Kasvatustieteellinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Rahomäki, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The aim of this study was to investigate how 6th graders’ self-rated health, physical activity and sleep disruptions are related to schoolwork engagement. In more detail it was examined what kind of groups 6th graders can be divided into according to self-rated health, physical activity and sleep disruptions. Furthermore, it was studied if these groups are differently related to sex, sleep duration, the quality of sleep and schoolwork engagement. The aim is to gain better understanding about the factors which might have a strengthening effect on the adolescents' schoolwork engagement. The data was collected by the Mind the Gap –project in Helsinki in the spring 2013. The 6th graders (N = 761) from 33 different schools answered a questionnaire. The variables that were used for this study measured adolescents’ self-reported schoolwork engagement, health, physical activity, sleep disruptions, the quality of sleep and sleep duration. K-means cluster analysis was used to sort ado-lescents to groups by the variables of self-rated health, physical activity and sleep disruptions. When interpreting the contents of groups, an analysis of variance was used. The differences of these formed groups with sex, sleep duration, the quality of sleep and schoolwork engagement were ex-amined with the cross tabulation, analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test. The 6th graders were divided into four groups regarding experienced health, physical activity and sleep disruptions. These groups were named healthy movers, movers with sleep and health prob-lems, non-movers with sleep problems and non-movers with health problems. In the group of healthy movers adolescents was slept longer and had more schoolwork engagement than in the other groups. In the groups of healthy movers and non-movers with health problems had better qual-ity of sleep than in two groups in which sleep disruptions were experienced. The self-rated health, the physical activity and the paucity of sleep difficulties together were connected to sufficient sleep duration and schoolwork engagement.
  • Virta, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The aim of the study was to research the manifestation of compassion in the peer interaction situations of toddlers in day care center and the impact of adult involvement on the expression of children's compassion. The research is part of a research project on Constituting Cultures of Compassion in Early Childhood Education (CoCuCo). Compassion research has not been done earlier by observing children's interaction in a natural environment. This study will provide the elements for developing early childhood education environments and interaction situations for toddlers in a day care center in order to strengthen the compassionate culture. Interest in the meaning of compassion for social change has increased. The meaning and power of compassion has been studied from many perspective of sciences. In this qualitative video research the research material was the video material compiled by the CoCuCo-research team on the different interaction and action situations of children aged 1–3 years in one day care center in the metropolitan area in Finland. The research methods were the observation and analysis of the video material. In the analysis of the data, I shared the compassion situations I found with the episodes in two main categories: 1. expression of compassion in children's interaction situations and 2. the effect of adult involvement on the expression of children's compassion. After this, I analyzed the various manifestations of compassion and the various effects of adult involvement that I found within the episodes. This study showed that there were compassionate acts of interaction between toddlers in terms of comforting, sharing, helping, and anticipating. Most often, the acts of children's com-passion were appeared as physical and verbal comforting or through objects and functional sharing. Adults contributed to their day care with their involvement, mostly to promote com-passion, but sometimes to undermine compassion. The results of this study support the view that young children have a natural way of working with compassion. The influence of adults on the development of a compassionate culture is very important. Adults need to realize the importance of the moments leading to compassion and give children time enough and compassionate guides.
  • Tallgren, Carolina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    According to research, physical activity improves cognitive functioning and is associated with academic achievement. College students sit on average more than other adults and there seems to be a lack of functional learning methods, especially at university level. The purpose of this study is to examine how students experience learning while cycling on a stationary bike during a course in neuroscience. The aim is to examine the students’ experiences, both positive and negative. Their experiences are further examined through an age-related perspective. Learning is explored through the following pre-chosen themes: memory, motivation, attention, concentration and arousal with included theories. Classroom environments can also have an impact on learning. Therefore, environmental factors in the classroom, and how students perceived these factors as having an influence on their learning, are outlined. The study was conducted as a qualitative case study. The data was collected during the fall of 2018 and the sample consisted of nine university students. The participants were interviewed with a semi-structured interview design. The participants were divided into three age groups: group 1 (21, 23 & 25- year olds), group 2 (31, 33 & 37-year olds) and group 3 (51, 52 & 56-year olds). The data was analysed using a theory-based content analysis. The results demonstrate an overall successful and positive learning experience. Motivation, attention, concentration, memory and arousal were experienced a bit differently by the participants. The best learning was experienced by group three while there was more variation in groups one and two. Cycling was experienced as improving learning for most students. Surprisingly, one student lacked motivation regarding the course material, but experienced an improvement in learning during cycling, while another student perceived the course material as interesting, but had trouble concentrating in class. The results in this study supplement previous research and show that learning is mostly experienced as successful during in-class cycling. The results could be used to reduce students’ sedentary time and for academic achievement.
  • Kuronen, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a digital learning environment on the self-efficacy of early childhood educators. Earlier research shows that early childhood educators face challenges as science educators. In addition, earlier research shows that early-stage educators are cautious about digital learning environments. The aim of this thesis is to find out what kind of circumstances weaken and strengthen the self-efficacy experiences of early childhood educators when using the Supralaakso learning environment. Finding out the experiences of self-efficacy of early educators will provide information on how we can support early educators’ self-efficacy as science educators in the world, reflected in digitalism and technological development. Methods. The study was conducted as a qualitative case study involving three early educators. Interviewees' experiences of getting to know the Supralaakso learning environment and how to use it in the 3-6-year-old group were discussed using a semi-structured theme interview method. Interviews were conducted as individual interviews. The interview transcripts were analyzed by means of narrative analysis, building on the experiences of early educators. Plot summaries and role characters of the self-efficacy story were formed. In the analysis of experiences, Bandura's graph describing the emergence of self-efficacy experiences was used. By comparing, categorizing and typing the themes of the plot summaries and self-efficacy characters, it was possible to construct an image of what reinforced and weakened self-efficacy experiences. Results and conclusions. The two interviewees felt that the use of the learning environment was mainly a positive thing, but one did not decide to use the application with their group. My research suggests that seeing children’s active role in inquiry, making science education approachable, and carefully considering pedagogical choices can empower self-efficacy experiences. Particularly providing the support for conceptual learning of children and their freedom of choice regarding the experiments in the application could be identified as factors that weaken self-efficacy. The stories, the pre-designed study package and the first impression of the features of the application also appeared to be reinforcing factors, but in one educator these partially also weakened self-efficacy. As a conclusion of the study, it can be concluded that the experiences of self-efficacy can be supported by a digital learning environment, when the application enables inquiry-based activities and play by children, and if it can create a simple and approachable image of science education.
  • Sinivirta, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Due to the new curriculum for basic education home economics as a school subject is expanded to lower grades and can now be taught in grades 1-6. Therefore, the home economics is now in one with the other artistic and practical subjects a school subject that can be studied through the basic education. The curriculum does not define the objectives and content of the home economics separately for lower grades. Yet the age and the level of development of the pupils has to be taken account of. The aim of this study was to examine the contents of instruction in home economics in grades 1-6. In addition, this research aims to review the contuum of home economics through basic education. The study has been based around two themes: the contents of instruction and future plans of the subject. The questions that the thesis seeks to address are 1. What kind of contents of instruction is implemented in grades 1-6? 2. What is the future outlook for home economics in grades 1-6? This was a qualitative study. The research data was ready-made. The research material in this study was a part of an internet-based questionnaire. The scope of the questionnaire was all schools in mainland Finland where grades 1-6 were taught. Material consisted of the open answers in the questionnaire. The data of this study was analyzed with content analysis. The results show, that the contents of instruction in home economics in grades 1-6 is well in line with the curriculum and the subject objectives. The results imply that interdisciplinary learning modules, the interrelationship between the practice and theory and the out-of-school learning environments are peculiar to home economics in grades 1–6. According to this study the majority of schools do not intend to increase nor develop lower grades home economics education during the next few years. However, the home economics instruction seems to remain the same and it will be taught in these schools in the grades 1-6 still in the future. The biggest obstacles for not increase or develop home economics in the lower grades were the lack of resources.
  • Tonteri, Erik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The purpose of this study is to examine, what kind of feedback the teacher gives to his/her students during drama lesson. The study also examines, what kind of effects the feedback given by the teacher has for the atmosphere in classroom. The latest researches point out that teachers don’t provide enough specific feedback for their students. Instead, the feedback is often inaccurate. The hypothesis of this study is also, that teachers don’t provide enough specific feedback for their students, as the previous studies show. The earlier literature presented in this study addresses formative assessment and the feedback that formative assessment requires. The literature of this study is also based on the significance of teacher’s interaction skills on his/her ways to give feedback, the significance of feedback for the school achievement of the students, and the feedback in drama education. The data of this study consists of eight video recorded drama lessons. There were four observed teachers, who have graduated with drama education as their secondary subject. Two drama lessons per teacher were observed. The feedbacks occurred from the data were marked on chart, where the feedbacks were divided in themes. The research method of the study is qualitative content analysis, because the feedback was examined as everyday phenomena. 63% of the feedback that was given by the teacher was directed to the behaviour of the student. 28% of the feedback was inaccurate glorification, and the amount of specific feedback was only 8%. Whereas the amount of inaccurate negative feedback was 1%, when rounded up. There was only one marked inaccurate negative feedback. When the results were compared to the quality of classroom’s atmosphere, the study found out that the teachers, who give positive feedback the most, have also higher quality in their classroom’s interaction atmosphere. In addition, the teacher who gave specific feedback the most, had the highest quality of interaction atmosphere in his/her classroom.
  • Koskelainen, Karita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Meat-eating has a significant impact on the environment. Also, there is notable evidence for the negative impacts that meat-eating has on health. Therefore it has been recommended that people reduce the amount of meat in their diet due to ecological and health reasons. In addition, the production of meat is ethically questionable due to the treatment of the animals. This study explores the ways in which families with children have reduced their meat-eating and how the reduction of meat has changed the families’ eating habits. Furthermore, this study investigates the mother’s role in the preparation of food: earlier studies have shown that the mother’s role in serving and preparing food for the family is significant. This study is focusing on families with children, where meat-eating has been reduced. The data was collected between February and March in 2019. The method of the study was an online survey with structured multiple choice questions as well as open questions. 180 people answered the survey, 98 percent of which were women. I analysed the data by doing a content analysis on the answers. The results show that when a family starts reducing their meat-eating, not all family members reduce their meat-eating in the same way. The eating habits of the families became more plant-based and many families made different foods after reducing their meat-eating than before they had reduced their meat-eating. The mother’s role in serving and preparing the food is still significant, as shown in earlier studies. The results also show that the respondents feel the need to explain their choice to reduce their meat-eating. The study also strengthens the connection between meat and milk and the meat industry, since consumers who reduce milk also tend to reduce meat, and vice versa. The results of the study also show that the person most opposed to reducing meat-eating in the family is the father, not the children. When reviewing the results, it has to be taken into consideration that women were over represented in the study, which might affect the results.
  • Kuvaja, Annika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The purpose of this study was to analyze the experiences that generalists in the field of general and adult education had on the development of expertise in university studies, the knowledge that matters in working life and the experiences on how these two face each other. The target group was chosen by the fact that generalist education does not prepare the student to any specific job or position in working life. The results were examined on three levels which included 1) the expertise that developed during university studies 2) the expertise that was being experienced to be too narrow and 3) the expertise that matters in working life. The study was performed as a qualitative study and the data consisted of eight semi-structured interviews. The interviews were based on specific questions and a task to point out critical incidents from the beginning of the studies to these days. The data was analyzed by creating themes and categories about the data. The created themes included three dimensions which were 1) individuality 2) scientific thinking and 3) sociality. The results showed that the expertise of educationalists consists of these three sections listed above. These results verified the ideas that the former literature also supports. According to the results the social dimension of expertise was particularly highlighted. The social networks and social skills were experienced essential in working life and in education as well. These were the categories that also were listed to be developed during the university studies. In addition to social skills, the educationalists also experienced the individual and scientific thinking skills to be an important part of their expertise. These skills include the reflection skills, self-development skills, scientific thinking skills and knowledge integration skills. The results of this study made visible the factors which belong to the expertise of educationalists. Generalists must be able to embrace multiple skills while performing in the changing environment of working life. Because of this, surveying the knowledge they have is extremely important. In terms of developing the university studies it is essential to be aware of the fact what is and what is not being learned during the studies nowadays. By making visible also the knowledge that matters in working life makes it possible to respond the requirements of the changing society and working life.
  • Kokkoniemi, Maiju (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objective of the study. Previous studies have concluded that applying collaborative learning methods in university courses, such as a small group work, enhances profound understanding of a learning issue and students’ thinking processes. In a group, students bring up new ideas and process, justify them from different perspectives, evaluate explanations and try to form a shared understanding of the theme to be studied. Questions have been found to be effective for improving students’ deep and collaborative knowledge elaboration, but the interrelationship between these two has not been investigated extensively, thus, only in the context of medical education. The objective of this study was to analyse how questions are used in a small group discussion for enhancing undergraduate students’ collaborative elaboration of knowledge in the context of biosciences. Methods. In this study, the video data collected from a small group discussion in a field course in biology were analysed. The focus of the analysis were the utterances in the group discussion of eight first-year bioscience students and their teacher. The aim of the group work and the discussion was to find out the students’ prior knowledge and elaborate ideas for defining a research problem. Theory-based content analysis was used to classify different question types and the quality of elaboration in answers that the students expressed. Finally, different question types were compared in relation to the quality of subsequent answers. Results and conclusions. In line with previous studies, the students elicited factual and declarative questions checking prior knowledge and the accuracy of their ideas. The teacher presented explanative and meaningful questions when asking the students to interpret and meta questions when encouraging other students to join a discussion. The students rarely elaborated and explained learning issues collaboratively. When answering, the students accepted different ideas without explaining or elaborating them further. When the teacher was involved in a discussion, the teacher explained and clarified issues on behalf of the students. The results emphasised the interpretation that students are used to express simple questions that do not challenge their thinking but that teachers can use explanative and meaningful questions to support students to elaborate their ideas thoroughly. The results show that applying collaborative learning methods requires that students are taught to ask meaningful questions and that pedagogical programs aiming at learning question strategies enhancing collaborative learning are developed and made available for teachers.
  • Vertanen, Viivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Aims. On account of the curriculum reform (POPS, 2014) the subject of craft has become more coherent. The reform introduces the term multi-material crafts, which however, is not precisely defined. As research data on the teaching applying multi-material crafts does not excist at large yet, this research concentrates on defining the term based on official commandments and texts addressing them. This model of multi-material crafts is composed of those texts and commandments. The degree of motivation, in turn, is studied by means of various models specialized on teachers’ and students’ motivation. This research aims to examine what multi-material craft is by experiences and how motivational it is considered. The experiences are compared to the composed models. Methods. The data of the reserch was collected via online questionnaires. There were separate ones for teachers and students. The indicators were built for the research. There were teachers participating on the research from five cities (n=13) And students from four cities (n=88). The research data was collected both in quantitative and qualitative method. The quantitative data was analysed based on standard deviation and arithmetical mean. The differencies between the urban and rural area schools were studied with U-test. The qualitative data was analysed with the analysis of the content. Results and conclusions. It was perceived in the results that the experiences of multi-material crafts were distinct between teachers and students as well as different school districts. The main differences between urban and rural area schools were in the increase of self-direction. Teachers’ experiences were more positive than the ones of students’ in nearly all of the sections. The only exceptions were combining the methods of technical and textile crafts and utilising multiple workspaces. The main feature affecting students’ motivation on multi material crafts was atmosphere. The teachers were motivated by their work but the uncertainty of the continuance of the work and the challenges caused by changes possibly diluted their motivation. On ground of the results it can be said that multi-material crafts are taking shape in the schools. The change on its behalf is affecting the motivation.
  • Petters, Melissa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    In my thesis I examine the educational discourse in the Finnish media represented by the Koulukorjaamo series which was part of the media uproar around teacher Pekka Peura in spring 2016. The research material consists of nine digital newspaper articles published by Yle News as part of the Koulukorjaamo series. My aim is to discover how and why school and education reform are constantly topical issues in the media. Previous international research has pointed to an agenda-setting function of the media in public educational discourse. Not only institutional practices but also concepts such as primary definers and authoritative voices have been argued to be responsible for the construction of educational discourses in the media. (Thomas 2006.) Educational historian Jari Salminen (2012) contends that the constant adaptability expected of education creates crisis and progress discourses that warrant school reform. Educational sociologist Hannu Simola (2002) points out that there are few studies on the discoursive nature of school reforms. Thus, the main question in my thesis is how the articles in the Koulukorjaamo series discuss pedagogical reform. Furthermore, I offer an interpretation of this discussion via the “steps of rhetorical analysis” outlined by Joan Leach (2000), i.e. the rhetorical situation, the types of persuasive discourse and the five rhetorical canons. The rhetorical analysis shows that the discourse of pedagogical reform in Koulukorjaamo is based on epideictic discourse, which praises the new, individual learning model. The articles aim to persuade the audience that this model is the best way to reform pedagogy and school. The aim is supported by forensic and liberative rhetoric, the latter of which invokes the benefit to students and persuades the audience to update their idea of ideal learning to embrace the objectives of mental well-being and learning to learn. The persuasiveness of the discourses is covert as the audience is invited to participate in a discussion that merely appears open and unbiased. Unique rhetorical features of the Koulukorjaamo articles, such as unexpected metaphors and definitions of good learning have been undiscussed in previous research on educational discourse, and thus form a fruitful starting point for further investigation.
  • Hyvönen (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The main purpose of this research was aim to find out What the experts of education export think that what is situation now in the sector of education export. There is not a lot of research about this subject so that was also the reason why I chose it. Monika Schatz has written her doctoral dissertation about “Education export as Finland’s hottest export”. In that research she says that Finland hasn’t succeed in education export because we don’t really have the product to sell. Also, Schatz thinks that there is such a big interest for our educational system because of PISA-results. The second reason for this research was the act of government. They set the goal to increase the value of Education Export. The hypothesis was that the experts think that there is a huge potential in exporting Education but there are many challenges we need to solve out before the success. The study was a qualitative one. I decided to interview six experts of education export. After interviewing I transcribed the interviews. Two of my interviewees were working in the companies, two of them were principles of schools and two of them were working in the other positions in the public sector. They all had some special information of the field of education export. The data collection method was semi-structured theme interview. I shared my analysis for four section: 1. What kind of services the experts of education think that the education export includes? 2. What kind of marketing tools the experts of education think that the education exporters are using in exporting education? 3. What is the secret behind the popularity of Finnish education? And 4. what problems we have faced in education export? The results were that the experts think that we are selling education because of the high PISA-results. The other reasons for the interest were the quality of education and the good results. The experts also thought that we have a huge potential in sector of education export. They told that the websites, the marketing events, hints from the ministry of Foreign Affairs and recommendations from the old customers are the ways to find new customers. They told the places to market education are websites, marketing events and social media. They told that the reasons behind why we haven’t succeeded yet so much are wide. According the interviews - there have been many challenges in education export. Few of the biggest ones have been probably lack of co-operation and product of Finnish education export. Part of the experts thought that it’s not possible to export education as it is – there always need to do some changes
  • Günther, Mira (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objectives. Earlier studies have shown that international education policies are increasingly spreading, and that transnational organizations such as OECD play a key role in this development. This study focuses on locating the main educational policy themes from OECD’s publications and compares them with the educational policy objectives of the government programs of the Finnish governments in the 2010s with the aim of locating the similarities between the educational policy objectives of the government programs and the main themes of the OECD's education policy. The research questions guiding the research are: 1. What are the main educational policy themes that can be identified in OECD educational publications? and 2. What are the similarities between the educational policy themes of the OECD and the educational policy objectives of the Finnish government programs for the 2010s? Methods. The research was carried out as a qualitative study. The research material was collected from the OECD educational publications and from the educational policy objectives sections of government programs of the 2010s. An analysis method used in this study was data-driven thematic content analysis. The analysis first highlighted the main educational policy themes from OECD's educational publications, and then compared these themes with the educational policy objectives of the government programs of the 2010s to identify the similarities between them and the OECD’s main educational policy themes. Results and conclusions. In response to the first research question, seven main educational policy themes themes emerged from the OECD’s publications. The main themes are competitiveness and work life, equality, educational performance, innovation, lifelong learning, educational coverage and internationality themes. In response to second research question, the main educational themes of OECD’s publications in comparison to the educational policy objectives of the government programs of the 2010 government of Finland revealed several substantive similarities between the main themes and the educational policy goals of government programs. The purpose of the results is to stimulate an education-related debate on transnational educational policy guidance.
  • Bachmann, Sanni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The purpose of this study was to look for relationships between analytical thinking skills, two selected decision-making characteristics (time preference, risk preference) and temperament. A commonly applied test to detect individual differences in analytical thinking is the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT; Frederick, 2005), which captures important characteristics of rational thinking, different from intelligence and other cognitive ability (Toplak, West, & Stanovich, 2011). If a strong correlation between the ability to analytical thinking and some other types of characteristics was found, it would help to identify individuals with good analytical decision-making skills and to clarify the phenomenon of analytical thinking. This work continued the exploration of relations between individual differences in analytical thinking, assessed as performance in CRT, and selected psychological characteristics: time preference and risk preference, where a link has been detected in previous research on university students in the U.S. In this study, time preference was assessed as performance in the Consideration of Future Consequences Test (CFC-14; Joireman, Shaffer, Balliet, & Strathman, 2012). With data gathered from Finnish university students, this study attempted to replicate the findings of the original study (Frederick, 2005), where a relationship between the CRT and risk preference was detected. The current study extended previous research by examining also the relation of analytical thinking skills and neurobiological temperament (Rawlings, Tapola & Niemivirta, 2017). The relation of time preference and temperament was also studied. The participants in the present study were 135 first-year students from the National Defence University in Finland. The students completed a self-report questionnaire via a weblink. An exploratory factor analysis was performed to test the construct validity of the models applied. The correlations between the tests were examined and by using standard regression analyses the effects of the temperament on the time preference were analysed. Contrary to expectations, no relation between the CRT score and time preference, risk preference or temperament were detected. However, interesting links between time preference and temperament were found. Therefore, future research could investigate further how neurobiological temperament sets our concerns with future and immediate consequences, that is, our farsightedness or the lack of it.
  • Räty, Cia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objectives. The goal of this thesis is to examine various positive methods in which a teacher can confront a challenging student in the classroom and redirect the student’s behaviour to fit the lessons agenda. This thesis will also aim to examine what kinds of challenging behaviour can be found from analysed drama lessons. Previous research has shown that teachers find interactions with challenging students to be often demanding. In the modern classroom teachers must be prepared to face challenging students and therefore there is a need to research teachers already working in the field to see how they confront challenging students in a positive way. Methods. The research for this thesis was done as a case-study based in video observations, where footage from the 2018 KEHU-project was utilized. The research footage contained five filmed lessons, which were taught by five various drama-specialized teachers across Finland. The teachers participating in this project taught grades one through third grade. The nature of this research was based on qualitative methods. The material was processed through content analysis and classification. Results and conclusions. Challenging behaviour was categorized into four distinct categories based off the filmed drama lessons, which were disruptive behaviour, wandering, disobedience and negative verbal or physical interaction. Challenging behaviour filmed during the lessons were often quite mild forms of challenging behaviour. Based on the results the teachers mostly conducted positive confrontations against challenging students and were able to redirect behaviour with efficient and practical methods. This thesis provided promising information in regards that teachers can redirect behaviour towards the lesson’s goals with positive interactions. Having a respective attitude towards students and striving towards dialogical interactions from the teacher appears to improve confronting the student, which has been proven in earlier research to be meaningful in regards to the students behaviour.
  • Lehtimäki, Annina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The Guides and Scouts of Finland is the biggest youth organization in Finland. Organization has its own values and ideals. The Scout Method is a way of reaching the Educational Goals of Scouting and the goal is to support children’s growth and also to notice that everyone has their own characteristics. The vision of the Guides and Scouts of Finland for years 2019-2020 is “Everyone builds a better world - Guiding and Scouting is the most influential youth movement in Finland”. The Guides and Scouts of Finland have named disabled scouts as “sisupartio-laiset”. Nowadays disabled scouts are named as scouts that has special needs, but still “sisupar-tio” is the prevalent term to describe disabled people in the Guiding and Scouting. In this study the focus is how scouts with special needs speak about their own place as scouts and how they are seeing their capabilities to be part of the Scouting. I have interviewed five scouts with special needs. I used the theme interview as a method of in-terview. In this study I use discourse analysis as a method to analyze. To analyze the speak of the interviewee about their opinions of their place and capabilities in Scouts and to use dis-course analysis I can examine the dominant discourses that are affecting to the experiences of the disabled scouts about their own place and own capabilities. As an analytical concept I am using marginality and subjectification and also I rest my notions about disability to the social model of disability. It seemed that scouts with special need took the subjectification of a “sisupartiolainen” as a self-evident and took the category “sisupartio” as a given position. I understand that this happens because it also seemed that subjectification of a “sisupartiolainen” was something that has to be adopted that it was even possible to work in the Scouts as disabled. On the other hand the scouts with special needs questioned the discourses that are related to disablement and their po-sitioning to the marginal group of the Scouts. The discursive field of Scouts in my study seemed to be enabling and limiting factor. Limiting because it seemed that scouts with special need were understood as a common group because of the naming as “sisupartio” and that limited some of the scouts possibilities to act in the Scouts. Also society´s physical boundaries and lack of re-courses seemed to be restrictive when it comes to the possibilities to be part as an equal mem-ber of the Scouts. In the study I was able to see that with the discursive field of Scouts, the scouts with special needs were able to build their own agency in their speak and in the light of this the procedures, ideals and practices of the guiding and scouting seemed to build the their agency as a constructive way. I suggested that the Guides and Scouts of Finland should draw at-tention what can be done to person when some group is named and categorized.
  • Jokinen, Oona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objectives. The goal of this study is to examine sixth-graders perceptions of cyberbullying. The aim is to investigate young people's perceptions of the forms, causes and objectives of cyberbullying. In addition, the study aims to find out who are the cyberbullies, who are cyberbullied and how to intervene in cyberbullying. The studies of cyberbullying have been increasing in the 21st century. However, the phenomenon of cyberbullying is changing as technology equipment and social media applications evolve. Cyberbullying is also today one of the factors impacting the health of young people and it is likely to become more significant factor as the technology develops. Cyberbullying is defined in the same way as traditional face-to-face bullying, but the bullying takes place online through smart devices. The environment in which the bullying takes place brings many new characteristics to bullying. Methods. At the time of the study, the subjects were sixth-graders in a grade school at Helsinki. In the study there were fourteen research subjects. The research data was gathered by interviewing research subjects with a semi-structured interview. The interviews were then transcribed into textual form and analyzed by using theoretical based content analysis. The analysis frame was intentionally made loose so that useful material outside of the frame could be brought up in the study. These materials outside the frame followed the principles of the data-based content analysis. Results and conclusions. According to this study, the sixth graders have a clear understanding of cyberbullying and they identify the most common environments and characteristics of cyberbullying. The results of the study were mainly in line with the results of previous studies on cyberbullying. However, the effect of anonymity in the experience of bullying was different from previous investigations. The young people in this study felt that the anonymity of the bully reduced the severity of bullying. The surprising research results was that the young people were indifferent towards cyberbullying. As a new result, this study showed that disputes can be escalated into cyberbullying.
  • Kurenlahti, Emma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The promotion of care and compassion has been regarded as primary goals of education in order to achieve a more sustainable world. For this reason, compassion—inseparably related to both moral and values—should be studied in the context of practical education. The aim of this thesis is to analyze compassion as an empirically observable phenomenon that manifests as emancipatory action targeted against violence and oppression. The data, consisting of video re-cording of a nature school field trip among 10-11 year olds, is approached in the theoretical frameworks of sustainability- and environmental education as well as that of compassion re-search. By theoretically conceptualizing acts of emancipatory compassion, the focus of this study is on the analysis of moral construction. The hypothesis is that these acts are embodied in order to negotiate and criticize the institutional limits of compassion and the emerging circle of concern. As a conclusion, the meaning of compassion is discussed in the context of educating for holistic sustainability. The theoretical conceptualization of emancipatory compassion is based on both empirical observations and theoretical studies concerning compassion, constructional violence, and emancipatory action. Qualitative methodology in the general framework of social constructionism and approaches of grounded theory are utilized in order to analyze the video-ethnographic data using methods of critical discourse analysis and interaction analysis. In the data, there were several occurrences of acts of emancipatory compassion. The phenomenon manifested as exceeding the limitations between human and non-human life, and served to construct the institutional circle of concern in relation to other forms of life. Acts of emancipatory compassion were also used to express several factors relating to the construction of morality; some of these interpreted as acts of oppression in themselves. In relation to normative attempts to define the meaning of both violence and oppression, the teachers embodied moral authority over the students. It is concluded that education promoting holistic sustainability should acknowledge the essential meaning of compassion in the context of education in order to allow the questioning of established moral norms, encourage negotiating the limits of the circle of concern, and to recognize implicit manifestations of violence and oppression. It is also stated, that by identifying the inherently violent nature of the human condition, it is possible to overcome the boundaries constructed by perceiving particular agents as either violent or non-violent—inhibiting inclusive promotion of compassion towards subjects interpreted as being in the wrong.
  • Tervonen, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    We are living a time of many kinds of diagnoses. It is suggested by social scientists that in a modern world ADHD is a typical way of describing the ways of being and acting. ADHD has traditionally been linked to childhood, but in the fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Man-ual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which was released in 2013, ADHD has been acknowl-edged also as a disorder of adults. This may have an effect on the increasing public conver-sation about adult ADHD. Often the conversation about ADHD has a psychological and med-ical tone. Furthermore, different kinds of views that come from therapeutic culture are popu-lar in our society. There is a decent amount of studies about media representations of ADHD but it seems that there are not many studies about representations of adult ADHD in media. In Finland media has portrayed some adults that have been given an ADHD-diagnosis. There-fore I became interested to study how ADHD in adulthood is portrayed in Finnish media. My purpose was to study what kind of discourses are used to portray ADHD in adults. I also ex-amined the positions the media offers to adults with ADHD. The research data consists of eight (8) newspaper articles that are published in Helsingin Sanomat newspaper. The articles were chosen with the criterion that they portray a profile of an adult with ADHD-diagnosis and that the articles mainly concentrate on ADHD. As another criterion I decided that the articles should be published between the years of 2007 and 2017. In the study I applied the approach of discourse analysis. Four discourses were raised from the research data: ”ADHD as a real medically valid and identifiable disorder”, ”Survival with the help of ADHD-diagnosis”, ”ADHD as a risk factor” and ”Strengths and hopefulness”. I interpreted the first two discourses as the strongest ones. The first discourse validated ADHD as a disorder that can be medically diagnosed and it highlight-ed ADHD as having an effect on life. For the adult this discourse offered the position of a pa-tient and the position of a marginalized person. The second discourse portrayed a narrative about survival with ADHD-diagnosis. It offered the position of a survivor and the position of a victim. In this discourse ADHD-diagnosis and medication were portrayed as very important factors for the individual as the adult survives from difficulties with the help of them. The third discourse talked about ADHD through risks and it portrayed ADHD as a risk factor. It offered adults the position of a risky person and the position of a person that is susceptible to risks. The fourth discourse consisted of a more positive tone than the other discourses: the symp-toms of ADHD were portrayed as strengths and living with ADHD was described in a hopeful way. It offered the adult a position of a person who goes on in life with a positive attitude. The study showed that psychological and therapeutic ways of speaking were reflected in the arti-cles that were examined. ADHD-diagnosis was a central part of the media representations. A popular feature in the media representations was that ADHD-diagnosis was presented as an important factor for the wellbeing of the adult.
  • Renlund, Jenny (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This thesis examined the strategies in multiliteracy used by children in their interpretation of multimodal texts through peer dialogue. The thesis builds upon a sociocultural approach to meaning-making in interaction. According to new, broader perspectives on literacy, our so-cially and culturally shaped messages take ever more complex forms, which means that we also require mastery of complex literary skills in our meaning-making. This places new de-mands on pedagogical practices and on research to be considered. The development of multiliteracy skills in children is one of the objectives included in the Finnish national curricu-lum, which means that more knowledge of how multiliteracy can be enhanced in different contexts is needed. This study is influenced by theories within the research on multiliteracy as well as on previous research on emergent literacy among young children. The goal is to demonstrate emergent multiliterate processes of meaning-making expressed by young chil-dren in their interpretation of text through peer dialogue. The results may have an impact on the planning of pedagogical practices and materials used for the promotion of equal opportu-nities among children in the development of multiliteracy. The research was conducted with qualitative, unstructured, interviews in the form of text-dialogues. The participants were 40 children from a Finnish-speaking preschool. The children were 3 to 6 years old at the time. The text-dialogues that were filmed, showed the children working in pairs with the guidance of an adult interviewer, interpreting infographic posters. The dialogues were analysed with a qualitative thematic analysis and categories for the analysis were formed according to previous research on multiliteracy. The multimodality of the meaning-making expressed by the children was considered in the analysis, which gave a more nuanced picture of their processes. The results presented in the thesis suggest one way of relating emergent literary processes of young children with concepts of multiliteracy, as well as tools for closer examination of different forms of meaning making that young children express when interpreting multimodal and informative texts. The children in the study used complex multiliterate resources and strategies in their text-dialogues, which supports earlier theories of emergent readers as capable interpreters of varying text-sources. The meaning-making of the children was dynamic and transformative. The infographic posters used in the text-dialogues created a multiplicity of combinations of textual modalities, which enabled the children to assess the texts from many different perspectives.

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