Käyttäytymistieteellinen tiedekunta


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  • Vallinkoski, Katja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Objectives. School safety has long been a subject of wide-ranging debate, but scientific research on the subject has, however, been rather limited. Although the English language research is comprehensive, in educational sciences school safety has not been a common subject of research. Matti Waitinen’s (2011) dissertation is the first school safety culture investigative research in Finland. Waitinen images safety culture of Helsinki comprehensive school, and points out that the differences in security levels can be explained by a different safety cultures. The purpose of this thesis is to find out what are the most common needs to develop safety work that are encountered in comprehensive schools. Research methods. The target group here are four comprehensive schools and their safety groups. The study was carried out as so-called mixed - methods study, where the research data came from both quantitative and qualitative orientation. The data - collection in the first phase of the research was a questionnaire sent to schools, the purpose of which was to orient the school safety team members to the subject. The next step was, Tutor audit, which the Rescue Department of Keski-Uusimaa had developed. The audit, data were generated as quantitative and qualitative, structured group interview section yielded precise values of the school, the level of security, but on the other hand recorded and eventually transcribed conversation around the subject produced a material for the later content analysis. Results and conclusions. Based on the results it can be concluded that the safety work of comprehensive schools found plenty of areas for development. The audits on the basis of the values obtained, it can be said that none of the schools reached in the overall interpretation of the law formed through the minimum requirement, that is, the basic level three. There were found seven development themes: documentation, everyday and communally safety work, risk management, preparedness and independent development of safety, safety skills and safety training, as well as safety communication and paying attention to substitutes and stakeholders. Although the number of results can not be generalized to the comprehensive schools in general, the results can get an understanding of what kind of developments must be done in schools. The general conclusion is that the security work must continue to pay great attention to.
  • Luoto, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The question of essential capacity provided the backgrounds for this study. What can real capacity mean in contemporary society characterized by the crisis of ethics. The aim of the study was searching for moral intelligence – to discuss morality in relation to intelligence. A further aim was to understand certain changes related to both of these conceptions, which was supposed to open some possibilities to reflect on moral intelligence. The view of the study was eclectic and multiscientific. Morality was represented through the views of Z. Bauman’s Postmodern Ethics (1993) and S. Hellsten’s In defence of Moral Individualism (1997). The synthesized concept was the possible current morality. Intelligence was more closely understood as emotional intelligence in D. Goleman’s Emotional Intelligence: why it can matter more than IQ. The method of the study was constructed to meet the needs of the aims. The method applied was philosophical approach, which included systematic analysis. The argumentation was summarized in six theses. Theses five and six discuss the special justification of moral intelligence from two directions: moral (I part) and intelligence (II part). The questions were: 1.1 What is the meaning of individual moral capacity in Bauman’s postmodern ethics? 1.2 What is the meaning of individual moral capacity in Hellsten’s moral individualism? And 2 What is the meaning of emotions concerned with decision making and sensible behaviour in Goleman’s emotional intelligence? From the perspective of postmodern ethics, individual moral capacity was proved to be central, since it actually is the basis of the morality found in responsibility. From the perspective of the moral individualism, individual moral capacity was proved to be central to society, since its existence and development are connected with liberal democracy and its legitimation. Both of these views on the possible current morality emphasized that human moral capacity is not only rational but consists of emotions and moral impulses, too. From the perspective of the emotional intelligence, emotions were proved to be part of every human action, which thus questions pure rational intelligence. Since the concept of intelligence expresses individual sensible behaviour, the moral based on resposnsibility and the central meaning of individual moral capacity were considered to be the justification for regarding individual essential capacity as moral capacity too. Since moral was proved to be linked to individual capacity rather than universal rules, it was presented that moral has in this sense come closer to intelligence. Correspondingly, since intelligence as emotional intelligence expressed the change in understanding rational and irrational elements, and since it can, in a certain way, be a conceptual link between moral and intelligence, it was interpreted that, in this way, intelligence approaches the concept of moral. Essential capacity was summarized as sensible bahaviour, in which moral responsibility is realised and which consists of an impact of both reason and emotion. This study clarifies the argument that essential capacity is, in addition to intelligence and its implementation with emotional intelligence, actually individual moral intelligence and its fullfillment. Thus, in a changing information-society, education meets again one of its original challenges – the difficult task of moral education. Keywords: Moral Intelligence, intelligence, morality, emotional intelligence, postmodern ethics, moral individualism, liberalism
  • Virtanen, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The objective of this study is to find out what teenagers consider consumership. The aim is to examine what kind of consumership is related to their everydaylife with different kind of methods. On addition teachers of home economics were interviewed about their teaching of consumer studies. Prior studies have indicated that consumership is a way to stand out and to build indentity for oneself. Consumership as a part of societal behaviour coincided with the emergence of youth culture in the 1950s. This lead to the development of youth subcultures and the culture of differentiation with consumer behaviour. Prior studies have pointed out that adolescents, teens and young adults consume in different ways and they represent different consumer profiles. This study can give information on how to conduct consumer studies in the future. A combination of methods was used in data collection. The methods used include the method of empathy-based stories (MES) and collecting pictures of consumption from the pupils, and interviews from their teachers of home economics. The combination of these methods is known as triangulation, and it is used as a way to strengthen the hypothesis. The data is collected from 2 middle schools and 161 pupils. The teacher interview was conducted in a half-structured manner, and the interview situation was conducted in pairs. The analysis of data was conducted with the types of data differences in mind. The results of the data analysis implicated differences in youth consumer behaviour. For example consumer behaviour varied notably between genders. The views that the pupils had of their own consumership were very narrow, as they viewed consumership only as consumption of goods. Some pupils also understood the connection of consumption of goods and the environment.
  • Lähteenaro, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    It’s been only lately since the research of early education has started to pay attention to kinder-garten teachers job demands and resources or their work engagement. International researches according teachers work engagement to date have mainly concerned school teachers, and they are not directly generalizable to kindergarten teachers due to some major differences in job descriptions. This study aimed to find out which factors contribute to the work engagement of kindergarten teachers. There were four research problems: 1) What are the job resources of kindergarten teachers work? 2) What are the job demands of kindergarten teachers work? 3) What are the tensions between the job resources and demands of kindergarten teachers work? 4) How work engagement is formed? This study was carried out as a part of a study in Univer-sity of Helsinki called Koulutuksesta valmistuminen ja työssä pysyminen lastentarhanopettajan työuralla. This study was conducted as a qualitative survey. The data used in this study was part of Univeristy of Helsinki study Koulutuksesta valmistuminen ja työssä pysyminen lastentarhanopettajan työuralla and included two open-ended questions (n = 490). The subject of the study were kindergarten teachers working in the metropolitan area and the surrounding municipalities (a total of five municipalities). The data was analysed using Content Analysis and to support the analysis were used JD-R (Job Demands – Resources) –model. The results of the study brought out that the job resources of kindergarten teachers work were children, pedagogical skills, good working environment and working atmosphere and the superior. Demands on the other hand were the small size of the salary, increased labor challenges, large class sizes, unclear job descriptions and lack of appreciation of the industry. Tensions between the job resources and demands were caused by conflicts between experiencing one’s work meaningful and the social recognition of the profession, the disproportion between the salary and job demands, lack of labor peace and blurred job as also increasing in writing and administrative work, that do not match the given resources. Work engagement was formed working with and for the children, personal job resources, appreciation of one’s work, self-challenging and adequate time for one’s work. The results of this study can be used developing kindergarten teachers work conditions and supporting the work of adhesion.
  • Ahtosalo, Milja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Sivulaudaturtutkielmassa vertaillaan yläkouluikäisten suomi äidinkielenä (S1) -oppilaiden ja suomi toisena kielenä (S2) -oppilaiden kielitieto-osaamista Kike-testin avulla. Tutkimus pyrkii vastaamaan kysymyksiin: Kuinka monta virhettä oppilaat tekevät ja missä kohdissa virheet esiintyvät? Mitä yhteistä ja mitä eroa S1- ja S2-oppilaiden virheillä on? Voiko virheille löytää selittäviä tekijöitä? Lopuksi tutkimuksessa pyritään löytämään vastaus kysymykseen: Mille perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteiden (2004) taitotasojen kuvausasteikon portaalle S1- ja S2-oppilaat on mahdollista testin perusteella sijoittaa? Aiempaa vertailevaa tutkimusta S1- ja S2-oppilaiden kielioppiosaamisesta yhtä testiä käyttäen ei ole. Tutkimukseen osallistui yhdestä yläkoulusta S1- ja S2-oppilaita kaikilta kolmelta luokka-asteelta. Yhteensä S1-oppilaita osallistui 36 kappaletta ja S2-oppilaita 30 kappaletta. Oppilaat tekivät Kike-testistä eli kielellisen kehityksen diagnosoivasta tehtäväsarjasta kielitieto-osion tehtävät. Tutkimus eteni klassisen virheanalyysin kaavaa noudattaen. Oppilaiden tekemien virheiden lukumäärä laskettiin, minkä perusteella muodostettiin viisiportainen pistetaulukko. Kielitieto-osion seitsemää alaosiota tarkasteltiin vielä erikseen vertaillen verrokkiryhmiä. Ne kohdat, joissa useat oppilaat tekivät virheitä, nostettiin erilliseen tarkasteluun tarkoituksena selvittää, mikä virhettä selittää. Lopuksi virheitä arvotettiin hyödyntäen POPS 2004:n taitotasojen kuvausasteikkoa. Oppilaat voitiin jakaa virheiden lukumäärän perusteella viiteen ryhmään. Jokaiseen ryhmään kuului sekä S1- että S2-oppilaita. Näille ryhmille pystyttiin löytämään myös yhtymäkohta taitotasojen kuvausasteikolta. Oppilaiden tekemät virheet pystyttiin useimmiten selittämään kehitysvaihevirheen kautta. Joissakin S2-oppilaiden tekemissä virheissä selittävä tekijä oli kielenoppijuus. Kielitaidon kuvausasteikkoon vertaaminen osoitti sen, että sekä S1- että S2-oppilaiden joukossa on kielioppiosaamisessa heikkoja ja eteviä oppilaita. Äidinkielen oppiainetta S1-opetuksessakin opiskelee erittäin heterogeeninen joukko. Opetuksen kannalta tutkimustulos tarkoittaa entistä suurempaa eriyttämistarvetta sekä sen pohdintaa, mikä on mielekäs tapa jakaa oppilaat erilaisiin ryhmiin äidinkielen oppiaineessa.
  • Pensola, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Tiivistelmä – Abstrakt – Abstract Objectives. There is a lack of knowledge concerning the contribution of the character traits to the association of work stress and over-commitment with common mental health problems. Primary school teachers are a large, homogenous occupational group that has been related to higher work stress levels and common mental health problems, although to a lesser amount of actual mental disorders. The aim of the study is to examine the extent to which the association between work stress, over-commitment and their interaction with common mental health problems can be attributed to the character traits among primary school teachers. Methods. The data consists of 76 (87% females) primary school teachers from 34 schools randomly selected to a study taking part in the capital area of Finland in 2013-14. There were 1-6 teachers who responded from each school (participation rate 4-33%). Common mental health problems were measured by GHQ-12 (psychological distress) and cognitive anxiety from a state anxiety scale of EMAS (highest tertile vs. two lowest). Work stress and over-commitment (the upper tertile vs. the rest) were measured according to original Siegrist’s Effort-Reward-Imbalance Questionnaire. Character traits Self-directness, Cooperativeness, and Self-Transcendence were measured by Cloninger’s TCI-questionnaire and each character was dichotomized at median to indicate a higher and lower category of the trait. The control variables were age, working hours and job contract type. The data were analyzed by means of Poisson regression (prevalence ratios, PR, and 90% confidence intervals) and relative rates. Results. Of teachers 30% had common mental health problems. The teachers with high over-commitment in comparison with those with low over-commitment had more often psychological distress (PR=2.5, p=0.018) and cognitive anxiety (PR=2.8, p=0.004). Although work stress was not independently associated with common mental health problems, it was related to the increased psychological distress among those with high over-commitment. Controlling for self-directedness attenuated the association of over-commitment with psychological distress and cognitive anxiety by 29% and 47%, respectively. After all adjustments, an independent association of Self-Directness with cognitive anxiety remained (PR=0.3, p=0.024). The other two character traits didn’t have an independent impact on common mental health problems among the primary school teachers, but with the concurrent low self-directedness, low cooperativeness and low Self-Transcendence were related to over-commitment and increased level of cognitive anxiety. Both low cooperativeness and low self-transcendence were related to psychological symptoms. Conclusions: The primary school teachers had higher prevalence of common mental health problems, if they had low self-directedness and were over-committed to their work. Enhancing self-directedness may help in decreasing common mental health problems among overcommitted teachers. In the future the associations of the trait profiles with over-commitment and mental health symptoms should be studied with the larger longitudinal data.
  • Noponen, Miska (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Learning in collaboration with others with the support of a computer has been found to improve learning results and increase learner satisfaction in comparison to other methods of learning online, when implemented successfully. Many studies have, however, found that it is common that there is very little social interaction when learning online. This has been shown to be related to students dropping out, low levels of motivation and generally fails to harness the benefit of learning in collaboration with others.The aim of this study is to analyze learner’s motivation to collaborate in an online course. Some studies regarding the motivation to collaborate exist in the tradition of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) but very few have taken into account the situational nature of motivation. The participants in this study were students taking part in an online course on responsible business at a university in Finland (N = 179). Their motivation was sampled by triggering the Situational Motivation Questionnaire (SIMS) when they performed collaborative acts, using what is termed context-sensitive ecological momentary assessment. The students’ patterns of interaction were studied using social network analysis based on their use of the chat function afforded by the learning platform. Students were found to experience more extrinsic than intrinsic forms of motivation to collaborate on a situational level. Motivation did not appear to be affected by progression in the course or deadlines. Participation in the social interaction was moderately high, varied a lot from student to student and appeared to be clustered to sub-groups within the social network. Intrinsic motivation was more likely to be experienced in positions of lower centrality and betweenness in the social network. Due to there being very little earlier research into this topic using similar methods, these results provide important new insights into why students collaborate in an online environment.
  • Lohko, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The aim of the study was to investigate ideas and idea generation of designers in free improvisation tasks at conceptual level in the experiment, planned primarily for the physiological and neurological measurements. My study was a part of the multidisciplinary research project Handling Mind: Embodiment, Creativity and Design which concentrated on studying relations between mind, body and materials combining the fields of psychology, neuroscience and creativity. The neurological study did not reveal what and how participants felt, thought and experienced during the experiment which was the main interest in my study. Previous research has focused on investigating various fields of the design process, as well as the ideation phase, but investigating idea generation in the context of neuroscientific research is a new and interesting chance for the research. The ideation phase represents an iterative and vibrant nature of the design process. Previous studies have brought out the meaning of available sources of inspiration, and designers’ competence to adapt the essential parts of the original sources and transform them into design outputs regarding the aspects of novelty and functionality. Therefore, I developed my research questions concerning ideas and idea development in freely improvising tasks in a new design situation. The 30 participants participated in the study as volunteers from the School of Art, Design and Architecture in Aalto University from November 2014 to March 2015. They performed copying, designing or free improvising tasks by drawing or forming clay. I organized the Stimulated Recall (SR) interviews with my colleague to collect data. We selected the 15 out of 30 interviews to represent the data in our studies. I analyzed the transcript data by qualitative content analysis: the classification scheme was both data and theory driven. The analysis revealed that designers had different ideas emerging from internal stimuli, for example, from their mental library or they were impressed by external stimuli, for instance, material, tools and cup images from the experiment. The experiment represented an external design constraint: it confined the problem space and narrowed down the alternative solutions. Designers had concrete and abstract ideas, but also the abstractions of ideas were developed. They relied on familiar topic choices but also were capable of creating analogies. Even this minimalistic design experiment revealed that designers are able to use their mental sources of inspiration and capable of picking profitable stimuli from their surroundings in new and uncertain situations for adapting and developing ideas further. Designers sought meaning for their sketching and experimenting as well.
  • Tuominen, Mirka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Objectives. Anxiety disorders and anxiety symptoms are common even as a child, and they cause a major burden to the child as well as to the society. In order to prevent anxiety disorders it is important to understand the predisposing factors to anxiety. The influence of child’s temperament and parenting style on children’s anxiety symptoms have both been studied, but the results are partly controversial, and there’s only a limited number of longitudinal studies. The importance of interactions between temperament and parenting style has been emphasized, but the amount of interaction studies is scarce. The aim of this study is to examine the associations between child’s temperament and anxiety symptoms, associations between parenting style and child’s anxiety symptoms, and whether parenting style is a moderator between the association with temperament and anxiety symptoms. Methods. The sample consisted of 262 mother-child dyads participating in the Glychyrrhizin in Licorice-study. Mothers assessed their child’s temperament with the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire and their parenting style with the Parent Behavior Inventrory when the children were 5,5 years old. Children assessed their anxiety symptoms with the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders when they were 12 years old. The associations between the variables were analyzed using regression analyzes. Results and conclusions. High negative emotionality and its subfactors anger, fear, sadness and low soothability were associated with several anxiety symptoms. Extraversion was not associated with any anxiety symptoms, but its subfactor high impulsivity predicted increased anxiety symptoms. Low effortful control and its subfactor low inhibitory control were associated with symptoms of school phobia, and low intensity pleasure was associated with panic symptoms. Anxiety symptoms were associated with hostile/coercive parenting style, but not with supportive/engaged parenting style. Both parenting styles moderated some of the associations between temperament traits and anxiety symptoms. The findings give support both to the independent effect of temperament to children’s anxiety symptoms and interactions between temperament and parenting. The findings give also some preliminary support to the “goodness of fit” –model, indicating that the effect of parenting style on children’s anxiety symptoms may depend on child’s temperament.
  • Kauppinen, Ann-Marie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Objectives. The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with the housing of the family of children with autism spectrum. Housing services aimed of people with autism spectrum often pay attention to sense sensibility, but in a standard apartment the same consideration might require housing modifications. Since the people with autism spectrum typically have hypersensitivity and/or hyposensitivity of the senses, one of the research questions was: do these atypical sensory reactions increase the need for housing modifications. In addition to that, the research also aimed to chart the housing needs of the families of the children with autism spectrum and what kind of solutions made in the construction stage of homes could reduce the need for housing modifications and increase the suitability of the homes for the families. Methods. The research was conducted as a qualitative research. The data was collected through an online questionnaire. 75 participants responded to the questionnaire, in addition a pilot interview was attached to the data. Responses included a total of 82 autistic children and their families. The data was processed using the Atlas.ti program. At the initial stage, the material was encoded in a transparent manner. In the final stage, the created code words were used to create a thematic network, which displayed the data’s most often emerged themes. In addition, the research aimed to chart the need for modifications. Results and conclusions. The data showed that the needs of the families of children with autism spectrum for housing development aspirations are very similar, as other families with children. Concerns about safety and the need for space were two of the three main themes arosen from the data. In addition, one of the themes that arose was the world of sound in homes, especially the sound stimuli. Based on the data multi-family homes experienced a sound insulation problem. Sound insulation investing in the construction phase would serve autistic families and reduce the need for housing modifications. Based on the data, more flexible residential solutions to serve the needs of autistic families and would reduce the need for housing modifications or moving.
  • Perret, Marie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Research in personal crises and their impact on an individual's life has largely focused on specific diseases and external tragedies. Studies on personal life crises have however, during the last decades shifted from a focus on psychiatric research to including socio-cultural and behavioural factors. Research in employment and work-life balance also shows a growing interest in incorporating the individual perspective, whereas these two disciplines have a lot to offer in studying individuals’ relation to their occupation. Work impact on people's personal lives and vice versa is therefore an important topic to explore, emphasizing occupational health in relation to the individual's personal circumstances. The aim of this study is to illustrate how individuals who go through a personal life crises experience the return to work. The study is done by phenomenological research and consists of three in-depth interviews. The participants of the study were interviewed with a semi-structured interview guide and the interviews were transcribed and analysed through content analysis of life-world stories. The study results showed that the return to work was perceived as necessary for each participant as they went through their crises. Results also described that equality in role balance between family roles and the professional role was central to continue to work during the crisis time. One of the participants revealed that a non-open discussion in the organisational culture made it difficult for the individual to continue working through the crises, while the other two participants expressed that it felt more natural to address the personal difficulties in the workplace. Partly because of more flexible work conditions, partly because of more independent work–life. The study's findings propose further research in an overall perspective regarding wellbeing at the workplace and raise a further interest in researching work-life balance from the individuals’ perspective. The study highlights some individuals experience in combining work life with personal life, but raises current questions about the employers’ responsibility for the employees’ well being as well as illustrates individuals' various social support networks.
  • Kukkola, Enna-Matilda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The subject of the study is Sally E. Dean’s Somatic Costumes™ and how they affect actor’s performing and the creation of characters. Somatic costumes are costumes which create multi-sensorial experiences for the performer. The aesthetics of the performance is built on the basis of this costume experience. In craft science costumes have been studied mostly from the design’s point of view. The purpose of this study is to provide a new perspective on defining costumes in the context of performance. The study aims to explore the experiential and interactive role of somatic costumes in making performances and creating characters. The study is a phenomenological hermeneutical research on experiences. The research data consists of Sally E. Dean’s interview and researcher’s own experience about Somatic Costumes™. The data was gathered during a three-day workshop called Somatic Movement & Costumes, Creating Characters which was held in Helsinki in autumn 2015. The data was analyzed by inductive content analysis, in which the interview was reflected upon, including the experiences of the researcher in the process. The study shows that multi-sensorial experiences created by Somatic Costumes™ help the performer in generating new kind of movement and character material. Somatic Costumes™ can support the performer’s individual artistic expression. Awareness developed in the interaction between the costume and the body may have effects on the interaction with other performers as well as with the environment. However, developing awareness through Somatic Costumes™ requires that the performer acknowledges the costume and seeks an equal relationship with it. In all, Somatic Costumes™ can affect the performer’s awareness of oneself and one’s body. The knowledge on how Somatic Costumes™ affect performers, the making of performances and the creation of characters can be utilized in performance arts. It’s also possible to apply the knowledge on Somatic Costumes™ in user-oriented costume design.
  • Laiho, Teija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The objective of this study was to examine what sort of differences and Otherness are constructed in global education and how those are produced. Education for global citizenship can be seen as an objective for global education. Therefore, it is also important to analyze how global citizenship education is justified in global education. My perspective on global education is based on post-colonial and post-structural feminist theories. The study data consist of three documents that deal with global education. The documents are produced in different projects governed by educational administration offices. As a research method, I applied deconstructive reading. The method was utilized in order to identify hierarchical binary oppositions through which the differences and Otherness are constructed in the study data. In addition to deconstructive reading, the metaphors I have applied are ‘the return of the colonial and the return of the colonizer’ and ‘modern Western thinking as an abyssal thinking’ invented by Boaventura de Souza Santos (2007). The study data constructs a subject named as ”us”, which is positioned as Finnish, European and Western. The subject “us” is constructed in relation to “other”, which I named in this research as colonial Other, new abyssal colonial Other, and/or Other referred as minorities. According to my study, education for global citizenship was justified as a response to the encounter of “us” and Other and as a response to global challenges. Global education and global citizenship education were based on the offset of modern humanism, which appeared in the attempts to define universal epistemologies and ethical codes. Based on the results of this research, the offsets of global education epistemologies ought to be re-evaluated critically. Furthermore, opportunities for global education which question the categories of “us” and Other should be addressed in forthcoming research.
  • Kalaniemi, Emmi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Objectives: This thesis is about interior designer and interior design. In this thesis, I interviewed seven people who had had their home designed by an interior designer. My main goal was to find out if the interior design or the interior designer had any influence on dwelling or how the inhabitants felt about their home or if they even called their apartment as home. The terms “apartment” and “home” are often used as a synonym for each other but in my mind, there is a clear difference between those concepts. My goal was also to find out if the interior design had an influence on how the people define those two concepts. Methods: My method in this thesis was theme interview. Of the seven people interviewed, four were women and three were men. Five of the interviewees lived in the Helsinki metropolitan area and two in the inner Finland. The interviews have been transcribed and the answers have been categorized into themes. I also requested my interviewees to take pictures from their homes and those pictures have also been analyzed in this thesis. Results and conclusions: The interior designer had a little influence on how well the inhabitants dwelled in their homes but the apartments had been called homes without the designer, as well. The interior designer did not either have any influence on the inhabitants’ favorite places. However, the co-operation between the interior designer and the inhabitants had been successful excluding some minor exceptions. The inhabitants trusted especially in the designers’ expertise in the major changes such as bringing down a wall etc. and in the color choices. Based on the interviews, the functionality of the apartment is essential for the inhabitants in their everyday life.
  • Kultanen, Henrika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The aim of this study is to examine embodied learning in school craft, and describe how the results are connected to the dilemmas of multi-material craft. Earlier studies emphazise that it’s no longer relevant to make a separation the body from the mind. Actually the brain, the nervous system and the body are in interactively related. Also learning can be seen as embodied, especially in crafts. Embodied learning is a way to make thinking- and problem solving processes visible. The upcoming curriculum plan will construct handcraft’s teaching in a multi-material level, where the distinction between hard and soft material will be obsolete. The future will show how the multi-material craft teaching affects to handling and development of basic skills and problem solving skills in crafts. The research methods in this study are qualitative. The material for this study was gathered in spring 2016 by personally interviewing six craft teachers from southern Finland. The material was analyzed by using theoretically orientated content analysis. The material was reflected to the framework and the themes, which were found from the transcribed material. The framework was illustrated with the fourfold-space. Embodied learning can be seen as holistic fuctions between the mind and the body. The results de-scribe the mental and the physical dimensions of embodied learning. The physical side focused on physical elements of learning, such as motor skills, body control, physical feelings and experiences. The mental side whereas concetrated on real-time problem solving, thinking and skill mastering. Both sides were seen interactively related. The results showed that handicraft skills developed through time, practice and repetition, as thinking and problem solving skills evolved in handicraft grow. From the perspective of multimaterial craft dilemmas the focus of learning process shifts from technique and material based learning to problem solving focused learning.