Kasvatustieteellinen tiedekunta

 

Recent Submissions

  • Helminen-Lindroos, Frida (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    During the last decades mentoring has increased in popularity and today it´s common with many different mentoring programs in the working life. The aim with this study is to map and illustrate factors that lead to an effective mentoring relationship and to an successful mentoring according to the protégé. Also the expectations for the mentoring of the protégés in this study will be taken into account. In addition, the protégés experience on how mentoring can support learning and development in working life will be mapped. Informants in this study were protégés that participated in an formal mentoring program organized at their workplace and experienced mentoring as a success. Data was collected with help of semi structured interviews with seven persons. An interview guide was used as support during the interviews and material from the interviews were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. The results shows that protégés goals and expectations vary from personal to concretely work related. Most of participants experienced that the goals and expectations were guided to a more personal level during the mentoring process. Factors influencing an effective mentoring relationship was mainly open communication and accessibility, well defined goals and challenges, a caring personal relationship, mutual respect and trust and exchange of knowledge. Also motivation and willingness to participate are important elements. Other factors that influence the mentoring success is back-up from organization, set of mentoring program and other components. The study show that mentoring can support protégés working life development by developing working skills, the working identity, thinking processes and ability to reflexion and self awareness.
  • Soini-Bell, Lilja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The purpose of the study was to find out how sustainable development will be taken into account in the national criteria is shown. My presumption was that sustainable development is no longer on display in the new core curriculum as clearly as in the previous one. My research is qualitative. I looked at the core curricula in 2004 and 2014 by theory bounded content analysis. I studied my own subject crafts and values, mission and operational culture in the common part of national core curriculum. I took into examination also the thematic entities from 2004 and the wide-range knowledge from 2014 that integrate all the subjects. I looked into the process of drawing up the documents, their contents and their form in order to find out the way they were drawn and what kind of elements had affected the drawing process. After that I analyzed the values, mission, operational culture, learning environments working methods separately in relation to sustainable development. Then I took under observation the thematic entities and the wide-range knowledge. Finally, I examined crafts and the presence of the sustainable development in it. I found out that sustainable development occurs creditably in the new core curriculum in every aspect of it, in social, cultural, ecological and economical aspect with emphasis on the two first ones and more clearly than in the previous core curriculum. This may depend on the fact that the core curriculum is more precise åöp in general guidance and much more extensive. On the contrary in craft the trend was quite the opposite. Sustainable development and consumer education appear in the core curriculum in 2004 through the whole subject. In the new core curriculum, sustainable development is lost in the excess of all goals. There is a fundamental difference in the core curricula. The document in 2004 is restricted in comparison to his successor. As result the instructions in the new core curriculum are more comprehensive, more detailed and more versatile throughout. And it is significantly more normative.
  • Anttila, Sonja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Aims.The number of rainbow families, i.e. families with children where at least one parent be-longs to a sexual or gender minority, has been steadily growing alongside the legislative de-velopments in 21st century Finland and the increasingly diverse methods of having children. Previous studies have indicated that having children in rainbow families is a carefully consid-ered and planned process. As this process consists of numerous stages, the chains of events leading to having a child in a rainbow family could be referred to as a family-forming process. The purpose of this study is to obtain knowledge of the special features of the family-forming process from the viewpoint of parents. Taking into account the influence of individuals, their local community and society on these family-forming processes makes it possible to better understand and support this diverse group of families with children. The research questions were: 1. What special features are related to the family-forming processes of the parents of rainbow families in respect of individuals, local community and society? 2. How have societal representations affected the perceptions that people belonging to gender and sexual minorities have on their possibilities for parenthood? Methods. The research data were collected with an online questionnaire and consisted of the responses of 74 parents in rainbow families. The questionnaire was mainly comprised of open questions; multiple-choice questions were additionally used to ask about the respondents' background information. The study was conducted with qualitative methods using theory-guided and material-based content analysis and content itemisation. Results and conclusions. Above all, this study indicated that the family-forming processes of the parents in rainbow families were individual. Nevertheless, some of the respondents shared experiences in the family-forming processes related to the family structure, method of having children and challenges they faced. The research findings indicate that female couples and independent women experience stress due to the costs of fertility treatments. In addition, those wishing to establish a system of shared rainbow family parenthood might fail to find people to co-parent with. Representations of rainbow families might have influenced the family-forming process of some of the respondents. The responses reflected the strong agency and responsibility of individuals. Based on the results, it can be noted that there is still need to develop the legislation concerning rainbow families. Diversity within rainbow families is not al-ways recognised. There is need for more individual encounters that take different family struc-tures into account as well as more versatile representations of rainbow families in different ar-eas of society.
  • Häkkinen, Piia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives: The aim of this study was to find out how Mind UpTM -curriculum effects to the chidren’s development in the early childhood education. This study is the part of the Pieni Oppiva Mieli – re-search project in the University of Helsinki. Program executes Mind UpTM curriculum, which devel-ops children’s relaxing, concentration and emotional regulation in the Finnish early childhood educa-tion. The focus in this study was to find out how Pieni Oppiva Mieli –intervention (POM) effects to emotional control, social confidence and prosocial skills in the peer relations. According to former studies prosocial behaviour among each other is children’s congenetial feature. The peer relations are formed in a quite early phase in the toddlerhood and the lack of social skills might lead to a risk of social rejection. Exercises where children relax and adjust their behaviour together in the peer group effects to the stress regulation, social emotional skills and school achievements in the school age. Methods: The study was conducted in autumn 2015. There were 463 children from three to seven years of age from 30 kindergarten groups taking part in the study in the Helsinki capital area. Chil-dren were divided into intervention groups (N=387) and to control groups (N=76). In the interven-tions groups the execution of the Mind UpTM curriculum was a daily routine for 30 weeks. Core in the curriculum were POM -exercises (brain brakes) three times per day where children were learning re-laxation, concentration and recognition of their body sensations. The study data was gathered from KTA scale, which is based on the international Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale -method of evaluation of the strengths. The data was analyzed with repeated measures variance analy-sis and with non-parametric Kruskall-Wallis test (SPSS version 23). Results and conclusions: The result of the study indicates that Pieni Oppiva Mieli –intervention has positive effects to the children’s emotion regulation skills. Non-parametric analysis noted effects of intervention also in social confidence and prosocial development. Review of the background variable in the whole data demonstrates that teachers estimated more strengths to girls than the boys in the emotion control and behavioural skills. Children with special needs have fewer strengths in all parts of the evaluation than other peers. It is important in the early childhood education to support chil-dren’s emotional regulation and prosocial development and via that way prevent negative group phe-nomenon like bullying and social exclusion in the peer group.
  • Noori, Marianne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This thesis examines what five second-generation immigrants talk about their school choices and educational paths. Immigration-related concepts and theories and studies about young people’s resources, educational paths, school success and school choices are as a theoretical framework. The study material is the interview data of five second-generation immigrants. The study material has been produced by Transition and education trajectories of the immigrant youth –research project. The material is read biographically. The biographical abstracts have been written about the second generation immigrants’ interviews. The resources are searched from the abstracts. Research questions are: How second-generation immigrants talk about their educational paths and school choices as a part of their lifes? What kind of resources young people use when they make their school choices? Results have shown that, the more resources young people have, the better they can make their school choices. The support and opinions of family members are important for young people. Young people emphasize their own activity when making the school choices. The importance of the practical resources, as well as the resources of habit and practice, are emphasized in young people’s speech. Also the resources of meaning and symbol can be found in their speech.
  • Kettumäki, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The aim of this study is power strategies that children use in play situations. In my work as a kindergarten teacher, I noticed that children use power over each other during their interaction with peers. Previous studies have focused on interaction between children, marginalization, bullying and power between adults and chil-dren. These studies have showed that negative use of power in interaction between children can lead to bully-ing, marginalization and can promote inequality. Theoretical frame of reference is based on Michel Foucault’s theory of power. According to him, power is uni-versal and can be represented through social interaction. This study is focused on power strategies. These strategies are totalities of means through which one can influence others attitudes, emotions and action. Crit-ical discourse analysis was used as a method of analysis and the research data consist of video and audio material. The data was collected outside and inside play situations in day care centre. The study involved 10 children from one day care centre in metropolitan area in Finland. Children were two to three year olds and six of them were girls and four were boys. Children used leading, play negotiations and forbidden as power strategies in play. Through leading children shared and stayed in the same play idea, they were committed to play and the play was rich. In play negotia-tions children created common understanding on play and developed the play further. Through play nega-tions the play enriched and got new features. Forbidding as a power strategy diminished children possibilities to influence on play and in the end the play was suffocated. Curriculum of Early Childhood education (2016, 29) says that early childhood educators have the means to indentify factors that limit play and develop factors that promoted play in early childhood education settings. My study offers information on children power strategies. With this information the staff can promote play in day care centers and supports children as they investigate and learn to practice power through play.
  • Taipalus, Marjo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The present study describes the experiences and understandings of classroom teachers related to the loneliness of pupils: what kind of difficulties do classroom teachers encounter in their work and how do they try to resolve them. The research aims to establish a deeper understanding of the work of a classroom teacher in relation with the loneliness of pupils. A fifth of the children suffers from loneliness. The official instructions guiding the actions of a teacher, e.g., National Core Curriculum for Basic Education, finds the welfare of pupils important, which indirectly tries to prevent loneliness. However, the loneliness of pupils is not discussed in the instructions and no methods for recognising and encountering loneliness are offered. Also, loneliness is not covered in the education of a classroom teacher per curriculum. The research was conducted using half-structured theme interviews on five classroom teachers of a primary school in southern Finland. The interview results were analysed with a content analysis method. The descriptions of classroom teachers highlighted both concretely experienced difficulties and general difficulties related to the nature of loneliness. The interviewed teachers described their solutions in two ways: solutions to the problems experienced by teachers and solutions aiding the welfare of teachers. Based on these results, a theoretical classification was formed, enlightening the dynamic phenomenon of loneliness in the context of the work of a classroom teacher. Comparing the results to earlier researches, teachers found the mental disorders of pupils hard: they are difficult to recognise, encounter and handle. Teachers used solutions similar to other studies: self-development, communality of the working environment and external support promoted the managing in teaching work. As a conclusion, teachers should evidently be educated and supported more related to the loneliness and mental welfare of pupils.
  • Haajanen, Sofia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    OBJECTIVE. In the past, there has been lots of reasearch focusing on both pupils with immigrant backgrounds and cultural diversity in schools. However, there is a lack of studies that focus on particular school subjects. Alltough, there is earlier research about studying geography and cultural diversity from the point of view of a teacher. The aim of this thesis is to expand the point of view to the everyday life inside the culturally diverse geography classroom. In my thesis, I examine geography lessons in the view point of foreign-language. My goal is to illustrate and understand the opportunities and challenges that foreign-language and the limited knowledge of Finnish can lead to, and how the poor Finnish language skills reveal themselves on geography lessons. Furthemore, my aim is to illustrate the pedagological solutions used by the teachers in classes with foreign-language pupils. METHODOLOGY. Qualitative method was used in this study. The research data was collected by observating 58 geography lessons in four different secondary schools, that have a high percentage of foreign-language pupils. The collection of the rich dataset was made possible by the unstruckted observation method. I used data content analysis method to analyse the dateset. First, I produced the upper-classes from my observations, from which I lead the themes. Finally, I organized the material on the top of the Didactic Triangle, because it represents clearly the teaching-learning -process, and also emphasizes the importance of interaction in teaching and learning. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION. The limited knowledge of Finnish causes challenges for the foreign-language pupils and the teachers in the geography lessons. The pedagological skills of the four observated theachers varied in the point of view of foreign-language. The linguistic challenges, especially the difficult and specific concepts of geography, caused misunderstandings and frustration both for the teachers and the pupils.
  • Hautala, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Goals. According to Finnish curriculum (2014) the environmental science includes five subjects in primary school: biology, geography, physics, chemistry and health education. The purpose of this study was to examine the primary school teachers’ self-efficacy and capacity to teach health education in primary school. The purpose was also to examine teachers’ views and experiences about health educations’ importance in primary school. In this thesis the self-efficacy is based on Albert Banduras self-efficacy theory (1997) and health education competence includes teachers subject expertice, exploratory grip, health literacy and the diversity of teaching methods. This study investigated the relations of teachers’ self-efficacy and health education capacities. In this thesis teachers’ views and experiences about their capability and likeness to teach health education were also examined. Methods. The data were collected in March 2017. The method for collecting the data was an electronic survey. 31 classroom teachers from Helsinki, Tuusula, Nurmijärvi, Hyvinkää and Jokioinen participated in this thesis. The study was executed with mixed methods, partly quantitative and partly qualitative methods. The quantitative analysis included correlation of self-efficacy and health education capacities. Crosstabulation was used to examine dependency of gender, work experience and competence to teach health education. Qualitative analysis was executed by phenomenographic analysis and considered teachers’ views and experiences about the importance of health education, health literacy as well as their self-evaluated capacity to teach health education in primary school. Results and conclusions. Despite the primary school teachers’ slight health education training, the results show that teachers’ were fairly health-concious. Self-efficacy correlated especially with subject expertice and health literacy. Teachers’ experienced the health education as important subject in primary school and themselves fairly competent to teach health education in primary school.
  • Vaalasmaa, Teemu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Goals In this study, a week-long digital storytelling project was conducted in a labour market training course in adult education. The study problem was: how collaborative learning was present in the groups in the labour market training course and what it contributed to producing digital storytelling videos? The theoretical background in this study is Global Sharing Pedagogy -model and the collaborative learning aspect of it. For collaboration, the theoretical background are the central concepts of Hakkarainen’s studies and the productive agency by Schwartz & Lin. Methods This was a case-study. The subjects in this study consisted of two labour market training groups that were united for the purposes of this study and ages of participants were from 20 to 50 years old. They were split into four smaller groups which were used as cases in this study. The smaller groups had members between four and seven. The project lasted for one week and there was from three to six hours of work each day. At the end of week, the digital stories were reviewed together. The data for this study consists of field diary during the working phase, group interviews with the groups and the finished digital stories. Each group was a separate case and the descriptions from both observation and interviews were searched for signs of collaborative learning. Each case was also compared to other cases to find differences and similarities. Results and conclusions The descriptions of learning in groups had clear aspects of collaborative learning. Each group had some aspects but three of four groups, the dedicated, the independents and the supported had significant collaborative learning present in every part of the project while the wanderers had lesser collaborative learning present. The results reveal that digital storytelling is a good tool to use in adult education to promote both collaborative learning and 20th century skills in students.
  • Koponen, Veera (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The curriculum of the Finnish basic education system was renewed in 2014, and the new curriculum was implemented in schools starting in 2016. This brought changes for the teaching on crafts. The subject of crafts was unified, and textile work and technical work are no longer separated. The curriculum also defines crafts as a multi-material subject in which the focus on the process as a whole is encouraged. Previous study has shown that curriculum changes present challenges to teachers, and that teachers need support in these challenges. This study aims to find which kinds and types of challenges that craft teachers experience in connection with the new changes in the curriculum. The study was performed in the context of peer group mentoring, and it also aims to find the kind of support that teachers experience from peer group mentoring. The study was performed as a qualitative case study, in which the studied material was collected from the communications of craft teachers participating in peer group mentoring sessions. The group consisted of a mentor and eight participants, who were female craft teachers who were at different stages of their careers. The group meetings were recorded using video and audio equipment, and the content of the recordings were transcribed into text form. The transcriptions were then analysed to find themes. For finding the challenges that the teachers experienced, the analysis was done in a material-driven way, and for finding the support types, the analysis was driven by the theoretical basis of peer group mentoring. The analysis revealed four types of challenges experienced by the teachers: challenges related to the distribution of lesson hours and optional studies; challenges related to to the content of the new curriculum; challenges related to the work community; and worries related to the problems caused by the new curriculum. In the teachers’ experience, peer group mentoring was found to give three types of support: 1) it increased their well-being and brought a sense of empowerment, 2) it gave concrete advice for dealing with challenges and 3) it served as an environment for learning in common that helped teachers to understand the new curriculum better and clarified their thinking. Overall, a number of challenges requiring support for teachers were identified, and peer group support was found to be beneficial as a support method. Peer group mentoring could serve as a useful method for support when new curricula are introduced.
  • Kettunen, Anni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The aim of this Master’s thesis is to uncover how the the coaches of Tapanilan Erä floorball club support improvement of physical, mental and social objectives of 7 – 12 –years old players. I also examine how Tapanilan erä floorball club’s action plan is shown in action and what kind of motivation atmosphere exist in practise. This work is based on my previous bachelor’s thesis The realization of pedagogical objectives in the action plans of floorball clubs. My bachelor’s thesis has been shown that Tapanilan Erä floorball club has the most mentions of physical, sosioemotional and mental objectives in action plan. My master’s thesis is a case study and the analysis is conducted by ethnographic research method. Four coaches took apart to this research. Material was gathered by observing practise and interviewing the coaches after salibandypractices. I also used Tapanilan Erä floorball club’s action plan in this master’s thesis. Results has been shown that Tapanilan Erä’s coaches are supporting players physical inprovement. The practises are well organized and effective. Mental and social objectives are known but only few of the coaches used the methods in their practises. The physical objectives of Tapanilan Erä floorball club’s action plan are shown in practise. On of the goals of Tapanilan Erä’s action plan were cheering and inspiring. Only two of the coaches were showing those goals in their work. The most of the practises contained motivational atmosphere. This work is provided for those sports clubs which want to confirm their role in education, when mentioning emotional skills and social skils.
  • Huuskonen, Hannele (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The aim of this study is to describe and analyze fifth graders as fiction readers. There has been a lot of worry of the fact that the amount of reading among children and adolescents is decreasing and it can affect their ability to read. This study familiarizes with the reading habits of fifth graders and what kinds of reasons fifth graders might have for reading fiction. This study is based on two theories: Appleyard’s (1990) theory of fifth grader as a reader who identifies with the books hero or heroine and Felski’s (2008) four reasons for reading fiction: recognition, enchantment, knowledge and shock. Research material consists of a questionnaire which was used to collect information of four fifth grade classes (n=74). There was also a group interview which included four pupils. The material was collected in the capital area of Finland during the spring of 2016. The questionnaire included multiple choice questions and open questions. The group interview was a theme-centered interview. The data was analyzed using theory-based content analysis. Respondents had quite positive attitude towards reading. Only one respondent told that she didn’t like to read. According to this study fifth graders still read books. The most popular books to read were fantasy books, comics and books that include humour. Reasons to read were separated into three categories which all included subcategories. Those categories were benefits of reading (reading is pleasant, knowledge and skills, imagination and way to spend time), to get inside the book’s world (to relax, to become absorbed in a book or to familiarize with book’s characters) and book’s elements (book is interesting, topic or genre, humour, excitement and other reasons). The most popular reasons for reading were excitement and humour. The interview showed that reading is very individual and depends on what the reader wants from reading. In the interview the reasons for reading were for example knowledge, excitement, humour and comics. According to this study fifth graders can tell a great deal and analyse their reading habits, likes and dislikes.
  • Kouhia, Miia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The purpose of this study was to find out if there is a relative age effect on school success and learning to learn skills in the Finnish school system. In addition, this study aims to find out if the possible differences in school success and learning to learn skills lead to differences in the academic self-concept and differences in the teachers and the parents’ beliefs about child’s possibility to succeed at school. The data of this study is a part of learning to learn data collected by the Centre of Educational Assessment (the University of Helsinki). The participants of the study were children and their teachers and parents in one school grade in all elementary schools in the city of Vantaa, including Finnish and international schools. This longitudinal data has been collected in the years 2010, 2013 and 2016, when the pupils were first-, third- and sixth-graders. The pupils (N=2569) part consisted of learning to learn assignments in the all grade. They answered beliefs and attitude questions in the third and the sixth grade additionally. The part of the teachers and parents consisted of the background questions and propositions of the children’s learning and social skills. The data was analyzed with SPSS Statistic 24 program. Used analysis methods were Spearman correlation coefficient, Chi square and cross tabulation, Kruskal-Wallis test and Linear regression analysis. According to this study date of birth affects both school success and learning to learn skills in first, third and sixth school grade. The differences are the biggest at the beginning of school and decrease during the years. The relative oldest pupils also have a little bit higher attainment in mathematics and Finnish language and they were more able in part of learning to learn task than the youngest peers in the sixth grade. The relative youngest pupils have more special education needs than their older peers. Although relative age had an effect to educational attainment and learning to learn skills, it does not affect academic self-concept.
  • Aalto, Severi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives. The aim of this study was to examine the motivation of 7th to 9th graders in secular ethics and the factors related to that. The study also examined the connections between the factors behind motivation and connections related to pupils background information. Pupils’ interest in different contents of secular ethics was also explored. Method. This study was a quantitative survey, but it also included a qualitative section. The motivation scale of the questionnaire is based on Pintrich’s (1988) MSLQ ((Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire) and Ruohotie’s (1993) APLQ (Abilities for Professional Learning Questionnaire). The data was collected in April 2015. 75 pupils from four schools in Helsinki answered the questionnaire. The quantitative data was analyzed by using PASW Statistics 18. The answers from qualitative section were analyzed by using content analysis. Results and conclusions. The study showed that pupils were motivated by and interested in secular ethics. Secular ethics was also regarded as an important and useful subject. Several correlating factors affected to pupils’ motivation. The intrinsic orientation correlated with many motivation factors. One of the crucial findings was the strong correlation between intrinsic orientation and the way teachers interacted with the pupils. There were no differences between boys and girls in their motivation factors except (in relation to) teaching material and methods. Good grades were connected between expectations of success and beliefs of intrinsic succeeding. The study also revealed that pupils were motivated by several contents of the secular ethics but moral and ethics were the most important. The results of this study can be utilized in the teaching of secular ethics in increasing pupils’ motivation.