Käyttäytymistieteellinen tiedekunta


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  • Rintala, Maiju (2015)
    The aim of this study was to develop two teaching implementations that used genre pedagogy and teach two genres, a news report and a narrative. The goal of this research was to test teaching writing using genre pedagogy and also to develop a new model for using genre pedagogy and two improved teaching plans for teaching a news report and a narrative using models of genre pedagogy and the findings of this study. This study was carried out as a qualitative action research. The research was carried out in a third grade of comprehensive school and 21 students, 13 girls and eight boys, participated. The research period lasted for 20 lessons that were video-taped. As data in this study were the texts which the students wrote, tests and the filmed lessons. The filmed lessons were used to describe the course of the study. The texts and tests were analyzed using genre pedagogical criteria. The students wrote texts that fell well in both the genres. When writing a news reports almost everyone succeeded very well, the biggest problems were in answering the news questions. There was a wider distribution in points of the narratives, but almost every student did write a narrative. Most improving was needed in executing the stages of a narrative. In the improved teaching plans these things were highlighted more. As an outcome of the research is a new model for applying genre pedagogy presented.
  • Nuutinen, Johanna (2015)
    The main purpose of this study was to find out what kind of means the home economic teachers use to ease pupils who need support in the learning process. The goal of this study was learn how information of the support needed was transferred to teacher and to learn what kind of additional resources are available. In addition, this study focuses on teachers’ reactions to integrate the pupils in a normal teaching situation. Also this study focuses on tools that teacher education offers to meet pupils needing special support. The data for the qualitative study were collected during the spring 2014 in two separate stag-es: by collecting critical incidents and semi-structured interviews. The data were collected by discretionary sampling. Ten home economics teachers working in Pirkanmaa and Uudenmaa region took part in this study. The data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. According to the main outcome, pupils are heterogeneous groups and the need for support varies from minor to major. The main problems areas for pupils according to teachers are learning and behavioral problems. Also social and psychological problems have increased. The information of support needed among new students was transferred from class teacher to home economics teacher but in some cases the need for support was noticed during clas-ses. Teachers have several means to support pupils’ learning. For example, the teachers used demonstrative means, graphic guidance and they split working stages into smaller de-tails. Sometimes it was also possible to get a supportive person into the classroom. The teachers used more time and effort to evaluate the pupils in need of assistance and assigned more practical tasks for them. The communication between teacher and parent is very im-portant according to the interviewees. The idea of integration of the pupils needing support into the normal teaching program is good, but to bring this into practice is challenging. According to the teachers their education did not give them the tools needed in teaching special pupils. Many teachers would like to have more practical guidance to support their teaching methods. Hopefully the findings of this study will raise discussion and help the newly graduated home economics teachers to meet special pupils at their work in the future.
  • Kallunki, Jarmo (2015)
    The subject of this study is the historical formation of the university funding formula in Finland during 1995–2010. Funding formula is approached via its historical context, and the aim of this study is to discover and construct regularities that enable and restrict the formation of the funding formula. The main foci of this study are the funding formula, and its components the funding criteria. The primary research material of this study consists of memoranda and decrees of the Ministry of Education in 1995–2006, and legislative material from the university reform in 2007–2010. The frame of this research is built by combining Kari Palonen’s topological conception of politics on one hand, and the Foucauldian genealogical-archaeological discourse analysis on the other. Following Palonen, politics is conceptualised here both as activity, and as a sphere borne out of that activity, which can be analysed from nine different perspectives (topos). Discursive formation is conceptualised as set of objects, subjects, concepts, and strategies that are connected to each other by discursive regularities. This study creates a description of a discursive formation, in which and under who’s conditions the university funding formula and funding criteria are formulated. The result of this study is extensive and detailed description of the discursive formation. As results it is asserted that there are five discursive regularities that govern the formation of funding criteria: the conflict between the funding model politics and general university politics, policy, internal variation, conceptual changes, and functional extension. The formation of the system of subjects is governed by the relationship between the universities and the Ministry of education. Concepts emerge as a result of a regularity called borrowing, and concepts fade away as soon as they are unneeded. Two strategies, the funding model politics and the general university politics, emerge by the support of the system of subjects, and a third strategy emerges as a conflict zone of the two, functioning as a conflict mediator.
  • Lindholm, Anne (2015)
    Multilingualism and multiculturalism are very common phenomena in the global world of today. People move into other countries and integrate in other cultures more than ever before. This Master´s Thesis is a qualitative study on how multilingual people describe their linguistic and cultural identity and how it is to be a minority within the Swedish-speaking minority in Finland. The aim of this study is to increase the knowledge and understanding on people who represent a linguistic minority in the Swedish-speaking linguistic minority in Finland and how they describe their linguistic and cultural identity. The scientific approach of the study is phenomenological, which means that the study aims to describe the phenomenon of multilingualism, multiculturalism and integration based on informants' subjective experiences. Nine people were interviewed for this study, and the collected data were analysed using content analysis. All nine informants were living in the capital area of Finland when the interviews were done, but are born in another country. The results of this study demonstrate the significance of language and culture for a person’s identity. The linguistic and cultural identities form during the entire course of life and can be seen as a lifelong process.
  • Syrjäkangas, Kaisa (2014)
    Objectives. The object of this study was to find out what kinds of profiles of approaches to teaching can be found among university teachers, are there disciplinary differences between the profiles and to discover teaching-related challenges. In the analysis of teachers approaches to teaching, particularly the qualitative research by Kember and Kwan (2000), Trigwell and Prosser (1999) and especially the research of Postareff and Lindblom-Ylänne (2008) were utilised. The study sought to answer three questions: 1) What kinds of profiles of approaches to teaching can be identified among individual teachers? 2) Are the profiles related to academic disciplines? and 3) What kinds of teaching-related challenges do the teachers describe, and how these challenges are related to their teaching profiles? Methods. The research material has been collected in the Centre for Research and Development of Higher Education between 2009 and 2011. Interviews of nine teachers were analysed: three teachers from the Faculty of Theology, three teachers from the Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences and three teachers from the Faculty of Science. In the analysis of research questions one and two, deductive content analysis was used, and in question three inductive content analysis was utilised. Results and conclusions. The analysis of approaches to teaching revealed that approaches can consist of both theoretically consistent and inconsistent elements. Five different profiles were recognized: a systematically learning-focused profile, a systematically content-focused profile, a conflicting profile with an emphasis on contents, a conflicting profile with an emphasis on learning, and a conflicting profile. In this study there were no clear connections between discipline and teaching profiles. A link between the profiles and the challenges was discovered: The teachers who had been categorised in the same profile also stated same kinds of teaching challenges, apart from teachers in the conflicting profile. Based on the findings of this study it can be suggested that the conflicts between the intentions and actions in teaching can result not only from the lack of resources or support or from structural constraints, but especially from insufficient pedagogical expertise and difficulties in reflecting one’s own capabilities and actions.
  • Palkkimäki, Susanna (2015)
    This thesis analyzed interaction and learning in simulation debriefing. Simulation usage has increased in the social and health care during the last years, and the new technology has given more opportunities to use high-fidelity simulations more widely. Simulations enable a new way for students to learn different kinds of patient situations in the real life and in work-based environments that are still completely safe. The investments are expensive and create discussion in universities whether these simulations can create the learning they are supposed to create. The research focused on simulation debriefing is an essential phase in simulation learning. The research approach drew on adults learning theories as well as on simulation and debriefing research. The approach is based on socio-constructivist understanding on learning and on studentcentered teaching (Engeström 1982; Miettinen 1993), which represents criticism towards traditional classroom teaching and introduces the concept of learning activity. From these theoretical starting points emerged three key learning concepts, interaction, feedback and reflection. The research questions were: 1. How is the interaction of the debriefing constructed? 2. What kind of feedback by peer students and by the instructors and 3. what kind of reflection takes place during the debriefing? The data was collected from one simulation center’s simulation day in the Southern Finland University of Applied Sciences. The data includes one simulation group’s (9 students and 2 instructors) all five videotaped debriefing situa-tions. The analysis was both data and learning theory driven, and both qualitative and quantitative research methods were applied. The results indicate that debriefings interaction was led by the instructors, and was based on a question–answer dy-namics. The analysis found three different kinds of peer feedback types, four instructors’ feedback types and five self-reflection types. Both the peer and instructor feedback were mostly positive encouragement. Students’ self-reflection was mostly reflecting on the confusion caused by the simulation. . Clinical skills were emphasized in both feedback and self-reflection. It can be concluded that debriefing’s script and the way it is used leads and restricts the interaction. The script should be developed to be more dialogical. Especially the form and meaning of peer feedback should be critically con-sidered. The peer feedback remained quite superficial, whereas instructors’ feedback has a clear impact on students’ constructive self-reflection. The instructors’ cultivation of constructive criticism would best enhance the students’ learning.
  • Rahikainen, Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to investigate Finnish high-school students and teachers perceptions about what a short-term Nordic study abroad program offers to its participants. The benefits of study abroad were also addressed, as well as their connection to the reasons for attending such a program. Participants were also asked to state the challenges they faced during their study abroad. As data was gathered from three different participant groups, comparison between different participant groups was one of the central aims of the study. Participants. The participants consisted of three different groups; two of which were student groups and one that was a teacher group. One student group participated in an SA in Sweden for one month (Period scholars); the other student group participated in a one to two week long intensive language course in Sweden (Scholars to Sweden). Teachers had stays of different lengths, from less than a week to two weeks in Nordic countries (Sweden, Norway, Denmark and Iceland). Methods. The investigation presented herein relied on a mixed-methods strategy. The data of the study consisted of responses from 158 students and 92 teachers to a specifically developed Study Abroad Assessment (SAA) instrument. This data was analyzed quantitatively with SPSS using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and partly also qualitatively categorizing. In addition, material from six (6) students interviews before and after the study abroad (SA) period, and their reports on their stay, were analyzed qualitatively and reported as a case of an average student attending that particular program. Results and conclusions. Based on the analysis, there emerged four factors that represented dimensions which a short-term SA program has to offer. These factors were named according to their content as follows: 1) Personal growth; 2) Links to another Nordic country; 3) Development of Nordic awareness; and 4) Impact on career or study opportunities. Composite variables were created on the basis of these factors. There were some statistically significant differences between groups and group explained differing percentages of variance in each dimension. The Period scholars group differed significantly from other groups statistically in terms of "Personal growth" and "Impact on career or study opportunities" composite variables, whereas the Scholars to Sweden group differed significantly from other groups statistically in terms of the "Links to another Nordic country" composite variable. The Teacher group differed statistically significantly from student groups in terms of "Development of Nordic awareness" composite variable. The qualitative part of the study provided information on the benefits and challenges of study abroad that were compatible with previous studies. As a conclusion, it was noted that participants felt their language threshold to be lower than prior attending the SA, and that personal growth indeed was one of the main benefits of the SA.
  • Seppälä, Noora (2014)
    Objectives: Hostility and anger in adulthood have been associated with adverse consequences such as coronary heart disease, early mortality, worse mental health and social problems. It is therefore important to study the antecedents of hostility and anger. Previous studies have shown that low socioeconomic status in childhood and in adulthood and traumatic experiences are associated with higher hostility and anger in early and middle adulthood. However, very few studies exploring the association of traumatic experiences and hostility or anger have used large population-based cohorts, and no studies have explored the association in older adults. The aim of this study was to test whether emotional and physical traumas, childhood separation from parents and low socioeconomic status in childhood and adulthood are associated with hostility and anger in late adulthood. Second aim was to test whether the accumulation of these stressful experiences and the age at the time of the first traumatic experience are associated with hostility and anger in late adulthood. Methods: Participants were 1702 people who were born in Helsinki between 1934–1944 (women 55.9 %, average age 63 years) and were part of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. The participants filled out a psychological survey between 2001–2004. Emotional and physical traumas were measured with Traumatic Experiences Checklist, hostility with Cook-Medley Ho-scale and trait anger with Spielberger’s Trait Anger Scale. The information about childhood and adulthood socioeconomic status and childhood separation from parents due to war time evacuation were retrieved from registers. Linear regression was used as the analysis method. Results: An experience of an emotional or physical trauma and their frequency were associated with higher levels of hostility and anger in late adulthood. Emotional and physical traumas were also separately related to higher levels of hostility and anger. Age at the first emotional or a physical trauma had an effect on hostility: having experienced the first trauma in childhood was associated with higher hostility level, whereas having experienced the first trauma in adulthood was not. Experiences of an emotional or physical trauma were associated with higher anger level regardless of age at the first traumatic experience. Low socioeconomic status in adulthood was associated with higher hostility but not anger. Low socioeconomic status in childhood or childhood separation from parents were not associated with hostility or anger. However, the cumulative number of these stressful experiences was associated with higher levels of hostility and anger. Conclusions: Emotional and physical traumas and the accumulation of stressful experiences during the life course may predispose to higher hostility and anger in late adulthood.
  • Berg, Minna (2014)
    Teaching and learning are interactional processes between the teacher and his or her pupils. Good interaction skills are an essential part of the teacher profession. Learning good interaction skills and creating ways and practices that promote the use of those skills is of ten recommended. However, the teacher studies do not direct the students to process these skills. In the present study, it was explored whether comprehensive school teachers of Finland participating in the three credit follow-up training learned to use social interaction skills during the intervention. The studied skills were based on Gordon’s theory (2003). The participants were 20 teachers who attended the training, and 20 teachers not attending the training. The effects of the intervention on teachers were examined by using the DCI-instrument (Talvio, Lonka, Kuusela, & Lintunen, 2012). Qualitative, theory-driven content analysis was used to classify the data. The statistical differences between the pre-test and post-test scores were examined with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. After the intervention, teachers who participated in the training used significantly more listening and active listening skills and communicated in more constructive ways. Furthermore, they used significantly less roadblocks to communication. In the comparison group, no differences between pre- and post-tests were perceived. To conclude, the teachers’ course on social interaction skills appeared to achieve its goals, since the teachers learned to apply the studied skills during the intervention. This study adds to the development of continuing teacher training by presenting a way of teaching students skills that enhance the quality of interaction.
  • Wennonen, Selma (2014)
    Aims. This study was motivated by deliberation upon what a home economics teacher could or should be able to do to make comprehensive school to display more responsibility than now towards themselves, other people and the environment during a home economics lesson. In addition, the draft on the new comprehensive school curriculum to be introduced in 2016 encouraged me to choose the topic. It emphasizes that the pupil needs novel capabilities in studies, working life and as a member of society in general in the future. This study discusses the experiences of home economics teacher education students on responsibility education both in home economics teacher education and home economics in comprehensive school during their studies. The research questions of the study are the following: 1. What is responsibility education in home economics? 2. What kind of experiences home economics teacher students have gathered during home economics teacher education? 3. What kind of possibilities do home economics teacher students see responsibility education have a. in home economics education? b. for the students themselves as home economics teachers? Methods. Ten home economics teacher students of the Helsinki University, who are in the final phase of their studies and who have completed the required teaching trainings, were interviewed for the study. The data of the study were collected by individual interviews, which were transcribed. The material was analysed through a qualitative contents analysis. Results and conclusions. The interviewees found it difficult to recognize the concept of responsibility education in the context of home economics teacher education and home economics in comprehensive school. However, they think responsibility education is very essential in home economics. In their opinion, responsibility education consists of two major areas, teaching topic matters, e.g. ecology and cooperation and social skills. The issue is that responsibility education is too implicit both in home economics teacher education and in home economics in comprehensive school. In the home economics teacher education students’ mind, the remedy could be to make responsibility education more explicit than now e.g. by reforming its contents so that it would not be so splintered. Responsibility education should more than now also be adjusted to the pupils’ different stages of development in comprehensive school education.
  • Mrena, Maria Kristiina (2014)
    Objectives – The objective of this study was to examine whether there is a connection between the Big Five personality traits and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Finnish adults. The MetS is a rapidly increasing syndrome among the Finnish population, which predisposes to type 2 diabetes and cardiac diseases. Previous research suggests that single personality traits may be connected to the MetS and its risk factors. However, only a few studies have examined theoretically well based personality models in relation to the MetS. Identifying the psychosocial risk factors for the MetS is important in predicting and preventing its occurrence. The following hypotheses were made based on previous research: (1) high neuroticism and (2) low agreeableness are positively associated with the MetS. Methods – This is a cross-sectional study of The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study from the year 2007. There were 1 580 Finnish adults aged 30–45 participating in the study, of which 919 were women and 661 were men. The participants answered a personality questionnaire, the Finnish version of the NEO-FFI (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Five-Factor Inventory), which measured the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness). The MetS is diagnosed when at least three of the following five factors are present: (1) central obesity, (2) raised fasting glucose, (3) raised triglycerides, (4) lowered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and (5) hypertension. The associations between personality traits and the MetS were examined using logistic regression analyses. Results and Conclusions – In men, low agreeableness was statistically significantly associated with higher risk of having the MetS (OR=.70, 95 % CI=.57–.87, p=.001), adjusting for age and level of education. There were no statistically significant associations found between any of the personality traits and the MetS in women. On the basis of these results, it can be proposed that men with low agreeableness, that is, men low in cooperation, empathy, and kindness, might comprise a risk group for the MetS. This study was cross-sectional by design, which precludes conclusions about cause and effect relationships. Mechanisms linking personality to the MetS were not examined in the current study, and thus, future research should examine the direction of the associations and the mechanisms linking such associations.
  • Salovaara, Mari (2014)
    The research assignment of this development research is to develop a handicraft-themed reminiscence box for older adults. It was ordered by Dagny Bäckström's foundation. Reminiscence box is a collection of triggers, e.g. objects, sounds and scents. It is used in reminiscence work, a method used in eldercare. Reminiscing helps to maintain personal identity, accept the past and gain a feeling of integrity. Handicraft is a fruitful topic for reminiscing, because it has been an essential part of everyday life for older adults. There is evidence that handicraft promotes well-being by supporting positive self-image and self-esteem and also encourages social interaction and helps to maintain social and family ties. Handicraft objects can remind of these positive things. These aspects form the theoretical background for this research. Developing included designing a manuscript for a reminiscence event, planning the range of triggers for the box and also collecting them. Plans were introduced to the foundation during the process and based on feedback some changes and refinement were made. The actual research material was a video recording of a real user situation, an hour long reminiscence event in an elder care home. Specific analysis covered episodes, in which both reminiscing happens and some triggers are used. Reminiscing lines of these chosen episodes were analyzed: what kind of memories were revealed and what was the trigger. The purpose of the video was also to find things that need improvements or further developing. There were many ways to reminisce handicraft. Common reminiscence is recognizing and naming the objects and their use. Personal experiences were revealed in making descriptions, heightened with movement. Also some memories of important and beloved people were revived. The triggers worked well in arousing memories, especially objects one can use or try. Reminiscence is best advanced by conversation and hearing other’s memories, but also the instructor of event has influence on what kind of memories are told. Some changes were made based on video. Mostly the changes concerned about how the instructor can better support reminiscing. Asking right kind of questions is fairly important. The reminiscence event has to be organized so that everybody can equally speak and are listened and heard. It is also important to support older adults own agency in the event. This research adds knowledge of reminiscence work. This can be useful when designing new services. Concerning craft science, especially intriguing is the embodied nature of reminiscence, e.g. reminiscing with movement. This could be studied further and made use of more in the future.
  • Koski, Anna (2014)
    Academic, research-based education has long been the main organizing principle of Finnish teacher education. The research-based approach is used to refer to the academic nature of teacher education but also to the objectives and contents of teacher education. Research skills are considered to be an essential part of teachers' proficiency. The aim is to educate teachers who will continuously develop their own as well as school practice through inquiry. The purpose of this study is to find out what kind of skills teachers gain from research-based teacher education. The focus is on the teachers' personal experiences. The aim is also to find out how teachers reflect their experiences in every day work in relation to the goals of teacher education. The research data was gathered by interviewing five class teachers. The teachers had graduated from the teacher education program in the university of Helsinki during 2007–2012. They had worked as class teachers for 2–7 years. The data consisted of individual semi-structured interviews. The analysis was based on the categories that were found from the data. Overall, the teachers of this study were content with their education and thought that it had provided them with a good basis for teacher's practical work. The studies in education were thought to be a necessary basis for teaching. Together with the studies in research, teachers thought that the educational courses had developed their professional thinking and ability to reflect their own and school practice critically. Teachers recognized the goals of the research-based approach and described their attitude towards their work as research-orientated. They were continuously trying to improve their professional skills and pedagogical thinking. Also collegiality, which is often thought to be a characteristic of the new kind of professional teaching culture, was thought to be an important part of their work as a teacher. However, the results indicate that the theoretical approach in their education was somewhat irrelevant to the teachers' practical work. The teachers would have hoped more practice-oriented studies in their education. In general, the theoretical approach was appreciated but the theory in teacher education should be more connected to teachers’ practical work. According to teachers’ experiences, emphasizing the importance of academic skills and research in teacher education weakens the connection between the teacher education and the teaching profession.
  • Holopainen, Emilia (2014)
    The aim of the study was to analyze international students’ typical paths to acculturate into the student community by using the research question: What kind of paths international students use to acculturate into the student community in Oklahoma State University and in the University of Helsinki? The study is current, because of the continuing increase of students’ mobility and importance of students’ acculturation into a new culture and student community in order to feel comfortable in a new university. Earlier studies have proven that students’ sociocultural adjustment will foster psychological adjustment in a new environment. The research data was collected by interviewing international students from the University of Helsinki and Oklahoma State University. The interviewees were 13 students from Europe, Asia, Africa and South- America. The data has been analyzed by using qualitative content analysis. Based on the analysis, the results have been divided into nine categories: prior arrival, orientation, housing, social gatherings, behavior patterns, class, language, social support and failed tries to adapt. Students focused on using assimilation and integration as acculturation strategies, based on Berry’s four-fold model of acculturation. Students, who were planning to stay in the host country after graduation, tried to acculturate by learning for example Finnish language skills. They were also motivated to meet both international and local people. With time, students have started to create more friendships with local students alongside with other international students. Successful paths to acculturate had little different emphasis between these two universities. Biggest difference is on the path of social gatherings; students from Oklahoma State University met many new students through sports, and students from the University of Helsinki felt that parties were one of easiest places to meet new people.
  • Jääskelä, Nina (2014)
    The purpose of this research is to study and understand racism between ethnic minority group children as a phenomenon in schools. The goal is to study, through the speech of teachers, what kinds of cultural categories exist in schools and what factors, according to teachers, influence racist encounters between children from ethnic minority groups. This study is part of the research project Racism Between Ethnic Minority Groups, carried out by the youth education organization Non Fighting Generation. The intention of the project is to study racism between ethnic minority groups. The theoretical background of this study is in the theory of social identity, which focuses on group behaviour and out-group relations. It is based on the notion that people form evaluations about their own group by comparing it to other groups. The data of the research was collected from seven elementary school teachers in the Helsinki metropolitan area by using semi-structured interview method and the interviews were analyzed through discursive methods. The data show that there is hierarchy-based reasoning between ethnic minority groups. Considering one’s own ethnic group to be better than other minority groups seems to help the individual strengthen his/her social identity. Based on cultural categorization children with Asian background were seen as calm survivors, more likely to stay in the background. Children with Russian roots were described to have a strong sense of cultural identity. Arrogant behaviour was also seen as a cause for why Russian boys got into trouble. The Somali children were the ones who stood out the most and who also separated themselves the most from other ethnic minority groups. Physical appearance, style of clothing, cultural habits and religious way of life defined the Somali children as a cultural category. In this study four factors were shown to influence racist conflicts between ethnic minority groups in school; religion, lack of a majority language, cultural habits and behavioural patterns learned at home. The results of this study indicate that racism exists between ethnic minority group children and that teachers feel they lack the means to tackle the issue. This research shows the need for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon, so that it can be prevented in the future.