Käyttäytymistieteellinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Kivistö, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives. Support for learning difficulties has not been made available to students in an equal manner in different parts of the country. Earlier research shows that there are regional differences in the percentages of comprehensive school students receiving support, as well as in the forms of support made available to them. The purpose of this Master’s thesis was to study how many ninth grade students participating in the Learning to Learn Assessment in 2012 had received support for learning during the past academic year in different parts of Finland. Another objective was to analyse the realisation of educational equality, i.e. whether there are regional or municipal differences (between urban, semi-urban and rural municipalities) in the support made available to students. Methods. The Learning to Learn Assessment was carried out in spring 2012. A total of 7,222 ninth grade students from different parts of Finland participated in this assessment. Among the participants, 4% were recipients of intensified support and 7.9% recipients of special support. Five task categories developed for the Learning to Learn Assessment were included in the present study. The material was analysed by variance analysis in order to identify possible geographical differences. Results and conclusions. The study discovered regional differences in the definition of recipients of general support. With regard to general support, there were significant regional differences. Intensified support and special support were made available to students least frequently in the regions of Lapland and Southwest Finland. There were also differences between the regions in how effectively they employed the different levels of support included in the three-tier support system. The results indicate that large, urban municipalities in particular have succeeded in amending their support system faster than semi-urban and rural municipalities, and they have also succeeded in re-evaluating students’ needs for special support.There were also differences in the use of the individually adjusted syllabus as a form of special support. Using the individually adjusted syllabus may lead to less ambitious learning objectives and weaker learning outcomes, possibly also negatively influencing students’ pursuit of further study.The present study concludes that although there are regional differences in the availability of support, it seems that there are no differences between students: students receiving support are similar when it comes to their academic performance and learning to learn competence.
  • Isto, Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objective. Earlier research has shown that teacher education does not match work reality due to its overly theoretical viewpoint. Students and graduated teachers have experienced that their education does not provide them enough knowledge or practice on how to deal with students who have learning difficulties or behavior issues. Saloviita criticizes special education program since in his opinion regular class teacher education actually provides better readiness to face students who need special support. Behavior issue is one of the most common mental health issues among children and adolescents. The purpose of this study is to shed light on how ready the class teacher students and special education teacher students are in dealing with behavior issues in their early and late phase of the studies, how they observe behavior issues, how teacher education prepares them and how class teacher and special education teacher students' answers compare against each other. In other words, the purpose of the study is to show whether expertise has an effect on observing behavior issues and whether education matters. In this context, expertise stands for a teacher's skill in analyzing the situation of a student and es-pecially skill in dealing with the different support needs of a student with behavior issues in school context. Methodology. 23 class teacher and 11 special education teacher students took part in the study. The subject group comprised of students in their early and late phase of the studies in order to study the effect of education. The data was gathered using an electronic questionnaire form. The data was analyzed by t-test and Mann-Whitney U test using SPSS program. Results and conclusions. The biggest difference between class teacher students in their early vs. late phase of the studies was found in the sum variable that measures the readiness provided by teacher education. The students in their early phase of the studies experienced that class teacher education provides readiness to deal with behavior issues whereas the students in their late phase of the studies disagreed. Among the special education teacher students both the students in their early and late phase of the studies experienced that teacher education provides readi-ness to deal with behavior issues. The answers of special education teacher students differed significantly regarding the sum variable measuring readiness when comparing students in their early vs. late phase of the studies. The students in their late phase of the studies experienced that they are ready to deal with behavior issues whereas the students in their early phase of the studies felt their readiness was poor. Based on the results one might conclude that special teacher education in deed provides readiness that class teacher education does not. The result is not necessarily criticism of the class teacher educations but rather to show the teacher students understanding of or necessary expertise and growth of additional training required on the subject.
  • Lampi, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Goals. The objective of this Master’s Thesis was to examine the connection between tablet computers and motivation, in this case with motivational beliefs according to the action control beliefs theory (Skinner, Chapman & Baltes 1988). The specific interest was to find out the differences and similarities between the students with special educational needs and general education students. Most of the previous research regarding to the subject indicates that the use of technology and tablet computers has positive impact to learning and motivation, concluding that technology-assisted teaching motivates students. On the other hand there has also been studies that report no impact or even negative impact on learning and motivation. This study aims to gain new insight of how the use of tablet computers influences on students’ attitudes towards learning in Finland. Particular attention is directed to the students with special educational needs and the practical applicability of the results – the role that tablet computers could play in the development of special education. Methods. The participants of this study consisted of the 4th graders in the city of Vantaa, who responded to the Centre of Educational Assessment’s tablet research online survey in the autumn of 2015 and spring of 2016 (N = 208). The data was analyzed by multivariate methods (e.g. one-way variance-, the GLM-analysis) to investigate the possible relations between the variables and to verify the differences between the groups. Results and conclusions. The general use of the tablet computers among the students was not found to be related to their beliefs that support learning. However, in the subject-specific review the use of tablets in mathematics was positively related to the students’ learning supportive beliefs. In particular, within the students receiving intensified or special support, the use of tablet computer was related to students’ agency beliefs about effort and competence and means-ends beliefs about effort. According to the previous research these beliefs are related to school performance within students who do well in school.
  • Boman, Sonja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Goals: The purpose of this master thesis is to explore if the self-determination of elderly care workers developed among the users of ITU!-handbook in Toimi-project. The background theory of this master thesis is self-determination theory. Toimi-Project is a project carried out by Institute of Occupational Health in collaboration with elderly care cities of Helsinki, Vantaa and Lohja and Senior Care Home Association (Mereo). The aim of Toimi-project is to support readiness of workers to develop and reform their own work, in other words develop the worker’s development agency. One of the methods was use of the ITU!- handbook. The data of this study consist of before and after interviews of the users of the ITU!-handbook. The aim is to explore how the data regarding interviews self-determination of the elderly care workersdiffers between before and after i. Methods: These questions were addressed by a qualitative deductive content analysis. The data were collected by theme interview. These interviews were randomly selected from a bigger interview database. Work-related Basic Need Satisfaction scale was used as an aid to the identification of psychological basic needs of the material. After this, the findings were analyzed by deductive content analysis according to basic psychological needs. The results of the survey were interpreted from the perspective of the theory of self-determination. Results and conclusions: There were no differencies in the fulfilment of the need of autonomy between before and after interviews. The fulfilment of the need of competence occurred between before and after interviews in various ways. ITU!-handbook made the informants think of using feedback from the elderly while reforming their work. This gives an indication that using the ITU!-handbook added the fulfilment of the need of competence. The fulfilment of relatedness occurred also in different ways in before and after interviews. The problems which occurred in before interviews seemed to have disappeared with the Toimi-project. Based on the after interviews the ITU!-handbook encouraged the workers’ interaction among themselves about different working styles and reminded of the importance of a colleague's appreciation. ITU!-handbook reminded of the importance of working atmosphere and using the ITU!-handbook seemed to contribute positively to work atmosphere based on the interviews. In conclusion, using the ITU!-handbook developed self-determination of the elderly care workers by confirming especially the fulfilment of competence and relatedness.
  • Sorkio, Susa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The purpose of the present study was to examine predictions of mathematics self-concept and math-anxiety and mathematics intensions on the 15 year old participants. In addition, the study examined whether the students’ mathematical performance and gender contribute to their mathematics intentions. Self-concept is the image that people have of themselves. Mathematics anxiety is a feeling of discomfort that arises when a person comes into situations that require mathematical reasoning skills and problem solving. Previous studies have shown that the mathematical self-concept, mathematics anxiety and mathematical skills predict students’ course enrollment intentions and future career plans. In this study the participants came from the 2012 nationwide Pisa study. The study involved 8829 15-year-old students, of which 5688 students responded to questions measuring mathematical self-concept and mathematics anxiety. Mathematical self-concept and mathematics anxiety were measured with 4-point Likert scales. Five forced-choice items measured students’ plans regarding mathematics at some stage in the future. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables that explained the students’ mathematics intentions in the future. Self-concept, mathematical performance and gender significantly predicted future mathematics intentions but math anxiety did not. Based on this and earlier studies it can be concluded that higher mathematical self-concept predict the intentions of young people to study mathematics in the future
  • Ahtiainen, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The aim of the study was to explore what sort of constructions of educational opportunities appear in applicants’ speech who attend a preparatory course in medicine and how is the role of preparatory course constructed in the application process to medical studies in the speech. The preparatory courses and their connection to access to higher education are important when the questions of educational opportunities are taken into consideration. It is also a current theme in education policy. However, there still are only few studies on preparatory courses, which justifies the importance of examining them. I consider preparatory courses as a part of internationally recognized phenomenon of privatisation in public education. Theoretically the theme is connected to the wider discussion about equality of educational opportunities in the context of Finnish higher education. I collected the data for the study with interviews. The data consisted of twelve interviews of applicants applying for medical studies in spring 2016 who attended a preparatory course arranged by private company. I analysed the data by using critical discourse analysis. Educational opportunities appeared as an equal opportunities -discourse and an individual responsibility -discourse in which the opportunities were formed on the one hand as an equality that is grounded in the structures of Finnish education system, and on the other hand they could be returned at the level of individual responsibility. The role of the preparatory course in the application process to medical studies was constructed as a compensation of the disproportion -discourse in which a gap between official and practical level in demands of medical studies entrance examination was produced. Also the position of the course was constructed with an investment -discourse in which it was compared to consuming and to an investment in the future. A conflict between an equal opportunities discourse and these discourses was implementing the problems in conceptualising privatisation of education in the context of welfare state. In connection to the preparatory course speech the educational opportunites appeared primarily from the perspective of individual responsibility. On a discoursive level the need for preparatory courses for applicants applying for medical studies and the culture that accepts the investment to training already exist in the light of the results of this study. Based on the conclusions of the study there is a need to examine widely the role of the private training in Finnish education system and the effects of preparatory courses on equality of opportunity in transitions to higher education.
  • Suokas, Elli-Noora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives. The aim of this study was to examine the surface approach to learning, which can be identified as repetitious study methods. The study examines on group level how the surface approach was represented in university students’ descriptions of their own learning and from what kind of elements it consisted of. On individual level the focus was on exploring what kind of approaches to learning the students described. Factors relating to the use of approaches to learning were also analysed regarding self-regulated learning, motivation, emotions and learning environment. The theoretical background was based on the research on approaches to learning and on the items of the HowULearn questionnaire regarding the surface approach to learning. Methods. Qualitative method was used in the study. The research material was collected by the Centre for University Teaching and Learning at the University of Helsinki. It was collected from students from the Faculty of Theology using the HowULearn-questionnaire and interviews of voluntary students. On the basis of the questionnaire data, interviews of 12 students were selected. These students got higher value than the faculty’s mean regarding the surface approach to learning. The analysis was done using abductive content analysis. Results and conclusions. Based on the results, the surface approach to learning appeared very differently in the students’ descriptions. In addition to former studies, students’ reluctancy to put effort in studying was emphasised. It was also found that the students’ high values on the surface approach measured through quantitative methods did not unambiguously reflect their approaches to learning, but students used, in addition to the surface approach, also the deep and strategic approaches in their studying. The students had challenges with regulating their learning and maintaining their motivation towards studying. They also described negative emotions related to their studying. These results were in line with previous research. Regarding the learning environment, the students underlined the meaning of diverse and functional teaching methods as promoters of their learning.
  • Virtanen, Venla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives. The aim of the present study was to examine what kinds of goal orientation profiles can be identified among middle school students and to examine the relationships between goal orientation profiles and causal attributions for failure. Achievement goal orientations are specific motivational goals that students select during studies. Students can emphasize learning, success, performance and avoidance goals. Causal attributions are inferences that individuals make about the causes of success or failure. According to research there are individual differences in how individuals make attributions in cases of failure or success. Many failure and success situations happen at school, so it is relevant to examine whether there are any differences between different motivational groups and attributions for failure. Methods. The data for this study was part of the PISA 2012 survey. The data was collected from 311 randomly selected schools. The participants of the PISA 2012 survey were a total of 8829 middle school students. A total of 2966 students answered the attribution question form. In the final analysis of variance and covariance, the data consisted of 2966 students. The data was analyzed using IBM SPSS 23 software. Factor analysis was used to form the goal orientations. Two-Step cluster analysis was used to identify groups of students with similar motivational characteristics. The differences between goal orientations groups and attributions were examined using analysis of variance and analysis of covariance. Analysis of covariance was used because it was relevant in examining how the level of knowledge will affect the relationship between goal orientation profiles and attributions. Results and conclusions. The five groups of goal orientation profiles were named as success-oriented, performance-oriented, mastery-oriented, indifferent and avoidance-oriented. The groups were quite similar compared to previous theories and research. The main result of the analysis of covariance was that there were statistical significances between some goal orientation profiles and some attributions. The differences were between the goal orientations and the attributions for bad guesses, bad luck and teacher motivation skill. In addition, there was a difference between goal orientation profiles and attribution of disability when the level of knowledge was not controlled for.
  • Ojamäki, Aurora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    In the last few years, no extensive research has been done on schools’ morning assembly practices. The last larger study was done in 1989. Since then, the Finnish school legislation and the Finnish National Curriculum have both changed significantly. The Basic Education Decree obligates the Finnish schools to have morning assemblies as a part of every school day. It states: ”A day’s work must be started with a brief morning assembly.” This study had two main goals. The first goal of this study was to gather specific and intensive information on three schools’ morning assembly practices. The tradition in Finland is to have both shared morning assemblies where the whole school gathers together, and each class’ own morning assemblies. This study focuses on both types of morning assemblies. The second goal was to examine what the teachers of these three schools found to be the main purpose of morning assemblies, how meaningful they found morning assemblies, and what they thought about religious morning assemblies. This study was conducted in two phases. The first phase was conducted in two schools (”school 1” and ”school 2”) in November- December 2015 using questionnaires to examine the morning assembly practices. In the second phase of this study, in October 2016, the material was gathered from ”school 3” also using questionnaires. Two teachers were interviewed from each school;; six teachers in total. The respondents to the questionnaires were teachers and classroom assistants. A mixed methods –strategy was used to analyse the results of this study. The material gathered by questionnaires was organized in Microsoft Excel;; percentages were used to express the results. The interview material was analysed using thematic analysis. According to the results, in all three schools it was usually the teacher who organized the class’ own morning assemblies. In ”school 1” morning assemblies were usually held in the class room every day. In ”school 2” only 66,7% of respondents answered that they had morning assemblies every day in the classroom, and in ”school 3”, only 60 % of the respondents answered that they held morning assemblies every day. According to the respondents, shared morning assemblies were held at least once a month in ”school 1”. In ”school 2”, shared morning assemblies were not held as often. In ”school 3”, shared morning assemblies were held multiple times in a month, but some of them were held via the tannoy. In all the schools the Evangelical Lutheran Church had a significant role in the shared morning assemblies;; more so in schools 1 and 2. The teachers found the class’ own morning assemblies to have a lot of social importance. According to the teachers, both them and especially their pupils liked to share things about their lives during the morning assemblies. The teachers also stated that morning assemblies were especially important for pupils with special needs;; they need a lot of structure in their schooldays, and that is what morning assemblies can provide. According to the interviewed teachers, the shared morning assemblies helped to create a sense of community in the schools. Most interviewees had positive or neutral reactions towards religious morning assemblies, although some teachers were worried about the pupils who don’t participate in the religious morning assemblies;; the interviewees thought that those pupils miss out on the sense of community. The religious morning assemblies were also thought to be too difficult to understand for the pupils. Most of the interviewees were somewhat open to the idea of other religions’ (than the Evangelical Lutheran Church) representatives to hold morning assemblies, but none of the interviewees had themselves considered that option before the interview.
  • Töyrylä, Marju (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The aim of this study was to analyse how applicants applying for faculty of law and participating in a preparatory course while preparing for the entrance examination speak about the competition connected to the applying. The study focuses on discourses that are built when talking about the competition. The aim was also to study constructed discourses when talking about possibilities of succeeding in the competition in law school admission. Previous studies show that capitals have impact on one’s educational choices. One of my aims was to construct understanding of what kind of meanings the cultural, the social and the economic capital get in the process of applying to a law school and participating in a preparatory course. There has been only little research about the role of preparatory courses in admission to higher education. The goal of this study was to fill this research gap and produce researched information about the role of preparatory courses. The qualitative research data consist of interviews with six law school applicants who took part in preparatory courses. The data was collected with a semi-structured interview. One of the interviews was a pair interview and four were individual interviews. The data was analysed with critical discourse-analytical approach The higher education applicants aim to make reasonable education choices when participating in the competition over study positions. The applicants assessed their own position and possibilities to succeed in the competition in relation to the other applicants. The preparatory course was constructed as a trump card that applicants could use to succeed in the competition. It was also produced as something that is self-evidently part of applying to law school. On the other hand preparatory course was constructed as something one could use to decrease the uncertainty caused by the competition. Based on the reasonable educational choice -discourse, the self-evidence -discourse, the imaginary competitor -discourse and the trump card -discourse one can argue that cultural, social and economic capital are constructed as meaningful factors in the competition of higher education. They create possibilities and limitations when participating in the competition over study positions in higher education.
  • Salonpää, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The objective of this study was to observe the ways in which young people indicate disagreement in asynchronous online discussions. The analysis is focused at how argumentative online discussions are constructed, the ways in which the speakers indicate disagreement and the attributes and functions of those disagreements. One area of the analysis is the context in which the disagreements appear: in what part of the conversation they appear, how other speakers react to them and which types of disagreement appear side by side in one turn. The conversation analytic view of turn-taking and the constructions of turns work as a background for this study. The data for this study was collected from an online discussion forum targeted at young people, named Demi.fi, from which I chose three discussion threads on the same subject: the diversity of genders and gender equality. These threads had 344 messages altogether, and in 261 of them the speaker indicates disagreement. I approached the data through qualitative research, utilizing the method of conversation analysis. I started by locating all assessments and the disagreeing turns connected to them, and after that I categorized the types of disagreements and analyzed the more specific functions of these categories. The conclusions of this study tell that in these three argumentative discussion threads, the speakers indicated disagreement in ways that can be divided into seven categories: statements, the challenging questions and their answers in question-answer adjacency pairs, accusations, the negative emotional reactions of the speaker, irony, misunderstandings and concessions that have attributes of both agreements and disagreements. Each of these categories had their own specific attributes and functions. Statements were the most frequently used disagreements in the discussions, but direct, emotional disagreements were rather frequent as well. Disagreements were usually indicated by negatively evaluating the assessment or the persona of the other speaker, but they could also be indicated by challenging power hierarchies by – for example – turning the other speaker into a laughing-stock. Because disagreeing second turns were much more frequent than agreeing second turns, it’s justified to say that in the context of an argumentative online discussion, the otherwise popular belief of agreeing being preferred turns out to be dispreferred. The conclusions give teachers an opportunity to understand the ways of disagreeing that are typical for young people. This also enables the guidance towards respectful, constructive argumentation.
  • Juvonen, Sara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    A connection has been shown between a school's social capital and, on the one hand, their academic performance, and teacher well-being, on the other. A need for skills to develop one's school and occupational community is evident, since working in a school can be taxing, especially for teachers in the early stages of their career. The aim of this thesis is to identify strengths and weaknesses in social capital building (e.g. formation of networks, norms or trust) in a school community. A secondary goal is to take part in the seemingly diverse theoretical discussion around social capital. The thesis' theoretical frame was narrowed down to internal social capital, and it was further developed through organisational social capital research into three dimensions: structural, relational and cognitive. The data consisted of nine (9) staff interviews in an urban school, originally collected for a study focusing on well-functioning local schools (Tolu) in the University of Helsinki. Qualitative content analysis with a theoretical orientation was applied. The data was first organised into thematic categories, after which it was analysed with the help of earlier operationalisation of social capital. Both strengths and weaknesses were found. The main structural strengths were e.g. connectedness to the school area and a shared educational ethos. Weaknesses in this dimension were structural holes and a somewhat exclusive school area, to name some. Relational social capital was supported by explicitly stated policies and open conversation, to name a few, whereas staff commitment to said policies and differing expectations could be seen as challenges. Finally, the cognitive dimension of social capital was built on traditions and an organisational culture promoting staff involvement. This dimension was challenged by changes in faculty and commitment to organisational goals and vision. Norms are essential for the formation of any community, but too strong a norm may become restricting for the actors in a social structure. A balance between norms and flexibility could be beneficial, so that social capital may be seen as a resource rather than restriction.
  • Johansson, Nikolina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives. In this study I aimed to investigate toddlers congnitive and language development and to find out the changes in these areas during a child´s first first year in kindergarden. Previous studies are showing that childrens development benefits from a high quality early childhood ecucation and care (ECEC). The strongest effect of the high quality ECEC seems to be on children that come from disadvantaged backgrounds. The results also show that poor quality ECEC can sometimes lead to negative effects in a child´s development. This research aimes to find out if boys and girls differ in their congitive and language development during the first year in kindergarden and what kind of changes happen in congnitive and language development at this time? Methods. This research is a part of the Helsinki University study (”Lasso-projekti”), which concerns children´s stress regulation, learning and the quality of ECEC. The first measurements were done in autumn when childen enter kindergarden before two years of age. The measurements were repeated the following spring. This study participants were 202 children. The sex was known of 182 children. Congnitive and language abilities were assessed using Bayley III and statistical analyses were made using SPSS IMB 22 software. Results and conclusion. When entering the kindergarden boys and girls seem to differ in congnitive and language abilities favouring the girls. During the spring however the development evens. Only in understanding language girls seem to overcome the boys.The main result from the study suggest that during the first year in kindergarden the performances of the poor ones get better but the excellend drop.
  • Penttinen, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The new POPS 2014 emphasizes elementary school's responsibility on teaching working life skills more than before. As a part of studies in elementary school there is a Introduction to Working Life period ("TET" Period) that introduces working life to pupils in practice. Making TET Period rewarding for a pupil requires a lot of active contribution from the employer's side too. The goal of this developmental study is to create and facilitate fluent co-operation between YIT Group and elementary schools. Means for reaching the goal is developing and arranging a versatile TET Period which is rewarding to all the stakeholders; the student, the company and the school. This study was conducted by applying the methods of Desing-Based-Researc in two cycles. The development bases on literature and earlier studies in youth education and working life, POPS, In-troduction-to-working-life as a part of compulsory education, company social responsibility, learning and different learning environments. Key questions were: "What have the pupils learned about YIT business and its work community during the Introduction-to-working-life period?", "Which aspects the instructors and students considered as high-importance matters in the TET Course?". Research material consists of student questionnaires, theme interviews of the students and some of YIT per-sonnel, students' filled TET work applications forms and observations material. Analysis of the ma-terial was conducted using qualitative content analysis method. The research takes place between fall 2015 and spring 2016. Altogether ten Introduction to Working Life periods were arranged: four for ninth grade students during fall 2015 and six for eight-graders during spring 2016. In 2015 attendance was thirteen pupils and in 2016 it was fourteen. The goal was to find out about pupils' learnings and which aspects need to be taken into account in arrangements. This study concludes that the pupils' understanding on company operations and its different profes-sionals improved and became more versatile. Furthermore, the pupils were able to list factors that relate to meaningful work life in more detail. However, their dream professions mainly stayed as ear-lier. According to pupils the most positive things in the TET Period were nice atmosphere and varia-ble content. On the other hand the most of the instructors felt like that the TET Period requires plan-ning and extra work. Based on observations one may run into surprises during the arrangements. Thus, a clear plan as well as direct communication between all parties facilitate success.
  • Rytkönen, Helka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Target: Organizations face challenges as the aim to develop their employees for future needs in a constantly changing operational environment. They also expect their own employees to take an active role in developing their own competencies. The social capital offered by one’s social networks has a key role when it comes to compentence and advices needed for one’s work and for supporting individual development. Organization may also develop as different kinds of actors meet and share their knowhow at the same time mediating ideas from one context to another. This thesis targets to understand what kind of networks individuals utilize in their work to get the resourses they need in different kind of situations where competencies or advice are needed from others. It also examines the diversity of individual’s network ties and tries to understand what kind of other actors i.e. alters mediate new ideas in these networks. These can also be benefial for the organization as a whole. Methods: For this thesis five individuals working in managerial positions where interviewed with the combination of theme interview and egocentric interview methods. This aimed to describe the structure and qualitatively study the resources the networks provided for these individuals. Theory driven content analysis was used to qualitatively analyse the data and to support it, methods aimed to analyse the structure of egocentric networks were used. Results and conclusions: Competence and advice networks offered individuals diversified knowhow, means of solving problems and opportunities for coaching discussions. Based on informants views, alters had become part of the network due to qualities of the tie between them and alter, and based on attributes of the alter themselves. They also saw organization’s structural factors and forums offering possibilities for encountering to have some affects on it as well. New ideas seemed to come from alters with fresh way thinking and a positive approach to change, who were able to influence others thinking and mediate diversified experiences across fields of expertise. Based on the results, one may suggest organizations can support employees to create these networks and thereby mediate diversified knowhow, if they create opportunities in everyday work for encountering across functional boundaries and encourage employees to co-operate to share experiences across industrial boundaries.