Faculty of Educational Sciences


Recent Submissions

  • Lindholm, Marjut (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Goal. The objective of this study is to survey classroom teachers’ insights of authority, its contribution to peaceful work environment and finally, how the amount of work experience affects these two factors. Teacher’s authority has been examined and written about from many different perspectives. It has been affected by changes in society and the school system. The aim of this study is to describe and address the topic as broadly as possible in order to outline the big picture. Authority has been seen to have a very large impact on peace in the class. The concept of peace at work is subjective and is usually approached from the discourse of issues. Both topics and related changes have also been actively discussed in the media in recent years. The study also took into account changes over time and their effects. Methods. The study was conducted as a qualitative study using a phenomenographic research approach. The material was collected using an electronic questionnaire and the respondents were working as a class teacher. The group of respondents was quite heterogeneous and the survey was answered anonymously. The material consisted of replies given by 33 people to open interview questions. The data was analyzed in relation to three different research questions. Results and conclusions. The research results showed that classroom teachers defined authority mostly in relation to agreed rules, student encounters, interaction, and trust. The length of teachers’ careers affected their responses in many different ways. Novice teachers felt they had less authority than those who had worked in the field longer. Novice teachers also didn’t emphasize the importance of the rules as much in their responses, but rather highlighted aspects of positive pedagogy. The majority of respondents felt that their class was in favor of peace at work and only four expressed dissatisfaction with peace at work. Almost half of the respondents mentioned certain students disturbing peace at work. Respondents who had been teachers for the longest time found most often their working peace to be good, but also stated more often that certain students perceived working peace as challenging.
  • Myntti, Mikko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    When moving to a new dwelling, residents try to make it a home or feel like one. This is done by customizing the space, getting used to it and the surroundings, decorating the apartment with their own things and finally by living there alone or with others. The result of this process is called feeling of home. Home making as is home and family in general is considered feminine. However, men also move and make homes, either alone or with someone else. In this study I look at the formation of the home and the feeling of home of men, as well as their roles at home when they move to live with their companion. I tell three different stories about moving in together: a couple moves into a new dwelling, a man moves into a woman's home and a woman moves into a man's home. The study is narrative in material and in analysis. The narrative analysis is made applying a model by Heikkinen (2018), in which a new wholesome narrative is constructed from fragmented material. The material consisted of three stories of heterosexual couples moving in together, presented in an audiovisual form on Muuttopäiväkirjat -reality show on Finnish public media service Yle. In the analysis I formed new narratives from the short scenes scattered between episodes, describing the formation of home from the man's point of view. I review these narratives comparing them to the theoretical background formed on home, relationship and the role of men, among other things. The results are narratives that construct social knowledge. They are based on my interpretation of the moves presented in the reality-tv series. The narratives are perspective-widening analysis rather than the truth about the moves presented in the series. The narratives I have formed tell about three different situations in which a man’s position in their home and relationship is formed in different ways: 1. A young couple’s expectations of home do not match each other 2. A man’s feeling of home gets broken and rebuild as a woman moves to his home 3. The man moves in with the woman and finds a home from the family
  • Mäkelä, Juha (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Purpose of this study Classroom acoustics has been studied since the early 1900 ́s. The essential parameter of the room acoustics reverb time and the way to calculate it, was developed by experiments in the lecture halls of the Harvard University by professor W.C. Sabine 120 years ago. In Finland, specialists in acoustics have taken part as early as the 1940s and 1950s to the design of schools, and knowledge about the importance of good acoustics to the teaching and learning has been available for decades. Studies show that in Finland and also in the other countries, classrooms are problematic in terms of the acoustics, which may cause learning difficulties and even exclusion. The noise reinforced by the poor acoustics is a health risk for the teachers and the students. In this study, I present a general overview of current understanding about classroom acoustics and provide a compact package of information about the classroom acoustics and importance of it to the learning and teaching. The overview is backed up by an empirical case study from 2018-2019 performed at the Faculty of Educational Sciences, University of Helsinki. Methods In this study, I performed a compact literature review regarding current studies about the acoustics of learning environments, acoustic problems in those environments, and regarding how children hear and understand what they are listening in environments with different acoustic features. In the case study, I analyzed the room acoustics measurements of a refurbished teaching space at Siltavuorenpenger 5, Faculty of Educational Sciences, with pre- and post-measurement data before and after a comprehensive renovation of the space and its furniture. Results and conclusion Very little has been changed in classroom acoustics. The knowledge and the skills to provide good acoustics are readily available but apparently very seldom renovations or the repairs include changing the acoustics when being made. In the case study, all user profiles included elements related to the sound environment and acoustics. Through material selection and rearrangements in the teaching space, the acoustical properties of the learning environment were improved quite significantly. It remains to be studied, how open learning environments, which are being built in many new schools, with sometimes very high numbers of children, can also support well-being in terms of the soundscape.
  • Norberg, Taru (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the experiences of ECEC center leaders about the unprofessionalism of educational interaction and the challenges it brings. In addition, the study examines the experience of tackling unprofessionalism and experiences related to managing the phenomenon. The aim is to analyze and describe the perceptions and experiences of managers, as well as their variation. The theoretical framework of the study consists of an examination of educational interaction, unprofessionalism and leadership, as well as a description in the context of early childhood education. The theory takes into account the paucity of previous research on early childhood professionalism and therefore the framework has been partially extended to look at professionalism in other fields as well, such as nursing and medicine. The starting points of the study were a multi-method and phenomenographic study, the data of which were obtained with a semi-structured e-questionnaire. The survey was addressed to municipal ECEC center leaders on the basis of the OAJ member register. In the analysis of qualitative data, context analysis was typically used for phenomenography, and the results of multiple-choice questions (Likert) are pre-sented as percentage distributions. Combining the acquisition and analysis of qualitative and quantitative data aims at a better understanding of a diverse and little-studied phenomenon. Leaders ’experiences of the unprofessional nature of educational interaction varied. However, most situ-ations were interpreted as completely unprofessional. All respondents reported unprofessionalism in their workplace and there was variation in its prevalence. Intervention in the unprofessional profession was generally perceived negatively by managers, although the task could still be perceived as important, co-ercive or obligatory. There were five experiences describing the management of challenging situations: the relationship between the manager and the employee, self-management, pedagogical management, professionalism as a phenomenon, and client work. Unprofessionalism is a multidimensional phenome-non challenging leadership and its definition and identification is important for developing the quality of early childhood education. The key tasks of a leader in terms of shared pedagogical leadership are to address unprofessional situations and to implement ethical reflection and moral decision-making in the work community.
  • Timperi, Erika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The importance of work ability management is increasingly recognized in different organizations. This is the result of legislative reform and a systematic investment in work ability research. Work ability is understood as a systemic which includes the constant search for balance. According to the work ability house model the individual's resources are in relation to work, the work environment and the social relationship and eventually society (Ilmarinen, 2006, pp. 20, 23). The research questions were (1) which kind of discourses work ability and work ability support models are based on and (2) how the goals of work ability support are authorized and justified discursively. The material consisted of ten (10) written documents, which were the work ability support models used by working life organizations. The material was analyzed as part of the social reality they produced. The aim of the research was to describe how the perceptions of work ability, work ability support and the goals of work ability management have been discursively constructed and to mirror them in previous work ability research. The written material was analyzed by discourse analysis. The analysis focused on how work ability and work ability support models are understood in different workplaces and how work ability measures are justified discursively. For the first research question, discourses describing work ability support were located in the material: intervention, caring, project and continuous negotiation. For the second research question, the goals of work ability support, the discourses were constructed using the repertoires of productivity, cost, humanism, social responsibility and legal. The main result is the localization of the hegemonic discourse of individualization and individual responsibility. The problematic nature of the hegemonic discourse appears on the basis of previous research results, as the factors found behind the effectiveness of work ability management are located in the community and structures instead of the individual. The results can be applied as a part of developing work ability management.
  • Uusi-Kilponen, Alisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Teachers’ job description changes along with the society, which creates pressure to update teacher knowledge and teaching. Indeed, teachership is a process that requires lifelong learning and not only systematic in-service training but also an understanding of teachers’ professional life cycles and meaningful learning. The purpose of this thesis was to survey the connection of in-service training in mathematics and work experience to the meaningful learning and teaching development of class teachers. The theoretical framework was based on models for teachers’ professional life cycles by Huberman, Leithwood, Lähteenmäki and Järvinen and theories of meaningful learning by Ausubel, Jonassen and Ruokamo and Pohjolainen. The aim was to increase the understanding of in-service training of teachers at different stages of their career cycles and to highlight the challenges associated with those cycles. Thus, this thesis seeks to support the need of the development- and evaluation work of educational continuum which became a topical issue at the beginning of the 21st century and has only become more and more relevant ever since. The data of this multi-method longitudinal study was gathered through surveys completed by classroom teachers who participated in the LUMATIKKA in-service training of mathematics teaching and learning in 2019 or 2020. Quantitative data, which measured meaningful learning consisted of preliminary and final surveys of classroom teachers (N=77). The connection of meaningful learning areas, formed on the basis of principal component analysis, and work experience was examined by using the Kruskal Wallis analysis of variance. The qualitative data, on the other hand, consisted of teachers’ open-ended responses (N=107) to the final survey’s questions on how they thought the in-service training experiences would influence teaching. Open-ended responses were analysed by means of content analysis and qualitative description. According to the results, the class teachers who completed the in-service training courses had the prior competence and expectations that supported learning well and learning during the courses was also found to be very meaningful. The most meaningful sections were the ones concretely related to the needs of working life, transfer of learning and the teaching of mathematics, although the training succeeded also in strengthening intentional learning. Experiences of reflectivity and cooperation, on the other hand, were slightly more moderately positive. Respondents’ work experience had a connection to their answers regarding learning, as teachers in the middle of their career cycles found their learning slightly less meaningful than teachers at the beginning or end of their career. Participants believed that their updated pedagogical con-tent, in particular, would change their own teaching. In addition, many of those more experienced than novice teachers pointed out the increase of specialized content knowledge, which is considered essential for teachers. Most teachers did not see obstacles to changing their teaching, although some novices regarded time as a problem. In the light of research, well-organized in-service training can be a very meaningful supporter of lifelong learning and a developer of teaching. However, the characteristics of various stages of career cycles and their typical challenges should be taken into consideration as an important factor in order to ensure the continuity of training for all teachers.
  • Valtter, Nina Alena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tässä kvalitatiivisessa pro gradu -tutkielmassa tutkin luovuuden tukemisen merkityksiä. Tutkimus sisältää kolme narratiivista haastattelua ja niistä syntyneet kertomukset luovuuden tukemisen merkityksistä. Toinen tutkimuksessa käytetty metodi on systemoitu kirjallisuuskatsaus, jossa tärkeimmiksi teorioiksi on valittu J. P. Guilfordin divergentti ajattelu, A. H. Maslow’n teoria luovuudesta itsensä toteuttamisena ja M. Csíkszentmihályin flow-teoria. Luovuuden tukemisen merkityksiä voidaan löytää niin yksilön kuin yhteiskunnan näkökulmista. Tämän tutkimuksen parasta antia ovat luovuuskertomukset, joita analysoin muun muassa rohkeuden, vapauden, ideoinnin ja itsevarmuuden rakentumisen näkökulmista. Yhteiskunnallisia näkökulmia tutkimukselle on luovien produktien tuottaminen ja yhteiskunnallinen osallistuminen.
  • Silokangas, Karoliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The aim of this study was to establish which ways are used to support the learning of students whit an immigrant background and explore what kind of cooperation is done. Pupils with immigrant background are foreign language learners whose native language is different from the school's language of instruction. Language and language competency are key factors in learning. Emerging language skills can therefore create challenges for learning. Immigration has been on the rise since the 21st century and the number of foreign language learners has also been on the rise. It appears that in the future there will be a growing number of pupils in Finnish primary schools whose native language is not the same as the school's teaching language. The aim of this study is to highlight how these students are currently supported in Finnish primary school and in which ways. This study is a qualitative master's thesis. The research material was collected using an electronic questionnaire containing two open questions relating to the subject of the study. Research material was analysed using the ATLAS.TI software as an aid to analysis. In relation to the two open questions of the questionnaire, a total of 1289 respondents responded to this study, all serving as teachers in the primary school. Based on the results of the study, various means of learning support are used as support for students with an immigrant background. Cooperation of professionals from different fields of the school is also done to support those students. There are also challenges in supporting students with an immigrant backgrounds. Support for learning consisted of using individual learning material, differentiating, ensuring understanding, support for peers, and flexible teaching arrangements. In light of this as well as previous studies, support for students with an immigrant backgrounds are diverse and varied.
  • Tolvanen, Oskari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tavoitteet. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on selvittää, millaisia käsityksiä opettajilla on ongelmanratkaisun opettamisesta ja kuinka paljon ongelmanratkaisua opetetaan. Ongelmanratkaisua pidetään julkisessa keskustelussa tärkeänä taitona tulevaisuuden työelämän kannalta. Kuitenkaan suomalaisessa peruskoulussa ongelmanratkaisu ei ole yleistynyt keskeiseksi osaksi matematiikan opetusta, vaikka ongelmanratkaisu onkin ollut opetussuunnitelmassa yli kolmekymmentä vuotta. Opettajan toimintatapoja ohjaa opetussuunnitelmaakin voimakkaammin opettajan käsitykset ja uskomukset. Tarkoituksena on selvittää, millaisia käsityksiä opettajilla on ongelmanratkaisun opettamisesta, mitkä tekijät vaikuttavat ongelmanratkaisun opettamisen määrään sekä miten opettajien käsitykset vaikuttavat ongelmanratkaisun opettamisessa koettuihin vaikeuksiin. Menetelmät. Tutkimus toteutettiin monimenetelmällisenä kyselytutkimuksena. Aineistona käytetiin 160 suomalaisen alakoulun opettajan vastauksia kyselyyn, joka toteutettiin osana suomalaissaksalaista tutkimusprojektia. Aineistoa analysoitiin sekä kvalitatiivisin että kvantitatiivisin menetelmin, tarkoituksena kuvata opettajien käsityksiä ongelmanratkaisun opettamisesta, ja toisaalta myös selittää eroja opettajien käsitysten välillä. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Puolet opettajista kertoi käsittelevänsä ongelmanratkaisua opetuksessaan ainakin kerran viikossa. Opettajan taustatekijöillä ei ollut vaikutusta ongelmanratkaisun opetuksen määrään. Tutkimuksen aineiston perusteella osa opettajista pitää sanallisia rutiinitehtäviä ongelmatehtävinä. Siksi tutkimuksen perusteella ei voida päätellä, kuinka paljon ongelmanratkaisua todellisuudessa opetetaan alakouluissa. Opettajat kokivat erityisesti ajan ja tehtävien puutteen vaikeuttavan ongelmanratkaisun opetusta. Noin viisi kuudesta opettajasta koki ongelmanratkaisun opetukseen liittyvän runsaasti erilaisia vaatimuksia niin oppilaiden kuin opettajan asenteeseen ja osaamiseen.
  • Stenbäck, Reija-Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The Covid-19 pandemic forced the Ministry of Education and Culture to make a historical decision, based on which all schools and educational institutions in Finland switched to dis-tance education on March 18, 2020. If necessary, contact teaching was offered only to pupils in grades 1 – 3 or with special support. The purpose of this dissertation is to record the experience of pupils aged 7 to 12 years and their parents of the distance school routine overshadowed by exclusionary activities of soci-ety. It was mentally a very difficult period. The aim of the dissertation is to find out how dis-tance education was perceived, especially in terms of the mental well-being of pupils and what opportunities the teacher has to support in the community of pupils and other mental well-being in the situation of distance education. This qualitative research has a narrative approach. The material consists of diary-based WhatsApp messages from three students and loosely structured thematic interviews with stu-dents and their parents. The material has been compiled during exceptional circumstances, and it was possible to find out changes in school practices and pupils’ moods as the distance learning period progressed. The results show the importance of different teaching practices on mental well-being of the pupil the differences in the level of teaching practices. The data shows the spring 2020 was challenging. As expected, it highlighted loneliness caused by social isolation but also the po-tential of the school to support community. At it’s best, distance education was challenging but diverse learning environment that devel-oped future skills and self-esteem of the pupil. At worst, it turned out to be a grueling and lonely drill for the pupil when even the provision of basic learning goals was uncertain.
  • Korhonen, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objective of the study. Assessment is a central part of academic teacher education studies and supporting the development of professional agency a key objective of assessment in tertiary education. Therefore, understanding students’ experiences of being assessed and the development of professional agency in assessment situations is important. Teachers’ professional agency is an integrative concept consisting of three dimensions: motivation, self-efficacy and classroom strategies. Previous studies have shown that the teaching practice periods and social interaction situations during teacher education are important in the development of student teachers’ professional agency. Furthermore, previous studies have suggested that assessment practices are related to students’ motivation, self-efficacy and learning. Previous studies have not explored students’ assessment experiences in relation to the development of their professional agency. The purpose of the present study is to find out what kind of assessment situations student teachers identify as important, and how these assessment situations are related to the development of teachers’ professional agency. Methods. The data consisted of eight individual interviews, collected from student teachers who were at the final phase of their studies. The Critical Incident method was applied when carrying out the interviews. The participants were asked to recall assessment situations during their teacher education studies which they found important for their professional development. The interview data were analyzed using the abductive content analysis approach. Results and conclusions. The results suggested that assessment situations were related to the development of student teachers’ professional agency. The clearest relation was found between assessment situations and students’ self-efficacy. The students considered formative, timely, dialogical and well-founded assessment as the most beneficial in supporting the development of their professional agency. Assessment as its best can enhance students’ experiences of being on the right track, capability for teacher profession and having the sufficient skills for teacher’s work in the future. Poorly executed assessment can impede the development of professional agency. Based on the results the use of dialogical feedback practices and interactive peer assessment practices can be particularly beneficial in supporting the development of students’ motivation, self-efficacy and classroom strategies. It is important to consider the development of students’ professional agency in developing the assessment practices of the academic teacher education.
  • Lindblad, Christel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Purpose. Effect of the method “Grej of the Day” (GOTD) and sustainability pedagogics about Agenda 2030 is analyzed. The purpose is to support teaching of facts about Agenda 2030, raise the pupils’ motivation for environmental education and improve their attitudes. This study aims to see if pupils get more knowledge and better environmental attitudes after GOTD- microlessons about goals in Agenda 2030. The pupils’ feelings after the GOTD were analyzed. A swedish study shows that teachers think that their pupils get more knowledge and better motivation when teaching SO-subjects (society subjects) with GOTD. Methods. 22 pupils in grades 5–6 participated in this study. This was an action research and the pupils had 4 microlessons about 4 goals (12–15) from Agenda 2030. After the two first lessons a school project was analyzed using content analysis to see if something should be improved. Knowledge and attitudes related to Agenda 2030 were studied with a survey before and after the intervention. The survey also had two open questions about feelings before and after a GOTD-microlesson. Questions about the knowledge were based on Grön Flagg- surveys and results are presented by percentages of right and wrong. The survey about attitudes included statements to take a stand on on a Likert-scale. Results were analyzed using SPSS and presented statistically. The open questions were analyzed using content analysis. Results and conclusions. Knowledge before the intervention was very good and all the pupils gave the right answer to 7 of the 24 questions both before and after the intervention. In some questions about Goal 12 Sustainable consumtion and production the pupils lacked some knowledge and the intervention improved their knowledge a little. Attitudes about the environmental goals in Agenda 2030 were good and only a little improvement could be detected after the intervention. The improvement was not statistically significant. Content analysis of the answers to the open questions show that GOTD creates inner motivation for learning. The method “Grej of the Day” appears to be useful as a complement while teaching environmental issues in elementary schools.
  • Pöllänen, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives. The objective of the study was to clarify, to describe and to analyse how the eating recommendations of the early childhood education come true especially for food education about private childminder. I also tried to clarify how the food education is put into practice in the private childminder's workday and what kind of factors promote or prevent of the food education. The earlier studies have shown that the eating during of the early childhood education has significance and that the children in the daycare have more versatile eating habits than the children that have been taken care at home. The research questions were formulated partly based on the eating recommendation of the early childhood education which gives the general guidelines for the offering and food education of the food which promotes health. The recommendation has been meant for all the operators of the early childhood education. Methods. The study was carried out as a qualitative study. The material of the study was collected as theme interviews. Seven private childminders participated in the interview. All the interviewees worked at home and they had 1–5-year-old children in the full-time daycare. The recorded material was transcribed for the analysis. Qualitative research material was analyzed by thematising. In addition to the qualitative material, I was able to use the menus from them on which it was in use. Results and conclusions. Eating recommendations of the early childhood education were followed well on private childminders. The eating situations were peaceful and unhurried, and children were encouraged to taste all the available foods without forcing. A private childminders' appreciation and respect for food appeared in many ways. Many emphasized that they wanted to prepare the meals themselves from the scratch and some preferred to use as much as possible the crops of their own yard or those of local producers. The factors which promoted the food education were working at home and small group size in which case it was possible to let the children participate in the food preparation. The private childminders were hoping to get more peer support in their work and since the work was seen as very responsible, they wished for additional education from the municipalities about food education and eating situations. All the private childminders experienced that they were food educators, but most of them had challenges to recognize the definition of the food education and the identification. Based on the results the private childminders' work could be developed by providing opportunities to participate in the education and by increasing the consciousness of the food education.
  • Hämäläinen, Anniina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The aim of this study is to analyze and interpret environmental education materials by envi-ronmental organisations for early childhood education. Despite the fact that by the early childhood curriculum from 2018 the sustainable development goals and environmental edu-cation are mentioned as a part of early childhood education there are no teacher’s books to support environmental education in early childhood education. There are, however, some en-vironmental learning materials compiled by environmental organisations intended for early childhood education. In this study I will assess the overall picture regarding environmental education provided by those materials. Theoretical background of this study is based on Palmer’s (1998) model for teaching and learning in environmental education (the so-called Palmer’s tree model) and knowledge about nature connectedness and children’s participation and agency. Research material in this study consists of environmental education publications produced by environmental organisations between the years 2008 and 2020. The material consists of 12 environmental education publications – with both written and illustrated content – from five different organisations. The material was analysed by using content analysis. The results of this study show that environmental education goals are achieved only partly. The goal for education about environment as in Palmer’s model (1998) seems to be included in the materials, but there seems to be a remarkable variation how the goals for education for environment and education in or from the environment are fulfilled. Children’s role as active agents for the environment was low. Materials do not produce any holistic picture about environmental education when contrasted with the research literature. The ecological dimension about nature connection seems to be emphasized in children’s nature connection. Nature connectedness does not exist as a whole in the environmental education materials. Children’s role seems to be limited to learning by playing and participating in some activities. Children’s agency to affect to the environment has a small role in those materials. Content analysis about illustrations used in the materials confirms the same situation about environmental education and there is room for development in educational materials. In order to achieve the goals of environmental education teachers have a big role in choosing the environmental education materials to support their teaching.
  • Takkavuori, Veera (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Positive education is a new application of positive psychology. The main purpose of positive education is to increase the well-being of individuals, to wrap learning and well-being in school together, and to harness character strengths as resources. Positive education is used in many Finnish schools. This educational trend is currently very topical, as studies show that mental disorders in children and young people has increased both in Finland and globally. There is little research data on positive education. The views of the working teachers and the experiences of the pupils have been studied in a few master's thesis. The views of classroom teacher students have not been studied nearly at all. The purpose of this thesis was to find out what views do students have on positive education. The study was conducted with qualitative approaches. 26 classroom teacher students from master’s degree participated in the study. The data was gathered by using an electronic questionnaire. The data was analyzed by content analysis. According to this study, classroom teacher students had a positive attitude to positive education, but also critical. Positive education was seen to contribute widely to well-being. The students felt that the focus on well-being was appropriate for their own teach-ing philosophy. Strength-based education was perceived as the core of positive educa-tion. Positive education was thought to focus for the most part on supporting individual needs and development. Individual support that requires strong student knowledge was seen easily to overstress teacher. Students saw that positive education especially bene-fits students with special needs, who often threaten to be criticized for their own actions. Students believe that positive education promotes learning and schooling positively through many factors. Lack of knowledge was seen as a challenge for positive educa-tion. Students felt they knew about positive education a bit. They also pondered the sci-entific origins of positive pedagogy. Students were concerned about the possible way of positive education to ignore challenges in an overly positive way and to neglect the study of academic skills. This study shows that positive education needs more research.
  • Türkmen, Leyla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives. Multilingualism will become more and more visible in schools with immigration. According to the forecast, by 2030, one in four residents of the Helsinki region will speak a foreign language, ie speak their first language other than Finnish, Swedish or Sámi. This means that at least one in four school-age children speaks more than just their school language at home. The diversity of students' language backgrounds must also be taken into account in school teaching. Research has been conducted on the challenges and opportunities of multilingualism in basic education from the perspective of teachers and schools, among others. The perspective of children and young people who speak Finnish as a second language, ie multilingual, has received less attention. The aim of this study is to bring the student’s perspective on the topic, as they themselves are best placed to tell about their own multiplicity in terms of both the challenges and opportunities involved. Methods. The study examines the challenges and opportunities of multilingualism from the student’s perspective. Research has three needs, which are research need, supporting the development of multicultural schools, and increasing understanding of multilingual students. The extract of the study was a qualitative case study, the material of which has been collected through semi-structured thematic interviews. The material was collected by interviewing three young people who speak Finnish as a second language. Interviewees were selected for the study based on their multilingual backgrounds. Content analysis from data sources was used as the data analysis method. Results and conclusions. According to the interviewees, linguistic challenges arose in learning Finnish, studying in another language and especially in reading comprehension and language fluency. The challenges experienced in the school environment were strongly related to situations that were perceived as difficult to adapt to. The potential for multilingualism in this study was not combined with teaching at all. Multilingualism was perceived as an empowering factor in maintaining friendships, an important part of one's own identity and a tool for self-expression. Although summaries of young people’s responses could be made, despite the similarities, young people’s experiences of the challenges in primary education varied widely. The research provides information and increases educators ’understanding of what issues should also be addressed when encountering a multilingual learner.
  • Lahdelma, Minja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Goals. The aim of this study was to examine the challenges autistic university students face when searching for a job, and the supporting structures that universities offer. Research on autistic graduates’ transition between university and employment is scarce. The numbers of autistic students are on the rise in higher education. It is important to evaluate the structures that universities have in place to support their transition into employment. The autism spectrum condition manifests differently with every individual but there are some common characteristics: challenges in social interaction and communication, as well as repetitive and/or restricted behaviour. These characteristics can present challenges during job application. Research shows that especially job application and the processes involving it can create barriers for autistic graduates. Methods. The data is collected as a part of the IMAGE Project. Participants were Finnish autistic university students or recent graduates (n=7) and career advisors (n=5). Data was collected through semi-structured interviews during spring 2019. The interviews were transcribed and then analysed using grounded theory. Results and conclusions. This study shows that many autistic students didn’t use career services even though they recognized needs for support in searching for a job. Three aspects affected students seeking support from career services: 1) need for support and recognising it, 2) meeting the need for support and 3) accessibility of support. Many of the support needs expressed by autistic students were met by services offered by universities, but problems with accessibility of career services created barriers which hindered students from using the services. There were structures in place that guided students into career services but often getting help demanded that students actively seek it. This demand for self-directness may form a barrier for many autistic students. Based on this study universities should create systematic structures that guide students into services as effortlessly as possible.
  • Leinonen, Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims. Time pressure is part of working life. The term of time pressure is widely used but the meanings that it includes are often left unclear. According to the sociocultural framework, time pressure is an organizational or cultural way of act that individual transfer into their own way of act and comprehend by being in an interaction with others. According to Finnish working life studies the time pressure in work life has increased especially in communal field, in social and healthcare and educational fields particularly. Employees own perceptions have often left in minor role. The aim of this research was to study early childhood education employees’ perceptions of the time pressure in work. In public discussion, the field of early childhood education has been characterized by time pressure and hectic working culture, but the perceptions of the employees have been left unnoticed. The aim of the study was to give voice to the employees in early childhood education to talk about the time pressure in their own work. The aim of this study is to survey the perceptions that early childhood educators give to the time pressure in working life. Methods. This study is a phenomenographic study. There were 101 employees of early childhood education that participated in this study. Employees participated by answering the internet questionnaire that I had send to two early childhood education communities in Facebook. The final research material included answers to eight open questions and four case-study questions, all together approximately 1300 individual answers. Results and conclusions. The results of this study included variations of perceptions that early childhood education employees have towards time pressure in work. Results included time pressure as a way of acting, as a part of work structures, as a problem of work environment, as a conflict between the values and the reality in working life, as a threat to ones wellbeing and as a relation towards the child group. The perception about not having a time pressure in work included the tranquillity as basic value, as a structure, as being depended of individual, as bending in casual work, as the size of the child group and as an unprofessional acting. The time pressure and a lack of time pressure were percepted as being in relation to own acting but also as structurally and communally responsible phenomena. There is a need of arrangement of early childhood education field and job descriptions. Also, the field of early childhood education deserves more valuation from the employees themselves but also in a public discussion.
  • Ylä-Rautio, Iida (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives. The objective of this pro gradu thesis is to survey what class teachers think about the sup- port of and factors related to learning mathematics with understanding. One of the most important goals of the teaching of mathematics, according to both research into the teaching of mathematics and the curriculum for mathematics, is to support pupils in their development of mathematical understan- ding. According to studies this goal has not yet been attained, as mathematics teaching more often supports procedural knowledge than learning mathematics with understanding. In this study I set out to find out what are the things class teachers consider important for the success in teaching mathema- tics with understanding. This study aims at collecting information about the areas we should pay at- tention to in the teaching of mathematics, in its research and in teacher training to make it possible to achieve the goal of teaching that supports mathematical understanding. Methods. The material of the study consists of thematic interviews with six class teachers who are interested or specialized in mathematics. The material was analyzed by means of a qualitative content analysis. I made use of the Atlas.ti software that is intended for qualitative data analysis. In my ana- lysis I raised two themes that my results are based on. Results and conclusions. What class teachers conceived of as supporting learning with understanding was related either with the teaching-learning process or the teacher. Supporting mathematical unders- tanding seemed to form a process that starts with the orientation into a new subject as well as the use of concrete models, after which the new subject matter is being rehearsed with the help of, for example, textbook exercises. The development of mathematical network of knowledge and the skill to apply mathematics were seen as a consequence of understanding. Hearing and speaking mathema- tical language was thought to support mathematical understanding throughout the process. For lear- ning with understanding to succeed it is furthermore important that the teachers themselves know and understand mathematics and plan the teaching of mathematics carefully. It appears that success in the teaching of mathematics that supports learning with understanding depends on whether the teachers have sufficient knowledge and skills to plan and carry out such teaching.
  • Nuutinen, Anna Maaria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää, miten SCIS ohjelman mukaan opiskelleet viidesluokkalaiset osaavat opetussuunnitelman perusteiden mukaisia luokkatasonsa biologian peruskäsitteitä. Lisäksi selvitettiin sukupuolen ja luontoharrastuneisuuden sekä äidinkielen ja biologian todistusarvosanojen yhteyttä osaamiseen. Tutkimusaineisto koottiin keväällä 2005 espoolaisessa peruskoulussa. Tutkimukseen osallistui koulun yhden viidennen luokan kaikki 21 oppilasta, joista tyttöjä oli yhdeksän ja poikia 12. Oppilaiden osaamista arvioitiin kolmeosaisella testillä. Ensimmäinen tehtävä mittasi eliö- käsitteen hallintaa: luokittelua ja perustelua, toinen tehtävä ravintoketju- käsitteen hallintaa ja kolmas tehtävä mittasi tuottaja-, kuluttaja- ja hajottaja- käsitteiden hallintaa. Tutkimusten aineistolle suoritettiin tilastollinen analyysi ja päättely. Tulosten mukaan oppilaiden käsitykset eliöiden luokittelusta osoittautuivat hallituksi. Vaikeuksia tuotti ainoastaan koivun luokitteleminen eliöksi. Tulosten perusteella viidesluokkalaiset oppilaat osasivat erottaa elolliseen ja elottomaan luontoon liittyvät asiat ja luokitella ne. Oppilaat perustelivat eliöiden kuulumisen eliöihin joko eliöalan tai eliön ominaisuuksien mukaan, mutta eivät molempien mukaan. Oppilaat osasivat täydentää yksinkertaisen ravintoketjun. Valtaosa oppilaista osasi luokitella elolliseen ja elottomaan luontoon kuuluvia tekijöitä tuottajiin, kuluttajiin ja hajottajiin. Auringon ja kärpässienen luokittelu ei onnistunut kolmasosalta oppijoista; lähes kaikki oppilaat luokittelivat kastemadon virheellisesti hajottajiin. Tytöt menestyivät vain hiukan paremmin testissä kuin pojat. Ero ei ollut tilastollisesti merkitsevä. Äidinkielen ja biologian arvosanoilla ei ollut yhteyttä testissä menestymiseen eikä myöskään luontoharrastuneisuudella. Tämän tutkimuksen tulosten mukaan SCIS ohjelma soveltuu hyvin yhdeksi vaihtoehdoksi luonnontieteiden peruskäsitteiden opettamiseen peruskoulun alakoulun oppilaille.

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