Kasvatustieteellinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Paavilainen, Tuula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This study reviews co-production with citizens in the context of working-life projects of higher education. Studies on the topic in question and on the outcomes of co-production with citizens are rare and, the study serves both needs. The object of study is the Until Now project, realised by Metropolia University of Applied Sciences. In it, an art performance was co-produced with the working-life partners and citizens for the Finnish National Opera. The project participated especially the elderly but also children and young people. The research problem covers the interests of the participants and resources brought by them into the project, as well as the challenges and possibilities of the project. The study was realised as qualitative case study. The analysed data, gathered especially for this study, was based on the semi-structured interviews of five individual participants of the project. The method of thematic analysis was deployed in the data analysis. Four separate analyses were carried out, altogether, one for each of the specific research questions. The results of them were reflected against activity theory and the prior research on co-production with citizens. The results showed the multi-layered nature and variety of the interests of the participants. The significance of sufficient and appropriate material resources and of qualities of the immaterial resources were emphasised. Various challenges emerged during the project, the productional and practical ones being stressed. The possibilities and positive effects of the project were multiple and expanded also beyond it. The focal meaning of the community, joint activity and encounter between the generations for the citizen participants also came up. The role of the elderly was of critical importance from the standpoint of the artistic work and meeting the learning objectives. Expansions of the activity caused additional challenges but also allowed positive outcomes to emerge. The activity theoretical angle highlights characteristics of expansions of activity, knot-working and distributed agency in the results. The main conclusion is that co-production with citizens is a relevant form of collaboration in the context of working-life projects of higher education. The results of the study add knowledge on the outcomes of co-production with citizens, which is scarce so far. The results also can be applied in the practical work, especially in the development of higher education and public service production.
  • Mähönen, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    In this research the main target is to figure out, what kind of challenges the comprehensive school teachers are facing in their daily work of teaching physical education and are those notions of challenges similar or very different from each others. The study is interested to point out those mentally laden factors which have a great impact for teacher´s work satisfaction and stamina at their career path. This is qualitative research and as it´s character it aims to portray, analyse and interpret the mentally laden factors in teaching, how can they occur in different period of career. One objective is to develop resources to support teacher´s occupational wellbeing. This study is empiric and it has data-driven approach, where the information is collected from different levels of comprehensive school and it focuses to interpret the experiences of teachers in different environment. Research persons are either class teachers or Physical Education teachers, all with their own individual educational background. Important is to find out how those different teachers perceive the challenges at their work, how those challenges affect to teacher´s occupational wellbeing and which kind of strategies they have to cope with them. This survey was implemented as an inquiry with 34 respondents, 16 class teachers and 18 physical education teachers. The second data, which was used together with inquiry data was collected with theme interviews. 8 carefully selected teachers were participating in the interviews. Both data combined together was used to analyse the different kind of strategies of teachers to face the challenges or resolve the problems related to it. Inquiry data was used to analyse all challenge responses, where top-20 challenges of class teachers and physical education teachers were compiled into scales and both profession groups were compared in the synthesis of main challenges. Also frequencies of challenges were measured in inquiry and they were analyzed together with interview data of 8 self evaluated work satisfaction numbers. The results show that the challenges in both environment were all same, but with different order and importance. In Huberman (1992) career model which was used to classify respondents into smaller groups, the research results pointed out 2 risk groups in physical education career path: novice teachers in first 4 years of career and teachers in their 7.-18. years at work. Results can be used to develop and promote occupational well-beeing.
  • Leminen, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    According to earlier research, Finnish students and students with immigrant background have significant differences between their mathematic skills during comprehensive school. Previous research also shows that mathematic skills are linked with working memory skills. Children’s biological primary skills, cognitive development, social interaction, and common cultural factors affect their mathematic skill development. According to earlier studies, mother’s level of education, linguistic expression, assignment orientation are explanatory factors in the beginning of school. The purpose of this study was to examine if there is a difference between Finnish students’ and students with immigrant background in their mathematic skills at grade six. If there are differences is it possible to explain them with working memory skills? Another purpose was to examine other explanatory factors for these differences. Theoretical framework is based on working memory, mathematical skills and students with immigrant background. The data were collected by Centre for Educational Assessment in spring 2016. A total of 2014 sixth grade students from one municipality in the Helsinki metropolitan area participated in this assessment. In this study, two different mathematical tasks and working memory skills task were used. The differences between Finnish population and immigrant background population in mathematic performance were first analysed by one way ANOVA. Regression analysis was used to examine whether the differences could be explained by working memory skills and the level of mother’s education. According to this study, there are significant differences between Finnish students and students with immigrant background in mathematic skills and also working memory skills. The explanatory factors that influence students’ mathematic skills are their working memory capacity, mother’s education level and their native language. The results of this study are parallel with previous studies. According to this study, students with immigrant background need more support with their school work. By supporting immigrant families to integrate to Finnish society will improve student’s school success.
  • Kohonen, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Aims. The aim of the study is to find out what students of primary school teacher and kindergarten teacher education in University of Helsinki intend to do after graduating and why. Furthermore, the study aims to determine factors that influence students' decisions after graduating as well as how the students relate to the education. Earlier studies have been made regarding the placing of students studying to become primary school teachers and their attitudes toward the education. However, similar kind of research concerning students in kindergarten teaching education has not been conducted before. Nonetheless, kindergarten teachers' desire to change occupation has been a studied topic. Research has also been conducted in students' contentment for their education, but the focus group in these studies has consisted of teachers who have worked in kindergartens five years. Methods. The study is a comparative one, in which both quantitative and qualitative methods are used. Material for the research was gathered using survey. The material from primary school teachers was collected using electronic forms in November 2017, whereas material concerning kindergarten teachers was taken from my bachelor's thesis in 2011. Altogether 164 students participated in the study, of whom 93 were primary school teachers and 71 were kindergarten teachers. The gathered data was processed with SSPS software and interpreted using content analysis. Results and conclusion. The study showed that 79 % of the primary school teachers were going to work in a primary school after graduating and 21 % of the informants were going to do something else. Similarly, 59 % of the kindergarten teachers were intending to work in kindergartens and 41 % somewhere else. Concerning the placing of primary school teachers factors such as doing substitute work on the side of studies, the feeling of being in the right field, motivation for working as a primary school teacher and the reasons for studying the occupation had statistically great significance. Concerning the placing of kindergarten teachers factors such as earlier degree, the number of children in the family as well as a family member working in kindergarten were influential. Also, reasons for studying in the field had an impact on the decisions made after graduating. A majority of students in primary school teaching and kindergarten teaching said to be satisfied with their education. However, there was a wish for more new modules among the students, and nearly all informants wished to study more special pedagogy. They also hope to receive more lectures as well as group lessons, and kindergarten teachers wished to have more practical training. The results found in this study regarding primary school teachers are similar to earlier research, and also those of kindergarten teachers are supported by already existing research.
  • Lehosvuo, Suvi Kristiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The aim of the study is to research the students’ views about optional home economics as a subject and its teaching at the junior high school level. Previ-ous studies have examined home economics teachers´ and students´ perceptions of the sub-ject, its future perspectives and what determines good teaching. The research material was collected during spring 2015 from one junior high school´s opti-onal courses of home economics. The material consisted of short essays about the subject of home economics written by the students. In total, there were 84 papers given: 42 from stu-dents at 8th-grade level and 42 from students at 9th-grade level. The study was conducted as a qualitative research and the material was analysed using the qualitative content analysis method. The students´ views of home economics as a subject and the teaching of home economics were mainly positive. The students experienced that home economics as a subject was in-spiring and something that brought variety to their normal school day. Teamwork and practi-cality were seen as positive factors and food and working with the food were seen as interest-ing activities. Teacher´s positive and motivated attitude, approachableness and encouraging feedback were also important. A peaceful class environment was seen as an essential factor to a good learning experience. The study showed how home economics is a popular optional junior high school subject. Teamwork and practicality are teaching methods that interest students and the positive and motivated attitude of the teacher encourages students to perform well in the class. The re-sults showed how the subject of home economics is an important and topical part of the na-tional core curriculum in the times when social changes are more present in the school world than ever.
  • Pihlajaniemi, Kerttu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Due to the change in educational legislation in 1999, one of the most important aims of basic education became the goal of developing basic education into a more unified whole. The change in law removed the administrative boundary between primary and secondary school and this was also removed from the curriculum in 2004. This change in legislation and cur-riculum into a unified basic education is the basis of this thesis. The purpose of the thesis was to become familiar with the experiences of students completing basic education, and to analyze the educational experience in its solidity and the safety of their basic education learning experience. The aim of this thesis is to investigate whether the merging of basic ed-ucation improved the experiences of students and how have the students learning path tran-sitions succeeded. This study was carried out using a qualitative research method of asking the subjects to write material about their basic educational experience. The study was approached from a phenomenological research perspective, where the students own experiences carried great significance. The material was collected in the form of essays from four different Helsinki metropolitan areas comprehensive school's, ninth and tenth grade students (N97). The material was viewed through school path transitions, as they can be seen as a challenge for the good school path. The material was then analyzed using material-based content analy-sis. According to the results of this thesis, students encounter a variety of transitions throughout basic education, which cannot be entirely eliminated. The success of these transitions are impacted by numerous factors; according to the results of this study, these transitions are made easier with the help of good social relationships with peers and the school personnel, high academic performance, and sufficient knowledge and preparation for the educational transitions. Correspondingly, the lack of or poor social relationships with peers, kin and the school personnel, poor academic performance and unexpected changes, harmed the entire-ty of the educational experience's solidity and made the transitions more difficult. Student's educational experiences are very individual and likewise the support needed for different transitions and changes also vary from student to student. Based on results of this study, to build the solidity of a student's educational experience, more emphasis should on placed on the student-teacher interactions as well as those between peers.
  • Vasenius, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This study examines the experiences of student engagement among university students from non-academic family backgrounds using Vesa Korhonen’s model of student engagement. The ”massification” of higher education and the increasing number of university students in Finland over the last few years, has created a more heterogeneous population of university students and especially the number of students from non-academic background in higher education has increased. The recent concern for the extension of studying time has increased interest in student engagement research. This research focuses on the student engagement of these students from non-academic backgrounds. In the student engagement model used in this study, engagement is thought to be comprised of the proceeding participation in social communities, artistry of academic learning and feelings of belonging. The data for the study was collected with semi-structured interviews in University of Helsinki. A total of eight university students were interviewed, three studying general and adult education, two studying psychology, two studying to become teachers and one student of social-psychology. The data was analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The research suggests that university students from non-academic backgrounds often experience uncertainty towards their academic skills and often experience feelings of not belonging not only within the university but also within their families. The attempted harmonization of the academic world of university and the family world seemed to create some conflicting feelings. However, some of the students felt that their background was more of an asset or incentive in their university studies.
  • Rina, Ronkainen (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The framework for this study comes from Carol Dweck’s (2000, 2006) findings. Dweck has separated mindsets between two categories, the growth mindset and the fixed mindset. A person with a growth mindset believes that human qualities (ability, intelligence, personality) are malleable whereas a person with a fixed mindset believes that human qualities are stable. Previous studies have shown various effects on how a different mindset can effect the teaching-studying-learning process. There have been a great deal of quantitative studies done on mindsets. However there have been fewer qualitative studies concerning a single teacher’s growth mindset appearing. This qualitative case study examined Mary, a first grade teacher, and her growth mindset as it appeared in her teaching and in reflection in Helsinki University Viikki Normal School. Mary was selected in this study based on the mindset survey. According to the survey Mary represented growth mindset when it came to the perspectives about intelligence and giftedness. The scale of the survey was scored between 1-6, with Mary scoring 5 on both topics. The data used to conduct this study were observation, videotaping and stimulated recall interviews. The analysis was done using a deductive content analysis. Based on these results, Mary’s growth mindset appeared in her teaching and reflection the way she gave a process feedback, instruction related to growth mindset and with pedagogigal decision supported by growth mindset. It is essential to have more qualitative studies done on the effects of mindsets effects on teaching-studying-learning process in order to properly evaluate impacts of a growth mindset in relation to teacher’s action.
  • Kauhanen, Eveliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This study examines university students experiences about the drama pedagogy in foreign language teaching. The study observes students experiences and thoughts about drama pedagogy in foreign language teaching at the university level. How student’s foreign language learning self-concept and student’s goal setting affects to the student’s choise to participate to the drama group at the university?
  • Mia, Ahlholm (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the Pieni Oppiva Mieli -intervention (MindUp™) in the day care centers children of 3 to 6 years of age on social competence as perceived by the staff and children's parents. In the study, social competence consisted of emotional symptoms, conduct problems, inattention, peer relationship problems, prosocial behavior and psychosocial wellbeing. The research questions are: 1. What is the children's social competence before and after the intervention? 2. How do the children differ on the basis of sex with respect to social competence before and after the intervention? 3. What are the differences in children's social competence before and after the intervention based on mother's or father's education? Previous studies have shown that mindfulness-based interventions on children have a positive effect on, for example self-regulation, emotional regulation, socio-cognitive skills, academic skills and social skills. There has been little research on the effects of socio-emotional programs on the young children's social competence, although various social skills training programs in early childhood are much in use. The study was part of the Pieni Oppiva Mieli -project at the University of Helsinki and was attended by 234 children from three different kindergartens in the metropolitan area. The study was conducted investigating the effects of a 30-week intervention on the day care group during the academic year 2016-2017. Strenghts and Difficulties form (SDQ-Fin) was used to investigate the difference between initial and final measurement, and it was combined with the information on the background information form, namely the gender of the child and the education of parents. The material was analyzed quantitatively by SPSS Statistics 24 -program using non-parametric tests as analyzing method; a Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test, a Mann–Whitney U test, and a Kruskal–Wallis test. I also used a parametric t-test (Independent Samples) alongside the Mann–Whitney U test. The results indicate that the intervention might have positive effects on child's inattention, peer problems, prosocial behaviour and psychosocial wellbeing. Based on the answers provided by the staff, the results also indicate that the sex may have an impact on the initial and final measurement of conduct problems, inattention, prosocial behavior and psychosocial wellbeing. Based on parent's responses, the results are parallel, but narrower. Results of the boys were worse than the girls in all the sub-variables of social competence except for the peer problems. The research results of staff and parents of children differed from the impact of maternal and father's education on the child's social competence and development.
  • Suomalainen, Henrietta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This master’s thesis is a case study. The aim of this study was to find out what kind of qualities would differ in the drawings of the intelligent and the ordinary person made by the pre-primary students. The study also aimed to discover if the mindset theory by Carol Dweck (2016) would be visible in the drawings and in the interviews. The study was based on the mindset theory. The theory divides people in two groups based on their views about the malleability of their intelligence. The one’s with fixed mindset and the others with growth mindset. Fixed mindset means that intelligence is seen as a fixed entity that cannot be changed. The growth mindset means that one can develop and become more intelligent by putting effort on the learning. The mindset theory is connected to learning, setting goals and surviving from set-backs. The method used in this study was qualitative dominant mixed method research. 25 pre-primary students aged six to seven took part in the study. The students first drew two pictures: one with an intelligent person and one with an ordinary person. This part of the study was based on the previous studies by Räty, Komulainen, Skorokhodova, Kolesnikon and Hämäläinen (2011) and Räty and Snellman (1997). Then the children took part in a group interview. The interview was a focused interview, and the questions were based on the mindset theory. The pictures and the interview were analyzed using theory based content analysis. The pictures were partly analyzed using quantitative analyzing methods. The pre-primary students see intelligent and ordinary person in a quite similar way. Only a few things separated the persons from one and another. The differences were about the choices on clothing, accessories or hairstyle. More imaginative features were involved in only a few pictures. The drawing task was hard for the children so the mindset theory did become visible especially in the situation where the children had to figure out how to draw the intelligent person. The children with fixed mindset did not want to start drawing, said that their drawing was no good or tried to hide it from other children. The children with growth mindset started to draw immediately, had a clear vision and did not care about other children’s opinions. The end result was that although there was not a clear difference between the drawings, the task itself showed how the mindset theory is valid also within the pre-primary students.
  • Borchers, Aleksandra (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to examine and elaborate teachers’ views on Finnish National Ballet’s dance workshop called So You Think You Can Muuv?. The workshop is conducted by professional dancers and participated by pupils from ages 11 to 16. The teachers’ views on the workshop were compared to the objectives set for the workshop as well as to David Kolb’s model of experiential learning. An evaluation report on the workshop has been compiled in 2015. According to the evaluation report, the workshop has been exceedingly successful and functional. However, as the report only covers the experiences of instructors of the workshop and pupils participated in it, there has not been any previous survey, in this scale, about teachers’ views on the workshop. The research questions were: 1. How successful, in the teachers’ experience, is the workshop? 2. How well are the objectives set for the workshop met in practice? 3. How does the workshop affect the actions and culture of pupils, teachers and schools? 4. How does David Kolb’s model of experiential learning actualize in the learning of pupils participating in the workshop? Methods. The research data was collected through five individual semi-structured interviews. All interviewees were teachers who had participated in the workshop with a group of students during the year 2017. The data analysis method used in this study was theory-based content analysis. Results and Conclusions. The workshop was highly successful, and the objectives were adequate and attainable. To have more far-reaching impact, however, the workshop should be proceeded individually in schools. Extending the workshop was rare and therefore, the workshop did not have significant influence on students’, teachers’ or schools’ actions. To proceed with the workshop after participation, teachers need additional training and help as well as information about dance as a hobby to share with the pupils. The workshop also seemed competent in the viewpoint of a successful experiential learning process. The workshop did indeed start a learning process, but the process rarely seemed to become complete. The workshop, it appears, shows great promise in developing the organizational culture of schools, but further actions are required.
  • Tukiainen, Mervi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The aim of the study: Kids are born into a technology-rich world. Earlier research has shown that children have early access to technology in their home environment and comparatively good technology skills. In the field of education and teaching, children's everyday lives are also being saturated with information and communication technologies. This research focuses on what is happening around the technology in the preschool group. Research questions are: How is the peer-to-peer interaction built around technology? What is the peer interaction around technology like? Methods: This research carried out with qualitative methods has features of ethnographic research. The research data, collected from the preschoolers of two co-teaching classes, consists of observations and video recordings. The analysis of the research data is based on a model of progressive refinement of hypotheses, in which the research questions will be clarified by looking through the research data again and again. The Atlas.ti software-assisted data analysis method used in this study has features of qualitative content analysis. The main results: The results of the research reflect not only the good technological know-how in relation to the children's age, but also a positive attitude towards technology and good co-operation skills. The interaction of children around technology is roughly subdivided into three types of activities: discussion about ongoing activities, explorative working and problem solving, and sharing of one's own competence with others, peer learning. There are two ways of building interaction, thickening and scattering, which point to the focus of attention of children and thus the intensity of interaction. The study gives an indication of how the peer-to-peer interaction with technology is displayed freely, which can be useful in reforming teaching practices.
  • Ajo-Geertsma, Anniina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Teacher education is often perceived as a means to change society. Despite this, research on teacher education curricula is scarce; and there are even fewer comparative studies on teacher education curricula. The purpose of this study is to shed light on teacher education curricula using a comparative perspective. The study aims to analyse the Finnish and the English academic primary teacher education curricula as entities; with their aims and objectives, syllabus, methodology and assessment. The targets of the study were the teacher education curricula of Helsinki University and University of Exeter. The study was based on a qualitative document analysis. The research material consisted, in addition to the curricula and module descriptions, of the school placement web-sites and handbooks. Theory-bound content analysis was used to be able to recognise and analyse the key concepts, as well as to contrast and compare them within the theoretical framework. Helsinki University teacher education curriculum is based on a humanistic philosophy that emphasises a student’s “growth” into an autonomous expert teacher and a professional. The curriculum is discipline and subject matter based, with an emphasis on declarative knowledge, scientific thinking and content. Theory and practice remain partially separate and the curriculum could benefit from combining some courses and subjects into cross-curricular modules. The curriculum of the University of Exeter PGCE programme is mostly based on meeting the statutory criteria; the statutory policies are reflected in the university curricula. The structure of the teacher education programme is sound, with different parts of the programme linked together. However, the theoretical and subject knowledge modules are likely to remain too superficial. The curriculum is very practice-orientated.
  • Palojärvi, Donna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives. The purpose of this study is to describe, analyze and interpret the way novice class teachers see school bullying. The secondary purpose is to describe how peer harassment affects the novice teachers’ job. In 2010-centery studies, school bullying has been seen as a form of negative social behavior between pupils (Repo, 2015; Herkama, 2012). Teachers have to focus more and more on teaching social skills to pupils rather than the actual teaching. This has been associated with younger teachers’ increased stress levels at work and even plans on switching ca-reers (Aho, 2011). This study examines the education side of teacher job at the context of school bullying. Methods. This study is a qualitative research from the point of view of phenomenography. The material has been produced in a group chat between three novice teachers and the interviewer. All teachers have graduated during the last year and worked their first year as teachers. Besides of novice teachers I will also call them young teachers at this study, since all of them were under thirty years old. Results and conclusion. The peer harassment has changed because of new technology and smart phones. The term ‘school bullying’ has become an inadequate way in describing the reality of the bullying experiences that pupils have to deal with. From novice teachers’ perspective, it seemed that low social skills of pupils were the main reason why there are so much conflicts be-tween pupils in everyday life. The actual school bullying was rare, but the preventative jobs, such as conflict solving, took lots of time from teaching and learning in the class. Decision mak-ing, insecurity regarding the effectivity of one’s own practices as well as co-operation with the parents were experienced as a burden with negative effects on teaching. In conclusion, bullying and the bullying-preventive work increases the overall workload of teachers and takes up time and resources from the actual teaching.