Faculty of Educational Sciences

 

Recent Submissions

  • Nuutinen, Anna Maaria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää, miten SCIS ohjelman mukaan opiskelleet viidesluokkalaiset osaavat opetussuunnitelman perusteiden mukaisia luokkatasonsa biologian peruskäsitteitä. Lisäksi selvitettiin sukupuolen ja luontoharrastuneisuuden sekä äidinkielen ja biologian todistusarvosanojen yhteyttä osaamiseen. Tutkimusaineisto koottiin keväällä 2005 espoolaisessa peruskoulussa. Tutkimukseen osallistui koulun yhden viidennen luokan kaikki 21 oppilasta, joista tyttöjä oli yhdeksän ja poikia 12. Oppilaiden osaamista arvioitiin kolmeosaisella testillä. Ensimmäinen tehtävä mittasi eliö- käsitteen hallintaa: luokittelua ja perustelua, toinen tehtävä ravintoketju- käsitteen hallintaa ja kolmas tehtävä mittasi tuottaja-, kuluttaja- ja hajottaja- käsitteiden hallintaa. Tutkimusten aineistolle suoritettiin tilastollinen analyysi ja päättely. Tulosten mukaan oppilaiden käsitykset eliöiden luokittelusta osoittautuivat hallituksi. Vaikeuksia tuotti ainoastaan koivun luokitteleminen eliöksi. Tulosten perusteella viidesluokkalaiset oppilaat osasivat erottaa elolliseen ja elottomaan luontoon liittyvät asiat ja luokitella ne. Oppilaat perustelivat eliöiden kuulumisen eliöihin joko eliöalan tai eliön ominaisuuksien mukaan, mutta eivät molempien mukaan. Oppilaat osasivat täydentää yksinkertaisen ravintoketjun. Valtaosa oppilaista osasi luokitella elolliseen ja elottomaan luontoon kuuluvia tekijöitä tuottajiin, kuluttajiin ja hajottajiin. Auringon ja kärpässienen luokittelu ei onnistunut kolmasosalta oppijoista; lähes kaikki oppilaat luokittelivat kastemadon virheellisesti hajottajiin. Tytöt menestyivät vain hiukan paremmin testissä kuin pojat. Ero ei ollut tilastollisesti merkitsevä. Äidinkielen ja biologian arvosanoilla ei ollut yhteyttä testissä menestymiseen eikä myöskään luontoharrastuneisuudella. Tämän tutkimuksen tulosten mukaan SCIS ohjelma soveltuu hyvin yhdeksi vaihtoehdoksi luonnontieteiden peruskäsitteiden opettamiseen peruskoulun alakoulun oppilaille.
  • Salo, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Communication between airline pilots and cabin crew plays an important role in aviation safety. However, little research has been conducted in the area of pilot-cabin crew communication and relationship. The aim of this study was to identify and name competing discourses in pilot-cabin crew relationship and to describe how these discourses compete with one another. Theory of relational dialectics (Baxter JA Montgomery 1996; Baxter 2011) was used as the theoretical framework. Eight members of cabin crew and six pilots were intervieved. Members of cabin crew were interviewed in pairs. Two of the pilots were interviewed individually and four in pairs. The interviews were analyzed using contrapuntal analysis. Contrapuntal analysis aims to identify competing discourses and their interplay. Six competing discourses were identified in pilot-cabin crew communication and relationship. They were predictability-novelty, one crew-two crews and ideal-real. The predictability-novelty struggle became apparent in the discursive struggle of different work positions being occupied with different crew memebers and in the discursive struggle of official and unofficial communication during the flight. The discourses of one crew and two separate crews were played against one another in the discursive struggles of equality-hierarcy and efficiency-politeness. The discursive struggle of ideal-real constitutes a scene on which the other discourses compete. One coherent and egalitarian crew, where each crew member communicates openly and predictably according to the rules and regulations attached to his/her position was presented as ideal. This ideal is often, but not always, accomplished.
  • Hannula, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Parents are to an increasing extent guiding their children to take part in organized leisure time activities. The volunteers who usually steer the activity groups are the parents of the children involved. The parents generally finish their work as volunteers at the same time with their children. However, few of them continue working as volunteers in the same organization. In this thesis I examine this kind of parents by interpreting their talk around the topic. The main concepts of this study are Commitment and the Forms of capital. The commitment is essential for the continuity of the volunteer work. The reason to use the forms of capital concept is that it is a crucial prerequisite for a person to possess in order to be able to work as a volunteer. The aim of this study is to find the reasons behind the commitment of long term duration. It is important for voluntary organizations to identify the reasons since they lose valuable knowledge and experience with the individuals leaving the organization. The target group of the study consisted of 11 parents. All of them had started as volunteers at the same time with their children and continued even after their own children gave up the leisure activity. The data consisted of interviews and it was analyzed using a qualitative content analysis method. Two main categories were formed on the grounds of an analysis: the first one consisting of individual based and the other collective based reasons to work as a volunteer. Commitment was defined as a uniting high level category. The most significant factor to explain the commitment was the relationships among adults and children in the organization. The social capital of volunteers increased because of these relationships. Out of the individual based reasons the most significant one was considering the volunteer work as a way of life. Volunteers were able to find time and prioritize the work because they found it meaningful for themselves and were committed to it. The challenge to find the time for the work was significant and the lack of it limited the participation. This was defined as a category of its own. The other challenge was a tension between the different roles of a volunteer. The need to balance between the roles of a parent and a volunteer was decreased after the children of their own had given up the leisure time activity. The other reasons to continue as a volunteer, according to the data, were competence development, emotional reasons, social and community based reasons and willingness to contribute to the development of the organization they worked for.
  • Lehtonen, Sofia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Aim. The aim of this Thesis was to find out what kind of needs for well-being the working-age Finns have and how they experience work-engagement. The Research problem was that even though the well-being need have been proved to be universal it is motivated to study the connection between well-being and work-engagement out of a subjective perspective on needs. The Classical Well-being model the Subjective Well-being Theory, SWB and Self-Determination Theory, SDT were used as the Theoretical Reference frame of this Thesis. Methods. The study was conducted in a qualitative manner. Eight people took part in this study and were interviewed. The respondents were interviewed and filled in a questionnaire regarding their background information. The interviews were conducted using a half-structured theme interview. The data was coded with the Atlas.ti programme and analyzed with the theory bound content analysis method. Results. The results confirmed that the pursuit of well-being is a value of great meaning to the respondents in this study. The results showed that well-being according to the respondents consists mainly of the satisfaction of basic needs like nurture and rest - but also of satisfying the higher level needs like self-fulfillment. Part of the basic needs were seen even as important as the higher-level needs hence, diet and working out were given a lot of attention. Work engagement was mostly affected by how one sees oneself or how other people see oneself. The results even showed that most of the working-aged people have experienced exhaustion or burnout at some point of their lives.
  • Juhantila, Sirkku (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This research was based on a need to repair a national costume and willingness to document the repair process. The product repaired was an old national costume from Kemiö district. The main research question was: how to repair an old national costume. The sub-questions of the research were: how to define the version of the dress, what are the limitations which the dress itself is causing to the repair options and how the traditional sewing methods of a national dress could be utilized in the repair process. Several factors were impacting the repair process, such as: traditions, the features of the dress and the target identified by the researcher. Kemiö is located in the Swedish speaking area of Finland, and therefore the aim was also to find out whether there was any special guidance related to the traditions of Swedish speaking area's national costumes. There were several problems in the costume, such as the incorrectness of some parts compared to the model costume, incorrect sewing methods used, poor shape of some items and the wrong size of some items. The research strategy used was a case study research and the research method was autoethnography. Some features of the practice-led research were utilized as well. The data consists of narratives and notes written by the researcher during the research process as well as photographs of phases before and after repair. The data was analyzed by reflecting the narratives and the analysis is merged with the data. The best suitable practices regarding the repair of this specific national costume taking into consideration the targets defined by the researcher were identified as a result of this research. Some of the research results can benefit other repair processes as well, even though the target was not to create generalizable guidance.
  • Kostet, Tea (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Recent international comparative studies have shown that the participation of the Finnish school children is weak. At the same time young citizens' social passivity has been an issue in the public debate. Research findings indicate that methods of civic education has been mainly adult organized. That is why the new National Core Curriculum (2014) highlights strongly student's agency and participation. Uutisluokka Project was started to promote children's social participation in media. This research studied children's agency and participation in that project. Children have chosen topics based on their personal interest and produced news shared in the social media and YLE websites. Children rarely get an opportunity to shape images of childhood produced by public media. However in the Uutisluokka project children themselves were shaping the discourse of childhood and constructed their own version of it. The audiovisual research data consisted of news reports and texts created by children, published in the Internet. Six media texts were taken in to a closer analysis. Content analysis was used as a research method and as a starting point which opened up possibilities thinking data with theory. The research question was how resistance was constructed in children's media texts. This study was based on sociologically oriented childhood studies where the participation was approached from the child's perspective. In children's texts multidimensional image of a child citizen was produced. Critical citizenship manifested as a resistance towards adult control as well as a need for protection. Resistance was manifested both implicitly and explicitly. As news reporters children commented critically on several school practises and the way school was run. Personality came out in these texts more than in every day school life. Responsibility, that The New National Core Curriculum highlights, was performed well. However, the role of autonomous self-guided student was also questioned. The ability of schools to apply current data on social issues was criticized. News reports functioned as a starting point of dialogue between children and adults. Power positions at school did not always allow equal discussion but the reporter role gave the children new subject positions. Finally, this study summarizes the practises that support or hinder children's agency at school. It's important that children may define their own citizenship. In public discussion there has not been room for that even though children's participation has more and more become a responsibility instead of a right.
  • Pietarinen, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Education is one of the newer export items in Finland. Since 2010 the Ministry of Education and Culture has published a policy document on education export every third year, providing direction for the Finnish education exporters. The policies play a part in commodifying education and increasing academic capitalism, where higher education institutions become more business-like. The aim of this study was to describe how these education export policies have evolved over time, and to find out what elements of support the policies offered to education exporters to carry out their work in practice. The research questions were: 1) How have the Finnish education export policies evolved from 2010 to 2016 concerning motives, aims and the export product?, and 2) What kind of support for conducting education export in practice do the Finnish education export policies contain? The three education export policies, 87 pages in total, were analyzed using Mayring's qualitative content analysis and the QCAmap software. The analysis showed that the education export policies have become more detailed and concrete over time. During the researched period the motives in the policies for engaging in education export were to capitalize on the existing demand for Finnish education and the good reputation of Finnish education. The aims for education export in all three policies were financial, focusing on increasing turnover from education export, and related to branding, focusing on portraying Finland and Finnish education to the rest of the world. Over time the policies have become more specific and comprehensive in depicting the education export product. In the latest policy, degree programs, various types of education, technology, and a multitude of consultancy services were depicted as export products. The three policies were found to contain 207 elements of support for exporters to carry out education export. The majority of these related to productization (64), providing advice for education exporters (47), and encouraging networking and cooperation among exporters (42). The policies reflect the political ideology of the parties ruling at the time they were written. A new trend in the latest policy is to pay attention to the individuals carrying out education export activities. For the first time rewarding and motivating these individuals is mentioned in a policy. Paying attention to the actual exporters in large organizations like higher education institutions can be expected to improve future education export performance. A concern is whether there is enough resources to implement all the support.
  • Ikäläinen-Nyman, Soile (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    To advance children's participation is actively pursued and it is seen as a leading concept in documents guiding the work of early childhood education. However, supporting children's participation requires a common understanding of what the concept means. This study examines the views of kindergarten teachers in Vantaa about the participation of children. The study identifies factors affecting participation, and examines in particular how kindergarten teachers feel that the need for special education influences the child's participation in early childhood education. The characteristics and skills associated with adult activities that contribute to the realization of each child's participation and the sense of belonging are analyzed as part of the study. The theoretical framework of the study is based on the view of participation as one of the principle of inclusion. The theory of participation has been dealt with according to the multidimensional model of Leena Turja. The material of the study was collected at half structured interviews witch were taken part in seven teachers from city of Vantaa on February 2017. The interviews were recorded and transcribed for analysis. The analysis was done with the methods of content analysis. Sosiograms of the groups have been utilized as a supplementary research material. The results of the study show that interviewed teachers describe participation as a multi-dimensional phenomenon that can be viewed from different perspectives. Determining participation was considered challenging and there was a clear need for a common discussion both in the team and in the work community. In general, participation was seen as an important topic that could also have a wider impact on children's well-being. According to the interviewed kindergarten teachers, the special educational needs of the child contributed significantly to their participation in the group. However, the factors contributing to participation are strongly linked to an inclusive culture and supported the participation of every child in the group. Kindergarten teachers felt that the same factors could support and, on the other, block children's participation. Play was felt as an activity to support participation and children's peer interaction. The most important factor for participation was adult activity and interaction that takes into account the individual needs of children.
  • Vaarnavuo, Viivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives. The media has the power to define and modify our thoughts and speeches. One of the bases of this study was a theory which states that media acts as an intermediary, for example between decision-makers, teachers and parents. Mass communication has the power to create an arena of social interaction in which we all communicate, create values and form social groups. Thanks to our media culture, our curriculum has also become mediated into our society. The research objective was to find out what kind of information Helsingin Sanomat newspaper tells about the National core curriculum for basic education 2014. The author searched for things that were highlighted in the media coverage of the reform and the perspective that the reforms were presented. Methods. The research materials were 120 newspaper articles. The articles were published in Helsingin Sanomat between 3.11.2011 and 30.5.2017. Those were mainly news and opinion articles. Articles were found in Helsingin Sanomat online archive with researchers own account. The material was categorized for analysis based on themes and critical media literacy. It was divided into to four themes: process, economic, change and learning speech. Process speech focused on the administrative and political aspects of curriculum work, economic speech on economic aspects related on the curriculum, change speech to the social changes underlying the curriculum and the learning speech in everything from learning to school. The usage and the language of the themes were analyzed with discourse. Results and conclusions. The curriculum discourse in Helsingin Sanomat focused on the change and learning speech. Newspapers curriculum was oriented towards the future. It was represented as very digital, communal and beneficial reform. As a conclusion can be said that the Helsingin Sanomat news defines the new curriculum changes as innovated, digital and challenging. It has high expectations. Changes in the curriculum plan are expected to have an impact particularly on the coordination of theory and practice and on the way that members of the school community will be able to work in the future.
  • Lehmonen, Sonja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The purpose of this study is to point out ways of talking about immigrants in the Opettaja magazine. The point-of-view is educational. The theoretical framework is based on theories of power relationships, otherness and critical pedagogy. The research questions are: What kind of immigrant related discourses can be found in the articles of the Opettaja magazine? How is the immigrants' own voice heard in the material? The material of this study consists of writings of immigrants in the Opettaja magazine during the years 2015 and 2016. These articles helped get an understanding of immigrants as persons. 25 articles were chosen into the final analysis. Discourse analysis was used as the research method. The method enabled getting reach of ways of talking and what speech actually produces. As a result of the study and as an answer to the first research question five different discourses were found from the material: 1) Discourse that produces otherness 2) Benefit discourse 3) Challenge discourse 4) Inequality discourse 5) Humanity discourse. One discourse was found as an answer to the second research question. I named it A successful immigrant discourse. As a conclusion of the study I argue that ways of talking create otherness but it also reveals elements of humanity and sympathy. Equal treatment is desired but at the same time it's shown that lots of work must be done to reach it. This was exposed in the inequality discourse. Immigrants were seen beneficial for Finland and as a challenge for teachers. The own voice of the immigrants was particularly present in descriptions of successful immigrants. The Successful immigrant discourse was e.g. built on speech that emphasizes resilience and happiness. Bringing ways of talking used in the media and what is produced through it into day light, enables influencing inequality and otherness that stems from structures and social practices.
  • Aarnihuhta, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives. The purpose of this thesis is to get a view on one teacher's pedagogical thinking in the stage of interaction and post-interaction (teaching and reflection) inside the cycle of the instructional process of a teacher. The goal is to find out on which pedagogical levels of thinking (action level, object theories, meta theory) does the thinking of the teacher in question set and what reasons does she state for her pedagogical decisions. Previous studies have shown that teacher's thinking is usually quite directed on the teaching action itself without many justifications, eg. distinct learning theories. This master's thesis is an extension to my bachelor's thesis on the same teacher's pedagogical thinking in lesson-planning. Methods. The subject of this thesis was one classroom teacher from Southern Finland. The research material composed of five lesson videos and the teacher's own thoughts on them. The material was collected by stimulated recall method: the videos were watched together with the teacher and discussed upon. The material was analysed by categorizing the teacher's thoughts under the different thinking levels of the Pedagogical Level Thinking Model (Kansanen et al., 2000). Results and conclusions. In accordance with previous studies it is possible to deduce from the results of this thesis that pedagogical thinking during the interactive and post-interactive stages of the instructional process of teaching is very oriented towards the teaching content and goal-setting and it can be categorized on the action level and level of object theories of the Pedagogical Level Thinking Model. While the thinking is very goal-directed it is strongly directed only on the action itself. It seems that some of the pedagogical thinking and knowledge of the teacher in question is tacit. The teacher taking part in this study justified her pedagogical decisions mostly with reasons relating to her own knowledge and her own practical theories in teaching. Not many differences can be found in the teacher's thinking between different school subjects.
  • Wennervirta, Tessa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The relationship of school planning and pedagogical visions together with the changing societal meanings of craft set new planning objectives for crafts' facilities and class rooms in schools. The research assignment of this case study is to describe the learning environment of crafts in basic education at present. Also, based on the collected data and the theoretical background, the aim is to help understand what influences positive experiences of learning environments for crafts from both the teacher and pupil point of view. This case study is founded on the theory of five dimensions of the learning environment; physical, technological, didactic, local and social. The data for this qualitative multi-method research was collected in several ways; by observation of the authentic learning environments, by the focused teacher interviews and by contextual interviews conducted on pupils, which all together form a profound picture of the phenomenon. The process of observation included videoing the sample groups, four school craft groups from the Metropolitan region. The research proceeded in stages from hypothetical pre-analysis to more detailed and systematic content analysis. The results revealed differences and great complexity in school craft learning environments, but proved that no specific type of environment is superior to the other. The physical facilities create a base for functional craft teaching, but the other three dimensions of the learning environment, social, didactic and technological, are the ones that support the learning of craft in more versatile levels. The new visions of the national core curriculum (POPS 2014) in craft education as a multi-material subject set challenges to class room planning – placing the two craft facilities in near proximity in school buildings create more possibilities for crucial teacher coalition in the future.
  • Nyfors, Ulrika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Previous studies have not focused on milk's meaning and role in study books. The aim of this research is to find out in which ways study milk is presented in environmental studies' study books and what kinds of meanings are related to milk and dairy products. The research also aims to find out how these milk-related meanings have changed between years 1969–2016 and how they are being weighted. It is also studied if Finns are driven to consume milk and dairy products and why milk is so meaningful for most of the Finns. This research aims as well to find out what kind of potential consequences textbooks have on child's ideas and attitudes towards milk and dairy products. The research was carried out by studying environmental studies' textbooks made by publishing house Otava published between years 1969–2016. Milk-related entities were collected from textbooks. By using the collected material different milk-related categories were formed. The data was analyzed by using content analysis. This research showed that milk was presented in four different categories in textbooks. These categories were Milk as nutrition for young, Milk as means of earning one's living, Milk as health's contributor and Miscellaneous. The bias and the presence of these categories varies between and through the years and classes. The present critical view on milk could not been seen in textbooks.
  • Sinervo, Stiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The aim of this thesis was to study how pupils experienced a design process, part of the Design challenge for Everyday activities. In the project, small groups of pupils brainstormed, planned and built prototypes to solve everyday challenges. The project was based on collaborative knowledge creation and learning through design. The process followed the learning by collaborative design model, in which sharing knowledge and collaboration are key. The interaction between the pupils, as well as the internal co-operation in the groups, was studied in detail. Analysis was also made of the way in which the pupils made design decisions and described their inventions. The study is part of the Co4Lab – research project on phenomenon learning in primary schools. The data for the study was collected from the first design trials at Espoo Koulumestari school during the autumn of 2016. The data comprised the written responses of 42 pupils. The pupils took part in the invention design project during the spring of their fifth school year, and wrote their text responses the next autumn. In the written responses, the pupils were asked to describe their design process and inventions from different aspects. The project continued through the next spring, and diary texts written by the pupils in the spring of 2017 were added to the material. The material was analysed using theory-directed content analysis. The pupils described the learning by collaborative design phases in varied ways. Sharing knowledge and collaboration were especially mentioned as reciprocative taking part, division of tasks, communication and taking others into account. Expert advise and collecting information were not mentioned, even though the visit of a design expert, as well as a museum trip were part of the project. The pupils described their inventions from the versatile perspectives of needs, usage, technology, looks, structure and marketing. They were able to divide their projects into distinct phases, even though they were not taught the learning by collaborative design model. They also were able to describe many aspects of their inventions, as well as give reasoned arguments for their specific design decisions.
  • Raivonen, Petra (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives. The aim of the present study is to identify factors influencing primary school teachers' perceptions of their own competence in teaching programming. Programming was included in the Finnish curriculum in 2016 and has consequently not yet been studied in depth. Thus, the factors influencing teachers' competence in this study were initially selected through discourse with teachers and from studies examining the problems in teaching ICT. In this study emotions affecting teaching (enthusiasm, fear/anxiety), previous experiences, other teachers and school administration are treated as factors potentially influencing teachers' competence. Methods. Teachers' evaluations of their attitudes and emotions towards teaching programming as well as background information were obtained using a web-based questionnaire with 7-point Likert and open-ended complementary items. A total of 253 participants completed the questionnaire. The data was analyzed using a mixed methods design which comprised i) conducting a multiple linear regression analysis and ii) qualitative examination of common themes found in open-ended questions. Conclusions. Seven significant predictors to teaching competence were found in multiple regression modelling. Regression analysis determined that the most influential variables to competence were enthusiasm, teacher's awareness of what teaching programming requires of her/him and previous experiences as trainings or trying programming with students. The open-ended questions revealed that teachers emphasized the importance of being able to try new teaching subjects and the need to be explained what is expected of them regarding new procedures as including programming in the curriculum. Importantly, teachers were largely unaware of what teaching programming required of them. Finally, the results indicate that offering possibilities to try programming at school and explaining teachers what it means to teach programming in practice increases teachers' competence.
  • Hietanen, Lea (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Aims. The main objective of this research was to find out what kind of factors are related to agency of young people in parental home context. This research explored assets from householdings perspective in everyday living. Continuous changes in the internal everyday householding and external operational environments challenges agency of young people. Young people also facing the chancing and growing expectations and demands. The research motive from the household teacher's perspective was to find out what kind of viewpoints can be found from everyday householding that can be use for recognizing and strengthening the relationship between the agency of young people and householding. Theoretical viewpoints for this research were attaches to dynamics of family members home been and work, the modalities of agency and positive psychology research. Research questions were: 1. Which agency building factors are resulting from home constructing activity? 2. What kind of tensions and conclusions can be found from householding activities? 3. What the young person has learned in householding classes and how this is present in householding activities? Methods. The research was carried out as a qualitative research. Research material was gathered from stories received by email. The material consisted of written stories about young people's participation in everyday living. These stories were written by parents who have or have had upper comprehensive school aged children living in their home. Ten stories were received. Results and conclusions. Relationship between object and subject of home constructing activity were seen as building factors for agency. Tensions and strenghts between young and parent were seen to be resolution from young peoples participation in home. Tensions and conclusions were themed by (1) changes in home operation model, (2) parents attitude and role, (3) youngs attitude and role and (4) things guiding individuality and object. External communities, specially youngs relationships with peers and household teaching were seen to support young agency in home. Teaching the meanings to every day living aroust from the research material. Parents described this as discussion and interaction with the young and it was seen as important factor for building agency.
  • Kontinen, Emmi (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The everyday life of families with children is seen as a fertile micro community from emotions point of view. Many emotions are being experienced and transferred there. The everyday life is being described as cyclic and multilevel unity, which consists of routines, that are repeated daily and weekly. The food choice is part of everyday life activity and the emotions that impact on food choice in everyday life are previously been researched rather slightly. The research shows, that in addition to positive emotions lots of negative and contradictory emotions are being related to everyday life of families with children. The purpose of this research is to find out, what kind of emotions parents experience in family's food choice situations and into what kind of situations are the positive and negative emotions being attached to. Furthermore, the purpose of this research is to find out, how mother's and father's emotions about food choice differ and what kind of contradictions mother's and father's emotions cause in family's everyday life. The research was executed as a qualitative research and research data was collected by diary approach. Four families with toddler-aged children took part in research and both mothers and fathers completed the diary (n=8). The data was organized by content analysis and analyzed by theme analysis and typology. The results showed that various emotions are being connected with every day life's food choice. Mother's and father's emotions differed clearly. Fathers felt positive emotions when dinner was ready after work and guilt from not making it home early enough or from not being there to impact on food choice. Mothers felt emotions of success inter alia when they became aware that their food choice promoted health or when the child agreed to eat what was offered. Negative emotions were experienced when weekdays were busy and there wasn't enough time to impact on food choice. This research gave a different point of view to observe the everyday life of families with children and an opportunity to understand reasons behind parents emotions better. On the other hand, this research gave a new, emotions acknowledging angle also on nutrition promotion.
  • Kortman, Andrea (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Differences in the nature of education may result in challenges for students when they transit from upper secondary school to university. University studies require students to develop university skills. These essential university skills are in this study divided into two categories, study skills and scientific tools. Study skills refer to general skills that students can develop in order to succeed in their studies, such as self-regulated learning, motivation, and deep and surface approach to learning. Scientific tools refer to skills that characterize university studies. These skills are defined as epistemology and scientific writing. The aim of this study is to examine upper secondary school students' reflections of their university skills and the transition from upper secondary school to university: What do they think about their study skills, the scientific tools and the preparatory efforts offered by their school? What is their understanding of universities? The data for the study was collected with qualitative group interviews with focus on studying and learning in upper secondary school and universities. 23 upper secondary school students were interviewed in eight groups. The transcribed interview data has been analysed with content analysis. The students expressed difficulties in managing their time. Comparing to previous studies, difficulties in time management can relate to poor learning. Moreover, the study shows that students express varying challenges in terms of university skills. Several students expressed dualistic views of knowledge which can cause problems in the transition from upper secondary school to university. The students also expressed unrealistic expectations about university studies. The study shows that students may need support in developing university skills, and suggests that upper secondary schools take this into consideration. Upper secondary school education should aim at raising the level of consciousness of learning in order for students to become self-regulated learners. Consequently, should upper secondary school education actively aim at both developing students' university skills, and contributing with an insight into what studying at a university involves. Universities' research-based approach to teaching should be emphasized in upper secondary school education.
  • Mehtälä, Karri (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The aim of this Master's thesis is to study the use of videos in education. The main focus is on teachers who produce their own videos. Due to the exponential growth of audio-visual communication in social media and the internet, today's youth consume videos more than ever. In many ways schools continue to operate in the same way they have in previous decades and fail to utilize the full potential of the new medium. The theory section of this thesis consists of two chapters, which examine the use of videos in schools and the Flipped Classroom method, which is based on the idea of student-centred learning. Previous studies have shown, that the Flipped Learning method can improve student satisfaction and in some cases test results. Research findings on the qualities of a good instructional video are available. The research method chosen for this paper is one of theory-guided, qualitative content analysis. The theme-centred interview consists of three Finnish upper secondary school teachers, who had several years of experience in the making of instructional videos. Based on analysis of the semi-structured interview, three main categories were formed: videos in education, making of videos and teaching with videos. Case study as a research strategy helped to answer the main questions of why and how videos are used in schools. The study reveals, that teachers produce videos, because they want to teach in their own specific way. The teachers used other online videos only as additional material and they did not receive much collegial support. According to teachers, the Flipped Classroom method, which relies on videos as learning material, improved student and teacher satisfaction at school. It shifted the work from teaching towards guiding. The production of the videos was considered time consuming, but the student feedback was positive. Often students did not watch the videos at home, which was a problem for the teachers. In the future, the teachers want to develop and support students to produce their own videos. This could help them to understand the students' thinking processes and replace some of the written exams. Increasing the use of video at school could help develop students' media literacy, support different learning styles, encourage creativity, improve school satisfaction and narrow the communication gap between students and teachers. The findings can be applied by those who wish to produce their own instructional videos or try the Flipped Classroom method.
  • Vauhkonen, Eveliina (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Work has become more and more expertised and complex, leading to a situation where best knowledge of the issues is dispersed wider in the organization. Implementation of work has changed towards more versatile, emphasazing individual's agency at work and learning. Thereby, the transition of power and responsibility for each employee is seen as important. These changes at work requires examining work-based learning in a new light. Need for this research arose from organizational change towards self-directing operating model. This demands to think individual's role and responsibility about their own learning and development. Research problem consisted of how experts learn in their work and what is the role of agency in learning. Results will help to better understand the development of organizational knowledge processes and expert work. Theoretical framework examines key theoretical concepts of learning, understanding impact of changes in the work and agency's role for learning. The study was conducted using a theme interview for ten employees, who operate in hybrid expertise roles in the organization. The data was collected at the turn of the year 2015-2016 and analyzed with content analysis. The units of analysis consisted from the nature of the job, learning practices and agency in professional development. The results showed that the working environment has a strong orientation to learning and informal learning played an important role. In addition, the results showed a different agency in relation to professional development. Others defined their learning objectives very actively and others were more adjusted to the possibilities offered by the organisation. Learning, however, was more individual than shared. The results demonstrate the need to modify the learning environment in the way it takes into account the different individuals from the perspective of learning. In practice, change to self-directing model requires that everyone takes responsibility to de-fine the shared and individual learning needs. As a conclusion the organization should provide a wide range of learning and influence channels, to support both individual and shared agency in learning and professional development.

View more