Faculty of Educational Sciences


Recent Submissions

  • Kantola, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives. The purpose of the study was to find out the approaches to learning of students graduating with a bachelor's degree in military sciences (SK) and the factors burdening their studies at the National Defense University (MPKK). This subject has not been previously studied in the context of officer training. Previous researches in other disciplines have shown that approaches are linked to different areas of learning and learning can be used to identify groups that need research data to support them. The research problems were: 1. What kind of learning approaches SK students used, whether they were connected to each other and what kind of profiles emerged from the material, 2. How learning approaches differed according to different background variables and 3. What environmental variables cause workload in their studies. The study aims to make visible groups in different situations with different approaches to learning and workload in environmental variables. Methods. All three classes participated in the study. The questionnaire was collected using a quantitative questionnaire and was analyzed by quantitative methods. A total of 413 students responded to the survey. Factor analysis and k-cluster analysis were used as analysis methods to group respondents into profiles based on approaches. The relationship between the approaches was examined using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and the differences between the profiles and the environmental variables were examined using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results and conclusions. SK students emphasized the most to the deep approach, then the organised and least unreflective approach. There was also a negative statistically significant association between the unreflective and deep approaches. Based on the approaches, four different profiles emerged from the data: unorganised deep, dissonant, deep organised and unreflective. According to the background variables and the environmental variables, the differences in approaches were reflected in the profile representation. Statistically significant differences in workload by profile were found in the schedules for completing assignments, written assignments, exam preparation, and group work. The results can be utilized in MPKK's curriculum work, teaching development and student support.
  • Parman, Marlene (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Based on previous studies, neoliberal features have been observed in Finnish education policy. The government has made education-related reforms in recent years. My research examines the recent public debate surrounding education reforms in a neoliberal framework. I examine what themes, goals, rationales, and attitudes toward education reform are given in the public debate. I will try to find out how neoliberalism manifests itself in these debates. The aim of my dissertation is to bring out the public debate around education reforms and education policy. The study of the debate is intended to bring out different perspectives and voices, from education policy experts, academics, students, and individual citizens. I examine the manifestations of neoliberal education policy in the light of these debates. My research is a qualitative study. I search answers to two research questions. My data consists of articles. As a research method, I used content analysis. The data of my research consists of 51 articles by Helsingin Sanomat published in 2015–2019. Articles were analyzed by content analysis. Through content analysis, I found four different themes. I looked at the results in a neoliberal framework. The education reform debate revolved around student selection, industry changers, education cuts, and education policy. The debate around education reforms was controversial. On the one hand, education reforms were justified as profitable and good ideas, but on the other hand, they were criticized and questioned. Educational reforms raised concerns and appeared to pose threats to education and the scientific community, as well as to society. Based on the discussion, neoliberal features emerge in education reforms.
  • Uusoksa, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This is a research on how the manifestation of critical thinking skills of secondary school students was supported in the different iterations of the Global Challenges phenomenom-based learning course. Phenomenom-based learning (PhBL) is one alternative on how to teach critical information gathering and processing skills – also known as knowledge building – which are vital in the modern society. The implemented models of PhBL, however, lack foundational research and they’ve been criticized to be a waste of time. This thesis introduces how PhBL can be carried out in a pedagogically meaningful way by utilizing the theories of project-based learning, inquiry-based learning and collaborative knowledge building. Three years of design work resulted in a research-based model on how to organize a PhBL course for secondary education. The model is justified and criticized in the framework of the national curriculum and previous research. This thesis follows the design-based research (DBR) protocol by describing the needs, different processes and the final product of the design. Research material was gathered from the Global Challenges course that was organized from 2017 to 2019 by Helsinki University Science Education Center for students of secondary schools. The gathered material is mostly qualitative, constisting of the course materials, participant observation carried out by the university students and narrative self-evaluations, course artefacts and summative feedbacks from the secondary school students. In the first iteration 10 out of 19 attending students were observed, whereas in the second iteration all seven attending students were observed. The observation reports of the first two iterations were subjected to empirical problem analysis. In the third iteration participant observation was no longer carried out, and all material consists of the course assignments that the 17 attending students submitted in to the created MOOC web-learning environment. The manifestation of the critical thinking skills on the secondary school students’ course assignments in 2nd and 3rd iterations were comparatively analyzed with The Vocabulary of Critical Thinking Skills (2009) by Phil Washburn. A successfull practice of phenomenom-based learning required well defined structure and guidance. The goals of the course were met only partially in the first iterations, because the freedom and fun didn’t motivate the students to invest in the knowledge building process. The elements implemented in the last iteration supported meeting the goals considerably more efficiently than the model of free knowledge creation. The manifestation of the critical thinking skills was connected to the ability to follow the structures modelled after the Progressive inquiry. The conclusion was that the structures of PhBL must be built up carefully, if they are to challenge the traditional subject learning model in a pedagogically meaningful way.
  • Ikäheimonen, Ada (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Constantly changing work life has placed new demands and challenges on the Finnish education system. The respond to these demands and challenges is a General Upper Secondary reform, which was launched in 2017. The General Upper Secondary reform includes renewal of curriculum, a new Act on General Upper Secondary Education and amending the regulations for the matriculation examination. The reform challenges the traditionally strong autonomous position of teachers as teachers are expected to adopt new ways of working. According to previous studies, the change in teacher work towards a team work culture requires new professional skills from teachers. The purpose of my study was to find out what possible changes and challenges the renewal of curriculum (LOPS) might have on the LOPS-tutors work. Furthermore, I wanted to map out whether the competencies of teachers need to be updated after possible changes in competency requirements. I studied the phenomenon qualitatively by interviewing six LOPS- tutors who, in addition to their teacher work, are working closely on reform of General Upper Secondary Education. The material of this study was collected by semi-structured theme interviews. As a theoretical part, I defined the General Upper Secondary Education in the Finnish context, the history of school development, teachership and teachers work. In addition, I presented the key themes of the reform, the new Act on General Upper Secondary Education and renewal of curriculum. The method of analysis in this study was theory-guided content analysis. According to the results of my study, the teacher work life will change due to the new curriculum (2019). The most essential changes affecting to teachers’ work were increasing amount of team work and interaction, multidisciplinary study modules and the expansion of supervision. Lack of time, concern for well-being of teachers, as well as the structural challenges and bureaucracy emerged as key challenges in the implementation of the reform. Interviewees did not agree on whether teachers would need in-service training. My study supports the view that teachers have a contradictory attitude towards school changes. Although school development was seen as an important and necessary factor, the changes did not appear to be realistic taking into account the everyday reality of the school.
  • Jern, Virpi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tiedekunta - Fakultet - Faculty Educational Sciences Laitos - Institution - Department Teacher Education Tekijä - Författare - Author Virpi Jern Työn nimi - Arbetets titel Title Qualitative attitude study of PE teachers gender awareness Oppiaine - Läroämne - Subject Educational Sciences Työn laji/ Ohjaaja - Arbetets art/Handledare - Level/Instructor Master’s Thesis / Liisa Tainio Aika - Datum - Month and year 06/2020 Sivumäärä - Sidoantal - Number of pages 104 pp.+ 1 appendices Tiivistelmä - Referat – Abstract Aim In 2015 in Finland was released new equality law. First time in the history of the legislation of a gender equality discrimination based on gender identity and/or expression of sex was mentioned in the law. The changes in law were also considered in the national curriculum of comprehensive school (POPS 2014) and upper secondary school (LOPS 2015). Despite that fact both gender and sexual minorities experience discrimination at school environment even now (Lehto 2010; Kankkunen, Harinen, Nivala & Tapio 2010). Especially bad situation has revealed in PE lessons where reproduction of heteronormativity is according to previous research no exception (Berg & Lahelma 2010; Huotari, Törmä & Tuokkolan 2011; Alanko 2014; Kokkonen 2017). According to Syrjäläinen and Kujala (2010) situation is mainly caused by a result of gender neutrality of teacher education and lacking knowledge of gender awareness. For those reasons mentioned above, this study examines mainly gender awareness of Finnish PE teachers, but also PE teachers attitudes towards gender and sexual diversity. Method This study is a feminist educational research. The data was collected by interviewing eight qualified PE teachers. The teachers took a stand on 25 claims acceded to the research theme. The data was analyzed by using discourse analysis. A discourse analysis was con-ducted, based on the interviewer’s questions and comments and the interviewees’ responses and possible counter-questions. Particular interest was directed towards linguistic regularities relating to norms and ideas about gender and sexuality. Results As a result of the study it was revealed that PE teachers’ knowledge and percep-tions of gender and sexual diversity were updated. PE teachers’ attitudes towards gender and sexual minorities were highly positive. Teachers also appreciated and valued equality as a desirable status. A discourse analysis was conducted that PE teacher speech mainly took into account the diversity but in some interviewees’, responses were interpreted as heter-onormative. PE teachers gender awareness in this study was better to prior research but full equality of students has not been achieved yet. in PE lessons. Therefore, teacher training should include more opportunities to discuss about the strategies and practices to take the diversity better account in teaching PE. Avainsanat - Nyckelord Keywords Physical Education, gender awareness, gender diversity, sexual diversity, Säilytyspaikka - Förvaringsställe - Where deposited City Centre Campus Library, Helda/E-thesis Muita tietoja - Övriga uppgifter - Additional information
  • Heldén, Merja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The objectives. The purpose of this study is to describe how home economic teachers experience the changes in their work as information and communication technologies become part of teaching. The research questions are: 1. How do home teachers experience that information and communication technologies are changing their jobs? 2. What factors influence the use of ICT in teaching? 3. What challenges and opportunities does ICT bring to teaching? Methods. This is a qualitative study carried out using an on-line questionnaire. The questionnaire was sent to members of the Finnish Home Economics Teachers´ Association all over Finland. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results and conclusions. Teachers felt that ICT facilitated their work on the one hand, and increased the amount of work on the other. Often working days were stretched and it was difficult to separate work and leisure time. Teachers also needed networking and further training. Teachers´own perceptions and experiences are relevant to the extent of using information and communication technology in their teaching. Challenges were perceived as mobile phones caused disruptions during lessons. Functionality of equipment: equipment availability and non-functioning network connections were also perceived as a challenge. It was seen as an opportunity to facilitate the documentation and demonstration of various outputs and activities. Information retrieval has also become easier with the help of information and communication technology.
  • Siekkinen, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In Finland, the wedding rug adorns one of the most special occasions in human life: the wedding ceremony in a church setting. The recognized tradition of the Finnish rug and the content, which the church setting provides for the purpose of its use, are combined in a wedding rug. In this study, the wedding rug is approached from these two perspectives. While both the Finnish rug and church textiles have previously been studied widely, the wedding rug has been less focused on. This study aims at investigating the location, characteristics and meanings conveyed in wedding rugs in the church buildings of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. Jakobson’s communication model, which is applied by Riikka Ryökäs (2002) in her dissertation, is used in order to study the communicative nature of wedding rugs. In this study, the focus lies on the context, code and channel aspects of the communication model. The study was carried out in two parts. For the first part, a survey was sent to all the congregations of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland in order to map the wedding rugs in the country. The survey also sought to find the characteristics of the wedding rugs. For the second part of the study, 12 wedding rugs, located in different places across the country and designed in different time periods, were chosen amongst the data. The communication model was applied in order to analyze the chosen rugs. 142 congregations filled out the survey and 236 wedding rugs were found. There were ten congregations or church settings in which no wedding rugs were found. The findings of the study shed light on the characteristics and the messages of the wedding rugs, as well as confirm the findings of previous studies. The messages, which the wedding rugs convey, can be categorized into four themes which include marriage, Christianity, localness as well as nature. The codes of message are pictorial motifs, colors and the titles of the wedding rugs. The form, material and rug technique are used as a channel for the message conveyed. The information regarding the designer and the context functions as complementary as well as explanatory for the message of the wedding rug.
  • Suorsa, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Aims. Finnish children and youth are succeeding in the international reading tests quite well but especially amount of weak readers has increased. In addition, the commitment of Finnish children and young people to reading and reading as a hobby have decreased. In particular, reading of entire books has declined. Some students read whole books in their mother tongue and literature classes, but it is not self-evident that it happens in every teachers’ class. In addition to reading the literature, the use of the library services is also one of the goals of the National Core Curriculum for Basic education. The National Core Curriculum does not define how often teachers should visit some kind of library with their students. The aim of this study is to find out what library services mother tongue and literature teachers in Basic education use in their teaching or preparation of it and how often they use those. Additionally, the aim is to find out why mother tongue and literature teachers can not use library services as often as they would like to. I will also find solutions to increase their use of library services. Methods. This study is based on the data on the Lukuklaani research project. I used the answers of 884 teachers from primary schools and 407 answers from mother tongue and literature teachers from secondary schools. In their answers to the survey, they described their use of library services in their teaching or preparation of it. The data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis and also described by quantitative methods. Results and conclusions. This study showed that teachers working in primary schools and secondary school mother tongue and literature teachers cannot use the library services as often as they would like to. The barriers to use library services are concrete and related to public libraries, book buses and school or classroom libraries. Those were also the most used library services by the teachers in this study. The barriers to use library services could be demolished by putting enough resources to both public and school libraries.
  • Talvitie, Jasmin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This study aims to clarify comprehencive school teachers’ view on genderqueer and how to teach and support non-binary children at school. Previous research indicates that non-binary pupils are still at risk of getting bullied at school and some of them feel like school nor the teachers can support them. Finnish school system has committed to obey the law of equality and along with the National Curriculum, it’s mandatory to prevent discrimination against non-binary pupils and to give education about gender diversity. The results of this study presents current data of how teachers can support non-binary pupils, transmit fact-based knowledge of gender diversity and how they can be a part of taking down the heteronormativity and gender binary. This qualitative study was conducted by interviewing five primary school teachers whom have had non-binary pupil in their class. The interviews were carried out by theme interview and was analyzed in content analysis. The results of this study shows that teachers took seriously of supporting the non-binary pupils in school and saw the importance of educating about gender diversity. The teachers also felt like that other pupils were positive about and accepted the non-binary pupils but they also reported having noticed some bullying and degrading speech. The support that non-binary pupil gets was seen as dependent on the teacher, child’s family and the child themself. Teacher can bring gender diversity into education and give it visibility in school. They can also transfer the information to work colleagues and bring the attention disadvantages that’s in school towards the non-binary pupils.
  • Hujanen, Oona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives. The theoretical basis of this research is the concept of self-efficacy introduced by Albert Bandura. Self-efficacy means a person’s estimate of his or her capability to learn and to execute the courses of action required in a particular situation or task. Mastery experiences and social feedback have been shown to be important factors in the building of self-efficacy. Self-efficacy plays an important role in an individual’s development, and its impact on a person’s motivation, self-regulation and academic achievement has proved to be even stronger than the impact of one’s actual skills. Supporting individuals’ self-efficacy can make them capitalize their potential, and thus increase the equality of opportunity in society. School is an essential agent when it comes to the development of children’s self-efficacy, and the national core curriculum is the key document guiding teachers in their work. For this research, the national core curriculum of 2014 for the year groups 1-6 was examined from the viewpoint of the self-efficacy theory, and of how teachers can enhance self-efficacy in pupils. Methods. The analysis of the national core curriculum was conducted using Atlas.ti analysing program for qualitative research. Sentences referring to some component of self-efficacy, or to some means of supporting it, were collected from the curriculum. The incidences of the various components, and means of support, were qualified in order to get their total numbers. Furthermore, concepts close in meaning to self-efficacy were gathered. Results and conclusions. Although the concept of self-efficacy only comes up in the curriculum twice, concepts close in meaning appear fairly frequently. Sentences addressing the components of self-efficacy, or means of supporting it, cover 16.7 % of the curriculum text. Nevertheless, the sentences collected from the curriculum did not form a coherent theory of self-efficacy or means of supporting it. Interesting topics for further research would be to investigate to what extent teachers are familiar with the theory of self-efficacy, and what methods they use to enhance positive self-efficacy in their pupils.
  • Kärkäs, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract This study describes the perceptions of primary school teachers who participated in the strength training of the #newschool project about the development of students' self-regulatory skills and supporting development. In addition, the study examines how teachers define self-regulation skills. Self-regulation has been theoretically examined from several different starting points, which partially explains the broad definition of self-regulation and the challenges of defining the concept (Aro, 2011a, 10). The character strength classification made in the studies of positive psychology offers a new perspective on terminology in which self-regulation is seen as a strength. Strength education, which embodies positive psychology in school, in turn provides new tools to support students’ self-regulatory skills. (Peterson & Seligman, 2004, 30; Uusitalo-Malmivaara & Vuorinen, 2016, 69.) This study was conducted as a qualitative study. The material was obtained by interviewing seven teachers who actively participated in the strength training of the #newschool project. The interviews were conducted as individual interviews during March 2020. Theoretical content analysis was used as the method of data analysis. The main results of the study revealed that teachers did not have an unambiguous definition for self-regulation, rather they described it through various sub-skills and concrete examples. The socioemotional dimension of self-regulation complemented the previous definition of self-regulation by Aro (2011) in this study (Aro, 2011a, 10). In addition, the results showed that teachers' perceptions of the development of students’ self-regulatory skills include growth mindset and mixed mindset, according to Dweck’s (2006) Mindset theory (Dweck, 2006, 6). Some teachers saw self-regulation as an evolving skill, while for some it meant an innate ability, whose development can not be further influenced in school. The results show that strength education has begun to find a place in teaching and students' self-regulatory skills are supported in quite a variety of ways in everyday school life. However, teachers' mindsets still reflect mixed mindset, and more tools are needed to support, for example, educational partnerships. The special value of the research can be seen in the information it provides to trainings on how they should be further developed in the future. On the other hand, the research raises the question of how occasional trainings can have an influence on attitudes and activities. Looking to the future, the role of teacher education in embracing the growth attitude of future teachers can be assessed, and on the other hand, the potential of teacher education to provide students with better skills to support students’ self-regulatory skills can be examined.
  • Nasib, Nea (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Global education is a response to the needs of a globalized world. Global education was included in the Finnish national core curriculum in the latest curriculum reform in 2014. However, global education and especially its postcolonial approach, critical global education, calls for a more systematic inclusion in all the structures of education. This study aimed to examine how the contents and objectives of global and critical global education are included in the Finnish national core curriculum 2014. I also examined how the contents of global and critical global education included in the general objectives and the value base of the national core curriculum, reflect on the subject-specific goals and contents in the grades 3 to 6. The study data consisted of chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, and 14 of the Finnish national core curriculum 2014. The research was conducted as a theory-driven content analysis. I organized the data into themes and categories based on theory about global education and critical global education. I analyzed how the contents of global and critical global education were included in the general objectives and value base of the national core curriculum and compared these results with the subject-specific goals and contents. By comparing theory and the themes emerging from the data, I also paid attention to the contents of critical global education that were not included in the national core curriculum 2014. Based on the results of this research, many of the areas of global education, especially the education for active citizenship and respect for cultural diversity can be seen throughout the national core curriculum 2014. However, the concepts of global education and global citizenship were presented merely as disconnected and abstract topics thus leaving the accentuated sub themes in global education disconnected. The core mission of global education as an integrator of various approaches in the field of education was not transmitted in the study data. Few objectives of critical global education were seen, sense of agency, respect for cultural diversity and critical thinking being emphasized the most.
  • Koskinen, Markus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This thesis examines entrepreneurship education and authoritative discourse. Entrepreneurship education is an ambiguous term that is difficult to define it (e.g. Ristimäki, 2001). It divides opinions among teachers – there is no consensus on benefits of entrepreneurship education (Korhonen, Komulainen & Räty, 2012). The aim of this thesis is to refine the understanding of entrepreneurship education. The thesis is based on an idea that derives from discourse analysis where speech is seen as the construct of reality. Entrepreneurship education discourse is a part of educational discourse, and it defines people’s perception of entrepreneurship education. Members of Parliament produce authoritative speech and they talk a lot about this topic. Because of this the speeches of MPs are particularly interesting. The research material consists of 26 speeches by MPs focusing entrepreneurship education. I examine the rhetoric of these speeches through rhetorical analysis. I ask a question: “How do the MPs talk about entrepreneurship education?” In this way it is possible to refine the perception on entrepreneurship education. The rhetorical analysis shows that the discourse of entrepreneurship education praises entrepreneurs, entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education. The MPs’ discourse is mainly epideictic. This epideictic speech is based on many rhetorical devices such as ethos, logos and pathos, style, order of arguments and oppressive praise. Neoliberal discourse can be found behind these speeches. The discourse is brought out with point of departure that are generally accepted, for example equality and welfare. Rhetorical analysis provides valuable information about MPs’ attitudes towards school. Their relationship to school appears to be financial and entrepreneurial. This allows many new opportunities for future investigation.
  • Nieminen, Juuso (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives. This article-based master’s thesis examines the positions that are constructed for students in the documents concerning assessment accommodations in Finnish universities. In higher education literature, assessment accommodations have been mostly observed based on psychological and individualised approaches; in this study, I conceptualise these accommodations as sociocultural practices. In particular, in this thesis I bring together two regrettably separete fields of research, those of higher education assessment research and disability studies. As the theoretical framework, I utilised the Foucauldian, discursive framework of subject positioning, as tied into broader observation of power. Through this theoretisation I examined how assessment accommodations positioned students both as assessees and as impaired, special learners. Methods. The dataset for this study consisted of the documents and texts concerning assessment accommodations (e.g. webpages, guidebooks for students and teachers, equity plans) from Finnish-speaking universities in Finland. The dataset was approaches through a discur- sive-deconstructive reading that conceptualised these texts as sociocultural artefacts. The analysis of discourses deconstructed the positions of an impaired and an assessee that were largely constructed for students in the documents. The deconstructive reading identified the possibilities for student agency as depicted within these positions. Also, the analysis contested these positions by identifiying opportunities for alternative positioning. Findings and conclusions. The deconstructive reading as utilised in the study underlined the discursive and individualising discourse that was identified throught the dataset. Both the positions of an assessee and an impaired were maintained with this discourse, and the data offered few opportunities for student agency in contesting their positions. The findings underlined the ableist role of assessment accommodations in neoliberalised higher education, in which student-centred assessent is marginalised. The initial journal as selected for the publication of this study is Disability & Society.
  • Eskelinen, Vesa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Supporting pupils’ participation and the active membership of the community are part of the key principles of the national core curriculum. The curriculum aims to create structures that support children’s participation in the school community and encourage cooperation with oth-er public and private actors. Participation as a concept can be complicated to define. Gener-ally, participation is defined as a voluntary process by which people influence the decisions that affect their lives. Therefore, participation has a great impact on individual’s wellbeing. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child guarantees the right for children to express their views and right to participate in the decisions considering them. The purpose of this thesis is to clarify how pupils’ participation occurs in the nature school education and in what ways participation is supported. The research subjects were three primary school classes in two different nature school visits. The research material for this thesis was collected by observing the nature school visits and by interviewing pupils in small groups. The gathered observation notes and voice recordings were analysed with qualitative content analysis. The pupils’ participation was affected by the school culture of their class and the offered op-potrunities of free expression in the nature school. As its best, activities performed in small groups encouraged pupils to take responsibility for their group and lead to spontaneous ob-serving of the environment. Additionally, possible unequal dynamics of the group negatively affected participation. The nature school’s activities were designed and run by adults, but the pupils were active participants. Pupils did not want more options for decision-making but were open to share some ideas with the adults. The nature school has a solid foundation and possibilities to support and increase pupils’ participation.
  • Nuutinen, Anna Maaria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää, miten SCIS ohjelman mukaan opiskelleet viidesluokkalaiset osaavat opetussuunnitelman perusteiden mukaisia luokkatasonsa biologian peruskäsitteitä. Lisäksi selvitettiin sukupuolen ja luontoharrastuneisuuden sekä äidinkielen ja biologian todistusarvosanojen yhteyttä osaamiseen. Tutkimusaineisto koottiin keväällä 2005 espoolaisessa peruskoulussa. Tutkimukseen osallistui koulun yhden viidennen luokan kaikki 21 oppilasta, joista tyttöjä oli yhdeksän ja poikia 12. Oppilaiden osaamista arvioitiin kolmeosaisella testillä. Ensimmäinen tehtävä mittasi eliö- käsitteen hallintaa: luokittelua ja perustelua, toinen tehtävä ravintoketju- käsitteen hallintaa ja kolmas tehtävä mittasi tuottaja-, kuluttaja- ja hajottaja- käsitteiden hallintaa. Tutkimusten aineistolle suoritettiin tilastollinen analyysi ja päättely. Tulosten mukaan oppilaiden käsitykset eliöiden luokittelusta osoittautuivat hallituksi. Vaikeuksia tuotti ainoastaan koivun luokitteleminen eliöksi. Tulosten perusteella viidesluokkalaiset oppilaat osasivat erottaa elolliseen ja elottomaan luontoon liittyvät asiat ja luokitella ne. Oppilaat perustelivat eliöiden kuulumisen eliöihin joko eliöalan tai eliön ominaisuuksien mukaan, mutta eivät molempien mukaan. Oppilaat osasivat täydentää yksinkertaisen ravintoketjun. Valtaosa oppilaista osasi luokitella elolliseen ja elottomaan luontoon kuuluvia tekijöitä tuottajiin, kuluttajiin ja hajottajiin. Auringon ja kärpässienen luokittelu ei onnistunut kolmasosalta oppijoista; lähes kaikki oppilaat luokittelivat kastemadon virheellisesti hajottajiin. Tytöt menestyivät vain hiukan paremmin testissä kuin pojat. Ero ei ollut tilastollisesti merkitsevä. Äidinkielen ja biologian arvosanoilla ei ollut yhteyttä testissä menestymiseen eikä myöskään luontoharrastuneisuudella. Tämän tutkimuksen tulosten mukaan SCIS ohjelma soveltuu hyvin yhdeksi vaihtoehdoksi luonnontieteiden peruskäsitteiden opettamiseen peruskoulun alakoulun oppilaille.
  • Salo, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Communication between airline pilots and cabin crew plays an important role in aviation safety. However, little research has been conducted in the area of pilot-cabin crew communication and relationship. The aim of this study was to identify and name competing discourses in pilot-cabin crew relationship and to describe how these discourses compete with one another. Theory of relational dialectics (Baxter JA Montgomery 1996; Baxter 2011) was used as the theoretical framework. Eight members of cabin crew and six pilots were intervieved. Members of cabin crew were interviewed in pairs. Two of the pilots were interviewed individually and four in pairs. The interviews were analyzed using contrapuntal analysis. Contrapuntal analysis aims to identify competing discourses and their interplay. Six competing discourses were identified in pilot-cabin crew communication and relationship. They were predictability-novelty, one crew-two crews and ideal-real. The predictability-novelty struggle became apparent in the discursive struggle of different work positions being occupied with different crew memebers and in the discursive struggle of official and unofficial communication during the flight. The discourses of one crew and two separate crews were played against one another in the discursive struggles of equality-hierarcy and efficiency-politeness. The discursive struggle of ideal-real constitutes a scene on which the other discourses compete. One coherent and egalitarian crew, where each crew member communicates openly and predictably according to the rules and regulations attached to his/her position was presented as ideal. This ideal is often, but not always, accomplished.
  • Vidgren, Noora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Tämä tutkielma käsittelee lukiolaisten informaalia englannin oppimista ja sen yhteyttä englannin oppimiseen koulussa. Tutkielmani tarkoituksena on selvittää, kuinka suuren osan englannin oppimisestaan lukiolaiset arvioivat tapahtuvan koulun ulkopuolella, missä tilanteissa he oppivat englantia koulun ulkopuolella ja mikä yhteys koulun ulkopuolisella oppimisella on koulussa tapahtuvaan oppimiseen. Tutkielman teoreettisessa osassa tarkastelen englannin kielen asemaa Suomessa ennen ja nyt sekä englantia maailmankielenä. Tämän lisäksi käsittelen englannin kielen informaalia oppimista. Tutkielman empiirinen osa esittelee kvantitatiivisen tutkimuksen, joka tutkii lukiolaisten informaalin englannin oppimisen määrää ja laatua sekä sen yhteyttä englannin oppimiseen koulussa. Tutkimusmetodina toimii kyselylomake. Tutkimukseen osallistui yhteensä 240 lukiolaista pääkaupunkiseudulta. Kerätty aineisto analysoitiin SPSS-tilasto-ohjelman avulla. Tutkimukseen osallistuneista lukiolaisista neljännes kertoo oppivansa englantia suurimmaksi osaksi tai ainoastaan koulussa, lähes puolet yhtä paljon koulun ulkopuolella kuin koulussa, ja reilu viidennes suurimmaksi osaksi tai kokonaan koulun ulkopuolella. Yleisimmät oppimistilanteet koulun ulkopuolella ovat television ja elokuvien katselu, internet ja musiikin kuuntelu, ja informaalin oppimisen katsotaan vaikuttavan etenkin sanastotaitoihin. Sen perusteella, kuinka suuri osuus informaalilla oppimisella on oppijoiden englannin oppimisessa, tutkimukseen osallistuneet lukiolaiset voidaan jakaa institutionaalisiin oppijoihin, universaaleihin oppijoihin ja informaaleihin oppijoihin. Sukupuoli on merkittävä tekijä englannin informaalissa oppimisessa, sillä 80 prosenttia informaaleihin oppijoihin kuuluvista oppijoista on poikia. Englannin informaalin oppimisen ja arvosanojen välillä löytyy tilastollisesti merkittävä korrelaatio: informaaleilla oppijoilla on muita korkeammat arvosanat. Tämän lisäksi englannin informaalin oppimisen ja perinteisen koulutyöskentelyn välillä löytyy tilastollisesti merkittävä negatiivinen korrelaatio: informaalit oppijat käyttävät vähemmän aikaa läksyjen tekemiseen ja kokeisiin lukemiseen kuin institutionaaliset ja universaalit oppijat. Kolmanneksi englannin informaalin oppimisen ja englannin oppimisen vaikeustason välillä löytyy tilastollisesti merkittävä korrelaatio: informaalit oppijat kokevat englannin oppimisen helpommaksi kuin institutionaaliset ja universaalit oppijat. Tutkimustulokset osoittavat, että informaalit oppijat ovat luokkahuoneissa etulyöntiasemassa. He saavuttavat vähemmällä vaivalla korkeampia arvosanoja kuin institutionaaliset ja universaalit oppijat.
  • Lindén, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The stiffened cap has a paper frame, which is usually covered with silk fabric. The cap includes a ribbon bow and a lace trim. Caps with such a lace trim are called styckemössa in Swedish and tykkimyssy in Finnish. The aim of the study was to evaluate the of stiffened caps at the Brage costumes museum and to deepen the knowledge of the manufacture and use of caps by peasant women in the 18th and 19th centuries. The aim was to gain additional knowledge about the caps specifically in the Finland-Swedish costume culture, as well as new information on materials and the manufacture of stiffened caps in general and specifically about metal embroidered caps. In what way does the Brage collection of stiffened caps contribute to the overall picture of the Finland-Swedish peasant women's headdress? In connoisseurship analysis, the rich source material of the museum and previous knowledge were combined with practical experiments and laboratory examinations. There were 97 caps left in the collection, as well as a silk piece with gold and sequin embroidery. A significance analysis was executed based on the catalogued data and photographs. The metal embroidered fabric piece was examined by microscope and a metal analysis was conducted. The construction of the caps was examined from a craft perspective, as well as how they could be manufactured with current materials and knowledge. The cap collection opened an interesting path into the life and attire of peasant women, and above all into the importance of the stiffened cap. The collection offers a good overall picture of the development of the Finland-Swedish stiffened cap from large and heart-shaped to small with a straight front. An interesting find was nine caps from eastern Uusimaa with almost identical shape but fashioned using different fabrics. A specialty of the collection is the four caps of printed linen and the metal embroidered silk piece. The manufacture of a stiffened cap is a time-consuming craft that requires skill in everything from the manufacture of the paper frame, the embroidery and finally the mounting. The micrographs and the analysis of the metal embroidered fabric provided detailed information that was utilized in the manufacture a new cap for the Munsala traditional costume.
  • Känkänen, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of this study was to determine what kind of employment skills students participating in training preparing for work and independent living (TELMA) can learn in social circus. Other goal was to identify what factors in social circus group support learning employment skills. Participants’ experiences and employment skills guided the analysis. Purpose of this study was to increase understanding about social circus and its suitability for improving the employment skills of students in TELMA-education. Earlier research has shown that social circus has an impact on the well-being of its participants. Taking part in the circus group has been found to increase the feeling of involvement and preventing social exclusion. This was qualitative, active research case study. Material was gathered by observing participants and with semi-structured interviews. Observations were made in social circus group for students in TELMA-education. Interviews were held for seven (7) of the students in the group and five (5) of the teachers and instructors. Phenomenological and content analysis were used to analyse the material. The results showed that the employment skills learned in social circus can be grouped into five categories: social and interaction skills, self-knowledge and self-regulation, physical skills, executive functions, and other skills. Learning of these skills can be affected by different student, method or circus instructor related factors.

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