Browsing by Author "Vilkama, Katja"

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  • Vilkama, Katja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    The aim of the thesis was to study the extent of spatial concentration of immigrant population in Helsinki and to analyse the impact of housing policy on ethnic residential segregation in 1992-2005. For the purpose of the study, immigrant population was defined based on the language spoken at home. The theory of residential segregation by Andersson and Molina formed the main theoretical framework for the study. According to Andersson and Molina ethnic residential segregation results from different dynamic intra-urban migration processes. Institutionally generated migration, i.e. migration patterns generated by various housing and immigrant policies and procedures, is one of the central factors in the development of ethnic segregation. The data of the study consisted of population and housing statistics and housing and immigrant policy documents of Helsinki municipality. Spatial concentration of immigrant population was studied both at district and building levels using GIS-methods and statistical methods. The housing policy of Helsinki municipality was analysed using a method created by Musterd et al. Musterd et al. categorise two types of policy approaches to residential segregation: spatial dispersion policy and compensating policy. The housing policy of Helsinki has a strong focus on social mixing and spatial dispersion of housing stock. Ethnic segregation is regarded as a threat. The importance of ethnic communities and networks is, however, acknowledged and small-scale concentration is therefore not considered harmful. Despite the spatial dispersion policy, the immigrant population is concentrated in the eastern, north-eastern and north-western suburbs of Helsinki. The spatial pattern of concentration was formed already at the beginning of the 1990's when immigration to Finland suddenly peaked. New immigrant groups were housed in the neighbourhoods where public housing was available at the time. Housing policy, namely the location of new residential areas and public housing blocks and the policies of public housing allocation were key factors influencing the residential patterns of immigrant population in the 1990's. The immigration and refugee policies of the state have also had an impact on the development. The concentration of immigrant population has continued in the same areas in the beginning of the 2000's. Dispersion to new areas has mainly taken place within the eastern and north-eastern parts of the city or in the adjacent areas. The migration patterns of native population and the reasonably rapid changes in the housing market have emerged as new factors generating and influencing the ethnic residential segregation in Helsinki in the 2000's. Due to social mixing and spatial dispersion policies, ethnic segregation in Helsinki has so far been fairly small-scale, concentrated in particular housing blocks. The number of residential buildings with a high share of immigrant population is very modest. However, the number of such buildings has doubled between 1996-2002. The concentration of immigrant population concerns mainly the public housing sector. The difference in the level of concentration between the public housing sector and privately owned housing companies is remarkable.