Kasvatustieteellinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Mehtäläinen, Mette (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    My research examines consumers' attitudes towards baking mixes. I investigate what kind of baking mixes consumers have used and what product characteristics support and prevent their use. In addition, I examine in what situations consumers use baking mixes in their everyday lives. The study utilizes literature that examines the value of self-made, fear of food additives, favoring organic products, and the use of other convenience foods. The correlation between these themes and interest in the use of baking mixes will be examined. The study is a Mixed Methods research, which means that the data was collected and analysed by quantitative and qualitative methods. The data was collected via an internet survey, which was answered by 509 over 18-year-old consumers. Mean variables were constructed, and the correlations were analysed by Pearson’s correlation. The data was analysed by cross-tabulation, Mann-Whitney's U-test and classification. The results showed that consumers who were not interested in using baking mixes reported higher level of baking enthusiasm and appreciated a bit more self-made products and diligence than those who were interested in using baking mixes. Those who were interested in using baking mixes reported that they used more frequently convenience foods and wanted to spend less time on baking than the non-interested group. The responses of the groups did not differ in the claims concerning organic products and food additives. Both groups perceived food additives negatively and thought that organic products were better than regular products. A good taste or as good as self-made was a factor that encouraged consumers to use baking mixes. The limiting factors for the use of baking mixes were preferring self-made, food additives and bad taste. Some respondents said they enjoyed the baking process, so there was no need for baking mixes. The most commonly used products were pancake mixes and mousse powders. The overall use of baking mixes was minor and irregular. Most consumers could use baking mixes as a snack or treat at home and while travelling. Fewer respondents would offer them for guests.
  • Heikkinen, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Recent studies show that motivation, emotion, and interest are engaged in learning. Engagement to learning is a complex entity in which the dynamic interaction between the student and the learning environment is central. In addition, students` ability to influence their own learning, mutual cooperation, and meaningful experience in learning strengthens engagement in learning. Recent curriculum on behalf of transversal competence underlines central meaning of these factors in teaching. This is also topical, as the learning outcomes and motivation of children and young people have fallen in recent years. The purpose of this thesis is to study the factors involved engagement in comprehensive school setting during science learning project on 5.–6. grades. The data (n = 74) was collected in spring 2018 from a local school in a metropolitan area during the phenom-enal science learning process in classes 5–6, which was carried out according to inquiry-based learning. The Experience Sampling Form was developed for this thesis in order to study the students' internal experiences during the learning process. Students responded to the questionnaire six times during the five-week working pe-riod, and field notes were also used during analysis of the thesis. Experience Sampling data was used to gener-ate sum variables (motivation, academic emotions, and interest factors), the interconnection was examined by the Spearmans` rank correlation coefficient. On the second phase, the link between the variables and the stages of work (inquiry based learning) was examined by the Kruskall Wallis test and the paired Mann-Whitney U test. The connection between variables and working methods (researching team, whole class) were examined with Cross-Tabulation Analysis, also observations from field notes were produced and compared with the work stages (teacher guidance, information retrieval, evaluation). The formed variables´ correlation is statistically significant to a large extent with each other, so it is justified to investigate these synergies. On the other hand there were no statistically significant differences between work phases and variables, exception was apathy variable, which had statistically significant difference be-tween question making and evaluation. In terms of working habits, students' experiences (somewhat, much) were evenly distributed with activity, insertion and ability variables. Apathy was less experienced and student experienced both ways of working mainly rewarding. Experience of import was less experienced during the en-tire class work and student had less autonomy experience during both working methods. According to findings, interaction and concentration were the most abundant during the work of the research team. The results of this thesis confirm that learning is not about individual factors, but about the complex process of the student and the learning environment. In addition, the students' ability to actively influence their own work and the students’ mutual work reinforce engagement in learning. In summary, it can also be said that phe-nomenal learning according to inquiry-based learning strengthens students' autonomy, interaction and engage-ment to learning. This is significant, because the current curriculum in particular challenges the implementation of teaching to be more cooperative. However, more information about learning is still needed. The purpose of this thesis could be applied more widely in the field of education research so that the engagement in learning could be explored longer term and in among several classes.
  • Häkkänen, Matias (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objective. The aim of this intervention study is to examine which character strengths sixth graders spot in themselves and how do they present the character strengths in their everyday lives. The effect of the intervention is being determined as the changes in an observation group are discussed. This study is a part of Tämä Elämä –project, which emphasizes co- working and aims at preventing social exclusions of teenagers. Method. The study was carried out with a sixth grade class (19 students) in the Spring 2019. The class was given lessons on character strengths for a week with the help of Huomaa Hyvä! –materials which are composed for the purpose of bringing out the strengths of an individual. The students filled out an online form both at the start and in the beginning of the week so the effect of the intervention was opened for evaluation. The observation group of 24 students took part in the study. They didn’t receive classes on character strengths during the week. Results and conclusions. The most presented character strengths in the class are fairness, prudence and creativity. The students discussed the strengths through the topics of me-oth- ers, values, cognitive skills, emotions, emotional skills and attitude. The activities they pre- sented discussing their character strengths were e.g. games, activities with friends, home- work and exams. The knowledge and usage of character strengths expressed by the students was tested with repeated measures ANOVA in the software of Statistics Analysis Software SPSS. The factors of time or being a member of either of the groups was not classified as primary effect. The knowledge and usage of character strengths expressed by the students didn’t change signif- icantly.
  • Fager, Silja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    In this study the staining of cellulose fibers with mordant dyeing and disperse dyeing techniques are investigated. Previous studies have shown disperse dyeing gives better staining results than mordant dyeing when using synthetic fibers with natural colorants. This study explores the suitability of the disperse dyeing method for cellulose fibers. The study focuses on four cellulosic fibers: viscose, bamboo viscose, lyocell and Ioncell-F. The reference fiber for testing is merino wool. All samples are knitted. There is a little research on disperse-dyed cellulosic fiber with natural colorants, but no previous research with Ioncell-F fiber at all. Disperse dyeing was tested with and without tannin mordant. Mordant-dyed samples are for comparison. Flavonoid-containing onion skins Allium cepa and anthraquinone-containing fungus Cortinarius semisanguineus were used as sources of dyes. The pH for the dye liquor was adjusted to 8 with sodium hydroxide, except for the dyebath for the merino wool that is poorly resistant to bases. Merinos dye liquor adjusted with hydrochloric acid to pH 4. Different dyeing techniques were used with the same dyebath, except for the extra batch of celluose fibres, for which a separate dyebath was prepared from the onion skins and the pH of the dyebath was kept acidic. The color values of the dyed samples were measured on a spectrophotometer, whereby the dyeing results could be viewed as L*, a* and b* values according to CIELAB. In addition, the color fastness to light and washing were tested according to the ISO standards. The dyeing results of the cellulose fibres were lower than merino wool reference in all dyeing techniques. Ioncell-F fiber dyed very similarly to the other cellulosic fibers. Onion skins gave a darker and more stable color compared to the fungus whose color was light throughout the samples and the color fastness in light and washing tests were low. According to the results of this study Cortinarius semisanguineus is poorly suited for dyeing cellulose fibers. It is preferred to dye with the onion skins with the natural pH of the dyebath, under acidic conditions by the dispersion dyeing technique. In this case, the results of the dyeing are better and more stable even without the mordant.
  • Korhonen, Noora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The purpose of this research was to investigate child´s prosocial behavior´s reinforcement and prevention of bullying in Montessori and Reggio Emilia kindergarten. The aim of this study was the preschool children and their early childhood education teachers. The research questions are: 1) How early childhood education teacher reinforce child´s prosocial behavior? 2) Which kind of pedagogical avenues are related to prosocial behavior? 3) How early childhood education teacher prevent bullying? 4) Which kind of pedagogical avenues are related to prevention of bullying? Two kinds of data were collected for the study: a survey (quantitative data) of early childhood education teacher and video (qualitative data) was collected by videotaping and observing the interaction between the adults and the children as part of the normal daily activities in the group. A total of six kindergarten professionals and six kindergartens participated in the study. Two of the kindergarten was municipal, two of them were Montessori-, and two of them were Reggio Emilia kindergarten. Videotaping was made by interaction analysis and a survey was made by theory guiding content analysis. By means of videotaping was measured child´s social status in the group. By means of survey was measured the phenomenon of bullying and the roles of bullying in the preschool environment, what kind of pedagogical practices used in preschools were related to bullying behavior and the prevention of bullying. The results of this research indicate that bullying appear in three kindergarten participated in the study. The most common way how early childhood education teacher reinforce child´s prosocial behavior was to be sensitive toward child´s initiatives. Teachers encourage children to emotion skills, show kindness and sympathy. Teachers see child like actor in kindergarten. The most common pedagogical avenues to relate a prosocial behavior was to teach child to understand other´s point of view. Early childhood education teacher prevent bullying by keeping a positive atmosphere and they leave time to education conservations. Teachers make children feel safe in kindergarten and they attend to child´s individual needs. The most common pedagogical avenues to prevent bullying was to apologize if child was bully other child. Teachers use pedagogical avenues to prevent bullying with children to practice others feelings.
  • Mähönen, Iina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the seven-grade self-efficacy beliefs change during a positive pedagogical intervention. The intervention aims to activate and optimize all four areas that according to Bandura have a positive impact on self-efficacy. These sources are mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasions, and physical and emotional states. The key skills of future working life are creative problem solving, self-guidance and constant learning. The school should provide opportunities to develop essential abilities and skills for future challenges and working life. The above-mentioned key skills can be developed by craft education, as working in the craft subject is exploratory, inventive and experimental, where the students courageously and curiously seeks for new ideas. To be able to face new challenges or take on new skills, one must have confidence in their own abilities. Self-efficacy impacts what a person dares to do, how much they are willing to see the effort in front of the task, and how persistently they try when facing difficulties. In this study, the analysis of self-efficacy focused on these two themes: pupils’ perceptions of one’s own competence, and the concepts of effort and persistence. In this study, support for self-efficacy was approached by qualitative intervention research. The intervention was carried out and the research material was collected in a primary school, where I worked as a part-time craft teacher. The most important part of the intervention was feedback and the observation of the learning process. The subjects were eight pupils from whom all the different parts of the research material was collected. The research showed that pupils’ perceptions of their own skills and competence in craft lessons improved during the intervention. The concepts of effort and persistence were improved in the following areas: experience of solving challenging task, problem solving, coping with difficult situations, achievement of goals and attitudes towards own mistakes. It can also been seen from the research material that the beliefs of one’s own abilities became more positive among learning-oriented pupils than performance-oriented students during the intervention.
  • Saarinen, Sanni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The aim of this study is to examine relations between body mass index, self-esteem, body image and adolescents thoughts about body positivity. Earlier study has showed relation among increasing body mass index, body dissatisfaction and lower self-esteem. Body positivity has its roots in the fat acceptance movement in the late 1960s. Goal of the body positivity movement is to address unrealistic ideals about beauty, promote self-acceptance, and build self-esteem and learning to love oneself to the fullest. Body positivity is popular on social media and in Finland discourses about it are controversial. Some think it is a good for health and self-esteem, others think it glamorizes overweight. Finnish adolescents thoughts about body positivity has not been explored before this study. This statistical study was made in Spring 2019. The research subjects were finnish adolescents aged 13-18. The data was obtained from the adolescents by an electronic enquiry. The sample consisted of N=109 adolescents, n 89 women, n 19 men and n 1 transgender. The data was analyzed by using SPSS Statistics 25 program and frequencies, cross-tabulations, Pearson`s correlations, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA tests. In this study self-esteem or body image were not varied by age. Body image was varied by gender so that girls had lower body image than boys. Body mass index were not significant for self esteem or body image and disagreed with earlier study. Physical activity behind many of the adolescents has been noticed while reporting results. Term body positivity was familiar for 72,4 % of participants, specially from social media. Girls knew it more often than boys and estimated its effects for better self-love stronger than boys. Majority of adolescents thought that body positivity tries to increase self-love among every size and age. Only few thought that body positivity glamorize overweight and obesity. This research reveals that there is a need for wider study around relations between body mass index, self-esteem, body image and body positivity among adolescents. This study offers a base for extensive study in the future.
  • Paaso, Jenniina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The purpose of the study is to investigate the time of Villayhtymä’s 1959–1969 and Hyvilla’s 1970–1978 factories from the point of view of one textile, the travelling rug. The research is a continuation of my Bachelor’s thesis, and the meaning of it was to provide a broader review of the travelling rugs of that time, and thus to find out more exact facts about the travelling rugs’ material, manufacturing process, design, designers, uses, and connection to society – both domestic and foreign – through events and exports. In addition, the research aimed to define what kind the travelling rugs were. The research strategy was a historical case study. The material was selectively collected from Villayhtymä’s and Hyvilla’s head offices and Hyvinkää’s factory archives of Valvilla Wool Mill Museum’s archives of Hyvinkää City Museum. After the initial analysis, the material for a more detailed analysis was selected by themes. The answers to research questions were formed by using content analysis. According to the research results, Finnish wool was the most important material for travelling rugs due to its special features. However, there were difficulties in applying it due to low availability. The manufacturing process included many phases from sorting wool to finishing. Nature was one of the key subjects in the design of travelling rugs, and Aune Gummerus appeared to be one of the most significant designers of travelling rugs during Villayhtymä. Lapponica, Lake Blanket, and Moharella were the most important series of travelling rugs. Several different purposes of uses were suggested for travelling rugs, and they were presented at fairs and exhibitions. The designers were rewarded both domestically and abroad, and the travelling rugs made of Finnish wool were also ordered to many distant countries. The travelling rugs provide a connection to homes, decoration, design, society, and the surrounding world in the 1960s and 1970s. The Finnish design and quality were appreciated, and on the basis of the results, it seems that despite the difficulties of the wool industry, the travelling rug as a single textile has been a popular textile.
  • Forsström, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The purpose of my study was to trace primary school students’ socio-digital activities ranging from ordinary to more advanced practices across informal and formal contexts. I examined young people’s socio-digital learning ecology, the intensity and complexity of socio-digital participation (SDP) and the socio-digital competences associated with technologies preferred by both girls and boys. By relying on Ito and colleagues’ Gen-res of Participation, I distinguished friendship-driven and interest-driven practices in informal settings. My study extends these genres to consider also the socio-digital activities under advanced instructional settings in accordance with Connected Learning. The data were collected during academic year 2016-2017 from four primary schools in the capital area of Helsinki, Finland. Total of 296 students, 5th (n=164), 6th (n=76) and 7th (n=56) grade students (136 girls and 160 boys) responded to Socio-Digital Participation Inventory (SDP2.0). In each school, a group of teachers and their students took part in co-invention (STEAM) projects that use digital fabrication technologies for bringing elements of maker culture to schools; the data were collected before implementing the maker projects. Many of the teachers were involved in digital innovation activities organized by Innokas Network (https://globalinnokas.com/) and, thereby, enacted more sophisticated socio-digital practices in their class-rooms than Finnish schools in general. The intensity of socio-digital participation (SDP2.0) was measured with 48 items elaborated by relying on earlier studies. The instrument used Likert-type scale from 1=never to 7=all the time for examining how often participants use various digital technologies. Socio-digital competences were measured with 15 items by asking how well young people master certain technology-mediated practices. Items were measured with Likert scale form 1=not at all to 5=very fluently. I conducted the statistical analyses using R. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was applied to construct both students’ Socio-digital Learning Ecology (WLS with Oblimin rotation) and to compose the dimensions for their Socio-digital Competences (MinRes with Promax rotation). The latter were conceptualized as 1) Academic Socio-digital Competences, 2) Artistic Socio-digital Competences and 3) Technical Socio-digital Competences. The factors of Socio-digital Participation were then subjected to Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) as clustering variables to create Socio-Digital Participation Profiles, which were further conceptualized as 1) Hanging out participators, 2) Messing around participators and 3) Geeking out participators. Finally, students’ Socio-digital competences, composed by EFA, were analysed as a function of gender and SDP profiles using two-way factorial ANOVA. None of the analyses revealed any interaction effects. Participation profiles had statistically significant main effects on each competence dimension: Geeking out participators had evaluated their competences higher compared to other two groups and Messing around participators higher than Hanging out participators, as confirmed by post hoc (Scheffé) group comparisons. Gender had analogous main effects on Artistic and Technical Socio-digital competences according to which girls saw themselves as more competent with Artistic technologies and boys with Technical aspects of digital technologies. In average, the students of the present sample participated more frequently in messing around and geeking out activities in school compared to corresponding informal practices, if the recreational gaming is opted out. Regarding the participation profiles, there were no differences between girls and boys while with respect to self-reported socio-digital competences; girls saw themselves as more competent with artistic and boys with technical aspects of digital technologies. Consequently, I concluded that innovative and technology-motivated teachers may promote a more equal socio-digital participation and build of young people’s 21st century skills through digital-pedagogical practices that are attractive both for girls and boys
  • Linnanmäki, Eveliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Aims. Previous research and tests of reading achievement have shown that literacy among children and adolescents has weakened and leisure time reading has decreased especially among boys. Girls have outscored boys on tests of reading achievement and boys read less than their female peers. There has been a public concern about boys when it comes to reading; however there have been few studies made from boys’ own point of view. The main objective of this study was to find out what kind of thoughts the boys, who don’t read much on their freetime, have about reading and literature assignments and how boys are portrayed as readers in Lukuklaani research project data. The aim was also to find out if there is reason to be concerned about the situation of boys. Methods. In this study eight boys from 5th and 6th grade were interviewed. These boys identified themselves as boys who don’t read much on their freetime. This study also used the data of Lukuklaani research project that executed a survey that was answered by 885 teachers. The data (in-terviews and Lukuklaani survey) was analyzed by theory-guided content analysis and categorized to themes. The results were compared to the theoretical framework. Results and conclusions. The boys had rather positive attitudes toward reading; however there seems to be some contradiction in their perceptions. The boys found reading boring even though everyone told they had red an interesting book sometimes. It is important that one can read an interesting book: the boys liked to read books that interest them but they don’t have motivation to read boring books. It is important to find appealing books and it is profitable to introduce boys to various books at school so that they would be able find books that interest them. Relatedness was also a significant factor in this study. Conversations about literature seemed to motivate the boys. Social reading would be a beneficial method to use at school, for example in the form of literature circles. It appears that the concern about the situation of boys is not completely groundless because they seem to prefer other activities such as video games over reading. Nevertheless it is optimistic that the boys have a rather positive attitude toward reading and they like to read books that interest them.
  • Kuusla, Veronika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Aims. The aim of this study is to examine what children that take part in a sport club in their spare time think about physical education (PE) classes and groups. The study examines the children’s thoughts on exercising in coeducational PE. This study focuses also on their parents’ views. The parents were asked to describe their thoughts on same-sex and coeducational PE. Methods. Eight children between classes 3 to 5 that take part in sports club activities during their spare time participated in this study. At least one of each child’s parents also took part in the study. The data was collected through semi structured interviews in May 2018. The research method in this study was a data based qualitative content analysis. Results and conclusions. The results state that the children who take part in sports club activities during their spare time, have a positive attitude on PE classes. The positive view was justified through different disciplines, variety, functionality and one’s own sporty background. Half of the children wished to participate in a coeducational group and the other half in a same-sex group in PE class. Arguments in favour of coeducational PE were the atmosphere in class, positive challenges and the fact that there is no real reason to separate boys and girls into different groups. Arguments against coeducational PE were the physical differences of pupils, problems with working in peace, hobbyism and the gender juxtaposition. According to this study, all parents supported coeducational PE. Some parents indicated that PE classes could occasionally be organized in same-sex groups, especially if physical sports are practised during the class. The parents also stated arguments in favour of coeducational PE. The arguments were divided into two categories: educating children to become members of society and increasing diversity in PE.
  • Ankkuri, Jenni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract The consumption of snacks has increased during the last few years. Nowadays more common to replace complete meals with different kinds of snacks. This study examines what kinds of criteria do families with children have towards consuming snacks and how the healthiness of different snacks is taken into consideration. The study reflects on how families with children experience healthy eating and how bread is involved in their snack culture. The purpose of the study is to find out what kinds of snacks are consumed in families with children during their leisure time and to clarify what kind of requirements the families have towards the snacks their children are consuming. The research data was collected via a closed online group discussion combined with an online enquiry that were issued in a social network service Facebook. The group discussion and the online enquiry both had 10 parent participants. The research data was supported by a commercial consumer survey about the consumption of bread in families with children. The data gathered from the group discussion and the online enquiry were divided into three major themes that are healthiness, choosing a snack and foodscape. These themes were chosen in order to support the study questions. The primary method of analysis in this study is material-based content analysis, even though quantitative methods were utilized in the online enquiry. Snack practices during the free time of families with children were based on many food choices and foodscape factors, especially cost, taste and healthiness. Snacks were consumed at least three times per week, typically on a daily basis. Snacks were purchased usually from a supermarket and eaten at home. Bread was the most popular snack in families with children and bread was experienced to be healthy because of its richness in fibre. Families with children are hoping to find more options in snacks intended and designed for children that would be healthy as well. As a conclusion, healthiness was a desirable quality for snacks in families with children. The results of this study are aligned with previous studies related to snacks. In the future research could be made about how gender affects children’s and adolescents’ eating habits.
  • Hanni, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat – Abstract Objectives. The aim of this study is to analyze and interpret team-teachers' perceptions of co-teaching within a craft education project, in co-operation with Helsinki University´s Co4Lab-research. Co-teaching is commonly understood as a teaching method, where two or more teachers equally share the responsibility of planning, implementation and evaluation of teaching. There are many methods of co-teaching and it is said that team-teaching is the most intensive and well-developed method. The study explains how team-teaching is co-planned and arranged and how it has developed during the project. The main part of the study is give a voice to teachers who are doing co-teaching together. As a result, the study also gives examples of co-teaching methods used in a craft education project. Methods. A total of 4 teachers from one metropolitan area elementary school took part in this study. Three of the participating teachers were class teaches and one was a craft teacher. The teachers were interviewed in the summer of 2017, using a semi-structured theme interview and the research material was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. There was also limited documentation from the Co4Lab-research, collected earlier by other researchers. Results and Conclusions. The study highlighted that team-teaching is a very functional method of teaching in a craft project. Team-teaching has slowly develop good choice by the years teachers has used it as a teaching method. Co-planning and teamwork has got easier year by year, and teamwork has helped the leading of this kind of an educational project. The key elements of successful team-teaching were well-arranged co-planning, conversations with colleagues and the feeling of shared responsibility of teaching and evaluation. Collegial support was an essential part of team-teaching. Whenever teachers felt that they did not know enough about the technical craft details of the project, they could rely on their team-member and learn from each other. Some teachers had other strengths; such as giving more support in education, structured teaching and schedules. It doesn´t take so much time to co-teach: small conversations with a team partner can lead to successful team-teaching.
  • Rinne, Marju (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The purpose of this thesis was to study researched antiracism education methods in Finland in the 21st century. The goal is to increase understanding about racism; how to discuss, teach and challenge this multidimensional phenomenon instead of avoiding or reinforcing it. The purpose is to study the challenges and possibilities of antiracism education methods in schools and gather research done here for the teachers committed to social justice. The thesis was a systematic literary review which is qualitative research. The thesis includes 8 peer reviewed articles published in different scientific journals and books. For my literary review I chose recently published articles about antiracism or racism because in Finland the antiracism research field is still quite new and small. The key selection criteria was that the articles study racism from the antiracist point of view in the context of school and teaching. The research results showed several challenges and opportunities in different methods. The challenges were weakness in directing the conversation, using old questions, lacking critique of power and knowledge, not presenting the different dimensions of racism, trivializing and missing the historical connections to today`s world. The possibilities were challenging pupil`s explanations, directing conversation to norms, power and different identities, using new and critical questions, using drama, listening the experiences of racism experienced by minorities and discovering new structures to heal. The conclusions of this research are that the NGO workshops and materials can increase consciousness of racism, but fail to challenge it because of lack of defining racism as a micro and macro level phenomenon. The history books reinforce the prejudice about the Other and the hegemony of the West. The Finn Roma mediators at school are not able challenge alone the prejudice and discrimination against them. One-day discrimination drama at school and the school experiences of Sami people are able to challenge structural racism by revealing discrimination as a system. Listening the experiences of Sami people also challenges epistemic racism.
  • Saarinen, Nuppu-Marie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study is a part of Learning to be (L2B) project evaluation. L2B project is Co-funded by the Erasmus+ Programme of the European Union and it is providing practices and methodologies for assessing social emotional and health (SHE) skills at schools. This study is concentrated on the project’s pre-test questionnaire’s section that was used to measure students’ social emotional competence (SEC). The instrument that was used to measure students’ SEC, was the Social and Emotional Competence Questionnaire (SECQ), that is based on the CASEL (as cited in Zhou & Ee, 2012, p. 28) model of social emotional learning (SEL). In the CASEL (2019) model, SEL is used to improve students’ SEC. In a previous study, the SECQ meter has been noticed to be potential instrument to measure SEC, but a follow up research with more versatile sample of respondents from various cultural backgrounds is needed, as well as examining the validity of the meter (Zhou & Ee, 2012). This study is responding to these needs as Learning to be project is examining students’ SEC in five European countries. Additionally, previous study has shown, that the SECQ might not function as well with younger as with older students (Zhou & Ee, 2012). Therefore, in this study, the students’ perceptions of their SEC will be compared between younger and older students. The functionality of the SECQ in both age groups will also be compared. The purpose of this study was to examine, how the students participating in L2B project perceived their SEC in the pre-test phase of the project, how well did the SECQ measure SEC, were there any differences between younger and older students in perceptions of their SEC and whether the SECQ functioned equally in both age groups. In L2B the data was collected from nearly 1500 students aged 8–15 from 20 different schools from each of the five participating countries. In SECQ students responded on a scale 1–6 (1 = completely false, 6 = completely true) to claims describing good social emotional skills. From the descriptive statistics of the SECQ data, conclusions about students’ perceptions of their SEC were made. With the same data, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted to investigate the functionality of the SECQ and if the different subscales factored complying with an original scale. To compare different age groups, the students were divided into two groups: aged 8–11 and aged 12–15. The perceptions of students’ SEC in these two age groups were compared with independent-samples testing and the functionality of the SECQ with reliability analyses by comparing the SECQ data’s Cronbach’s alpha (α) values in different age groups. In the pre-test phase of L2B project, the students perceived their SEC to be fairly good on average. Consequently, there still is room for improving students’ SEC and it is possible to expect, that the SEL intervention in L2B project will improve students’ SEC. In this study, the SECQ turned out to function quite well and the factoring did comply mostly with the original scale. The result indicates that the SECQ can be used as a valid instrument for measuring SEC. Younger and older students seemed to have somewhat differing perceptions of their SEC, but in this study, it is left unclear, whether the differences were due to the age per se or merely the large sample size. This should be examined with more versatile and accurate methods. The functionality of SECQ measure seemed also to have differences between age groups, in order that the SECQ seemed to function slightly poorer with younger than with older students. Altogether, the measure turned out to be functionable for examining SEC, regardless of the respondents’ age.
  • Tan, Anniina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Target: This study examines school culture and its change in technology-intensive schools through principals' experiences. The aim of the study was to gain deeper understanding on three related themes: 1) How the principals have experienced the change in school culture and which factors they have perceived (2) to facilitate or (3) to hinder the change. Furthermore, the goal was to understand which factors related to technology-intensive schools' functions and leadership have improved the change processes and what kind of challenges the school and the management have experienced along the way. The theoretical framework of this study is based on the theories of organization culture and more specifically on school culture and related concepts. Method: The research data for this study was gathered from 13 schools across the Helsinki capital area and it consisted of semi-structured interview material from the principals of the targeted schools. The data was analyzed by qualitative content analysis. I grouped and thematized the interview data, coded and categorized meanings related to the themes identified, and, finally, analyzed the interdependencies between the categories and meanings. Findings and conclusions: The findings of this study indicated that the collaboration culture in schools has evolved. The principals reported that the teachers use more collaborative working methods and share knowledge more actively with others than before. The findings also revealed that the learning environments are more versatile than before and the working methods appear to be more innovative. The principals also de-scribed that the gap between the school and students as well as the gap between school and the society have narrowed. The most important factors supporting the cultural change were perceived to be leadership and the increasing collaboration between teachers. In addition, external support in its different forms as well as resources allocated to schools appeared important. Particular emphasis was given to the guidelines indicated by the newest national curriculum. On practical level, modern learning environments and learning tools were highlighted to be a pre-requisite for the development of digital school culture. The cultural transformation is hindered, according to the principals, by the resistance to change among teachers. Renewing old working methods and altering the professional identity is arduous and may generate negative attitudes towards change. Also, some external factors seemed to complicate the change process. Especially the limited working hours of teachers and principals seemed to decelerate the development. Furthermore, some principals experienced the negative public discussion concerning the digitalization of schools frustrating. The principals described that the role of technology in school culture change is to serve as an enabler for widening and renewing the ways of working and the environments for learning. The results of this study indicated that some change in school culture has occurred but the systemic change is still in process. The results together with former theory constituted a model of innovative and collaborative school culture. The model can be used for improving the school culture to better correspond to the challenges of the constantly changing world and knowledge society.
  • Valkonen, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objectives. The work of a school teacher is constantly transforming because of the rapid changing of society and at the same time the well-being of teachers at work seems to have worsened in many respects. The changes in working life also affect the job descriptions and tasks of home economics teachers. The aim of this thesis is to find out what home economics teachers with over 15 years of working experience consider to be the most significant changes in their work and how these changes have affected their well-being. The second aim is to find out what kind of support home economics teachers have received for their well-being and what kind of factors help them to endure in their work. In this thesis well-being at work is examined especially from the perspective of change, and at the same time acounting its holistic nature. Methods. A qualitative research strategy was applied in this study. The data consisted of six (6) semi-structured interviews, which were carried out as telephone conversations. The home economics teachers taking part in the research resided in different parts of Finland and had various backgrounds in terms of their professional education. The interviews were transcribed, the data were thematised, and analyses applying qualitative content analysis. “Windows of well-being” (Gerlander & Launis, 2007) was applied in interpreting the results of the research. Results and conclusions. The results imply that, the most essential changes in the work of home economics teachers seems to be connected to students. The teachers had experienced the weakening of handcraft skills and different kinds of problems increased among students. On the other hand the results indicate an increase in co-operation between schools and homes with new technology. Additionally, changes in the physical working environment because of indoor air issues seem to challenge the well-being of home economics teachers. The things that bring joy, motivate and help teachers to manage with their work are strongly connected to students, the work community and their own personal life. Attributes related to the teachers’ personalities were also emphasized in the experienced well-being of home economics teachers. The results of this research highlight themes that can be helpful and useful in supporting the well-being of home economics teachers in their future in-service training.
  • Kiuru, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Research on the environmental impacts of food supply chain has increased interest about food waste. Food waste means wasted food which could have been prevented. Food waste has been researched as part of sustainable food consumption. From perspective of home economics education phenomenon has been researched as part of sustainable food education but empirical research on food waste education has scarcely conducted. This thesis examines home economics teachers’ experiences about food waste and what kind of educational potential home economics as a school subject can provide from the perspective of food waste reduction. It has been seen as a problem that increasing knowledge about food waste does not help households to reduce food waste. The aim of this thesis is to study how home economics education can advance the development of food sense in context of food waste. This thesis was conducted with a qualitative research method by interviewing seven home economics teachers. Material was collected by theme interview. The main themes of the interview were experiences about food waste, activities to reduce the food waste and development of prerequisites to reduce food waste in home economics education. Interviews were conducted during December 2018 and January 2019. Experiences of home economics teachers about food waste and food waste education were analysed with qualitative content analysis. Home economics teachers aim to reduce food waste actively during lessons and outside of them. Food waste education was seen as natural part of cooking and eating practices. Food waste can be prevented by taking into account the opportunities of learning environment and home economics classroom resources. A better teacher and students’ interaction as well as guidance during cooking and eating environments enhance the development of food sense related to food waste reduction. Students’ prejudices towards expiration date or experiencing cleaning and recycling of empty food packages’ as unpleasant are challenging the food sense education.
  • Perkiömäki, Petriina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The goal of this study was to find out which factors have had influenced to the children with higher educated than their single parent mothers and how the family form has effected to their course of life. Studies have shown that the mother's educational background has significant effect on how the child’s education path is formed. However, the starting point of this study was the opposite. The family's economical, social and cultural capital will determine the resources available to the individual and the family. The educational culture in the family and the associated values transfer from parent to child. When the family’s resources are scarce other factors outside the family will also have an affect to child’s life and educational path. Pierre Bourdieu's field theory is the theoretical basis for this study. The phenomenon was also explained by the inheritance of education and social mobility. The survey was carried out by interviewing six 24-47-year old individuals who had grown up with a single mother in their childhood and had been educated against their mother's educational background. Interviews were conducted with theme interviews. The material was transcribed and analysed by theme analysis. The analysis focused on sub-themes of economical, social and cultural capital. Financial challenges in one parent's family were common. Families were considered to be close and social relationships outside the family and communities were important. Due to the lack if educational resources, interviewees were more interested in educating themselves than their parents. When educated against their parents educational background one’s own nature and goals, encouraging people outside family and a good success in school were proved to be important factors in pursuing for higher education.
  • Niemi, Josefiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The goal in this study was to highlight new perspectives on house work. The purpose was to find out what people are talking about when they talk about invisible house work and what the meanings of invisible house work are for family members. In this study, invisible house work is the work that is done in homes, but which cannot be measured in time or financially. There is no clear concept of invisible house work, although its existence is easily recognizable. Division of invisible house work between familymembers creates conflicts with the family. In previous studies, this work has been called the spiritual and psychological aspect of house work and coordination. Everyday is a life-producing process where home work plays a key role. House work produces both physical and mental well-being. House work was approached through its value, the time involved and the perceived fairness. The research material used was discussions about invisible house work in online discussion forums at the end of 2015. The research work was qualitative, as the starting point of the research is to describe real life and seek its fullest possible comprehension. Discussions were analyzed by means of both content analysis and narrative analysis. The research questions were: 1. What do informants mean by invisible house work? 2. What meanings do informants give to invisible house work through their experiences? In the light of the study, the invisible house work was invisible to everyday life and to the good of family members, consisting of action, interaction and responsibility. The meaning of invisible house work seemed to be concern for our loved ones and their well-being. It was to take into account the needs and wishes of other family members so that the overall responsibility and power were distributed evenly and created experience of justice. Unselfish caring for others increased the feeling of security and communality as well as happiness.

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