Kasvatustieteellinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Vuokko, Anni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Aim: The aim of this study was to reveal a multi-perspective meanings of craft, bring out feelings which craft making evokes for craft hobbyists and clarify if the craft making increases their well-being. There are very few researches available related to the meanings of craft and craft´s impacts to the well-being. The aim of this study was to make the craft hobbyists voice heard and generally emphasize and bring out the importance of creative activity and hobbies. In addition, the aim was to find out in which kind of situations handicrafts have played a significant role in respondents' lives. Based on these thoughts the following two main questions were set for the study: 1) What kind of meanings the students of adult’s basic arts education give to the crafts and craft making? 2) How do the handicrafts affect to the well-being of the students of adult’s basic arts education? Method: The qualitative data was collected by using an open question from the students of adult´s basic arts education in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area during spring 2017. Before sending out the open question via e-mail I presented the topics of my study both in the Basic and Postgraduate Studies group. The recipients of the open question were asked to write a free-form script with the title “I, Craft and well-being”. Totally 12 responses were received to the writing request and each of them was at least one page long. I analysed the material separately according to the meaning and wellbeing experience. In the analysis of the meanings I utilized Anna Kouhia's (2012) reference frame of multi-perspectival meanings of crafts and other available theory related to the subject. After that, by utilizing preceding theories, I formed my own reference frame which supported further analysis of the material. As a result, I created my own reference frame of the meanings of the craft. When analysing the well-being I utilized Seligman´s theoretical model of happiness (PERMA). Results and conclusion: Based on my study it can be noted that there are several meanings behind craft making. Meanings are very multiple, usually overlapping and sometimes they are even in conflicts with each other. For many people crafts are way to relax which produce happiness day after day and increase well-being. The meanings of crafts are linked tightly to the experiences of well-being. Especially social aspects were emphasized in both categories. In general, the presence of craft in different life situations is dependent on people personalities. Some people use crafts as an important way to relax in difficult life situations whereas other people in the same situation are willing to get rid of all extra issues. Even if sometimes the crafts might be relegated to the background in life, all respondents who participated to the study returned always back to the crafts which illustrates the meaning of crafts as the bringer of well-being as from the point of view of the meanings presented in the study.
  • Kervinen, Annina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives. The aim of this study is to describe, analyze and interpret teachers' perceptions of co-teaching and how to support positive education, the reasons for their co-teaching, what positive teaching means to them in regard to using positive education in their teaching, and the positive presentation of positive co-education. Methods. A total of 8 primary school teachers participated in this study in the fall of 2017. The teachers were interviewed by semi-structured theme interviewing and the research material was analyzed in accordance with qualitative content-based content analysis. Results and Conclusions. The study highlighted three main themes, which are the charm of co-teaching, the importance of positive education, and to describe positive education from the perspective of co-education. The teaching methods used in co-teaching were the well-being of the teacher, the collegial models in everyday life, and the learning situations and characteristics of everyday life. Positive education was seen to be very significant, especially as a classroom teacher, for the development of work prosperity and self-education, as well as for the students’ perceptions and learning. The conditions for co-operation in positive education were manifested through a specific culture of operation and interaction. The benefits of joint teaching in positive education increased with collegial support, use of time as well as planning and assessment and lastly through the social and emotional integration of the students and the interaction between the student and the teacher.
  • Korppi-Tommola, Sini (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This master's thesis is a case study during Positive CV intervention in two ninth grades in Southern Finland. The purpose of this study is to find out what kind of thoughts ninth grade students have about positive education, dealing with character strengths, positive CV, and their own strengths. The material of my research was collected in September 2017 at the end of Positive CV intervention with focused interview from selected ninth grade students. I interviewed four ninth grade students from both schools. In total, eight ninth grade students participated in the study. The theoretical framework of the thesis familiarizes the concepts of positive psychology, positive education, character strengths, strengths-based education, and youth. In addition, the theoretical framework examines other earlier results of research and research interventions related to positive education and character strengths. The theoretical framework also introduces the link between strengths-based education and the national curriculum 2014. According to the results of the study, seven of the eight interviewed ninth grade students considered positive education classes positive. Seven of the eight ninth grade students said that dealing with character strengths is important for the future career and the career choice. Each of the interviewed ninth grade students felt happy when making Positive CV. Six of the eight students found that making Positive CV would be useful for other students as well. All the ninth grade students found their own character strengths and expressed their own strengths in a positive way in the interview. The results of this thesis are compatible with the results of earlier positive psychology interventions based on character strengths. That confirms the reliability of the thesis. As a conclusion, the classes of positive education, dealing with character strengths and Positive CV had more positive than negative effects on ninth grade students. It can also be concluded that positive education, dealing with character strengths and Positive CV would help ninth grade students especially with their career and career choices in the future, as well as in building up their own identity and positive self-image.
  • Niinikoski, Iiris (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Educational equality has long been the aim of the Finnish education policy. In the early days of the welfare state, education was considered, as far as possible, as an independent right, unbound by socio-economic status. A key element in promoting equality was the creation of a cohesive primary school. With the advance of the neoliberalist view, educational equality was defined as an individual's possibility to pursue their own endeavors. School market and school choice enabled t to support the students' talent and interest. While controlling education, municipalities have played a key role in promoting educational equality. Earlier research suggests that individual equality is more supported by the right-wing parties and the Greens, while supporters of social equality have been more common in the left and center groups. Less researched is, what the city's decision-makers refer to as equality. I examine which views of social and individual equality, in connection with the school choice, are seen in the voting advice application answers of elected Helsinki City Council Members. I analyze the Council Members´ justifications for their perceptions of educational equality and their opinion on the matter. In addition, I review which measures Council Members propose to promote educational equality. The data for the study was the answers of the elected Helsinki City Council on the issue of school election in the Helsingin Sanomat VAA. I collected the answers from the electoral machine after the final municipal election result in spring 2017. I analyzed the material with a theory-driven content analysis method. Educational equality appeared to be a complex phenomenon. High quality was striven for all schools, but at the same time the answerers tried to meet the demands for individual services and different life situations. The answers focused on the view of individual equality, but the concepts of equality did not comply with previous studies of party division in all respects. Actions to promote equality was most strongly linked to social equality. My research specifies the meaning of educational equality in a situation where the coming regional reform puts primary education in the center of the city council's responsibility.
  • Jääskeläinen, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The aim of this study was to find out how doing craft has an impact on self-esteem, life management and well-being for two women prisoners in Hämeenlinna prison. The study covers not only part of the time in prison but also six months after the release from prison. I wanted to find out the reasons that they had for doing craft, as well as what they made and why. I was also interested in knowing if they continued with their hobby, or if not, after being released and the reasons for their choice. In this study my hypothesis was that doing craft might help prisoners to cope with stressful feelings during the time in prison. My hypothesis was based on the theories of the role of craft in well-being and the impacts on self-esteem and life management. Doing craft has been found therapeutic for its ability to improve a person´s self image and for maintaining functional mental health and for several benefits for mental well-being. I had three questions in my study which I wanted to get an answer to: “How did the prisoners consider the value of doing craft for self-esteem and life management in jail and in the activity centre Monikko in Hämeenlinna prison?”, “What connections do former prisoners find between doing craft, self-esteem and life management?” and “What were the reasons for continuing or giving up doing craft after being released?” I had an interview with the women a few times while they were in prison and six months after they had been released. I analyzed the interviews using the content analysis. The interviews revealed that while in prison both women found the influence of doing craft, especially knitting, calming, stress reducing and therapeutic. They found that knitting increased the quality of life and the feeling of life management. They also realized that they have skills and talent to manage and complete tasks, which improved their self-esteem and increased their self-confidence. After having found their competence on knitting, they started to feel hopeful for the future again. While knitting they were able to evaluate and deconstruct their previous lives, consider the change of life and set new goals for it. After being released both women continued to knit mainly for the same reasons as in prison but also to avoid getting back to the previous lifestyle with harmful addictions. Keeping themselves busy by knitting among other responsibilities in their lives, they brought life management and increased control in their lives. Based on the results in my study, crafts, especially knitting, can be considered a useful chore in prison for its impact on reducing stress and on other benefits to mental well-being.
  • Heiman, Jenna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    It was studied how the co-operation between home and school is shown in national groundschool curriculum (2014). The goal was to find out how the roles of different actors in co-operation between home and school are shown in curriculum. What kinds of forms of co-operation are rosen from the curriculum and is there differencies in co-operation between subjects. The material of this study was used the national groundschool curriculum (2014). The study is a content analysis study based on a document. The material was analysed using quality analysis methods, mainly using the theme grouping. Nine different themes were found from the material, with which the study questions were answered. According to the curriculum the parents of a child should be involved into the school activities. One of the most important tasks of parents is seen their involvement in the creation and development of schools culture of operations. However, there are no concrete models of action, but the maintenance and active operations of co-operation is left for schools. The importance of the co-operation between home and school is emhazised when offering support for learning and with studies of languages such as finnish, another native language of a student or a foreign language. Also in pupil councelling and home economics the co-operation between home and school is emhasized. The co-operation between home and school supports the normal growth and development of a child, thus also learning. There are several different modes of action for co-operation between home and school but in ordinary days the co-operation is mainly one directional communication and information.
  • Kariola, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The aim of my study is to find out, which factors affect the celebratory speeches of Espoo elementary school principals, which are held at the end of each school year. From the view point of our ever-changing society of multiple diversities, I will also find out what the principals want to achieve through their celebratory speeches. The celebratory speech is a means to an end, a window, through which I examine the attitudes of the principals towards every day school life and how they position themselves with the challenge of a diverse student. I will also find out the meaning and background of these celebratory speeches. I will examine the connection between the celebratory speech and the national curriculum, which has come to effect in the year 2016. My hypothesis is, that the principals will comment on their everyday school life through the talk on the celebratory speech. The celebratory speeches are important to the elementary school principals and the aim of my study is to find out, what the meaning of these speeches is in a modern school system. I have not found former studies on principals´ celebratory speeches. In this study I interviewed three elementary school principals in Espoo. I held private interviews with the principals on their views regarding the celebratory speeches and on their speech which was kept at the end of the school year of 2017. My data gathering method was that of a qualitative attitude research and for my analysis I used dialogism as a method for multivoicedness. In this study, I found out that the keeping up the traditions is persistent in the way the principals talk about the speeches, although the new national curriculum is a learner centered curriculum and the paradigm in the field of education is emphasizing the individual.
  • Saikkonen, Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives. The aim of this qualitative research was to examine the meaningfulness of own time for single parents and the meaning it carries in their everyday life. The target was also to gather experience based knowledge about the life of single parents. Previous research on the single parents` life is not abundant and often time the perspective has been simply coping with the challenges of lone parenthood. Based on previous research a single parents` life is often barely survival from one day to the other. In this research the target was to expand the point of view beyond mere survival, bringing light to new aspects of living as a single parent. Methods. The material of the research consisted of thematic interviews. The interviews involved 10 single parents. The sources were all women, although gender was not a relevant criteria when selecting interviewees. The transcribed material of the thematic interviews was analysed applying qualitative theory directive content analysis. The unique characteristic of experience based knowledge presented itself strongly. Results and conclusions. The own time of single parents seemed to be after the childrens` bedtime or during the free weekends (without kids). During their own time the parents relaxed in their way of preference. Own time was considered important with respect to overall wellbeing. The material indicated that even though single parent`s own time was held important and they most often wanted to have more of it, there was little effort made towards getting more own time. Avainsanat - Nyckelord lähivanhempi, yksinhuoltaja, arki, oma aika, hyvinvointi Keywords single parent, everyday life, own time, wellbeing Säilytyspaikka - Förvaringsställe - Where deposited City Centre Campus Library/Behavioural Sciences/Minerva Muita tietoja - Övriga uppgifter - Additional information
  • Rajaniemi, Essi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This research aims to bring new information to how Finnish customer see products that are handmade in developing countries. First goal of the research was to build a picture of what Finnish customers think about these products and what kind of things they value when buying the product. This part will also rise up how the products could be made even better and to fit more to Nordic customers taste. The information gain will be used to design product suggestions to Finnish development cooperation organisation AavikonRuusu. AavikonRuusu works at Mauritania and brings handmade products made by local women to be sold in Finland. At the moment the products and their quality varies a lot. The organization hopes to have few product ideas that would suit Finnish customers taste and are easy enough for women in Mauritania to make. With the new product ideas the sell would increase and the products would be better quality than before. The aim is development that would benefit the women in Mauritania and help them to improve their living standards. This research was carried out as an action research. The research was processed in cycles. Every cycle produced important information about the subject and guided to the next phase. The ground inquiry was about Finnish customers' opinions about the handmade products made in developing countries. Based on the results the product suggestions were made. In another inquiry the customers were asked comments about the new product suggestions. After that the final products were chosen, pictures and instruction needed were made and delivered to AavikonRuusu representative. The research revealed that Finnish customers think positively about products made in developing countries and see them beautiful. However, many feel that the products do not fit to their own style. Because of that, customers seem to buy handmade products only infrequently. Answerers in the queries wish that the handmade products would be less colourful and a bit simpler. These wishes have been taken in notice while designing the product suggestions. The suggested products are made simple enough to women in Mauritania to make. They don't enquire lot of skills or materials to be made. In design process there is also taken to consideration the possibilities for Mauritanian women to modify the product and use their imagination
  • Hellman, Jenni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The objective of this study was to discover the thoughts of Finnish classroom teachers on promoting the physical activity of their students. The study examines teachers’ attitudes towards promoting physical activity, the challenges they face in promoting physical activity and how they see their own readiness in promoting physical activity. In addition to attitudes and thoughts, the study wanted to analyse the concrete actions classroom teachers have taken to promote the physical activity of their students. Finally, the study also aims at exploring the factors that affect teachers’ attitudes, readiness and the actions they take. This study is a mixed methods study with convergent parallel design strategy meaning it utilises both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The quantitative data was gathered with an electronic form managed by the University of Helsinki. The data consisted of 186 responses from Finnish classroom teachers and it was gathered between May and June 2017. The qualitative data, which was collected simultaneously with the quantitative data, consisted of eight theme interviews. The quantitative data was analysed with SPSS-program and the qualitative data was analysed with content analysis, quantification and by forming themes and types of the data. The study showed that teachers’ attitudes towards promoting physical activity at school are very positive. However, the qualitative part of the study found four different dimensions inside the positive attitude which were general level, school level, teacher level and personal level. The challenges teachers face when promoting physical activity differed a lot between schools and some schools have less possibilities and much fewer resources than others. The readiness of the teacher was affected strongly by the teacher’s own relationship towards exercise. If the teacher had studied physical education as a minor was also of great influence. The study also showed that there are room for improvement when it comes to teachers’ actions towards promoting physical activity at school. Teachers concrete actions were strongly affected by their relationship towards exercise, attitude and readiness to promote physical activity.
  • Litonius, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Tiivistelmä – Abstrakt – Abstract Since 2002, it has been possible for same-sex couples in Finland to register their partnership. In March 2017, same-sex marriage was legalized. The new law also gave same-sex couples equal parental rights. In the healthcare processes concerning pregnancy and parenthood, previous studies have shown that same-sex couples feel they have a good interaction with healthcare staff, but feel discriminated and offended by the healthcare processes and routines that have no preparedness for other forms of sexuality than heterosexuality. The purpose of this study is to examine how the concept of “family” is presented in the material given to prospective parents, and see whether the material projects an ideal of “family”. Of interest is whether there is a heteronormative assumption that excludes all other forms of parenthood as aberrant. Methodologically, the study is based on a discourse-theoretical perspective, and the theoretical ground relates to educational research for social justice, with a link to critical family research and a queer-feminist research field, where the focus is on studying normative processes and power relations. The studied material consists of texts produced by the National Pension Institution (FPA) and the Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) in 2009-2017 and recommended to prospective parents. A total of nine guides, brochures and pamphlets were examined. The material constitutes government interpretations of a phenomena or, in cases where they are produced by other organizations, interpretations of phenomena that are socially approved. When authorities publish and distribute information sheets and pamphlets, they manage what is being presented and from what perspective the matter is discussed. The subject matter is governed by expert and professional perceptions of what is central knowledge and what parents are expected to know. They also strongly contribute to how the concept of family is perceived in the public space. In the material, the family is created in the process of becoming and being a parent. There are clear expectations and demands on parenthood, and heterosexuality is the dominating norm. Families and roles that challenge and break what is presented as normative are viewed as aberrant. Thus, in relation to the theoretical starting points, one can interpret the family by heteronormative processes, and those presented are assigned roles and "the right ones" are those closest to an assumption of a "natural heterosexuality".
  • Pitkänen, Iina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The purpose of the present study was to analyze collective learning in selected teams in Yleisradio Ltd., the Finnish broadcasting company. In addition, the purpose was to consider how to spread good learning practices widely in the organization. In this research, I studied learning from a multidimensional point of view considering individuals, community, networks and working context as well as the impact of practices and artefacts on learning. In addition, I studied how agency and motivation support learning. The study was a qualitative case study. The target group of the study consisted of two parts: a networked learning model Yle Lab and agile teams. The empirical data included 13 theme interviews and 14 event observations. In addition, the empirical material included field notes and material given by the client. I analyzed transcribed interviews and field notes using theory-driven content analysis. Yle Lab organizes different kinds of collective learning activities annually. The purpose of these activities is to enhance adoption of a more multimedia- and user-centered mindset within the organization. According to the results of the study Labra used different kinds of pedagogical practices in these learning events, such as group discussions, artefacts, stories, coaching and user testing, the purpose of which was to build the participants’ capability to plan multimedia projects and develop their expertise. The practises and artefacts of the agile teams together constructed the epistemic culture and knowledge construction system of the domain. Development of working practices, knowledge creating, and learning were integrated as a natural part of their daily work. The results of both target groups indicated that work itself was the best way to learn in working life, which supports the results of earlier studies. Many interviewees stated that their competence had increased alongside the development of their industry, through variable working roles over the years. The empirical data indicated features of progressive problem solving processes, which is a typical learning model for experts. Interviewees had strong professional agency and they were motivated. According to this study it can be concluded that it is possible to support collective learning at the workplace by developing meeting practices that support learning, providing common rooms for professionals, creating common goals, promoting a job rotation culture, and providing coaching networks to support learning paths. This study provided knowledge of collective learning practices of the target groups. In addition, this study yielded some thoughts on how collective learning can be supported in the organization. In this research, I study only a limited part of the company. Thus, a broader study would be necessary in order to have a more extensive view of an organization’s collective learning practices.
  • Enjala, Tytti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The aim of this study was to research girls' and boys' attitudes towards mathematics and compare the results with each other. The other aim of this study is also find out girls experi-ences of a positive attitude towards mathematics. Previous research studies have shown that girls’ attitudes towards mathematics are starting to deteriorate since elementary school despite of the fact that both boys' and girls' are managing mathematics just as well. This study had a mixed methods approach, so it contains both qualitative and quantitative methods for the data analyses. First were search what kinds of attitudes sixth grades boys' and girls' had on mathematics. After taking the attitude survey three girls were selected for interview. The attitude surveys were analyzed by independent samples t-test and the inter-views were analyzed by the content analysis. The findings indicate that boys' like mathematics more but girls think mathematics are more useful for them. The differences between overall average with girls' and boys' mathematical attitude were not statistical significance. Girls who had a positive attitude towards mathe-matics explain their attitudes for having parents, especially dad who have helped them and because they have had lots of positive experiences about mathematics during the years.
  • Vartiainen, Essi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives. The purpose of this research was to describe the conceptions of 34 kindergarten teachers’ of gender diversity and gender sensitive education. My own observations and previous research show that the everyday practices of early childhood education are gendered. The new National Core Curriculum for Early Childhood Education and Care (2016) defines early childhood education as gender sensitive education, which is why the subject is topical in the field of education right now. Another purpose of this research was to increase the general knowledge of gender diversity and gender sensitive education and to help making early childhood education more equal for all children. The research questions of this thesis were: 1. What kind of conceptions do kindergarten teachers have of gender diversity? 2. What kind of conceptions do kindergarten teachers have of gender sensitive education? Methods. The research was a qualitative study based on the written answers collected from 34 kindergarten teachers. The data collection method was online survey and data analysis method used was phenomenographical analysis. Results and conclusions. The main result of the research suggested that the interviewed kindergarten teachers held two different conceptions of gender diversity which seemed to affect their conceptions of gender sensitive education. Gender diversity was understood either as two different biological sexes or as more diverse including also non-binary identities. In this research, the conceptions of kindergarten teachers’ of gender sensitive education were divided into three categories of description. The conceptions were shown in phenomenographical categories of description, which were A) conception that opposed gender sensitive education, B) conception that saw gender sensitive education through gender binary and C) conception that understood gender sensitive education through gender diversity. Based on categories B and C teachers found gender sensitive education a meaningful part of early childhood education.
  • Nevalainen, Juho (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The aim of this Master’s thesis is to describe and analyze the processes supporting learning new work tasks and to study employees wishes of how to support their learning. The research is located in the context of organizational change and studies the importance of social learning, communities of practice and legitimate peripheral participation in learning new work tasks. The communities of practice theory has been utilized to study learning of new work tasks in previous studies as well. The research is based on the assumption that more experienced colleagues and work practice will support learning new work tasks. For the study, 14 individuals were interviewed from three different units of a particular organization. All the interviewees had had to learn new work tasks during organizational change. In the data collection a theme interview was used with a semi-structured structure. The interviews were conducted as individual interviews. The analysis of the data was done using theoretically directed content analysis. The results of the research were classified into these key categories: help gained from a more experienced person, asking from a more experienced person, learning by working with a more experienced person and learner's own influence on learning. Also, the results showed that learning in guidance training and training programs organized by sales representatives had supported learning, along with learning through practice. Internet was also found to be a source of information for some. Employees hoped for more guidance training, especially targeted training was hoped for and both time and investment were desired for learning new work tasks. Working with a more experienced colleague and learning through practice support the underlying assumptions and theories used in this study. Based on the results of the research, organizations could benefit from employees working with a more experienced colleague and by arranging different kind of training programs.