Faculty of Educational Sciences

 

Recent Submissions

  • Malinen, Rosa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Aims. The present research examines care workers’ motivation and work commitment in a Finnish social and health care organization. The aim of the study was to investigate the current state of the employees’ motivation, work commitment and the self-determination theory’s basic psychological needs, and their relation to effort in work and to the intention of leaving the organization. Moreover, the study also examined the relationships between motivation, commitment and basic psychological needs. Motivation was divided to intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation based on intangible rewards. Work commitment included affective and normative professional commitment, colleague commitment, customer commitment and affective, normative and continuance organizational commitment. Method. This investigation was carried out with a survey which was composed using several former inquiries developed to measure motivation and dimensions of work commitment. The voluntary survey was sent to the target group employees by email. In total, the survey collected 600 answers which meant that the response rate was 30%. The data was analyzed using correlation, cluster analyses and structural equation modeling. Results. The care workers intrinsic motivation and professional commitment, colleague commitment and customer commitment were quite strong. All the dimensions of the organizational commitment and extrinsic motivation were in turn quite weak. The effort on work was evaluated to be strong and especially the sense of competence, intrinsic motivation, affective professional commitment as well as customer commitment played a meaningful role in it. In addition, there was some intention to leave the organization among the employees and according to the results the sense of autonomy, affective professional commitment and affective and normative organizational commitment reduced the intention to leave. The study clarified that the basic psychological needs of the self-determination theory are interconnected, not only to intrinsic motivation, but also to affective work commitment. The sense of autonomy was quite strong but because it had a direct as well as an indirect effect on the intention to leave, it was suggested that the organization should work on strengthening it more. Furthermore, the sense of competence can explain the conclusion made from the analyses of the study that extrinsic motivation based on intangible rewards supports intrinsic motivation. The results showed that care workers’ motivation and work commitment can be strengthened with diverse possibilities to influence and with positive feedback.
  • Puha, Joonatan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Aims. The focus of this study is to uncover a class teacher’s mental structures regarding the interaction between school and home. The main objective of the study is to describe, analyze and interpret how recently graduated class teachers determine themselves as part of the interaction between school and home, and how they build shared knowledge using relational expertise. This research holds a theoretical perspective. The research questions of the study are as follows: 1) How do common knowledge and object of activity evolve as theoretical concepts as they interpret newly graduated class teachers’ understanding of interaction between school and home? 2) How do the interviewees use their relational expertise as they expand the objects of activity between school and home? 3) What sort of dialectical dissonances do the interviewees understand in the interaction between school and home on the systemic level of school? Materials and methods. The material of the research consists of the transcriptions of thematic interviews of three class teachers, who have studied behavioral science, and their written views concerning the interaction between school and home. The study follows a phenomenographic approach as the methodology. At the first stage of the analysis different meanings are inductively charted from the interviews to determine how they understand interaction between school and home. At the second stage meanings are deductively merged into theoretical categories. Finally, the interrelated systems of theoretical categories are made. In this interrelated system the theoretical concepts of relational expertise, shared knowledge, object of activity and professional agency interact to form a new theoretical synthesis to describe interaction between school and home. Results. The interviewees build shared knowledge through contributing to finite and infinite objects of activity. The interviewees use relational expertise and professional agency to expand the objects of activity. The contribution of the interviewees to the infinite object of activity appears more future-oriented than to the finite object of activity. The school system did not encourage reciprocal communication between school and home for the interviewees. According to the interviewees, the agency of students during the interaction between school and home is not as clear as the agency of class teacher or parents. A potential follow-up research could address the agency of the student in communication between school and home.
  • Varama, Meri-Tuuli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract Tavoitteet. Esiopetuksen keskeisenä tehtävänä on valtakunnallisten esiopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteiden mukaan tukea lapsen kielellisten taitojen kehitystä ja vahvistaa kiinnostusta kirjoittamista ja lukemista kohtaan. Esiopetuksella on suuri merkitys lasten oppimisen tuen tarpeiden varhaisessa havaitsemisessa, tuen antamisessa ja samalla vaikeuksien ehkäisemisessä. Vaikka esiopetus Suomessa perustuu yhteisille opetussuunnitelman perusteille, vaikuttaa siltä, että lapset ovat koulun aloittaessaan edelleen hyvin erilaisessa alkavan luku- ja kirjoitustaidon vaiheessa. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää mitä kielen ja vuorovaikutuksen alueen tavoitteita, sisältöjä ja toimintatapoja esiopetuksen valtakunnallisissa ja paikallisissa opetussuunnitelmissa esiintyy esioppilaan lukemisesta ja kirjoittamisesta sekä miten esiopettajat toteuttavat esioppilaan lukemaan ja kirjoittamaan opettamista Menetelmät. Tutkimuksen aineistona käytettiin valtakunnallisia esiopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteita, paikallista esiopetuksen opetussuunnitelmaa sekä neljän eri esiopetusyksikön opetussuunnitelmia. Lisäksi haastateltiin näitten esiopetusyksiköiden esiopettajia, joista kaksi toimi osana päiväkodin ja kaksi osana koulun esiopetusta. Teemahaastattelut nauhoitettiin ja litteroitiin sekä analysoitiin aineistolähtöisen ja teoriaohjaavan sisällönanalyysin keinoin käyttämällä Beredayn vertailevan analyysin mallia. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Tutkimuksessa selvisi, että esiopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteisiin kirjatut tavoitteet ovat erittäin kattavat sisältäen kaikki tärkeimmät tavoitteet tukemaan lapsen sukeutuvan lukutaidot kehittymistä. Paikallinen esiopetussuunnitelma perustui valtakunnallisille perusteille lisäyksenään kirjaston ja tietotekniikan käyttö. Eroavaisuutta oli yksikkökohtaisissa opetussuunnitelmissa, koulujen esiopetussuunnitelma oli tehty esi- ja alkuopetuksen sekä erityisopettajien yhteistyönä ja siinä esiopetuksen tavoitteet, sisällöt ja menetelmät kuvattiin ja avattiin selkeämmin kuin päiväkodin esiopetussuunnitelmissa. Kaikki esiopettajalla käyttivät lasten taitoja pohjana tavoitteiden asettamiselle ja toiminnan suunnittelulle. Systemaattisimmin lasten oppimista seurattiin koulujen esiopetusryhmissä, joissa lapset saivat tarvittaessa viikoittaista erityisopettajan tukea. Koulun esiopetuksessa oli käytössä huomattavasti enemmän tietotekniikkaa. Päiväkotien esiopettajien suunnitteluajan puute haittasi merkittävästi laadukasta suunnittelua.
  • Laitila, Krista (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In early childhood education, team members work together particularly closely, which makes the effectiveness of teamwork one of the key elements of the work. The theo-retical basis of this present study lies in the recent administrative changes in early childhood education, together with the development of the teams' areas of expertise and progress of the team formation process, form the basis of the research theory. The goal of this study was to determine the factors influencing the functioning of multi-disciplinary teams working in early childhood education. The research questions ad-dressed here were: 1) What factors influence the functioning of the teams working in the early childhood education? and 2) What do early childhood education teams cur-rently look like from the perspective of a functioning team? The study utilized the Mixed Methods Research (MMR) approach since the study con-sisted of both qualitative and quantitative data. The material of the study has been ex-amined in terms of both quantitative and qualitative analysis. Factor analysis was cho-sen as the method of analysis for the quantitative data, which was used for dimensional reduction resulting in the data condensed into five main latent factors which each ex-plained several variables. The qualitative analysis used theory-guided data analysis, in which the data were first broken down into smaller parts, conceptualized and assem-bled into a new whole. The results of the research revealed there are five factors explaining team functionalities in early childhood education. The factors were labelled as commitment and trust, communication, team building, participation and leadership. These factors, which are correlated with each other to some degree, taken together play a crucial role in team formation, bonding and successful teamwork. As such, this current study should inform future studies in early childhood education teamwork formation and flow.
  • Lönnrot, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives. Entrepreneurship is the future of work and the need for entrepreneurial skills is increasing with any type of work. But who can become an entrepreneur and does it require a certain kind of personality? The objective of this study was to increase the understanding about the role that personality has in entrepreneurial intention during adolescence. The study was conducted by analysing the differences in personality traits between 7th grade and high school 3rd grade students, examining how personality traits explain entrepreneurial intention and comparing different personality profiles based on entrepreneurial intention. There has been little research about entrepreneurial intentions among adolescence. Furthermore, the results from previous research have shown mixed results on the association between personality and entrepreneurial intentions, making the topic interesting. Methods. The data for this study were acquired as a longitudinal data from Mind the Gap -project that was funded by the Academy of Finland. The data were collected in 2014 (7th grade n=1310) and 2019 (high school 3rd grade n=751). Personality was measured using Big Five personality traits: neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, openness and conscientiousness. The paired t-test was used to analyze the differences in personality traits between 7th grade and high school 3rd grade students. The associations between personality traits and entrepreneurial intention were examined using regression analysis. Cluster analysis was used to form personality profiles and the differences between profiles based on entrepreneurial intention were analysed using one-way analysis of variance. Results and conclusions. There were no statistically significant differences in the personality traits between 7th grade and high school 3rd grade students. Openness was the only personality trait that explained entrepreneurial intention of 7th grade students. Neuroticism (inverted) and openness explained entrepreneurial intention of high school 3rd grade students. The effect size was low on both measurement points. The participants were classified into four profiles based on their personality traits: 1) Entrepreneurial, 2) Amicable, 3) Creative introvert, and 4) Reserved. Participants with Entrepreneurial profile reported more entrepreneurial intentions than participants with Amicable and Reserved. The findings suggest that even though personality was significantly associated with entrepreneurial intention, the role of personality was not major. This means that most of the variance of entrepreneurial intention can be explained with other variables. The results can be applied especially to entrepreneurial education in schools where adolescents can be encouraged to consider entrepreneurship regardless of their personality traits.
  • Korhonen, Siiri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Hemp was once the most widely used textile fiber, as it can be grown in a large part of the world, including Finland. It is an ecological textile plant, because it doesn't require much irrigation or pesticides. Hemp fiber is very durable, breathable and moisture-absorbing and doesn't mold easily. The aim of the study is to explore the weaving methods of the hemp yarn, find the functional product applications and produce weaving patterns for amateur weavers. The goal is to make it easier for hand weavers to start using hemp fiber in their projects. The research method was qualitative design-based research. The data consisted of prototypes produced by the researcher, prototyping process journal and interview with an expert in the field. The prototypes were woven with various weaves and setts with Java-hemp yarn. 39 samples were woven from two warps. The properties of the samples were evaluated independently and in the interview with the expert. The properties were examined with haptic and visual perception. The evaluation of the samples emphasized the applicability of the patterns to the weaving amateurs. Couple of the samples were washed in order to find out how the textiles change after washing them. The data was analyzed by using content analysis. The results were applied by producing five weaving patterns using different weaves and setts. The products of the weaving patterns were bathroom rug, decorative acoustic board, garden apron, drawstring backpack and grocery bag. The weaves utilized were warp-faced corkscrew, honeycomb, m's and o's, undulating twill and double fabric. The yarn used in the study was inelastic, got easily broken and produced lint, so it is suitable for experienced weavers and should be handled with care during the weaving process. Due to the washing properties, the most suitable weave patterns for this yarn have short floats and tight setts. The yarn was rough, thick and stiff, so it is not suitable for products that need to drape well or are worn next to skin. The best applications are easy-care home decor textiles and bag fabrics. The advantages of the yarn are its expressive appearance and fast weaving process due to the thickness of the yarn.
  • Pulkkinen, Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The specificity of children's behavior and children considered as special have been raised in school discussions as the cause of deteriorating learning outcomes, causing problems with teachers' time use and preventing teaching of the so called majority of children in primary school. Naming a child special affects the way and place of his/her teaching and therefore it is necessary to look at the definitions and discourses of special behavior. The purpose of the thesis was to find out how the behavioral problems and a child with a behavioral disorder named in many ways is constructed in expert articles and to examine the specificity of behavior using the social disability model of disability research. Sahlin's cultural model was used as a way to study the change in the discipline of special education together with changes outlined through paradigms. The study highlights the discourses special pedagogy experts have built on the specificity behavior of a child in the book series “Childrens’ Special Care and Education in Finland” over seven decades. These discourses are considered in the context of changes in special education and paradigms of special education. Critical discourse analysis was used as a research and analysis method in the study. The material of the study consisted of the texts of the thirteen editions of the book “Childrens’ Special Care and Education in Finland”, dealing with behavioural disorders. The textual material was analyzed by thematizing the medical, disability or feature related definitions of these texts, as well as the definitions of the social construction and creation of specificity according to the theoretical background of the research. After the thematizing, the selected text samples were analyzed for how the causes of specificity are localized and what is the child's position in them, and the discourses formed by these were named. These discourses were also examined in the context of changes in special education and the paradigms of special education. The research showed a hegemonic discourse based on psycho-medical interpretation, which at different times defined the child's position as a victim of the child's psychological and biological structure and as achild who is not mentally adaptive. Parallel and intertwined discourses were also built on a hegemonic discourse. The discourses of the specificity of behavior in the material reflected changes in the paradigms of special education and special pedagogy and the cultural reproduction of the category of specificity. According to the study, the discourse based on psycho- medical interpretation is the hegemonic discourse of the “Special Care and Education of the Child in Finland” book series, in which the child’s position is a child with internal pathology. The discourses of the material and the child's positions reflect changes in special education and in the paradigms of special education, as well as the cultural structure of the discipline.
  • Möntti, Maj (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Aims. The aim of this study was to examine the experiences of classroom teachers in the metropolitan area about the realization of freedom of belief in school. The topic is topical, as the pluralism of society has sparked much debate regarding the organization of spectacle teaching, the school’s festive traditions, and student equality. There has been little educational research on freedom of religion and conscience, but there is some jurisprudence research on the subject. However, little research has been done on teachers experiences. This study seeks to examine the topic from the perspective of educational science and legislation. The research questions are: In what ways is the freedom of belief of students realized in school? How are teachers' freedom of belief realized in school? Methods. My research was qualitative in nature, which I conducted as an interview. Interviews with seven classroom teachers took place between November 2019 and February 2020. I selected classroom teachers from the Helsinki metropolitan area for interviews. I collected my material from classroom teachers in the Helsinki metropolitan area because the area is different from the rest of Finland. Qualitative research does not aim for generalizability and the aim of my research was to obtain information about teachers ’experiences. The material was analyzed using content analysis. Results and conclusions. Based on the results of the study, the student's freedom of belief was implemented quite well in school. The student's positive freedom of belief was supported by the opportunity to teach according to one's own religious beliefs and the opportunity to express one's own beliefs at school. Negative freedom of belief, in turn, was realized as an exemption from teaching and opportunities in accordance with the recognition of a foreign religion. Based on the results, the teachers' negative freedom of belief did not materialize. In addition to religious occasions, the teaching of religion could conflict with the realization of freedom of belief. Based on the research, teachers are aware of the challenges associated with a student’s religious beliefs at school.
  • Santavuori, Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract Aims: The purpose of the study was to examine how student participation in schools is realized and how student involvement supports the construction of the school's operating culture in accordance with the principles defined in the Curriculum 2014. Methods: The study was qualitative. The research material was collected with a questionnaire from eight teachers. Respondents were selected to participate in the study through an existing network. The questionnaire contained 13 open questions on the topic of student involvement in school. The questionnaire was implemented as an E-form. It was sent to the defendants by e-mail and accordingly it was returned by e-mail. The material was analyzed by means of content analysis in a theoryguided manner. Results and Conclusions. Pupil involvement is realized at school as student union activities, as pupils' responsibilities in the whole school community or as small opportunities for influence in everyday study situations. Inclusion is also the student's own personal school work related solutions. Pupil involvement supports the building of a school culture based on the principles of learning, wellbeing, security, interaction and democracy. Challenges to the realization of inclusion are at the individual level students whose attitude towards school work is negative or indifferent, and at the community level an (yet) undeveloped culture of inclusion that defines the whole school. The research results are consistent with previous studies insofar as inclusion has been examined from an operational perspective.
  • Westerberg, Mila (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract The purpose of the study was to examine primary school teachers' sense of professional agency in relation to the new Finnish curriculum reform (POPS 2014) and what kind of resources or challenges teachers faced in relation to professional identity and work practices. The study also examined the changes in the new curriculum taken into account by teachers and future scenarios during the first year of the introduction of the curriculum in 2016–2017. The new curriculum differs from previous reforms for example in the emphasis on continuous assessment and learning to learn skills. The role of the teacher is to increasingly act as a guide and evaluator of the student's learning process. The aim of the study is to produce new information about the sense of teachers' professional agency in the face of the challenges and changes of the new curriculum. In this study, professional agency has been seen through a subject-centered sociocultural approach and is defined and understood as teachers perceptions of the ability to influence their sociocultural environment. Professional agency then manifests itself in the interaction of social conditions, such as cultural and material resources, as well as the professional identities and competencies of individuals. Professional agency is seen as intentions to influence and bring change. The study was carried out as a qualitative study. The research material was collected by interviewing nine teachers in grades 1-6 with university education. The research material was collected through open pre-questionnaires and actual interviews. The actual research data of the study were collected in the spring of 2017. The data were processed and analyzed according to Strauss and Corbin's Grounded theory method, which is a highly structured analysis of qualitative data. The results of the study showed that the role of the teacher, professional identity, interaction skills, learning environments, IT skills and leadership were influencing teachers’ professional sense of agency. The new curriculum was seen as both a resource and a threat to the professional agency. Teachers experienced strong sense of agency in the pedagogical implementation of the curriculum, but weak agency if the instructions related to the new curriculum had come from supervisors without discussion or training. Teachers considered the scope of the curriculum, assessment, and student self-direction as challenging. Teachers stated that the requirements for IT skills had increased and they requested more training and resources. The teachers of this study saw themselves as active agents and teachers as well as influencers of society in the future. The study provides a good opportunity to view the primary school teachers’ sense of agency and the related challenges and resources as the new curriculum reform is implemented in schools. The research helps to understand teachers attitudes towards pedagogical reforms and changes in the school context. The study also opens up future scenarios of teaching and being a teacher.
  • Kotiharju, Emilia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives. The National Core Curriculum for Basic Education 2014 obliges teachers to implement a gender-aware approach in their teaching. An integral component of gender-aware teaching is recognizing gender and sexual diversity, as well as questioning gendernormativity and heteronormativity in education and learning materials. This study examines the ways in which elementary school teachers can recognize and acknowledge gender and sexual diversity in education and investigates the experiences teachers have had of discussing issues of gender and sexual diversity in elementary education. The purpose of this study is to identify ways and possibilities of gender-aware teaching in elementary education. Methods The research approach of this study was qualitative. The material was collected with an online questionnaire made up of open-ended questions The research material consisted of answers from twenty primary school teachers who were of different ages, had varying amounts of work experience, and worked in several different cities and schools. The analysis method used was material-driven content analysis. Results and conclusions. By performing content analysis on the material, I developed five categories, which represent ways of recognizing and acknowledging gender and sexual diversity in education. These categories were the following: to have a positive attitude towards diversity, to intervene on homophobic name-calling, to avoid separating students by gender, to have critical conversations about gender and sexual norms, and to offer diverse models of identity. The results offer teacher’s information on how to recognize and acknowledge gender and sexual diversity in education and point out some issues that should be taken into consideration when dealing with these topics.
  • Heinonen, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat – Abstract Objectives. The aim of this study was to obtain more information about grouping and its different dimensions in the first two grades of elementary school. The development of the group and its stages have previously been studied mainly in adults and adolescents. The aim of this study is to examine classroom teachers' perceptions of grouping and the methods used for grouping in the context of first two grades of elementary school. School satisfaction has also been studied in the past, but the research has focused mainly on young people. As no research can be found and lower primary education is a relevant time for grouping, the research was limited to lower primary teachers. The purpose of the study is to find out how classroom teachers understand grouping, its methods and their own pedagogical role in this process. In addition, the purpose is to map the benefits and challenges of grouping and the impact of grouping on school satisfaction. Bruce Tuckman's model has been used as a theoretical basis, as it best suited the nature of the study. In addition to the new research data, this research is also intended to provide understanding for grouping both classroom teachers already working in the field and those still studying. Methods. The study was conducted as a qualitative research in which 4 class teachers who worked in the first two grades of elementary school in the Helsinki metropolitan area were interviewed. A theme-based individual interview was used as the data acquisition method. Inductive content analysis and data quantification were used as the analysis method of the study. In addition to data-driven reasoning, the study also used theory to support research findings. Results and conclusions. Class teachers felt that grouping and their own role in the process were very important. The effect of grouping and school satisfaction was also seen as significant. The most important method of grouping were named plays and games, changing seats, and the daily maintenance of grouping. The main benefit was that teachers felt successful in pair and group work, and the challenges were again associated with shyness, undesired behavior and the general language problems. It would appear, that school satisfaction is influenced by the teacher and the level of class grouping, which in turn affects class group dynamics and atmosphere, which also affect school comfort. A grouped class in which students feel safe would also seem to predict better motivation to study and a willingness to come to school, which in turn promotes learning and maintains school satisfaction.
  • Löfström, Sonja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of this research is to reveal elements of contents and choices made in craft science doctoral dissertations. Total 27 dissertations have been published between 1994-2019 during the nearly 40-year history of craft science. The research theory focuses on the phenomenon itself revealing how and when the branch of science was founded and what it was based on. Theory section continues by introducing the central craft science models and theories focusing on those that are essential for the creation and objective of this thesis. The main question leading the research was: how the conceptions on craft science research content appear in craft science doctoral dissertations? The research is qualitative and inductive as it is based on analysing documents. It investigates conceptions on craft science through the dissertations. The research strategy and method is phenomenography, used also in the analysis of the data. Computerized coding was executed with ATLAS.ti coding programme and fulfilled with the help of NCT analysis model. The focus is on the dissertation abstracts. They sum up the most important information the craft scientists have chosen to share and reveal about their researches. The research aims to form an outcome space that summarises and offers an informative visual presentation of the data collected, coded and contemplated. The result of the analysis is a selection of categories of description that form an outcome space, which is common for phenomenographic research. The categories of description are: craft maker, role of craft, holistic craft, craft context and choices considering craft science researches. The outcome of the analysis is compared to craft science theories introduced in the theory section. Research findings also include a number of additional research suggestions and ideas.
  • Salonen, Tomi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract Aims: Aims of the dissertation was to examine study progresses of students of engineering. The aspiration was particularly to clarify how study progress is connected with approaches to learning, engagement and procrastination. Advancement and quality of studies has been notably researched in framework of approaches to learning. Engagement and procrastination have also been detected to reveal connections with fluency of studies. Progress of studies has not however been examined among these three frameworks simultaneously. In order to enlighten fluency of study progresses this dissertation strove to cover for this gap. Different student clusters were formulated by framaworks of approaches to learning, engagement and procrastination. Different student clusters were compared with study outcomes and the progress of studies. Methods: The data (N=236) was collected with a questionnaire indicated to Metropolia students of engineering in spring 2013. Analysis of factor, cluster and variance was utilized. Results and conclusions: the clusters were differed in approaches to learning, engagement and procrastination according to their theories. Deep processing was strongest in a cluster with also the strongest engagement. Whereas procrastination was strongest in a cluster with the strongest surface processing. Engagement was also lower in this cluster. The periods of study processes were also connected with approaches to learning, engagement and procrastination. Students with deep processing and stronger engagement seemed to perform faster and with better grades. These students also had lower procrastination levels. The weakest performs and lowest grades were connected with the surface approach of learning, lower levels of engagement and higher procrastination. Run-off examines and unperformed courses became more obvious among these students. This dissertation doesn’t give bright answers of inner relations of these theories’ influences during study processes. Follow-up research should be launched to itemize influences of approaches to learning, engagement and procrastination. It’s also unclear how these theories are being at least partly vulcanized by their defititions.
  • Marttinen, Emma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The creative production of music, which among other things means improvisation and composing, is a central goal throughout compulsory education within the musical curriculum. There is an ever-increasing emphasis on technology in education and within musical education it has a clear place in achieving the goal of creative musical production. Research has shown that despite this goal, teachers rarely utilize creative musical production or musical technology in their own teaching methods and that only a part of students completing their compulsory education have experience for example in composing. In a school context musical technology is usually a reference to moveable mobile devices, such as tablets or computers. In this thesis the emphasize is on iPads and the various musical apps available to the device. The goal of this thesis is to determine what does it actually mean to utilize iPads as a method of creative musical production and to provide practical tips on using iPads as a method of creative musical production by looking at what possibilities and challenges it presents. For this thesis four music teachers with experience in utilizing iPads as a method of creative musical production were interviewed. The thesis was conducted as a qualitative case-study and the research material was analysed using content -and thematic analytical methods. Research results were reviewed and compared to previous theoretical research, articles, professional literature and curriculum found in the theoretical background, regarding creative musical production and musical technology, which formed the basis for the deductions presented in this thesis. Research showed that iPads were utilized for both creating music to also musical improvisation using musical apps. Most teachers preferred the application Garageband for creating music, whilst other applications used were Launchpad, Chrome Music Lab and Thumbjam. Due to their easy use musical applications allowed students the possibility to create music regardless of their skill and thus also increased student agency and motivation whilst also learning environment permitting the possibility for musical differentiation. The challenges facing the uses of iPads foremost involve resources, such as the availability of devices and applications and their features. Musical technology appears to have a place as a way to provide creative musical production when it’s use can be justified from a pedagogical standpoint.
  • Sundström, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives. The purpose of this study is to describe the progress of the Invention project and to explain the primary embodied design actions and verbal embodied design actions that emerged from the Invention project. The inventive project and creative problem-solving skills involve different phases, and the brainstorming phase is more relevant to the building of knowledge. For this reason, this study investigates the occurrence of ideas during the time of the invention project. The role of the teacher has been and will be changing. In inventive pro-jects, the teacher has many different roles, but primarily as a supporter of learning, but also as a mentor, supervisor and facilitator. This study investigated the amount of scaffolding needed by groups in the Invention project. The research questions are: 1. How does the Invention project proceed and what design-related activities are involved in a process? 2. How does the Invention project support the teaching of creativity and problem-solving skills? 3.Scaffolding and it´s appearance in the Invention project? Methods. The research data was collected in early 2017 from one primary school in the Hel-sinki region. A total of 18 students and 6 teachers participated in the study. The data was col-lected by videotaping lessons from the Invention project. Teachers' reflective diaries were also included. The videos were rated by ELAN - Linguistic Annotator 5.4. The data produced by which was exported to Excel. In Excel, the material was color coded and resulted in a visual description of the data, progress rug. Results and conclusions. The students were very committed to the invention project and there were few non-task-related activities. Primary embodied design activities were largely in accordance with the structure and theme of the lesson. The ideas were not only present dur-ing the idea phase, but throughout the project. This reflects the starting point for building and creating knowledge throughout the project, not just in the early stages of the project. Scaf-folding was highly needed, and this should be taken into consideration when designing in-ventive projects. In this study, pair mentoring and placement of groups according to skill lev-els were used to control the need for guidance.
  • Kainulainen, Maiju (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The study examines consumers' views on the use of colours and their appreciation in food packaging. The study asks what characteristics consumers value in food packaging and what matters become relevant in relation to the colour of food packaging. A present, empha-sis is placed on environmental friendliness in the production and use of food packaging. The ecological production method and consumption of colours have also received some atten-tion. A previous study has examined packaging and colours, focusing largely on the charac-teristics of individual packages or product groups. The perspective has been on marketing science. From the perspective of home economics, packaging and colours are examined in the context of everyday life. The research has been carried out using qualitative research methods. The material collec-tion was carried out as a group interview using a semi-structured theme interview and stimu-lus material (food package). The material consists of four group interviews with three per-sons. The interviewees were 26–73 years old. The literate material was analysed using data-based content analysis. The study shows that consumers value the usability of food packaging, which means that it is easy for them to use it comprehensively. Consumers feel uncertain about the recyclability of packaging. The colours and printing of packaging are unfamiliar to consumers because they had no knowledge of the packaging colours and/or their origin. At the same time, how-ever, it emerged that consumers would like information on the packaging colours and would be happy to accept food packaging in which the colouring matter used would have been made more ecologically. Consumers trusted experts with information on the environmental friendliness, use and safety of colours. Based on the study, the aim should be to take into account the recyclability of packaging and the use of packaging colours throughout the life cycle of the product. On the one hand, we need clearer and more informative recycling la-bels for packaging and, on the other hand, the use of natural colours in packaging. This means that both packaging material and printing ink could be recycled simultaneously, which would increase the ecological quality of packaging.
  • Jämsä, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This study focused on school choice. School choice refers to a policy that allows families to choose school for their children. In Finland, school choice usually means a choice between a general class and a class with special emphasis. The research question of this study was: What predicts choosing a class with special emphasis in elementary school? Previous studies have shown that a child’s school choice is correlated with especially mother’s level of education and child’s school grades. Choosing a class with special emphasis is more common among children whose mothers have higher education and among children who have received better school grades. Also, choosing a class with special emphasis seems to be more common among children whose fathers have higher education and among families with higher income level. The research data consisted of Learning to Learn Assessment Data gathered by Centre of Educational Assessment during the years 2007, 2010 and 2013. Logistic regression analysis was used to find predictive factors. Variables sex, mother’s level of education, father’s level of education, teacher’s evaluation of inventive abilities and teacher’s evaluation of working skills were considered as potential predictive factors. Results showed that teacher’s higher evaluation of pupil’s inventive abilities and mother’s higher level of education predicted choosing a class with special emphasis. These variables predicted 7–8 percent of the choice. In addition, the results showed that choosing a class with special emphasis was more common among children whose fathers had higher education. Furthermore, girls attended a class with special emphasis statistically more than boys. Teacher’s evaluation of working skills was not correlated with choosing a class with special emphasis. In addition, the results showed that if we examine the group of children in a class with special emphasis and the group of children in a general class, the children in the class with special emphasis have clearly more often highly educated parents than the children in general class. The results of this study provide more information about choosing a class with special emphasis in elementary school. In general, research information about school choices can be utilized when planning education policies and decisions.
  • Kaartokallio, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract Children grow among digital media and its importance needs to be notified also in early education (Chaudron 2015). When young children engage with digital media, adult support and mediation in crucial to adequately balance positive and negative effects of media use (Kardefelt-Winther 2017).The motivation of this study is to research views of parents and early education professionals on children’s digital media use, its mediation and support and co-operation between home and early education environments. The three research questions were: (1) What are the views of parents and early education professionals on (1) children’s digital media use? (2) on mediation and support of children’s digital media use? (3) on collaboration between home and early year education setting? The study was conducted as an online survey in three out of ten early education districts in Helsinki, Finland in November 2019. Quantitative and qualitative data was collected in separate surveys for parents and early education professionals. Surveys were distributed through daycare unit managers to professionals and parents. The research data consists of 189 parents’ and 40 early education professionals’ answers. The quantitative analysis was conducted mainly non-parametric statistical tests. Qualitative analysis proceeded using data-oriented content analysis. The results show parents have diverse views on and attitudes towards children digital media use and that children’s media use is variable. Most children use digital media in moderation, some in considerable amount and a fraction not at all. Early education professionals see digital media use as natural part of children’s world and that parents balance well the media use of their children. Both see potential effects of digital media use on children’s self-regulation and emotional skills. Parent attitude towards digital media use by their children significantly differed by child gender, and parents of the boys had more concerns. Digital media use by adults and concern on adequate personal interaction were discerned from the results. Amount of time used on digital media and transitions from digital media use to other activities were identified as primary causes of conflict at home. Parents would like to receive more information on child-appropriate content, suitable time limits and research-based knowledge on positive and negative effects of digital media use. Early education professionals would need research-based recommendations and information on effects of media use on child development. Furthermore, they wish for clear guidelines and agreed practices for digital media use in daycare and preschool setting, as well as for digital media use -related collaboration with families. Parents had a positive view on collaboration, although experience on it was limited. Early education and preschool professionals, together with parents, would have a unique position to build moderate and many-voiced discourse on children digital media use during early years - a possibility not yet materialized to a full extent.
  • Valkendorff, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This study is an article-type master's thesis, and its purpose was to describe the discussion about the school choice on a Finnish online discussion forum. The research questions were: How is school choice discussed in an online discussion forum? What kind of reasons for school choice are there on online discussion forums? In this study, school choice refers to choices away from a local school. Previous studies have shown that school choice is associated with educational differentiation. In Finland, research of the school selection has been carried out using interview and questionnaire form, statistical data and official documents. The material in this study complements Finnish school choice research, bringing a new perspective into it. The study contributes to the debate about school choice and the differentiation and specialization of primary schools, and also aims to increase understanding of school choice. The material of the study consists of a discussion of school choice, which took place on a dis-cussion forum called Vauva, produced by Sanoma media Finland. The data was collected by using keywords (school * AND selection OR school selection). The material consists of 79 threads where school choice was discussed. The discussion took place in 2005-2015. Quali-tative content analysis and thematic design were used as research methods. The study showed that the school choice debate is multidimensional. In the forum, the authors sought information and shared views and experiences. The material included talk of schools considered to be good or weak and indications of the importance of the school’s reputation. Ethnic and socio-economic criteria were linked to the choice of school, ie factors related to the students' family background, well-being and safety, as well as criteria related to teaching. The criteria for school choice were combined with a discussion of different residential areas, and the quality of schools was seen to be related to the characteristics of the residential area. In the study, school choice is also linked to housing policy issues. The article was published in 2018 in Finnish Yearbook of Sociology of Education vol. 2: Promises of and Faith in Education. Valkendorff, T. 2018. Discussion of School Choice and the “problem” of local school. In. Silvennoinen, H., Kalalahti, M. & Varjo, J. (eds.) Promises of and Faith in Education. Research in Educational Sciences 79. Jyväskylä: Finnish Educational Research Association FERA. [In Finnish]

View more