Kasvatustieteellinen tiedekunta

 

Recent Submissions

  • Nuutinen, Anna Maaria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää, miten SCIS ohjelman mukaan opiskelleet viidesluokkalaiset osaavat opetussuunnitelman perusteiden mukaisia luokkatasonsa biologian peruskäsitteitä. Lisäksi selvitettiin sukupuolen ja luontoharrastuneisuuden sekä äidinkielen ja biologian todistusarvosanojen yhteyttä osaamiseen. Tutkimusaineisto koottiin keväällä 2005 espoolaisessa peruskoulussa. Tutkimukseen osallistui koulun yhden viidennen luokan kaikki 21 oppilasta, joista tyttöjä oli yhdeksän ja poikia 12. Oppilaiden osaamista arvioitiin kolmeosaisella testillä. Ensimmäinen tehtävä mittasi eliö- käsitteen hallintaa: luokittelua ja perustelua, toinen tehtävä ravintoketju- käsitteen hallintaa ja kolmas tehtävä mittasi tuottaja-, kuluttaja- ja hajottaja- käsitteiden hallintaa. Tutkimusten aineistolle suoritettiin tilastollinen analyysi ja päättely. Tulosten mukaan oppilaiden käsitykset eliöiden luokittelusta osoittautuivat hallituksi. Vaikeuksia tuotti ainoastaan koivun luokitteleminen eliöksi. Tulosten perusteella viidesluokkalaiset oppilaat osasivat erottaa elolliseen ja elottomaan luontoon liittyvät asiat ja luokitella ne. Oppilaat perustelivat eliöiden kuulumisen eliöihin joko eliöalan tai eliön ominaisuuksien mukaan, mutta eivät molempien mukaan. Oppilaat osasivat täydentää yksinkertaisen ravintoketjun. Valtaosa oppilaista osasi luokitella elolliseen ja elottomaan luontoon kuuluvia tekijöitä tuottajiin, kuluttajiin ja hajottajiin. Auringon ja kärpässienen luokittelu ei onnistunut kolmasosalta oppijoista; lähes kaikki oppilaat luokittelivat kastemadon virheellisesti hajottajiin. Tytöt menestyivät vain hiukan paremmin testissä kuin pojat. Ero ei ollut tilastollisesti merkitsevä. Äidinkielen ja biologian arvosanoilla ei ollut yhteyttä testissä menestymiseen eikä myöskään luontoharrastuneisuudella. Tämän tutkimuksen tulosten mukaan SCIS ohjelma soveltuu hyvin yhdeksi vaihtoehdoksi luonnontieteiden peruskäsitteiden opettamiseen peruskoulun alakoulun oppilaille.
  • Salo, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Communication between airline pilots and cabin crew plays an important role in aviation safety. However, little research has been conducted in the area of pilot-cabin crew communication and relationship. The aim of this study was to identify and name competing discourses in pilot-cabin crew relationship and to describe how these discourses compete with one another. Theory of relational dialectics (Baxter JA Montgomery 1996; Baxter 2011) was used as the theoretical framework. Eight members of cabin crew and six pilots were intervieved. Members of cabin crew were interviewed in pairs. Two of the pilots were interviewed individually and four in pairs. The interviews were analyzed using contrapuntal analysis. Contrapuntal analysis aims to identify competing discourses and their interplay. Six competing discourses were identified in pilot-cabin crew communication and relationship. They were predictability-novelty, one crew-two crews and ideal-real. The predictability-novelty struggle became apparent in the discursive struggle of different work positions being occupied with different crew memebers and in the discursive struggle of official and unofficial communication during the flight. The discourses of one crew and two separate crews were played against one another in the discursive struggles of equality-hierarcy and efficiency-politeness. The discursive struggle of ideal-real constitutes a scene on which the other discourses compete. One coherent and egalitarian crew, where each crew member communicates openly and predictably according to the rules and regulations attached to his/her position was presented as ideal. This ideal is often, but not always, accomplished.
  • Heikkilä, Krista (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Children’s and adolescents’ well-being as well as school well-being has been a headline on many news recently. The aim of this study was to examine compulsory school students’ perspectives on school factors that have influenced on their school absenteeism. The aim of this study was also to view student’s perspectives on the support the school has offered them. The aim was also to find out what kind of support the adolescents would consider to be effective in preventing absenteeism. Many researchers have done research on truancy but only few studies have focused on students’ perspectives on truancy. This research was conducted as a theme interview. Research material consisted of five theme interviews from compulsory school students that have been absent from school and school is concerned on their school absenteeism. Themes covered school aspects from a wide range. Themes covered also student’s views to their school absenteeism. The research material was analysed by using content analysis. Results from this study indicate that school bullying is one of the major reasons behind school absenteeism of the interviewed adolescents. Interaction with teachers play also an important role. Only one of the adolescents interviewed stated that her absenteeism is due to her own motivation. The results show that school has not offered enough support against or preventing bullying. The results concerning support in school matters other than bullying vary from not getting enough support to getting all the support student could ask for. Results from this study show that students hope the school to act stronger in preventing school bullying. Also schools should place more effort on the school atmosphere and the interaction between students and teachers. Strengthening school engagement and preventing school bullying could help reduce school absenteeism.
  • Uronen, Anna (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Objectives. The purpose of this study is to identify the factors that enhance or hinder meeting of the objectives, which are in this case learning in a classroom environment. In addition, we observe methods on how achieving abovementioned goals can be supported. These observations will hopefully lead to discovering a functional system for supporting students' learning. The study's theoretical section focuses on the theory of learning and executive functions. Previous studies have shown, that there is a correlation between executive functions and learning methods (e.g Gathercole, Pickering, Knight & Stegmann, 2004). Hence in this study there is an emphasis on supporting learning from an executive functions point of view. Methods. This study is a qualitative case study, with elements of action research. Action research is used through intervention, where the objective was to alter the students' actions more beneficial for learning. Data was acquired through observing and participation in the first grade primary school class. Participants consisted of 23 students and one teacher. The target of observation was the actions of these participants in the class room. Data was gathered over a span of three weeks a total of 52 hours. The material was analysed by using qualitative content analysis. Results and conclusions. The study showed that executive functions is closely tied to learning, as an enhancing and hindering factor. Guidance of the student's attention, active participating, self-direction, spontaneity, co-operation and peer support resulted in learning enhancement. The students' lack of concentration, unnecessary noise from students, inconsiderate behaviour, the lack of shifting, restlessness and students becoming passive hindered learning in the classroom. In addition, it was found that the teacher's choices of teaching methods and upbringing were important factors in promoting students' goal-oriented activity. The study shows that student executive functions, and thus learning can be influenced by the environment in which the student works in. The study's model of intervention can be applied to the teachers' practical work, either as such or, depending on the student's needs.
  • Valjus, Sonja (Helsingfors universitet, 2006)
    Starting point for the study was the notion made in previous studies that the Finnish educational practices are not sufficient in multicultural teaching. The main objective of the research was to find out good multicultural teaching practices developed by experienced teachers. The subject of the research was teachers' narratives about the problems, solutions and the development of multicultural academic teaching. Previous research has shown that disturbances in multicultural activity can be caused among other things by cultural and linguistic differences, racism and prejudice and stress related to immigration. The management of multicultural teaching can be examined from the individual point of view as intercultural competence and from the collective point of view as management of the disturbances of multicultural teaching. The development of the management has been illustrated with the models of adaptation and transformative/expansive learning. The methodological approach of the research was narrative. I interviewed six teachers with narrative methods. Half of the interviews were pair interviews. As an analytical framework I used the basic story model by Labov (1972). I analysed critical incidents, resolutions and evaluations of the stories. According to the results the problems of the multicultural academic teaching are diverse. Most often mentioned problems were cultural differences and racism. Problems were managed by developing practices that support the multicultural activity broadly and by reacting to sudden problems intuitively or reflectively. In the management of the academic multicultural teaching the experienced teachers emphasised flexibility, group building and trust, intensified guidance, acting against racism and prejudice and characteristics of the teacher, like patience and sense of humour. The management of multicultural teaching has developed through the accumulation of intercultural experiences, reflection of experiences, cooperative problem solving, following the research of the field and experimenting different approaches. In accordance with the previous studies, this research showed that continuous learning is needed in the management of multicultural teaching. The results can be used in developing academic multicultural teaching and education.
  • Sarparanta, Saana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Objective: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) are serious psychiatric disorders highly prevalent in clinical settings, characterized by multiple forms of distress, functional decline, and increased risk of suicide. MDD and BPD often co-occur and the co-occurrence of the disorders is associated with the course of MDD. Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) refer to maladaptive internalized representations of the self in relation to others that develop early in life. EMSs are associated with depressive and BPD symptomatology and symptom severity. However, the associations between EMSs and psychiatric comorbidity have rarely been studied. The aim of the present study was to provide new insight into the comorbidity of BPD and MDD by focusing on the associations between EMSs and BPD symptomatology among depressed inpatient population. Methods: The sample consisted of 43 adult inpatients (29 women and 14 men). BPD symptomatology was measured via Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders and EMSs via Young Schema Questionnaire-S2-Extended self-report questionnaires. A three-level linear regression model was created to predict self-reported BPD symptomatology: In level 1, linear regression analysis was conducted for each individual EMS separately, EMSs entered as predictors for BPD symptomatology. In level 2, gender, age, education level and employment status were added to the model as covariates. In level 3, also current level of depressive symptoms measured via Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale was added to the model as a covariate. Results and conclusions: Higher scores on 10 of the 18 EMSs were significantly positively associated with elevated self-reported BPD symptomatology. However, only one EMS, Unrelenting Standards and Hypercriticalness, was independently positively associated with self-reported BPD symptomatology and explained variance over the effect of current depressive symptom state, gender, age, education level and employment status. According to the findings of the present study, Unrelenting Standards and Hypercriticalness may act a specific cognitive risk factor for elevated BPD symptomatology and symptom severity among depressed individuals.
  • Pesälä, Juuso (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study aimed at providing additional information about the effects of gender and the education level of parents to a child's school performance. On the basis of previous research, it was known that in the Western countries the school performance of girls is somewhat better than boys. It was also known that parental education predicts children's school performance. The study aimed to find mediating factors which could explain the effect of these variables. The data used in this study was part of a follow-up study which is collected by the Finnish Centre for Educational Assessment. It contained quite a large (N 1606-2316) set of data, where one age-group of primal school students in the city of Vantaa was measured - in 6th grade, 9th grade and in secondary school. At each time of measurement, information about the participants' school performance was collected. Participants' cognitive performance was measured, and they were also asked about lifestyle, and about their methods of study. According to the results of this study, the effect of gender and parents' education to the children's educational performance is at the same level as international studies have reported. The effect of gender was mediated by certain motivational factors. It was possible to explain the whole effect of gender by motivational factors. The effect of parental education was mediated by the cognitive performance of the participants. In general, this study confirms earlier observations about the subject, but it also provides some new information. In particular, the link between student's gender and motivational factors is interesting. It might provide a useful starting point for future studies, and it may direct research towards more detailed knowledge of school motivation. It seems that the effect of parental education was mediated by the cognitive performance of the participants. However, the details of this effect remain largely unknown.
  • Salmiaitta, Pentti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Objectives: Juvenile delinquency and substance use are significant social problems. Delinquency and substance use started in adolescence often lead to lifetime persistent behavior patterns. According to previous research the most important individual factor in relation to juvenile delinquency and substance use is personality and one of the most important environmental factors in relation to these behaviors is parental monitoring. In this study I tried to replicate earlier results on the links of personality and parental monitoring with juvenile delinquency and substance use. Moreover I examined the quality of interactions between the Big Five personality traits and parental monitoring in relation to juvenile delinquency and substance use; these interactions have not been studied comprehensively before. Methods: Data for this study was taken from the Finnish national delinquency survey from 2012 collected by the National Research Institute of Legal Policy. The sample consisted of 8914 Finnish 6th and 9th grade pupils (age range 12–17). I analyzed the amount of self-reported criminal acts from the previous year in three classes of crime: aggressive and non-aggressive criminal acts as well as substance use (incl. alcohol use). I used multinomial logistic regression to examine the links of the Big Five personality dimensions, parental monitoring and their interactions to different classes of criminal acts. In each class of crime I compared separately occasional and repetitive offenders to those who reported minimal amounts of criminal acts. Results and conclusions: Parental monitoring had strong positive links to all classes of crime independent of the amount of criminal acts. Agreeableness and conscientiousness had negative relationships with all criminal behavior following previous research. Extraversion in turn had positive relations to all crime contrary to many previous results. Personality traits and parental monitoring had two separate kinds of interactions: in many occasions when parental monitoring was lower some personality trait was reduced in its power to predict criminal acts; contrary to this the positive relationship of extraversion to repetitive aggressive crime raised as parental monitoring decreased in amount. The significance of parental monitoring in relation to juvenile delinquency and substance use is highlighted in my results. According to my results it will be profitable to put effort in reinforcing parental monitoring to fight juvenile delinquency and substance use.
  • Sohlman, Annukka (Helsingfors universitet, 2007)
    The aim of this thesis was to study what kind of home-made menstrual pads were used in the early 20th century in Finland, how the home-made pads were made and which techniques and materials were used. The use and taking care of menstrual pads were also explored. The history of menstrual pads has been studied in Sweden, Germany and United States but none of those studies has concentrated on home-made pads. Instead, there are many studies about womanhood and menstruation. In many studies home-made menstrual pads are only briefly mentioned. Menstrual pads were not commonly used in Finland at the beginning of the 20th century, but already in the 1940s the use of menstrual pads had become common in every stratum of society. Home-made menstrual pads were used even until the 1960s. In Finland, factory-made disposable menstrual pads became common only in the 1930s and they were only slowly accepted. The study material consisted of nine interviews, three archival inquiries, health care guidebooks from 1893 to 1943 and authentic menstrual pads, menstrual belts and other objects related to them. The interviewed women were born between 1915 and 1939. The narrative approach was used in the study and it also guided the analysis. The interview and archival data were studied according to the basic rules of oral history studies. Literature consisted of publications from several disciplines. The extensive primary material played the most important role in this study. The reconstructions of the menstrual pads were made according to the interviewed women's advice. In Finland there were innumerable variations of home-made menstrual pads. The pads were most commonly crocheted and knitted either by hand or by knitting machine. Pads were also sewn of cloth, old bed linen or old underwear. The menstrual pads were self-made or made by a female relative. Word of mouth was important in spreading information on how to make pads, because there were hardly any instructions available. The biggest pads were 54 cm long and 13 cm wide. The most widely used pad model was a rectangle, which had triangle-shaped ends with a buttonhole or a loop. The pad was attached to the menstrual belt or to the buttons of the suspender belt. Knitted and crocheted pads had one, two or three layers. In sewn pads, there could be even more layers. Cellulose wadding or pieces of cloth could be placed inside the pad to increase the absorption ability. The experiences of the comfort of self-made pads varied. The crocheted and sewn pads were found chafing, knitted ones were found soft and comfortable. The menstrual pads were laborious to wash and boil in lye water. Therefore disposable pads made everyday life easier. The home-made menstrual pads were part of a unique tradition of handicrafts and folk culture. Hand-made pads were one of the most common handicraft products and were a part of every woman's life. Even so, the menstrual pads were unnoticeable. The large number of variations was probably caused by the silence around menstrual topics and by the lack of instructions for making pads. Variations are also explained by the uniqueness of every handicraft product. In Finland the home-made pads were used until relatively recent times. This was caused by the conditions of wartime and the following years and the rarity of commercial pads. Furthermore, until the late 20th century Finland was an agricultural society where all innovations spread slowly. Home-made menstrual pad was a secret handicraft of women and every woman needed to know how to make it by herself.
  • Tertsunen, Tauno (Helsingfors universitet, 1999)
    Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli tutkia tietokoneavusteisen opetuksen opetusmenetelmänä ja tietokoneavusteisten opetusohjelmien oppimateriaalina soveltuvuutta erilaisiin sähköalan ammatillisiin opetus- ja oppimistilanteisiin. Tietokoneavusteisilla opetusohjelmilla tarkoitetaan tässä tutkimuksessa erilaisia digitaaliseen muotoon tallennettuja oppimateriaaleja ja tietokoneavusteisella opetuksella näiden digitaalisten oppimateriaalien hyödyntämistä erilaisissa oppimistilanteissa. Opetusteknologian kehittymisen myötä myöskin opettajien valittavissa olevat opetusmenetelmät lisääntyvät ja monipuolistuvat. Vastaavalla tavalla myöskin oppimateriaalit kehittyvät ja mahdollistavat oppijan näkökulmasta entistä yksilöllisemmät opiskelumahdollisuudet. Tutkimuksen viitekehyksen liittyvinä keskeisinä elementteinä olivat tietokoneavusteinen opetus opetusmenetelmänä ja sen valintaan liittyvät tekijät: oppisisällöt ja oppimiselle asetetut tavoitteet, opettajan opetusmenetelmällinen osaaminen, erilaiset oppijat yksilöllisine oppimistavoitteineen sekä käytettävissä olevat erilaiset oppimateriaalit. Tutkimus toteutettiin toimintatutkimuksena ja siihen osallistui tutkijan lisäksi 15 sähköalan opettajaa kahdesta erikokoisesta ammattioppilaitoksesta. Varsinainen toimintatutkimus aloitettiin keväällä 1994 ja se jatkui kevääseen 1996. Lisäksi suoritettiin vertaileva tutkimus, johon osallistui 9 opettajaa kolmesta erillisestä ammattioppilaitoksesta syksyllä 1996 jatkuen kevääseen 1997. Keskeisimmistä tutkimustuloksista mainitsen opettajien heikon tuntemuksen tietokoneavusteisesta opetuksesta ja sen hyödyntämiseen liittyvistä elementeistä. Opettajilta puuttuu taito suunnitella tietokoneavusteisia opetusohjelmia oppimateriaaleina hyödyntäviä opetus- ja oppimistilanteita. Tutkimuksen mukaan opettajilla ei kuitenkaan ole negatiivista ennakkoasennetta opetusmenetelmää kohtaan ja opiskelijat suhtautuvat erittäin myönteisesti erilaisiin tietokoneavusteisiin opetusohjelmiin oppimateriaaleina.
  • Leino, Sanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    This study examined year seven students' proactive coping, self-efficacy and social support seeking. Proactive coping was defined as a behaviour where obstacles are seen as a challenge. In proactive coping, individuals set goals, build up resources and regulate their behaviour to achieve the goals. Self-efficacy can be seen as people's beliefs about their capabilities. Social support seeking was divided into instrumental support seeking and emotional support seeking. According to the theoretical frame of this study self-efficacy and social support seeking were seen as resources to proactive coping (Greenglass 2002). The participants were 445 year seven students (Mo= 13 years) from seven secondary schools. The data was collected in March-May 2008. The survey consisted 37 Likert-scaled items from the Proactive Coping Inventory and from the General Self-Efficacy Scale. The survey consisted of four scales: Proactive Coping, Instrumental Support Seeking, Emotional Support Seeking and General Self-Efficacy. The participants' age, gender and studying in specialist streams were asked as background information. As a result, most of the participants (62 % girls, 38 % boys) reported fairly strong proactive coping: they can see obstacles as a challenge and they set goals and regulate their behaviour to achieve the goals. Most of the participants reported that they seek instrumental and emotional support when having troubles. Girls reported more social support seeking than did boys and the mean difference was statistically significant. Most of the participants had fairly high sense of self-efficacy. However, 4 % of the participants reported that they don't believe in their capabilities. Some of these participants reported that they neither use proactive coping nor seek informational or emotional support when having troubles. Proactive coping correlated positively with self-efficacy and with social support seeking. In this study self-efficacy and social support seeking explained 47 % of proactive coping. It was discussed that children's high sense of self-efficacy and social relationships can act as protective factors in transition to secondary school. When supporting children's self-efficacy and social relationships one also assists children's proactive coping. Proactive coping can be seen to support children's personal growth.
  • Hildén, Petri (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Objectives. The objective of this research was to give a perspective how worldview takes form. The task is to find out, what beliefs, understandings, attitudes and values returnee students have according cultural spheres and human rights. Methods. The participants of this study were sixth-graders who attended same school in the metropolitan area of Helsinki. The material was collected using theme interviews and a written map task. The material was categorized data-driven related to cultural spheres, and theory guided related to human rights using Banks' (2009) levels of cultural identity. I used Hampden-Turner's and Trompenaars' (2000) and Hofstede's (2013) theories related to cultural dimension when I analyzed the results of cultural spheres. When analizing the results of human rights I used De Blij's (2008) theory of globals and locals and Audi's (2009) theory of cosmopolitans and nationalists. Results and conclusions. The participants brought up different notes about cultural spheres in theme interviews than in map task. The examined/they linked prosperity, justice and friendliness in Western Countries, poverty and instability in Latin America, poverty, instability and problems created by own society in sub Saharan Africa, poverty and income inequality in eastern Europe and Russia, instability, income inequality and problems created by own society in China, Koreas and Vietnam, poverty and visible Hindu religion in India, instability, poverty and strict Islamic religion that controls women in North Africa, Middle East and Southeast Asia, prosperity and lack of space in Japan and visible Buddhist religion in Southeast Asia. With regard to human rights the examined positioned on fourth stage of Banks' (2009) stages of cultural identity. In Berry's (1997) model of acculturation they supported integration, in De Blij's (2008) local-global axis they positioned at least somewhat to globals and in Audi's (2009) nationalist-cosmopolitanists axis they got variable results. The target of this research was not to make generalizations, but it may offer an opportunity to educators to perceive individual worldviews of the students.
  • Koponen, Anna-Katariina (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Objectives. The aim of this Master's thesis is to find out kindergarten educators understanding of childhood sex and gender and its diversity. The focus of this study is to find out what kind of conceptions kindergarten educators have about sex and gender and how it forms. The goal is also to find if kindergarten educators produce gendered conceptions in their open answers and what kind of information they have considering sex, gender and its diversity. This study also develops ways of how educators can support children sexual identity. It also raises awareness of childhood sex and gender diversity, childhood sexuality, as well as addresses the childhood sex education. Previous studies show that early childhood education has gendered activities. Methods. Methodological studies were characterized by Grounded theory procedures and the phenomenographic research. Analysis was carried out inductively. Quantitative research results support the qualitative results. Research material consisted of a part of the Väestöliitto (Family Federation) commissioned survey in 2013 (see. Appendix 1). From this questionnaire two open questions were chosen. They are: question A (n = 271) "What do you think about that child's sex is encrypted from the child and the environment prior to school age? Do you have any experience of that?" and question B (n = 289) "Tell your experience with whether or not the children's can play, as well as the so-called own sex play and so-called opposite sex plays (for example, boys get to play pirates, as well as the princesses)." The responses were analyzed with Atlas.ti 7.0 (Qualitative Data analyzis) program. Results and conclusions. On the basis of kindergarten educator responses, Sex - Gender conceptions consisted of a total of three Core Categories. Conception of gender was not possible to find out from all of the answers. In the question A, there were three different conceptions of how Sex and Gender is formed: Core Category 1 Sex is a biological fact that determines gender identity "SBM" n = 87/147. Core Category 2 Sex is a biological fact, but gender is built socially, and is the child's own experience "SBIS" n = 56/147 and Core Category 3 Biological sex can be encrypted if the birth of the child's sex is unclear, when Sex and Gender are formed by child's own experience "SSPE" n = 4/147. In the question B, the gender conceptions of educators are Core Category 1 "SBM" n = 100/269 and Core Category 2 "SBIS" n = 169/269. Gender perceptions vary depending on the open question. The study suggests that educators need more information about gender diversity, childhood sexuality and sex education.
  • Lehtimäki, Hanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Objectives. Competence management has been a recent topic in public debate. However, it has not been researched so much in primary education. The purpose of my master's thesis is to describe how competence management and teachers' competence development takes place in primary schools. The focus of my master's thesis is on studying the practices that support school teachers' competence development. Through research on the practices that support competence development, the practices can be shared with other work communities. This is how primary schools can learn the competence development of each other. Methods. The data was collected by focused interview of the five primary school principals and school leaders in Southern Finland. The interviewees were selected for research by snowball sampling and according to interest in the subject. The results were analyzed using content analysis. Results and conclusions. The results show that competence management in the primary school principals' work was determined by identification, maintenance, development, and acquisition of skills. Primary school principals felt that their role as the competence leader was in directing competence development and setting objectives, enabling competence development, supporting learning, motivating and inspiring, creating frameworks and structures, creating co-operation between teachers, and controlling the development of competence. Primary school principals guided the competence development of class teachers with regular development discussions, continuing education and diverse workplace learning. Class teacher competence development in primary schools was supported by discussion and interaction, collaboration, and instruction-based practices. The practices that support class teachers' competence development are co-operation, organizational teaming, pair working, teaching together and co-teaching, learning from students, networking, pedagogical discussion, reading professional literature, sharing expertise in the work community, briefing, highlighting and use of teachers' strengths, giving different roles to teachers, and teacher guidance in the everyday life of education and teaching. The requirements and challenges of successful skills development are, looking from different aspects, related to class teachers themselves, resources and school culture. In the future, principals should help class teachers recognize the practices that support competence development as opportunities for their professional growth. Other schools can take ideas from these practices and further develop them to suit the needs of their own working environment. The practices brought on by this study should be a part of principal training, so that they could spread to other schools with various possible implementations. In addition, principals in basic education should be guided to realize the benefits and significance of vision in competence management.
  • Mäkinen, Kalle (Helsingfors universitet, 2000)
    This study examines supervisors' emerging new role in a technical customer service and home customers division of a large Finnish telecommunications corporation. Data of the study comes from a second-generation knowledge management project, an intervention research, which was conducted for supervisors of the division. The study exemplifies how supervision work is transforming in high technology organization characterized with high speed of change in technologies, products, and in grass root work practices. The intervention research was conducted in the division during spring 2000. Primary analyzed data consists of six two-hour videorecorded intervention sessions. Unit of analysis has been collective learning actions. Researcher has first written conversation transcripts out of the video-recorded meetings and then analyzed this qualitative data using analytical schema based on collective learning actions. Supervisors' role is conceptualized as an actor of a collective and dynamic activity system, based on the ideas from cultural historical activity theory. On knowledge management researcher has taken a second-generation knowledge management viewpoint, following ideas from cultural historical activity theory and developmental work research. Second-generation knowledge management considers knowledge embedded and constructed in collective practices, such as innovation networks or communities of practice (supervisors' work community), which have the capacity to create new knowledge. Analysis and illustration of supervisors' emerging new role is conceptualized in this framework using methodological ideas derived from activity theory and developmental work research. Major findings of the study show that supervisors' emerging new role in a high technology telecommunication organization characterized with high speed of discontinuous change in technologies, products, and in grass-root practices cannot be defined or characterized using a normative management role/model. Their role is expanding two-dimensionally, (1) socially and (2) in new knowledge, and work practices. The expansion in organization and inter-organizational network (social expansion) causes pressures to manage a network of co-operation partners and subordinates. On the other hand, the faster speed of change in technological solutions, new products, and novel customer wants (expansion in knowledge) causes pressures for supervisors to innovate quickly new work practices to manage this change.
  • Anttila, Hanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2008)
    Goals This study aims to map the effect of interrogative function on the intonation of spontaneous and read Finnish. Earlier research shows that the most prominent feature in Finnish question intonation is an appeal to the listener. Question word questions typically start with a high peak which is followed by falling intonation. In yes/no questions, F0 remains on a high level until the word carrying sentence stress and then falls. Final rises are mainly found in intonation clichés such as "Ai mitä?" ("What?") These earlier results are based on read speech and enacted dialogues. In this study, questions and statements found in spontaneous dialogues were compared. These utterances were also compared with read versions of the same utterances. Fundamental frequency values were compared using a mixed model. Contours were also grouped using auditory and visual inspection. Thus it was possible to compare frequencies of contour types according to utterance type and speech style. The position of questions in the F0 distribution of the whole material was also investigated in this study. Method he material consisted of four spontaneous dialogues and their read versions. The speakers were young adults from the Helsinki metropolitan area, four females and four males. The whole material was first divided into broad dialogue function categories arising from the material and F0 curves were calculated for each category. After this, 277 questions and 244 statements were selected for closer inspection. Values reflecting F0 distribution and contour shape were measured from the F0 contours of these utterances. A mixed model was used to analyse the differences. Utterance type, question type, speech style and speaker gender were used as fixed effects. The frequencies of F0 contour types were compared using a Chi square test. Additional material in this study came from eight young female speakers in central Finland. Results and conclusions In the mixed model analysis, significant differences were found both between questions and statements and between spontaneous and read speech. Generally, utterance type affected the variables reflecting contour type while speech style affected the variables reflecting F0 distribution. The effect of question type was not clearly visible. In read speech the contours resembled earlier results more closely. Speakers had different strategies in differentiating between questions and statements. In the whole material, F0 was slightly higher in questions than in statements. The effect of dialectal background could be seen in the contour types. The results show that interrogative function affects intonation in both spontaneous and read Finnish.
  • Lehtonen, Miikka (Helsingfors universitet, 2008)
    The objective of the study was to explore the dimensions of group identity in the guilds of World of Warcraft. Previous research shows that social interaction has an important role in playing games for many players. Social identities are an important aspect of self-concept and since group related cues are more salient than personal clues in computer-mediated communication, the social gaming experience was approached through group identity. In the study a new scale will be developed to measure the group identity in games. Secondary goal is to study how different guild attributes affect the group identity and third goal is to explore the connection between group identity and gaming experience and amount of play. Subjects were 1203 guild members and 106 players not in a guild. The data was gathered by an Internet survey which measured group identity with nine scales, gaming experience with three scales and guild attributes with four scales. Also various background data was gathered. The construct of group identity was analyzed with explorative factor analysis. The typical experiences of group identity was analyzed with cluster analysis and effects of guild attributes with multivariate analysis of covariance. As a result of the study a new scale was developed which measured group identity on six dimensions: self-stereotyping, public and private evaluation, importance, interconnection of self and others and awareness of content. Group identity was experienced strongest in elder middle-sized guilds that had formal rules and that emphasized social interaction. The players with strong group identity had more positive gaming experience and played World of Warcraft more per week than the players who were not in a guild or identified to guild weakly. This result encourages game developers to produce environments that enhance group identity as it seems to increase the enjoyment in games. As a whole this study proposes that group identity in guilds is constructed from the same elements as in traditional groups. If this is truly the case, guild membership may have similar positive effects on individual's mental well-being as traditional positively evaluated group memberships have.
  • Toikkanen, Tarmo (Helsingfors universitet, 2005)
    As computer technology evolves, both the need for knowledge workers and the pressure to increase the effectiveness of teaching with the help of ICT increase. Teaching of the skills needed by the knowledge workers requires new pedagogy, where instead facts and obedience the focus is on skills, independence and learning to learn. The use of ICT in education brings its own challenges to learning situations. Social constructivist computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) is becoming a major challenger for the traditional teacher-centered learning. One of these methodologies is Progressive Inquiry, which is developed in Finland. Since the social constructive theory emphasizes the relations between learners more than the individuals' actions, research in this field must also take into account the interactions that occur in learning situations. While traditional psychological and pedagogical methods are not applicable, an old method of social sciences, SNA or social network analysis is designed specifically for the analysis of groups of people. Applications of SNA in psychology and collaborative learning are however few and preliminary, and no reliable evidence on the applicability nor useful results exist. The purpose of this study is to find out if SNA can be applied to this field of research. In this study SNA was used to analyze the learning situations of 23 classes in comprehensive and secondary schools that used Progressive inquiry. The results show that SNA can be applied to the study of CSCL, since the analysis produced preliminary measurements that were related to the quality of the course. The results are also in concordance with social constructivist theory: a course's usefulness increases as the several students write high quality messages and participate widely in different conversations.
  • Terhemaa, Reetta (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Objectives. The aim of the study was to examine the influence of family and peer relations on the incidence of substance use disorders in juvenile offenders. The studies so far have mainly focused on the associations between adolescents' social relations and early substance experimentation and amount of substance use but there are only few studies that have examined the social aspects of adolescents with substance use disorders. This study aimed to find out whether the social aspects that studies have found to be associated with substance use also come up in the sample of juvenile offenders with substance use disorders, and if there were factors that protect from substance use disorders. Methods. The participants in this study were drawn from an American study, The Pathways to Desistance. The 1354 participants were enrolled into the study between November 2000 and January 2003 from the juvenile and adult court systems in Mericopa County and Philadelphia County. The participants were between 14 and 18 years old at the time of their committing offense. The 1302 participants that had answered the questionnaires regarding substance use disorders were included in this study. The participants were divided into two groups: adolescents that had had substance use disorders and to adolescents that had never had substance use disorders. The groups were compared by factors relating to family and peer relations cross-sectionally with logistic regression analysis. Results and conclusions. According to the results, maternal hostility, parents' drug problems and antisocial behavior and influence of the peers were associated with the group of substance use disorders. Factors that protect from substance use disorders were high paternal warmth, parental knowledge and parental monitoring. These results support the earlier findings of the importance of social relations in adolescents' substance use and also raise hypotheses of possible factors influencing the development of substance use disorders. It is highly important to be aware of the risk factors influencing young adolescents' substance use so that it is possible to create early interventions and prevent future problems.

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