskäyttäytymisen piirteitä. Kyselytutkimuksen avulla haluttiin selvittää, kuinka teoriasta nousseet tekijät vaikuttavat nuoren kulutukseen, ja onko lukiolaisten ja ammattikoululaisten nuorten keskuudessa yhteneväisyyksiä tai eroja näissä tekijöissä. Sähköinen kyselylomake lähetettiin viidelle helsinkiläiselle lukiolle ja viidelle ammattikoululle. Aikaa vastaamiseen annettiin 12.3.2014–4.4.2014 ja valideja vastauksia saatiin 120 kappaletta, kun haluttiin vas-tauksia 16–25-vuotiailta opiskelijoilta. Aineiston analysointityökaluna käytettiin SPSS–ohjelmaa, jonka avulla kyettiin mallintamaan nuorten vastaukset kuvioiksi ja taulukoiksi. Aineiston analyysimenetelmänä käytettiin lukujen, kuvioiden ja tau-lukkojen avulla selittävää ja kuvailevaa analyysimenetelmää. Määrällisessä analyysissä pyritään selvittämään ilmiöiden välisiä yhteyksiä ja syy-seuraus –suhteita, jonka vuoksi sen ottaminen osaksi tätä tutkielmaa oli luonnollista. Tavallisesti määrällinen analyysi aloitetaan tilastollisella kuvaavalla analyysillä, ja näin toimittiin myös tässä tutkimuksessa. Tutkimuksessa käytettiin myös luokitteluanalyysia. Suoritetun tutkimuksen perusteella voidaan todeta, että helsinkiläiset lukiolaiset ja ammattikoululaiset nuoret kuluttavat samalla tavalla. Ammattikoululaiset ovat itsenäisempiä, mitä tulee muiden mielipiteisiin ja neuvoihin koskien kulutusta ja lukiolaiset arvostavat enemmän ystäviensä mielipiteitä. Nuoret kokevat, että sosiaalisen median avulla kulutuskäyttäytyminen helpottuu, mutta he suosivat silti perinteisiä kivijalkamyymälöitä internetkauppojen sijaan. Nuorten mielestä televisiossa, lehdissä ja internetissä nähdyt mainokset houkuttelevat ostamaan, mutta samaan aikaan he sanovat, etteivät osta tuottei-ta ja palveluita näkemiensä mainoksien perusteella. Eettiset arvot, kestävä kulutus ja luomuruoka ovat tärkeitä nuorille, mutta rajoitettujen käyttövarojen takia he eivät voi vielä kuluttaa niiden osa-alueella haluamallaan tavalla.
  • Niinikoski, Paula (2015)
    Haitalliset vieraslajit aiheuttavat vahinkoa kotoperäisille lajeille, eliöyhteisöille ja ekosys-teemeille. Vieraslajeja pidetään elinympäristöjen häviämisen ja pirstoutumisen ohella yhtenä suurim¬mista uhista luonnon monimuotoisuudelle. Suomessa on 157 haitallista vieraslajia. Jättiputket (Heracleum sp.) ja kurttu¬ruusu (Rosa rugosa) ovat ainoita erityisen haitallisiksi luokiteltuja vieraskasvilajeja. Jättiputkea käytetään yleisnimityksenä kolmelle Heracleum suvun (Apiaceae) lajille: kaukasianjättiputki (H. mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier), persianjättiputki (H. persicum Desf. ex Fish.) ja armenianjättiputki (H. sosnowskyi Manden). Jättiputket ovat monivuotisia diploideja kasveja ja niiden kotoperäinen levinneisyysalue on Kaukasiassa ja Luoteis-Aasi¬assa. Populaatiogeneettisillä tutkimuksilla voidaan arvioida lajin evolutiivista potentiaalia, leviämistä ja haitallisuutta. Tä¬män maisterintutkielman tavoitteena oli selvittää viiden jättiputki populaation geneettistä monimuotoisuutta ja rakennetta populaatioiden sisällä ja välillä. Tutkimuksessa käytettiin yhdeksää mikrosatelliittimerkkiä. Näytteitä kerättiin viidestä populaatiosta (yhteensä 140), jotka genotyypitettiin kullakin mikrosatelliitilla. Aineisto analysoitiin Arlequin- ja Structure-ohjelmilla. Odotetun heterotsygotian perusteella geneettinen muuntelu oli melko vähäistä (HE = 0.47). Hardy-Weinbergin testin perusteella heterotsygotia oli merkitsevästi vähentynyt kaikissa populaatioissa suhteessa odotettuun heterotsygotiaan ja FIS-arvot olivat korkeita. Havaitusta muuntelusta suurin osa oli populaatioiden sisäistä. Tulokset voivat olla seurausta sisäsiitoksesta tai hyvin pienistä perustajapopulaatioista. Bayesilainen rakenneanalyysi jakoi populaatiot kahteen klusteriin, joista toinen klusteri voitiin jakaa vielä kolmeen klusteriin.
  • Larjo, Nina (2015)
    Tutkielman tavoitteena oli selvittää, minkälaisia vaikutuksia makeisverolla on ollut makeisalalla toimiviin pk-yrityksiin sekä makeisalan kilpailutilanteeseen. Makeisvero on makeisille, jäätelölle ja virvoitusjuomille asetettu valmistevero, jota on Suomessa kerätty nykyisenkaltaisena vuodesta 2011 lähtien. Tämä tutkimus on rajattu koskemaan vain pk-yrityksiä, jotka toimivat makeisalalla. Tutkielman teoriaosuus käsittelee makeisveroa, valtion ohjauskeinoja sekä yrityksen kilpailukykyä ja –etua. Johtopäätöksenä teoriaosuudesta todetaan, ettei makeisveroa voida pitää puhtaasti valtion ohjauskeinona, koska sen avulla ei pyritä ohjaamaan kuluttajia terveellisempiin valintoihin. Tutkielma on kvalitatiivinen ja sen empiirinen osuus toteutettiin teemahaastatteluna. Haastateltavina oli pk-yritysten johtohenkilöitä sekä elintarviketeollisuusliiton asiamies. Haastattelujen tavoitteena oli saavuttaa syvällinen käsitys siitä, minkälaisia vaikutuksia makeisverolla on ollut haastateltaviin pk-yrityksiin. Hinta on tärkeä tekijä elintarvikkeiden ostopäätöksissä ja haastateltavat uskoivat kulutuksen siirtyvän makeisveron johdosta yhä vahvemmin halvempiin kaupan omien merkkien tuotteisiin sekä mahdollisesti muihin makeisia korvaaviin tuotteisiin. Hinnankorotusten tulisi olla todella merkittäviä, jotta kulutus siirtyisi makeisista kokonaan toisiin tuoteryhmiin. Teoriaosuudessa todettiin, että arvonlisävero olisi tehokkain ja oikeudenmukaisin keino verotulojen keräämiseen, mutta valmisteverotus taas tehokkaampaa jos halutaan esimerkiksi vähentää tietyn ravintoaineen kulutusta. Makeisveron tapauksessa terveydellisiä tavoitteita ei ole asetettu, joten arvonlisäverotuksen nostaminen olisi tehokkaampi keino verojen keräämiselle. Myös kaikkien haastateltavien mielestä tämä olisi oikea keino. Haastateltavat pitivät makeisveroa epäselvänä, kilpailua vääristävänä ja tietyille tuoteryhmille asetettuna kilpailuhaittana. Haastateltavat olivat turhautuneita muun muassa siihen, ettei makeisveron vaikutuksia yrityksiin selvitetty ennen veron täytäntöönpanoa. Makeisveroa ei voida pitää terveysperusteisena verona koska sillä ei pyritä ohjaamaan kuluttajia terveellisempään ruokavalioon. Makeisvero ei ole hyväksytty verotuskeino haastateltavien joukossa.
  • Lumperoinen, Hanna (2015)
    In this master´s thesis it was studied if the harvesting and cultivating of energy wood is ecologically, economically, socially and culturally sustainable if it is done by following Forestry Development Centre Tapio´s guidelines for Best Forestry Practices for Energy Wood harvesting and cultivating. The aim of the study was also to find out how energy wood harvesting and managing practices should be developed according to experts. Best Practice Guidelines for Forest Management and Energy Wood Harvesting and Cultivation is a handbook for forest owners and professional foresters. The handbook describes operations models for energy wood harvesting and cultivation that are based on research and good practices. The guidelines have been compiled as an extensive cooperation process with Forest Development Centre Tapio. The aim of Best Practice Guidelines for Forest Management is to ensure that forest management is ecologically, economically, socially and culturally sustainable. 34 experts and researchers were interviewed for this study. All of these interviewees have participated in the Energy wood harvesting and cultivating guidelines project. The response percentage in these interviews was 81. In the interview, claims based on the guidelines were presented to the interviewees. The answers were evaluated by using 7-step Likert scale. In addition, it was possible for the interviewees to give informal arguments after every claim. The claims were from 21 different topics collected from the guidelines. In every topic, all three dimensions of sustainability were examined. Social and cultural sustainability were combined in the claims, so a total of 63 claims was presented. The results indicate that the majority of the recommendations in the guidelines is sustainable. Only in the claims dealing with stump lifting, low-quality tree removing, whole tree harvesting on VT-sites and foliage and branch collecting, the average calculated from all Likert –answers was negative. In the informal arguments, the most important concerns were nutrient loss from forests and forest owners´ economical benefits in energy wood harvestings. The results indicated that the biggest benefits from social and cultural sustainability are the positive effects on employment in homeland. The results indicated that there is need for Best Practice Guidelines for Forest Management in Finland. The biggest need for the recommendations is among forest harvesting workers, for example harvester drivers and forest workers. In this work it was shown that energy wood harvesting and cultivating in Finland is usually sustainable if the recommendations are followed. In future research it should be studied how energy wood harvesting and cultivating guidelines should be developed in the operations whose sustainability was questioned. It seems that the harvesting of small diameter energy wood is based partly on state subsidies. Therefore, in future research, it should be studied how big an effect the subsidies have on the profitability of energy wood harvesting. It should also be studied how Best Practice Guidelines should be developed so that they could support practical forest workers as effectively as possible. It might also be good to do research on this same area using some other approach.
  • Ojala, Vilma-Riikka (2015)
    During early lactation diet is usually rich in protein to stimulate and support milk production. Increased milk production has been connected with negative energy balance and impaired fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of concentrate crude protein (CP) level to dairy cow silage intake, milk production and energy balance in early lactation. The study was conducted in the experimental barn of MTT Agrifood Research Finland in Maaninka. The experiment started at October 2013 and finished at April 2014. The experiment lasted 70 days starting from parturition day. Fifty-five primiparous or multiparous Holstein and Ayrshire cows were allocated to one of three different CP levels in concentrate (149, 179 or 200 g/kg DM) after parturition. Concentrate allowance was 9 or 13 kg. Silage was fed ad libitum through an individual feeding system. Animals were weighed daily. Body condition score (BCS) was determined when blood samples were taken at 10 days before parturition and 7, 21, 42 and 63 days after parturition. The data were subjected to analysis of variance using the SAS MIXED procedure. Concentrate CP level did not affect silage intake or energy balance. Amino acids digestible from small intestine increased when CP level increased. Increasing CP content of concentrate tended to increase milk and protein yields suggestively. Milk protein yield and milk urea increased when concentrate CP level increased. Concentrate CP level had no significant effect on blood NEFA, BHBA, 3-MH or glucose concentration. There were no significant effects on live weight or BCS change throughout the experiment. Results of this experiment indicate that increasing concentrate CP level improves milk and protein yield in early lactation. In this experiment concentrate CP level did not affect silage intake or energy balance.