Faculty of Educational Sciences


Recent Submissions

  • Meriläinen, Pauliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Background: The purpose of this study is to bring understanding of what elements enable experts' knowledge sharing in digital service organizations. In digital service organizations the organizational structure is often project-based. Customer projects start and end throughout the calendar year, and the employees working within them may change along with the new projects. In addition, digital service companies have been actively hiring new employees. Rapidly grown number of new employees and the fact that the closest co-workers change throughout the year may cause challenges to the employees’ knowledge sharing within projects and beyond them to the wider organization. The elements which interrelation with employees’ knowledge sharing is examined in this study are self-determination theory’s three basic psycholog-ical needs, empowering leadership, and psychological safety. The theoretical framework is based on the concepts of knowledge and expertise, and on the previous research about the basic psychological needs and autonomous motivation, empowering leadership, and psychological safety at work. Problem: The aim of this research is to gain more understanding of what elements enable employees’ knowledge sharing in digital service organizations. The viewpoint is in the conditions where the employees operate at work. Methods: The nature of the research is qualitative interview study. The research material was collected by interviewing eight employees in one digital service company in spring 2020. Empirical data was analysed by theory- and data-driven content analysis. Results: The results of this study imply that the informants’ views on knowledge sharing at work were in line with the previous studies. All the elements examined interrelated with employees’ knowledge sharing as enabling it. Significance: The results bring understanding of what elements in organizations can enable employees’ motivation, ability, and opportunity to share their knowledge at work.
  • Rantanen, Joonas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives. In sports, there is a pressure for change in coaches behaviour and coaching styles. The discussion regarding the methods and procedures used in coaching is active. From a coaching philosophical perspective, coach orientation has changed to player orientation. Teaching methods used in coaching should be updated to reflect modern learning concepts in which the player has the role of an active agent. In conclusion, the need to develop the skills of coaches has increased. In addition to mastering coaching styles, the coach is required to have the ability to utilize social and emotional skills. This study examines and analyzes how football coaches utilize and use social and emotional skills as well as teaching styles. In addition, connections between socialemotional skills and teaching styles are sought. Methods. The approach of this study was qualitative. The material was collected through individual interviews. There were total of six interviews (n = 6). The coaches interviewed had extensive and long coaching experience. The analysis of material was done as a theory-based content analysis, because the aim was to look at the material from the perspective of theory. Results and conclusions. Based on this research, the notion that coaching is moving towards a teaching style in which the player´s role as a active learner and a builder of knowledge is taken into account was confirmed. It can be concluded from the material that coaches use a autonomy supportive teaching style to take into account the needs of the players. However, coaches feel that there are situations where it is justified to use controlling teaching style instead of autonomyt supportive style. The best approach can be therefore considered to be a combination of an autonomy supportive and controlling style. Based on this research, coaches utilize social and emotional skills in a variety of coaching work. It can be concluded from the material that coaches value social and emotional skills and perceive them as a significant aspect of coaching. Based on the material, coaches place particular emphasis on those areas of social and emotional skills that are related to working with others. From this it can be concluded that in the future more attention should be paid to the development of coache´s self-awareness and self-management.
  • Juvonen, Olli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives. Comprehensive schools in Finland apply a common core curriculum (POPS), that is largely based on a constructivistic concept of learning. The core curriculum is described as child-centered. Different alternative pedagogies, such as Montessori pedagogy, Steiner pe- dagogy and Freinet pedagogy, are applied in only few Finnish comprehensive schools. These alternatives function in the Finnish school system applying the same core curriculum and they have there own historical premises. This study focused on Montessori pedagogy. The research question of this study is practical: How can you apply the basic principles of Mon- tessori pedagogy in comprehensive school's core curriculum? Methods. The theoretical part of the study describes the princples of the core curriculum and Montessori pedagogy. The aim was to find comparable contents from both materials. In Montessori pedagogy the comparison was focused on the concept of cosmic education, es- pecially the 6-item definition given by Grazzini. In the core curriculum, the description of transversal competence areas was chosen to be compared. The comparison was done by analyzing the differences and similiraties between the texts. The results of the analysis were complemented by interviewing three professionals involved in the application of Montessori pedagogy within the Finnish core curriculum. Results and conclusions. According to the study, the concept of cosmic education can be readily applied considering transversal competences as objectives of the core curriculum. The const- ructivistic concept of learning in the core curriculum is compatible with the premises of Mon- tessori pedagogy. The main difference when applying Montessori pedagogy was found to be the sensitivity phase -based, non-linear view of the learning process and the more pronoun- ced emphasis on child-centered thinking. According to the interviews there were no obstacles in using Montessori pedagogy to achieve the goals of the core curriculum. Moreover, Mon- tessori pedagogy could offer new development opportunities to the Finnish comprehensive school. According to this study both the core curriculum and Montessori pedagogy share child-centered thinking and an understanding of transversal competence areas, both useful themes for further education development and research.
  • Repo, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The core numerical skills consist of four major factors: symbolic and non-symbolic number sense, counting skills, basic skills in arithmetic and understanding mathematical relations. According to the previous studies, the teachers’ and breeders’ assessments are quite consistence with the children’s mathematical skills that has been tested. The aim of this Master’s Thesis is to analyze the reliability of the educators’ assessment form and find out whether there is concurrent validity between educators’ assessment form and the Early Numeracy Test. In addition concurrent validity was examined of the different subscales of the educators ́ assessment form between different subscales of the Early Numeracy Test. Furthermore, the aim was also to find out the effect of children’s gender and age on to the educators’ assessment about of children’s early numeracy (known group validity). The sample of this study was educators (N = 56) and children aged 3–5 years (322) from 16 kindergartens in Helsinki. The data consist of educators’ assessments (N = 289) of children`s early numeracy which was collected between May and June 2020. Furthermore, the results of Early Numeracy Test (N = 322) collected from the same children, was used. In the data analysis concurrent validity was examined by calculating correlation, internal consistency and known group validity by the independent sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). All the data was analyzed using statistical methods in the IBM SPSS Statistics 25 -program. The item consistency of the educators’ assessment form was excellent. The correlation analysis found a clear link between the educators’ assessment form and the Early Numeracy Test as well as the examina- tion of the different subscales of both assessments. In the examination of known group validity there was not found difference between gender, but the difference between age groups were localized between 3–4 years and 3–5 years. The results are in line with previous studies although the differences between girls and boys in the teacher’s estimates have appeared earlier.
  • Okkonen, Aliisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The increase in knowledge and continuous changes in our world affect upbringing and education. In autumn 2016 came into effect the new curriculum of comprehensive school that obligated schools to promote integrated learning and multidisciplinarity by arranging multidisciplinary learning modules. The objective of this study is to find out class teachers’ experiences and views of multidisciplinary learning modules as a part of everyday school. The purpose of this study is to understand what kind of advantages and challenges class teachers see in multidisciplinary learning modules, how class teachers feel about their own competences to implement those modules, and what is the value of cooperation in class teachers’ opinion when implementing multidisciplinary learning modules. Forty class teachers responded to this study through an online survey. The online survey was shared to two social media groups. The groups consisted mostly of professionals of education and class teacher students. The study was based on tradition of phenomenology due to the study’s interest in class teachers’ experiences. According to phenomenology, experiences are human’s experiential relations to his/her own reality. Participants of this study experienced multidisciplinary learning modules mostly as a positive part of everyday school. The biggest advantages of the multidisciplinary learning modules were increased cooperation, communality, and pupils’ motivation for school. Class teachers considered communal planning of multidisciplinary learning modules laborious, however, they though that cooperation was an important part of successful multidisciplinary learning modules. This study was also interested in class teachers’ opinions about their own competences to implement multidisciplinary learning modules. Class teachers of this study experienced that they have enough competence to implement multidisciplinary learning modules.
  • Teräsvasara, Juha (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims. Problem solving plays a key role in the foundations of the basic education curriculum and is one of the seven main objectives of mathematics teaching. (National Board of Education 2014) The student's positive attitude towards mathematics has been found to be related to better learning outcomes (Niemi, 2008). A teacher who is more positive about mathematics is more likely to get his or her students excited about studying mathematics (Hattie 2012). This study examines how students with dual-grade teachers in mathematics differ from the national level in problem-solving skills and mathematical attitudes in lower elementary school. Methods. The study is quantitative in nature. All elementary classes involved in the study were taught by a teacher who completed the dual qualification of mathematics. The material was collected mainly through electronic forms sent to teachers. Problem-solving skills were tested with the tests of the 2018-2019 Kangaroo Math Competition and attitudes to study mathematics with Fennema-Sherman's (1976) scale of mathematical attitudes. The attitude survey measured attitudes towards mathematics, pupils’ confidence in mathematics, and the engagement of mathematics teaching. The data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics. Results and conclusions. In the problem-solving test, the performance level of the experimental group was lower than the national data. In the attitude survey there was no statistically significant difference between the groups on attitudes towards mathematics. There was no statistically significant difference found in students confidence in their own mathematical skills but the students' engagement was stronger for the research material with the result being statistically significant. Based on this study it appears that the qualifications of dual-qualified lower elementary school teachers find teaching more engaging than Finnish students in general, and that dual-qualified teachers are more successful in implementing gender equality.
  • Vilkman, Beisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Making crafts is no longer based on need alone. The importance of craft as a subject emphasizing self-expression has grown, and craft teachers have a significant role in how craft is valued in the future. The theoretical framework of the study examines the sociocultural context of craft and which elements affect the expressive meanings of craft. The study outlines the meanings associated with craft expression by craft teacher students and discourses based on the research data. The use of language as a research subject reflected the contextual nature and culture of the meanings related to craft expression. In the study, discourse referred to a fairly established discussion about issues that construct social reality. The research data consisted of 38 essays written by the craft teacher students in the University of Helsinki during the Study planning course in 2014 and 2017. Part of the essay assignment was to reflect on one’s own craft expression. The qualitative research method was interpretive discourse analysis. Initially, through content analysis, I outlined what meanings craft teacher students attached to craft expression when describing their own craft expression. In the discursive analysis phase, I interpreted what kind of discourses were constructed from the data. The data emphasized product- and need-based understanding of craft, in which practicality was found to exclude expressiveness of craft. Based on the data analysis, four discourses of craft expression were constructed: sustainable craft, flawless craft making, beauty and non-expression. Like the meanings associated with craft expression, discourses overlapped, and the topics got various aspects in different discourses. The meanings and discourses associated with craft expression open up the effects of craft culture and help to understand the significance of craft as part of the diversity of life.
  • Kärki, Elisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives. Many studies, activities, processes, services, and even individual products in sustainability (sustainable development) aim at change either only explicitly or only implicitly. However, change often remains unnecessarily modest considering the severity of the problems. This tendency exists in the field of craft science, fashion and more broadly. The research assignment is to describe, analyse and interpret change for sustainability in the field of fashion. The research task is to analyse the philosophical concept meliorism’s potential to produce new insight to this central question of sustainability. The aim is to examine change and understand with meliorism those conditions in which highly challenging and complex information could still be received without paralysis and acted on in consistent and constructive manners. Methods. The chosen data Fashion Transparency Index is compiled by the world’s leading fashion and sustainability campaign: Fashion Revolution. The index is a comparative review on fashion brands’ transparency on sustainability issues from year 2020. The analysis was done in stages. First it was mainly data-driven content analysis where the phenomenon’s concrete manifestations were more prominent. Towards the end theory-driven analysis with the help of concept of meliorism was in focus. Results and conclusions. In Fashion Transparency Index change for sustainability in the field of fashion remains mostly as vague hope, transparency tool making and optimistic descriptions of the sustainability activities of big fashion brands. However, based on further results of this study, it can be tentatively claimed that if meliorism’s active take on making a difference, the preconditions for change for sustainability could be met. In other words if we are not to sink into hopeless pessimism nor give into unfounded optimism but we actively absorb inaccessible, incomplete and even anxiety provoking information and act in accordance to that information, we have an opportunity to improve the presence and above all the future of fashion field.
  • Mäkinen, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The purpose of this study is to find out, through the class teachers' own experiences, how differentiation was implemented in the distance education during the exceptional period incurred in spring 2020. This research is focused on finding successes and challenges teachers experienced in distance teachings differentiation. In addition, the study examines the types of support teachers received during this time. Being a fairly topical issue at the moment, the available scientific research, which would specifically address classroom distance learning, is limited. The research approach in this paper is mainly qualitative also utilizing multi-methodological means. The research material has been collected through a questionnaire and four interviews in order to obtain additional qualitative information. A total of 33 primary school classroom teachers from 24 different municipalities responded to the survey. The survey comprised of 26 questions, some of which were Likert-scale questions and some open-ended questions. The respondents were mainly collected from a Facebook community of almost 40,000 teachers and those interested in education. The quantitative data obtained from the questionnaire has been analyzed with Microsoft Excel and the open questions have been coded. Qualitative material was collected through four short semi-structured thematic interviews. The interview questions were based on questions already answered in the questionnaire, that required further qualitative research. The majority of the teachers who responded to the study found distance learning differentiation challenging. However, some found it even easier to implement differentiation than in face-to-face teaching. The most common way to differentiate teaching was the variations in the number and level of schoolwork and the use of implements. The successes of differentiation experienced by the teachers were related to provision of support to pupils who needed it, the usage of new ways of working, such as instructional videos, and more personal communication with students. Majority of teachers felt that the support they received from their colleagues most important form of support. Some would have liked more unified guidance from superiors. Others, on the other hand, found the guidance from their superiors unnecessarily demanding in a situation where support and understanding would have been needed. The challenges faced by teachers in distance learning were mainly due to the rapid transitioning to distance teaching, as well as the unpreparedness.
  • Haapaniemi, Amanda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of my master’s thesis was to study special education classroom teachers’ views on physical education. I think my thesis is important because it is known that children and youth’s level of physical activity has reduced. I wanted to find out what physical activities special education classroom teachers use in their teaching and how they support the development of a physical lifestyle for their students. Additionally, I wanted to find out if physical education for special needs students is similar to physical education for general education students. The thesis is a qualitative study which was done using a phenomenographic research method. I used categorization and content analysis as the method for analysing the research material. The study was conducted with a survey (n=19) with open questions. The theoretical framework used in the study consists of the study of physical activity relationships and the self-determination theory. In addition, the thesis’ theory part also goes over the effect instruction, environment and motivation have on a person’s physical activity and physical activity relationship. The study yielded empirical data on how special education classroom teachers’ idea of physical education is formed. I divided the different dimensions of physical education to the following categories: teachers’ personal starting points, objectives, experiences, methods and didactics as physical educators. The teachers’ methods of promoting children’s physical activity were diverse, including functional teaching, developing recess activities, teaching outside and adding sessions of physical activity for example as break exercises or as rewards. Related to exercise situations with special needs students the answers highlighted the importance of clarity, time, instruction, structure, routines, safety and planning. All in all, promoting children’s physical activity was seen as an important objective.
  • Relander, Annukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The psychometric properties, validity and reliability, of numeracy assessment have a significant role in identifying students’ special education needs in mathematics. Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the validity and reliability evidence of numeracy measures used by teachers at the elementary school for children aged 9 through 12 years. Methods: A systematic search of Cinahl, Embase, ERIC, PsychINFO and PudMed abstract databases was completed up to the March, 2020. The abstracts and articles were evaluated independently by two reviewers according to the inclusion criteria. Consensus was reached by discussions. Only peer-reviewed articles reporting psychometric properties of numeracy measures and published in English were included. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P, 2015) guidelines were applied for reporting. The terminology and classification of psychometric properties followed the Consensus-Based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) guidelines. Three validity properties and three reliability properties were searched and extracted from the articles. Results: Of the 4763 abstracts 921 full-text articles were screened and 13 studies met the inclusion criteria of this review. Two additional studies were identified through reference search. Half of the psychometric properties of the numeracy measures were not studied and reported in the articles. All the six reliability and validity properties were found for one measure. The evidence on the psychometric properties was limited for most of the measures due to the incomplete or missing psychometric data. Conclusions: The validity and reliability of the measures is limited and further evidence and research is needed.
  • Haapala, Annika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat – Abstract The goal of this master’s thesis is to research and compare the perceptions of and beliefs about mathematics of Finnish third grade comprehensive school pupils studying with the Varga–Neményi method and the control group, which in this study consists of pupils not studying with the Varga–Neményi method. The inspirer of this thesis is the dissertation of Pirjo Tikkanen (2008) which, in addition to other previous studies (e.g. Kivovicsné Horváth, 2010), has shown that pupils studying with the Varga–Neményi method perceive mathematics as more co-operative than pupils in control groups do. This study provides additional information on the possible differences between perceptions and beliefs of mathematics of pupils studying with different methods. The research material of the Varga–Neményi pupils was gathered during the spring of 2020. The material of the control group was in turn gathered in 2009 and was received from the University of Helsinki. The study studied 13 different third grade classes in the Helsinki metropolitan area and included a total of 170 pupils, 40 of which were studying with the Varga–Neményi method. Each participant drew a drawing of their mathematics lesson and some wrote a brief description of it. The drawings were analyzed using a similar drawing analysis method as Tikkanen (2008). The perceptions and beliefs were first analyzed group-wide and later compared between the groups. The drawing analysis was aided by the pupils’ writings. The differences between the two groups in the study turned out to be small, and the most predominant methods represented in the drawings were teacher-directed and individual work. According to the holistic evaluation the pupils’ perceptions were mainly neutral in the Varga–Neményi group and positive in the control group.
  • Räsänen, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The purpose of this study was to find out what handicrafts and group participation mean for young girls and why the participation of the group is perceived as important. The study also aims to describe what crafts look like in social youth work and what significance it has for girls to be only among girls. Previous research has shown that group activities play a role in strengthening self-knowledge and confidence. Participation in group activities increases the young person's own activity and agency (Ståhlberg, 2019). Previous studies have also shown that making handicrafts has mental and physical effects that increase well-being (Pöllänen, 2017). The aim of the study was to find out the meanings of handicrafts, participation in a group and Girls' House activities for the girls participating in the study. The study was conducted at the Girls' House. It is an open place for all those who define themselves as girls and women. The subject of the study was the Open Handicrafts group, which met at the house once a week. The participants in the group were 14-25 years old. The researcher herself acted as a group supervisor during the study. The research material was collected using ethnographic methods by observing the group, as well as interviewing four girls who visit the house regularly. The interviews were semi-structured thematic interviews and the interviews were transcribed into text. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data with the aim of finding similarities and differences in the themes and meanings of the study. The research reveals that there is a demand and need for a place for girls. Many meanings for being among girls were found. Some of the girls felt impressed with the growth of their own identity and peer support helped them grow into women. For many girls, participating in a handicraft group was more of a daily activity than a hobby. The group was often perceived as more important than making handicrafts. The Girls' house is perceived as a reliable and safe place to get peer support from other girls and women.
  • Averin, Inka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of this study was to explore dimensions of worker-citizenship in apprenticeship training. Also, the aim was to study which kind of positions there are for young apprenticeship students within apprenticeship training through the perspectives of apprenticeship experts. Basis for this study is post-structuralist research and I approach apprenticeship training as a discursive practice. Previous research has shown that there is a strong worker-citizenship ethos which connects to neoliberalism in vocational education. Worker-citizenship in apprenticeship training has not been studied before in Finland. Overall, there has been little research about apprenticeship training in Finland and especially critical studies are missing. The data was collected via six individual interviews that were conducted in spring 2020. The interviewees were six apprenticeship experts, and the data was analyzed using discursive reading method. The results of my study give some insight to apprenticeship training practices and the youths` position in apprenticeship. Based on my analysis worker-citizenship discourse is upheld within apprenticeship training. Apprenticeship experts argued the benefits and disadvantages of apprenticeship through dimensions linked to worker-citizenship. In addition, the positions of young apprenticeship students were defined from worker-citizenship. This appears in a sense that young students are guided to a position of self-responsible and active yet self-aware of their deficits. Along with the ideal subject an opposite was defined which was seen for example as a “reader type”.
  • Valento, Miia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
  • Nuutinen, Anna Maaria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää, miten SCIS ohjelman mukaan opiskelleet viidesluokkalaiset osaavat opetussuunnitelman perusteiden mukaisia luokkatasonsa biologian peruskäsitteitä. Lisäksi selvitettiin sukupuolen ja luontoharrastuneisuuden sekä äidinkielen ja biologian todistusarvosanojen yhteyttä osaamiseen. Tutkimusaineisto koottiin keväällä 2005 espoolaisessa peruskoulussa. Tutkimukseen osallistui koulun yhden viidennen luokan kaikki 21 oppilasta, joista tyttöjä oli yhdeksän ja poikia 12. Oppilaiden osaamista arvioitiin kolmeosaisella testillä. Ensimmäinen tehtävä mittasi eliö- käsitteen hallintaa: luokittelua ja perustelua, toinen tehtävä ravintoketju- käsitteen hallintaa ja kolmas tehtävä mittasi tuottaja-, kuluttaja- ja hajottaja- käsitteiden hallintaa. Tutkimusten aineistolle suoritettiin tilastollinen analyysi ja päättely. Tulosten mukaan oppilaiden käsitykset eliöiden luokittelusta osoittautuivat hallituksi. Vaikeuksia tuotti ainoastaan koivun luokitteleminen eliöksi. Tulosten perusteella viidesluokkalaiset oppilaat osasivat erottaa elolliseen ja elottomaan luontoon liittyvät asiat ja luokitella ne. Oppilaat perustelivat eliöiden kuulumisen eliöihin joko eliöalan tai eliön ominaisuuksien mukaan, mutta eivät molempien mukaan. Oppilaat osasivat täydentää yksinkertaisen ravintoketjun. Valtaosa oppilaista osasi luokitella elolliseen ja elottomaan luontoon kuuluvia tekijöitä tuottajiin, kuluttajiin ja hajottajiin. Auringon ja kärpässienen luokittelu ei onnistunut kolmasosalta oppijoista; lähes kaikki oppilaat luokittelivat kastemadon virheellisesti hajottajiin. Tytöt menestyivät vain hiukan paremmin testissä kuin pojat. Ero ei ollut tilastollisesti merkitsevä. Äidinkielen ja biologian arvosanoilla ei ollut yhteyttä testissä menestymiseen eikä myöskään luontoharrastuneisuudella. Tämän tutkimuksen tulosten mukaan SCIS ohjelma soveltuu hyvin yhdeksi vaihtoehdoksi luonnontieteiden peruskäsitteiden opettamiseen peruskoulun alakoulun oppilaille.
  • Salo, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Communication between airline pilots and cabin crew plays an important role in aviation safety. However, little research has been conducted in the area of pilot-cabin crew communication and relationship. The aim of this study was to identify and name competing discourses in pilot-cabin crew relationship and to describe how these discourses compete with one another. Theory of relational dialectics (Baxter JA Montgomery 1996; Baxter 2011) was used as the theoretical framework. Eight members of cabin crew and six pilots were intervieved. Members of cabin crew were interviewed in pairs. Two of the pilots were interviewed individually and four in pairs. The interviews were analyzed using contrapuntal analysis. Contrapuntal analysis aims to identify competing discourses and their interplay. Six competing discourses were identified in pilot-cabin crew communication and relationship. They were predictability-novelty, one crew-two crews and ideal-real. The predictability-novelty struggle became apparent in the discursive struggle of different work positions being occupied with different crew memebers and in the discursive struggle of official and unofficial communication during the flight. The discourses of one crew and two separate crews were played against one another in the discursive struggles of equality-hierarcy and efficiency-politeness. The discursive struggle of ideal-real constitutes a scene on which the other discourses compete. One coherent and egalitarian crew, where each crew member communicates openly and predictably according to the rules and regulations attached to his/her position was presented as ideal. This ideal is often, but not always, accomplished.
  • Vidgren, Noora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Tämä tutkielma käsittelee lukiolaisten informaalia englannin oppimista ja sen yhteyttä englannin oppimiseen koulussa. Tutkielmani tarkoituksena on selvittää, kuinka suuren osan englannin oppimisestaan lukiolaiset arvioivat tapahtuvan koulun ulkopuolella, missä tilanteissa he oppivat englantia koulun ulkopuolella ja mikä yhteys koulun ulkopuolisella oppimisella on koulussa tapahtuvaan oppimiseen. Tutkielman teoreettisessa osassa tarkastelen englannin kielen asemaa Suomessa ennen ja nyt sekä englantia maailmankielenä. Tämän lisäksi käsittelen englannin kielen informaalia oppimista. Tutkielman empiirinen osa esittelee kvantitatiivisen tutkimuksen, joka tutkii lukiolaisten informaalin englannin oppimisen määrää ja laatua sekä sen yhteyttä englannin oppimiseen koulussa. Tutkimusmetodina toimii kyselylomake. Tutkimukseen osallistui yhteensä 240 lukiolaista pääkaupunkiseudulta. Kerätty aineisto analysoitiin SPSS-tilasto-ohjelman avulla. Tutkimukseen osallistuneista lukiolaisista neljännes kertoo oppivansa englantia suurimmaksi osaksi tai ainoastaan koulussa, lähes puolet yhtä paljon koulun ulkopuolella kuin koulussa, ja reilu viidennes suurimmaksi osaksi tai kokonaan koulun ulkopuolella. Yleisimmät oppimistilanteet koulun ulkopuolella ovat television ja elokuvien katselu, internet ja musiikin kuuntelu, ja informaalin oppimisen katsotaan vaikuttavan etenkin sanastotaitoihin. Sen perusteella, kuinka suuri osuus informaalilla oppimisella on oppijoiden englannin oppimisessa, tutkimukseen osallistuneet lukiolaiset voidaan jakaa institutionaalisiin oppijoihin, universaaleihin oppijoihin ja informaaleihin oppijoihin. Sukupuoli on merkittävä tekijä englannin informaalissa oppimisessa, sillä 80 prosenttia informaaleihin oppijoihin kuuluvista oppijoista on poikia. Englannin informaalin oppimisen ja arvosanojen välillä löytyy tilastollisesti merkittävä korrelaatio: informaaleilla oppijoilla on muita korkeammat arvosanat. Tämän lisäksi englannin informaalin oppimisen ja perinteisen koulutyöskentelyn välillä löytyy tilastollisesti merkittävä negatiivinen korrelaatio: informaalit oppijat käyttävät vähemmän aikaa läksyjen tekemiseen ja kokeisiin lukemiseen kuin institutionaaliset ja universaalit oppijat. Kolmanneksi englannin informaalin oppimisen ja englannin oppimisen vaikeustason välillä löytyy tilastollisesti merkittävä korrelaatio: informaalit oppijat kokevat englannin oppimisen helpommaksi kuin institutionaaliset ja universaalit oppijat. Tutkimustulokset osoittavat, että informaalit oppijat ovat luokkahuoneissa etulyöntiasemassa. He saavuttavat vähemmällä vaivalla korkeampia arvosanoja kuin institutionaaliset ja universaalit oppijat.
  • Jalomäki, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    In this study, the images of the future of the craft education are painted. The future is the result of the current situations and the choices made based on them. The future cannot be known in ad-vance, but it is possible to analyse and anticipate it by means of the wishes, probabilities and opportunities. The starting point of this study was the question of what kind of role the craft education will play in the future. The aim of this study was not to predict the future, nor to determine what sort of the craft and the craft teaching should be in the future. Instead, the purpose of the study was to analyse what kind of futures the craft education can be facing. The study also sought to find out if the subject's name affects how its future is seen. The research material in this study consisted of two parts. First part of the material was collected from students at the craft teacher education of University of Helsinki using the method of empathy-based stories (MEBS) during the spring 2018. The Association of Craft Teachers surveyed its members in early 2018. One section of the survey dealt with the future of the craft as a subject. The answers of this section formed the second part of the research material. The analysis was done with theory-guided content analysis which is one of the qualitative research methods. A desired future for craft education is a situation where hand skills are appreciated, and handicrafts is a popular hobby. Teaching resources have increased, teaching is genuinely multi-material and focuses on the complete craft processes and sustainable use of materials. New phenomena support the craft education and the roles of teachers get new forms. Positive images of the future were considered probable, but likewise, it is likely that hand skills will not be appreciated in the future, and craft education will become superficial or even completely disappear from elementary school. A possible, but undesirable, and unlikely future is the future where craft teachers are no longer needed, and only few have the skills for handicraft. Next, these future images must be transformed into scenarios. It is important to describe the measures that will make it possible to move towards the desired future. The name of the subject did not affect how its future was described, although the number of respondents was so small that it is impossible to make generalized conclusions.

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