Kasvatustieteellinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Virta, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This study examines future scenarios of textile consumption and production portrayed in Finnish news media and extending to year 2050. Emphasis of the study is on the policy instruments that can potentially support sustainable textile consumption and production. 214 news articles from year 2019 formed the study data. The data was analyzed using theory-guided qualitative content analysis. The analysis was guided by three policy instrument groups: regulation, financial and information instruments. Other references regarding future scenarios of textile consumption and production in general were also collected under the frame of sustainable consumption and production (SCP). A futures table was formed, including descriptions of current state, desirable, threatening and probable textile futures, focusing on the different policy instruments in effect in these scenarios. Five specialists also participated in forming these future scenarios by evaluating the probability and desirability of claims formed from the news data. The data shows that textile and fashion sustainability issues are highly current and form a part of a larger climate change driven criticism on consumerism. If the discussions and plans on the verge of 2020 turn into actions, the most positive scenario suggests that the textile industry is carbon neutral and functions as a circular economy in 2050. For example ecological tax reform, legislation requiring stronger corporate responsibility and new and sustainable textile materials may play a big role in the change. The more unsustainable scenarios might unfold if political regulation lacks ambition, and the values and behavior of consumer masses don’t change fast enough or in a big enough scale to favor sustainable choices. In the specialists’ evaluation most defining phenomenon expected to guide the development of the textile sector in the coming decades were stronger political directing methods, environmental taxation of goods and services and a change towards circular economy. The news data emphasized a need for a highly holistic change in the means of consumption and production, where sustainability is achieved through changes in technology, values and attitudes as well as political and financial structures that drive and support sustainable choices.
  • Pousi, Niina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives. In recent years, the legislation and guidance documents on early childhood education (ECE) have undergone substantive changes, which, for the first time in their history, have highlighted the importance of leadership while also imposing new obligations on leadership in ECE. The study examines how leadership in ECE is defined in the speech of ECE centre directors and how pedagogical leadership in ECE is manifested in the speech of the ECE centre directors in the context of focus group discussions. Methods. Part of the material used in the study was from the Discourse of leadership in the diverse field of early childhood education project, an international research project on leadership in ECE led by Elina Fonsén. The qualitative research material consisted of three focus group discussions with ECE centre directors conducted in three Finnish municipalities in winter 2018. A total of 13 ECE centre directors participated in these three focus group discussions. The method used to analyse the material was the phenomenological method, which was also subject to theory-driven content analysis. Results and conclusions. In the study, leadership in ECE was manifested as a kind of distributed leadership, which was expressed through responsibilities linked to the job descriptions of different actors and at different levels, but also by referring to responsibilities independent of job descriptions. Leadership in ECE was described as being in a state of flux due to the reform of guidance documents, legislation and extended supervisory work. In the study, pedagogical leadership in ECE was expressed through five different clusters of meaning: the importance of discussion and interaction, the wellbeing of employees, pedagogical leadership linked to job descriptions, pedagogical development work and recognition of the value of pedagogical leadership through resources. The results show that the municipal context affects both leadership in ECE and pedagogical leadership, as well as their implementation. Leadership in ECE and, in particular, pedagogical leadership, require well-functioning structures and sufficient time for discussion and cooperation between different actors. In addition, various actors are expected to be aware of the objectives of ECE activities and to be willing to work on developing ECE. According to the research findings, however, fulfilling these conditions requires financial and human resources, which were felt to be insufficient.
  • Heikkinen, Oona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of this study is to identify the thoughts of upper comprehensive school students on home economics education with a plant-based emphasis and how the environmental and health perspectives structure in their perceptions when talking of plant-based food. In addition, other related factors on vegetables and plant-based food are studied, which can influence the perceptions of the youth. In this study, plant-based diet is examined in a broader perspective than nutrition and environment only. Therefore this study can increase understanding and offer teachers better pedagogical methods in implementing home economics education with more plant-based emphasis. This is a qualitative research, and the data collection was executed in upper comprehensive school in the metropolitan area in the end of autumn 2019. A total of 39 youngsters participated the study, of which 17 were 7th graders and 22 8th graders. The data consisted of short narratives, written by the youngsters, using the method of empathy-based stories. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Three repeating themes were observed in the narratives as influences on the thoughts on home economics education with a plant-based emphasis; factors generally relating to vegetables and plant-based food, factors relating to change and factors relating to wellness. Health and environmental perspectives were visible in the narratives, while considering good and bad sides of home economics education with a plant-based emphasis. In the narratives, social relations and their significance were mostly seen in the description of interactions and atmosphere of the class, as well as the need to be heard. In the narratives of the youngsters, most of the negative reactions towards home economics education with a plant-based emphasis, were taste, habits and different nutrition claims. The factors behind the positive reactions were environmental benefits, health improving influences, and the opportunity to learn to prepare tasty plant-based food. The results of this research imply that home economics education has possibilities in creating positive plant-based food experiences and thus, changing the negative perceptions regarding plant-based emphasis during the home econmics lessons.
  • Kuusi-Naumanen, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Multidimensional perfectionism is characterised by a combination of two individual tendencies: perfectionistic strivings, which refer to striving for excessively high personal standards, and perfectionistic concerns, which refer to evaluating overly critically one’s own accomplishments. Achievement goal orientations refer to individuals generalized tendencies to favour certain types of goals in achievement settings. Together these frameworks address both the level and the quality of goals students set for themselves. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between perfectionism and achievement goal orientations among upper secondary school students. This study ultilized a group-based approach and classified students based on their patterns of perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns. In previous studies, subgroups of perfectionists have differed in their achievement goal orientations. Here, it was further investigated whether these subgroups show meaningful differences also in their subject-specific (i.e., mathematics and English) achievement goal orien-tations. The participants in the present study were 434 general upper secondary school students from Southern Finland, who completed online questionnaires. Students were classified by using TwoStep cluster analysis, and group differences in achievement goal orientations in two different school subjects were examined through analyses of variance. Four distinct perfectionism profiles (perfectionists 21,3%, ambitious 23,8%, concerned 35,6% and non-perfectionists 19,2%) were identified. The ambitious students highlighted mastery-intrinsic, mastery-extrinsic, and performance-approach orientations, while the concerned highlighted relatively more performance-avoidance and avoidance orientations. The perfectionists displayed high values in all orientations, while the non-perfectionists had relatively low value in all orientations, except for the avoidance orientation. Differences in subject-specific orientations were rather similar in both subjects, yet small differences were found. High concerns seemed to be linked with performance- and avoidance orientations. Especially the perfectionists, but also the concerned, are at the risk of adopting maladaptive goals and it might be useful to consider this in teaching and student counselling.
  • Ahola, Juuso (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of this thesis is to describe, analyze and interpret the meanings that the administrative representatives of the City of Jämsä Education and Culture Department give to the Music Institute as part of the Education and Cultural Services. The study is a qualitative case study and the data is analyzed according to phenomenographic analysis. The research is motivated not only by the researcher's personal interests in music and musical hobbies, but also by the interest in decision-making and its preparation. The research questions are based on the history of the national music school system and the local music institute, research on folk and music school and their social significance, research on Finnish leisure music hobbies, documents and regulations governing the activities of the city and the Music School, their organization and strategy. Three administrative representatives of the Education and Cultural Services in the City of Jämsä were interviewed for the study. The theme interviews were recorded and transcribed. The analysis of the material proceeded according to the phenomenographic analysis. The results of the study show that the Music School has also cultural, service and collaborative responsibilities in addition to its educational duties. The music school’s strengths include competent, long-term and motivated staff, content and collaboration. Weaknesses are related to financial aspects. The life-cycle perspective of the Quality-of-life Services is comprehensively realized in the Music School. According to representatives of the educational administration, the Music School is an actor to prevent inequality and exclusion, although fees and entrance examinations limit the opportunities for participation. From a communal point of view, the Music School creates a community in itself and it has many successful partners. Related to health improving aspect, the Music School first and foremost improves mental health. According to the interviewees, the Music School strengthens both local music culture and cultural activities. Through its activities, the Music School has been a part of the nationwide history of music schools, for example, by training experts in important musical positions. There have been structural, operational, economic, political and cultural changes in the administration and services of the City of Jämsä. In particular, the Music School supports the fields of well-being and vitality of the “Jämsä 2025” strategy. Economic, cultural and operational challenges are mentioned for the future.
  • Hietala, Iida (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Social withdrawal behavior in a childhood has been studied as one of the risk factors for social exclusion. Withdrawal behavior has been found to cause a lack of social and emotional skills. The aim of this study was to find out the relationship between withdrawal behavior and child development. The study looks at the relationship between withdrawal behavior and engagement and socioemotional behavior. Withdrawal behavior was based on early temperament. Temperament has been found to be relatively permanent and withdrawal behavior one of the most persistent temperament traits of behavior. This study included 196 children. The research material consist of a questionnaire about children temperament (ECBQ) and socioemotional behavior assessments (BITSEA) and extensive video material from years 2012-2016. The level of children engagement ratings were analyzed using LIS-YC –scales. The research material has been collected as part of LASSO research project at the University of Helsinki. IBM SPSS 24 statistical program was used for quantitative analysis. The study found that child who withdrawal was both shy and fearful. Averages for children engagement were found to be relatively low. Link between engagement and withdrawal behavior increased as the study progressed. When a child grew older there was found more withdrawal behavior and lower engagement. It was found that if a child withdraws he/she will not work at all and thus will not be able to engage. From the results found out that the temperament is quite permanent. The study did not provide direct link between withdrawal behavior and socioemotional problems. However, there are indications of the risk factors as withdrawal behavior was found to be strongly associated with shyness and fearfulness. Shyness and fearfulness were found to have a strong association with socioemotional problems. Looking at the gender differences girls were found to be more withdrawal than boys. Boys were found to be concerned with socioemotional behavior than girls. Temperament is recognizable at a very early age. Understanding the temperament and the link between temperament and environment are important. Especially it is important with a child who is temperamentally withdrawal.
  • Laine, Jenni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Purpose of the study. During the past few years, there has been quite little research on classroom management in Finland. Based on international research, it is known that preventive practices, such as positive teacher–student relationships and motivational teaching, are found important by students and teachers. However, some differences can be found in students' and teachers' views and in their ways of explaining the underlying factors of disruptive situations. This study is a phenomenographic type of study, the purpose of which is to study students' and teachers' views of factors that influence a peaceful and functional learning environment and successful classroom management in the Finnish school context. Methods. The interviews were conducted in Helsinki with three primary school teachers and one secondary school teacher who teach in different schools and five sixth-graders from one school and seven ninth-graders from the other school. The teachers were interviewed individually, the students in groups of 2–4 students. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews. The data was analyzed by searching for similar and frequent meanings and creating categories of descriptions. Findings and conclusions. According to both students and teachers, successful classroom management is enhanced by the teacher's skills to manage classroom activities democratically but assertively, the teacher's positive and appreciative attitude to students, good teaching and parents' support. In contrast to previous research, both students and teachers acknowledged their own responsibility in creating a peaceful and functional learning environment. However, the teacher's role is highlighted in students' and teachers' views. According to the results of this study, the educational partnership between the teacher and the parents, and the teacher's communication skills in classroom management should be promoted to enhance successful classroom management. The requirements to meet the needs of the students with special education needs should also be fulfilled.
  • Tuunainen, Outi-Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In 2011, Finnish comprehensive schools started using a three tiered support system. The aim of the new system was to answer students’ needs of support in a flexible way, as early as possible. For years the Finnish school system has attempted to move in more inclusive direction. Providing support is now the responsibility of all teachers. The research findings on the implementation of support are contradictory, and teachers, for example, have found resources and training inadequate to implement support. There is a need to further develop effective, inclusive education arrangements. The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers' conceptions of the implementation of three tiered support in their schools, and the factors contributing to and impairing the implementation. In addition, possible differences and similarities between different groups of teachers in the conception of support implementation were examined. The research material of this qualitative, phenomenographic study was part of secondary data collected by an electronic questionnaire from comprehensive school staff in a city. The answers of teachers in grades 1-9 (N = 847) to two open-ended questions was analyzed utilizing the phenomenographic method by categorizing the concepts first into meaning categories and later into higher categories. In addition, the data was quantified by examining the prevalence of conceptions across the answers and by teacher group. As a result of the conceptions of the factors contributing to and impairing the implementation of the support, vertical systems of categories of description were created. Factors contributing to the implementation of the three-tiered support consisted of four categories of descriptions: Collaboration, Teachers’ professional skills, Organization of school practices, and Resources. About one-third of teachers found that support had improved in their school during the last two years, while about one-third found it had weakened. Teachers’ conceptions of the reasons for the decline in support formed four descriptive categories: Lack of resources, Reasons related to students’ needs of support, Problems related to school structures and practices, and Reasons related to placement of students with special educational needs. The views of the teacher groups were mostly consistent, but there were small differences, especially related to importance of the teachers’ skills and school practices.
  • Sainomaa, Aapo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Informal learning is learning that takes place outside the school system. It happens in everyday situations that were not meant to be educational in the first place. Out-of-school environments are considered to produce positive effects on pupils’ interest, motivation and attitudes. The main aim of this study was to find out how math worth and interest in Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM) education differed among 12-year-old pupils before and after visiting an Informal Math and Art Exhibition. Additionally, the aim was to find out if it is possible to utilize an out-of-school environment to teach 21st century skills. Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, Mathematics (STEAM) pedagogy aims to improve pupils’ skills in innovation and creativity by combining elements from science and art. STEAM combines reality and education and aims to provide understanding of how things work while simultaneously guiding pupils’ technology skills. The learning context was a Math and Art Exhibition that was part of international CREATIONS-project. In this study, there were 256 12-year-old pupils from five different schools in Jyväskylä, Finland. The research material was gathered in 2 parts: pretests one week before the exhibition visit and posttests around a week after the visit. Nine out of ten students felt that the exhibition increased their interest in STEM. Boys who succeeded well in the Raven-test were the most interest in STEM. The increase in interest was, however, unrelated to gender or prior interest in STEM. Math worth was low among pupils who achieved low grades at school and scored low points on the Raven test. Math worth did not increase because of the exhibition visit, but differences in math worth were diminished. Pupils’ autonomous experience and situational interest were key factors regarding both math worth and interest. According to this study, even short-term out-of-school learning increases interest and evens out pupils’ math worth. In the light of this study the out-of-school learning environment can be seen as a fruitful and interesting way to learn that could also work as an excellent way to teach 21st century skills.
  • Stenvall, Kim (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of this study is to examine coaching from an adult learning perspective and to form an understanding what kind of adult learning processes are involved in coaching. In addition, the purpose is also to form an understanding of potential elements that contribute to learning and elements that can slow down, or even hinder learning. Related to this is the exploration of methods and tools used by coaches to facilitate the learning experience. The research data for this qualitative research was collected by interviewing seven ICF coach practitioners. Theory-guided content analysis was used to analyse the interview mate-rial. Andragogy, experiential learning and transformative learning were used as reference theories that could possible explain the findings from the research material. The findings show that the adult learning processes that are at play in coaching are related to reflective activity, which create awareness that then trigger action. An action with successful outcome, a tested hypothesis proves effective, creates a durable and concrete change, or transformation, in the way of thinking and or acting in the person. All three adult learning theories, that provided the framework for this study, were found to be relevant in one way or the other. None of the theories could alone explain the learning processes that happen in coaching. Andragogy provides a good framework for the overall practical process steps in coaching. Experiential learning provides a good framework in explaining the process of reflective thought, hypothesis testing and action. Transformative learning, on the other hand, provide an understanding of the processes that happen when the testing of hypothesis succeed and transformation occurs in the learner. The fundamentals elements contributing to a positive coaching experience were found to be several. Client’s aptitude for coaching, coach's professionality, a good dyadic relation based on trust and external support from manager and organization were among the important contributing factors.
  • Järvenpää, Sampsa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of this Master’s Thesis is to research teachers perceptions on the development of expertise and the role of collective-efficacy within those perceptions. The focus is on different teachers at different points of their careers and on how expertise development and collective-efficacy’s role within that are viewed by teachers themselves. The theoretical background of the research is largely based on prof. K.A. Ericsson’s expertise theory and prof. A. Bandura’s theory on self-efficacy and related collective-efficacy. Previous research has shown that collective-efficacy has a positive effect on, for example, teacher self-efficacy and student learning. The data of the research consists of two groups of three teachers. One group of teachers consisted of experienced special education teachers and one of classroom teachers at early points of their careers. The data was collected through semi-structured group interviews where Bandura’s theory on collective-efficacy was used largely as the basis of question setting. The research was conducted qualitatively, and the data was analysed using phenomenographical content analysis. The analysis is data-based, but theory guided the research due to its effect on the interview question setting. The results of the research indicated that expertise development and the role of collective-efficacy was viewed quite similarly by the two groups. The development of expertise could be divided into the following sub-groups: expertise as continuously shaping, areas of development and expertise, realisations, and student group. Collective-efficacy and its relationship with expertise could be divided into the following sub-groups: feedback and learning, discussion, exchange of teaching practices, leadership, sense of community and overall wellbeing. This suggests that there are similarities in the way the topic is viewed by different professionals within the teaching profession. The more experienced special education teachers’ descriptions can be characterised as specific in nature. The class education teachers described the topic in both general and specific ways. As a practical implication, more information from the topic could be added to teacher-education curriculum to increase student teachers’ knowledge regarding the subject.
  • Lahti, Tuuli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study researches the pedagogic methods used by visually impaired handicraft instructors. The aim of the study was to research what visually impaired handicraft instructors’ work is like when instructing adults, how their own visual impairment affects their work as a handicraft instructor and what is the role of the assistant in the work of the handicraft instructor. Even though there is a lot of research on the visually impaired and their handicrafts, the work of the visually impaired handicraft instructors hasn’t been researched that much. However, teaching of the visually impaired children has been studied quite a lot, so based on those researches, some examples of the pedagogic methods can be adapted to teach handicraft to adults, such as hand-on-hand guidance or drawing on one’s body. This study was a qualitative case study, and semi-structured theme interviews were used as the method of collecting data. The study had six informants that were invited to participate personally or via Näkövammaiset Käsityöntekijät ry (Finnish association of visually impaired craftsmen). The interviews were made as individual interviews in the Uusimaa region. The collected data was organized with qualitative content analysis, which helped forming different categories from topics arisen from the transcribed data. The most important result of this study was that the most important pedagogic areas of work of the visually impaired handicraft instructors were personal guidance and building one’s own personal identity as a handicraft instructor. Also assistance and assistive devices are an im-portant part of using pedagogic material and to help learning. In fact, assistive devices are being seen part of pedagogic methods, and trying to separate one from another would be ar-tificial. The most essential effect of visual impairment to one’s work as a handicraft instructor was the lack of visual information and the consequently need of help in certain areas of work. However, the informants do not see this as a big problem since they have a great amount of assistance around them. The assistants were considered as the most important assistance for the visually impaired handicraft instructors, since they help instructors to see by bringing them visual information they lack. The assistants act as the instructors’ eyes in a very tight collaboration.
  • Kaila, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    People with a refugee background are much less likely to participate in higher education than the general population. As Finland seeks international competence, equity in higher education opportunities and an increase in the number of university graduates, the academic potential of many refugees remains unrecognized in contradictory ways of speaking and practices. This Master's thesis examines speech on refugees’ higher education and accounts that attempt to make the question of refugee access to higher education understandable. Research focuses on the foundations of social constructionism and the discursive analytical research tradition, whereby reality is seen constructed and renewed in systems of meaning structured in speech. Meaning systems arise in the research material through the concept of interpretative repertoire. The research material consists of 13 theme interviews collected for the EUCRITE project. Interviewees are staff from Aalto University learning services and from SIMHE services of two other Finnish universities, as well as students with a refugee background from Aalto University. As a result of the analysis of the data, six different interpretative repertoires were identified: victim repertoire, threat repertoire, individualistic repertoire, equality repertoire, utility repertoire and humanistic repertoire. Through analyzing the interrelationships and power relations between the repertoires, one can conclude that the most prevalent repertoires were those that define refugees as passive victims (victim repertoire), explain access to higher education as dependent upon individuals’ own activity and self-direction (individualistic repertoire), and ignore refugees’ starting points vis-à-vis higher education (equality repertoire). On the basis of the research results, it is worth asking how international knowledge potential becomes recognized. In addition, this leads us to question how the starting points of applicants with a refugee background could be taken into account in higher education institutions, not as a threat to equality but rather as a means to achieve it.
  • Nuutinen, Anna Maaria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää, miten SCIS ohjelman mukaan opiskelleet viidesluokkalaiset osaavat opetussuunnitelman perusteiden mukaisia luokkatasonsa biologian peruskäsitteitä. Lisäksi selvitettiin sukupuolen ja luontoharrastuneisuuden sekä äidinkielen ja biologian todistusarvosanojen yhteyttä osaamiseen. Tutkimusaineisto koottiin keväällä 2005 espoolaisessa peruskoulussa. Tutkimukseen osallistui koulun yhden viidennen luokan kaikki 21 oppilasta, joista tyttöjä oli yhdeksän ja poikia 12. Oppilaiden osaamista arvioitiin kolmeosaisella testillä. Ensimmäinen tehtävä mittasi eliö- käsitteen hallintaa: luokittelua ja perustelua, toinen tehtävä ravintoketju- käsitteen hallintaa ja kolmas tehtävä mittasi tuottaja-, kuluttaja- ja hajottaja- käsitteiden hallintaa. Tutkimusten aineistolle suoritettiin tilastollinen analyysi ja päättely. Tulosten mukaan oppilaiden käsitykset eliöiden luokittelusta osoittautuivat hallituksi. Vaikeuksia tuotti ainoastaan koivun luokitteleminen eliöksi. Tulosten perusteella viidesluokkalaiset oppilaat osasivat erottaa elolliseen ja elottomaan luontoon liittyvät asiat ja luokitella ne. Oppilaat perustelivat eliöiden kuulumisen eliöihin joko eliöalan tai eliön ominaisuuksien mukaan, mutta eivät molempien mukaan. Oppilaat osasivat täydentää yksinkertaisen ravintoketjun. Valtaosa oppilaista osasi luokitella elolliseen ja elottomaan luontoon kuuluvia tekijöitä tuottajiin, kuluttajiin ja hajottajiin. Auringon ja kärpässienen luokittelu ei onnistunut kolmasosalta oppijoista; lähes kaikki oppilaat luokittelivat kastemadon virheellisesti hajottajiin. Tytöt menestyivät vain hiukan paremmin testissä kuin pojat. Ero ei ollut tilastollisesti merkitsevä. Äidinkielen ja biologian arvosanoilla ei ollut yhteyttä testissä menestymiseen eikä myöskään luontoharrastuneisuudella. Tämän tutkimuksen tulosten mukaan SCIS ohjelma soveltuu hyvin yhdeksi vaihtoehdoksi luonnontieteiden peruskäsitteiden opettamiseen peruskoulun alakoulun oppilaille.
  • Salo, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Communication between airline pilots and cabin crew plays an important role in aviation safety. However, little research has been conducted in the area of pilot-cabin crew communication and relationship. The aim of this study was to identify and name competing discourses in pilot-cabin crew relationship and to describe how these discourses compete with one another. Theory of relational dialectics (Baxter JA Montgomery 1996; Baxter 2011) was used as the theoretical framework. Eight members of cabin crew and six pilots were intervieved. Members of cabin crew were interviewed in pairs. Two of the pilots were interviewed individually and four in pairs. The interviews were analyzed using contrapuntal analysis. Contrapuntal analysis aims to identify competing discourses and their interplay. Six competing discourses were identified in pilot-cabin crew communication and relationship. They were predictability-novelty, one crew-two crews and ideal-real. The predictability-novelty struggle became apparent in the discursive struggle of different work positions being occupied with different crew memebers and in the discursive struggle of official and unofficial communication during the flight. The discourses of one crew and two separate crews were played against one another in the discursive struggles of equality-hierarcy and efficiency-politeness. The discursive struggle of ideal-real constitutes a scene on which the other discourses compete. One coherent and egalitarian crew, where each crew member communicates openly and predictably according to the rules and regulations attached to his/her position was presented as ideal. This ideal is often, but not always, accomplished.
  • Puskala, Aapo (Helsingfors universitet, 2002)
    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää, millaisia tiedonhakustrategioita tiedonhakijatkäyttävät etsiessään tietoa Internetistä. Käyttäjät luokitellaan kolmeen ryhmään tiedonhakustrategiansa mukaan. Haku-suuntautuneet käyttäjät käyttävät enimmäkseen hakukoneita, niin koko Internetin kattavia kuin sivustojen sisäisiäkin. Linkkisuuntautuneet taas joko tietävät tai arvaavat kohdesivuston osoitteen tai käyttävät laajoja hierarkkisia hakemistoja tiedon löytämiseen. He navigoivat mielummin sivustollakin linkkejä käyttäen eivätkä yleensä käytä hakutoimintoa. Eriytyneet käyttäjät eivät säännönmukaisesti suosi kumpaakaan tapaa, vaan valitsevat strategian tehtävän mukaan. Tietoa kerättiin kahdella tavalla: WWW-sivulla olleella kyselylomakkeella ja tiedonhakutestillä, jossa käyttäjille annettiin suoritettavaksi erilaisia tiedonhakutehtäviä. Tiedonhakutehtävät lajiteltiin kolmeen ryhmään sen mukaan, mitä strategiaa ne suosivat: hakustrategiaa suosivat, linkkistrategiaa suosivat ja neutraalit tehtävät. Tutkimusongelmana oli selvittää, kuinka tehtävän tyyppi ja ATK- ja Internet-kokemus vaikuttavat tiedonhakustrategian valintaan. Kävi ilmi, ettei käyttäjien suuntautuneisuus tiettyyn strategiaan vaikuta tiedonhakustrategian valintaan, vaan ainoastaan tehtävän tyyppi oli merkitsevä tekijä. Aikaisemman tutkimustiedon valossa kokeenet suosivat haku-suuntautunutta strategiaa. Tässä tutkimuksessa havaittiin, että kokemus lisäsi molempien strategioiden käyttöä yhtäläisesti, mutta tämä ilmiö oli havaittavissa ainoastaan kysely-lomakkeen pohjalta, ei testeissä. Molempien tiedonhakustrategioiden käyttö lisääntyy kokemuksen myötä, mutta suhteelliset osuudet pysyvät samoina. Syyksi sille, että kokeneet eivät suosineet hakustrategiaa, esitetään sitä, että tehtävät olivat liian helppoja, jolloin kokemus ei pääse auttamaan. Oleellisia eroja suoritusajoissa tai hakustrategian vaihdon tiheydessä ei havaittu suhteessa kokemukseen, ainoastaan suhteessa tehtävän tyyppiin.Tämäkin selitettiin toisentyyppisten tehtävien helppoudella. Tutkimuksessa pohditaan lisäksi asiantuntijuuden syntyä tiedonhakukontekstissa sekä esitetään metatietohypoteesi, jonka mukaan tiedonhakustrategian valintaan vaikuttaa tärkeänä tekijänä käyttäjän metatieto hakupalveluista. Metatietoon kuuluu tieto siitä, mitä hakukoneita on saatavilla, mitä tietoa verkosta kannattaa hakea, millä yrityksillä ja yhteisöillä on sisältörikkaat sivut jne, ja minkä tyyppistä tietoa yleensä on saatavilla. Kaikenkaikkiaan strategian valintaan esitetään taustalle kolmen tason tiedon vaikutusta: 1) oma asiantuntemus haettavasta alasta, 2) metatieto Internetin tiedonhakupalveluista sekä 3) tekninen tieto siitä, kuinka hakukoneet toimivat.
  • Antervo, Roosa (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Objective. The main purpose of this study is to examine what families with children living in urban areas think about self-preparedness and emergency food supply kits nowadays. Study shows how study subjects understand terms "emergency food supply kit" and "self-preparedness", what they think about their own emergency food supply kits and the necessity of it in urban areas. Furthermore study explains the pros and cons of the newest Kotivara-guide from family perspective. Previous studies have shown that there are too little researches about these topics and the fact that self-preparedness is becoming more common. Method. This was a qualitative research with phenomenographic features and which research data were collected using half structural thematic interviews. Nine families with children were selected for research and by change only women were interviewed. All families were living in Kiukainen. Transcribed research data were analyzed with content analysis. Results and conclusions. The term "emergency food supply kit" (kotivara) was more familiar than "self-preparedness" (omatoiminen varautuminen) and "emergency food supply kit" was typically only related to food storing. All families had subconsciously own emergency food supply kit that probably, however, lacked iodine pills, battery powered radio, cash money and water. Own emergency food supply kit was seen to have a major role in urban areas since it helps in exceptional situations and also in normal daily life. Electricity blackout was said to be the most typical exceptional situation nowadays. As for the findings about guidance, families suggested that the Kotivara-guide could be distributed in child health clinics, family centers and schools. According to research subjects, Kotivara-guide should also have the old guides about foods and other things to store. Based on the results of this research, Finnish emergency food supply kit guidance, Kotivara, is still important thing. In order to improve and be more familiar in Finland, informing should be more humane and targeted at those with the greatest needs.
  • Väre, Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Goals: The aim was to find out what types of children benefit start class activity and the interventions that takes place there. I also wanted to know if a child could be transferred to a normal general education after studying in start class. In addition the study aimed to clarify if the children who are postponing the start of school were born at the end of the year as assumed and how the teachers of the start class experienced the new three-step support in their work. The goal of the study was to increase the knowledge about the children who benefit start class activity and to transfer the methods used in start class so that they can be used earlier. It is generally known that early intervention is an efficient mean to prevent problems from accumulating. Methods: Theme interview was used to interview and observe all four start class teachers in one city in Southern Finland. The information gathered was analyzed with content analysis. The teachers also gave information about the children's age, future schools and the possible support related to studying. Results and conclusions: The teachers' opinion is that start class is suitable for children who have slight problems in their learning and who have not yet developed their so called learning readiness like listening instructions for example. Clear structure helped a child to predict and direct his/her actions. Assistants had a great significance in differentiating activities and creating a safe environment. The overall developing of a child and functionality in teaching were important factors. The amount of children born in the last quarter of the year was 66.67 % of all children. The goal of general education did not come true in 30.6 % of the children and they were given special support in their studies. In the future it would be even more important to find the children in the need of support in their studies even earlier so they could be supported properly.
  • Kortesmäki, Henna-Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    The object of my thesis is to solve how Finnish primary school music books approach non-western cultures and their music, and how they construct cultural identities. In this research, I see identities as socially and discursively constructed: identity of "others" is always formed in relation to "us". Biased or negative descriptions may affirm stereotypes and prejudice of a certain group. This study is based on the ideology of multicultural education: the aim is to teach students to understand and value different perspectives and offer equal rights to different groups in society. As for music education, it means that different cultures should be approached from their own perspective, taking into account the musical diversity and dynamic nature of cultures. For my thesis I analysed two series of primary school music books: Soi (published by WSOY) and Musiikin mestarit (Otava) for grades 1–2, 3–4 and 5–6. All six books were published in the past two decades and encompass the majority of music books that are generally being used in the Finnish primary schools. I applied discourse analysis as research method for my study. It aims at understanding language as social behavior in a certain cultural and historical context. Within discourse analysis, I chose the critical approach as I was interested in the way the discourses were used to produce, renew and question unequal power relations, depending on how they positioned people. My aim was to observe how the cultures were represented and positioned in relation to "us" in the data. I categorized lyrics, pictures and their captions as per cultural areas, mainly by their geographical location. After that I observed the verbal and visual representations and how identities were constructed by them. I found many repeated and strong representations of certain cultural groups. They created a hegemonic discourse, which failed to take into account the diversity of the culture but instead repeated and boosted existing stereotypes of it. Identities of "others" were constructed in relation to "us" as a part of a long historical continuum. However, there were differences between books. The amount of different cultural contents, captions and photos in relation to drawings grew towards higher grades. Yet only Soi 5–6 had a clear attempt to approach other cultures from a multicultural perspective. On the whole, critical discourse analysis offered an interesting perspective to observe schoolbooks, and would be necessary for all authors, in order to improve multicultural approach in Finnish music education. Nevertheless, multicultural approach should be acknowledged already in teacher education in order to prepare teachers to approach different music cultures in their future work.
  • Mikkola, Ann-Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Previous studies have reported that children are globally very happy. Happiness studies with Finnish students have shown that Finnish children are also very happy but their happiness and school related happiness decrease during secondary school. The purpose of this study is to explore happiness and school related happiness among sixth and ninth graders in Steiner school. Secondly, the purpose is to explore which factors would increase students' happiness in their opinions. Furthermore the purpose is to explore if the level of happiness among ninth graders changes after sixth grade. The hypothesis of this study is that Steiner school students are happier due the conception of human in Steiner school, Steiner pedagogy and the model of comprehensive school that has less pressure in school transitions than in compulsory school. Steiner pedagogy is alternative pedagogy which interests a student of special pedagogy. In this study happiness and school related happiness were measured among 282 students from six different Steiner schools. There were 142 sixth graders and 138 ninth graders who answered the questionnaire. Students filled out the questionnaire which included the Subjective Happiness Scale and the Finnish version of the School Children's Happiness Inventory. In addition, students chose the factors that would increase their happiness. Ninth graders were also asked if the level of their happiness had changed after sixth grade and what they think the reasons for the change might be. The quantitative material was analyzed with SPSS-program and open answers were organized with qualitative methods. Sixth and ninth graders in Steiner school were less happy than in previous happiness studies but their school related happiness was on about the same level than in previous studies. The students' happiness and school related happiness decreased during secondary school. In the ninth grade, the girls' happiness was on a lower level than the boys'. The factors that increased happiness differed little among sixth and ninth graders and also among boys and girls. The factors that the girls consider to influence their happiness might tell us something about their lower happiness

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