Faculty of Educational Sciences

 

Recent Submissions

  • Nuutinen, Anna Maaria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää, miten SCIS ohjelman mukaan opiskelleet viidesluokkalaiset osaavat opetussuunnitelman perusteiden mukaisia luokkatasonsa biologian peruskäsitteitä. Lisäksi selvitettiin sukupuolen ja luontoharrastuneisuuden sekä äidinkielen ja biologian todistusarvosanojen yhteyttä osaamiseen. Tutkimusaineisto koottiin keväällä 2005 espoolaisessa peruskoulussa. Tutkimukseen osallistui koulun yhden viidennen luokan kaikki 21 oppilasta, joista tyttöjä oli yhdeksän ja poikia 12. Oppilaiden osaamista arvioitiin kolmeosaisella testillä. Ensimmäinen tehtävä mittasi eliö- käsitteen hallintaa: luokittelua ja perustelua, toinen tehtävä ravintoketju- käsitteen hallintaa ja kolmas tehtävä mittasi tuottaja-, kuluttaja- ja hajottaja- käsitteiden hallintaa. Tutkimusten aineistolle suoritettiin tilastollinen analyysi ja päättely. Tulosten mukaan oppilaiden käsitykset eliöiden luokittelusta osoittautuivat hallituksi. Vaikeuksia tuotti ainoastaan koivun luokitteleminen eliöksi. Tulosten perusteella viidesluokkalaiset oppilaat osasivat erottaa elolliseen ja elottomaan luontoon liittyvät asiat ja luokitella ne. Oppilaat perustelivat eliöiden kuulumisen eliöihin joko eliöalan tai eliön ominaisuuksien mukaan, mutta eivät molempien mukaan. Oppilaat osasivat täydentää yksinkertaisen ravintoketjun. Valtaosa oppilaista osasi luokitella elolliseen ja elottomaan luontoon kuuluvia tekijöitä tuottajiin, kuluttajiin ja hajottajiin. Auringon ja kärpässienen luokittelu ei onnistunut kolmasosalta oppijoista; lähes kaikki oppilaat luokittelivat kastemadon virheellisesti hajottajiin. Tytöt menestyivät vain hiukan paremmin testissä kuin pojat. Ero ei ollut tilastollisesti merkitsevä. Äidinkielen ja biologian arvosanoilla ei ollut yhteyttä testissä menestymiseen eikä myöskään luontoharrastuneisuudella. Tämän tutkimuksen tulosten mukaan SCIS ohjelma soveltuu hyvin yhdeksi vaihtoehdoksi luonnontieteiden peruskäsitteiden opettamiseen peruskoulun alakoulun oppilaille.
  • Salo, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Communication between airline pilots and cabin crew plays an important role in aviation safety. However, little research has been conducted in the area of pilot-cabin crew communication and relationship. The aim of this study was to identify and name competing discourses in pilot-cabin crew relationship and to describe how these discourses compete with one another. Theory of relational dialectics (Baxter JA Montgomery 1996; Baxter 2011) was used as the theoretical framework. Eight members of cabin crew and six pilots were intervieved. Members of cabin crew were interviewed in pairs. Two of the pilots were interviewed individually and four in pairs. The interviews were analyzed using contrapuntal analysis. Contrapuntal analysis aims to identify competing discourses and their interplay. Six competing discourses were identified in pilot-cabin crew communication and relationship. They were predictability-novelty, one crew-two crews and ideal-real. The predictability-novelty struggle became apparent in the discursive struggle of different work positions being occupied with different crew memebers and in the discursive struggle of official and unofficial communication during the flight. The discourses of one crew and two separate crews were played against one another in the discursive struggles of equality-hierarcy and efficiency-politeness. The discursive struggle of ideal-real constitutes a scene on which the other discourses compete. One coherent and egalitarian crew, where each crew member communicates openly and predictably according to the rules and regulations attached to his/her position was presented as ideal. This ideal is often, but not always, accomplished.
  • Vidgren, Noora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Tämä tutkielma käsittelee lukiolaisten informaalia englannin oppimista ja sen yhteyttä englannin oppimiseen koulussa. Tutkielmani tarkoituksena on selvittää, kuinka suuren osan englannin oppimisestaan lukiolaiset arvioivat tapahtuvan koulun ulkopuolella, missä tilanteissa he oppivat englantia koulun ulkopuolella ja mikä yhteys koulun ulkopuolisella oppimisella on koulussa tapahtuvaan oppimiseen. Tutkielman teoreettisessa osassa tarkastelen englannin kielen asemaa Suomessa ennen ja nyt sekä englantia maailmankielenä. Tämän lisäksi käsittelen englannin kielen informaalia oppimista. Tutkielman empiirinen osa esittelee kvantitatiivisen tutkimuksen, joka tutkii lukiolaisten informaalin englannin oppimisen määrää ja laatua sekä sen yhteyttä englannin oppimiseen koulussa. Tutkimusmetodina toimii kyselylomake. Tutkimukseen osallistui yhteensä 240 lukiolaista pääkaupunkiseudulta. Kerätty aineisto analysoitiin SPSS-tilasto-ohjelman avulla. Tutkimukseen osallistuneista lukiolaisista neljännes kertoo oppivansa englantia suurimmaksi osaksi tai ainoastaan koulussa, lähes puolet yhtä paljon koulun ulkopuolella kuin koulussa, ja reilu viidennes suurimmaksi osaksi tai kokonaan koulun ulkopuolella. Yleisimmät oppimistilanteet koulun ulkopuolella ovat television ja elokuvien katselu, internet ja musiikin kuuntelu, ja informaalin oppimisen katsotaan vaikuttavan etenkin sanastotaitoihin. Sen perusteella, kuinka suuri osuus informaalilla oppimisella on oppijoiden englannin oppimisessa, tutkimukseen osallistuneet lukiolaiset voidaan jakaa institutionaalisiin oppijoihin, universaaleihin oppijoihin ja informaaleihin oppijoihin. Sukupuoli on merkittävä tekijä englannin informaalissa oppimisessa, sillä 80 prosenttia informaaleihin oppijoihin kuuluvista oppijoista on poikia. Englannin informaalin oppimisen ja arvosanojen välillä löytyy tilastollisesti merkittävä korrelaatio: informaaleilla oppijoilla on muita korkeammat arvosanat. Tämän lisäksi englannin informaalin oppimisen ja perinteisen koulutyöskentelyn välillä löytyy tilastollisesti merkittävä negatiivinen korrelaatio: informaalit oppijat käyttävät vähemmän aikaa läksyjen tekemiseen ja kokeisiin lukemiseen kuin institutionaaliset ja universaalit oppijat. Kolmanneksi englannin informaalin oppimisen ja englannin oppimisen vaikeustason välillä löytyy tilastollisesti merkittävä korrelaatio: informaalit oppijat kokevat englannin oppimisen helpommaksi kuin institutionaaliset ja universaalit oppijat. Tutkimustulokset osoittavat, että informaalit oppijat ovat luokkahuoneissa etulyöntiasemassa. He saavuttavat vähemmällä vaivalla korkeampia arvosanoja kuin institutionaaliset ja universaalit oppijat.
  • Jalomäki, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    In this study, the images of the future of the craft education are painted. The future is the result of the current situations and the choices made based on them. The future cannot be known in ad-vance, but it is possible to analyse and anticipate it by means of the wishes, probabilities and opportunities. The starting point of this study was the question of what kind of role the craft education will play in the future. The aim of this study was not to predict the future, nor to determine what sort of the craft and the craft teaching should be in the future. Instead, the purpose of the study was to analyse what kind of futures the craft education can be facing. The study also sought to find out if the subject's name affects how its future is seen. The research material in this study consisted of two parts. First part of the material was collected from students at the craft teacher education of University of Helsinki using the method of empathy-based stories (MEBS) during the spring 2018. The Association of Craft Teachers surveyed its members in early 2018. One section of the survey dealt with the future of the craft as a subject. The answers of this section formed the second part of the research material. The analysis was done with theory-guided content analysis which is one of the qualitative research methods. A desired future for craft education is a situation where hand skills are appreciated, and handicrafts is a popular hobby. Teaching resources have increased, teaching is genuinely multi-material and focuses on the complete craft processes and sustainable use of materials. New phenomena support the craft education and the roles of teachers get new forms. Positive images of the future were considered probable, but likewise, it is likely that hand skills will not be appreciated in the future, and craft education will become superficial or even completely disappear from elementary school. A possible, but undesirable, and unlikely future is the future where craft teachers are no longer needed, and only few have the skills for handicraft. Next, these future images must be transformed into scenarios. It is important to describe the measures that will make it possible to move towards the desired future. The name of the subject did not affect how its future was described, although the number of respondents was so small that it is impossible to make generalized conclusions.
  • Kauppinen, Eila (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    Aims: The older the youngsters are, the more important role hobbies and leisure time activities have in their life. That is why various activities organized by the non-profit organizations have an important role concerning the development of food habits of youngsters. This study has three main themes. The themes and their respective study questions are: 1. The youngsters' conceptions on healthy eating and food choice: What kind of food do youngsters consider as healthy? How do they see their own eating habits from this point of view? 2. The youngsters and the significance of everyday food-related information: How do the youngsters perceive the role of different actors and these actors' role regarding their own food habits and food choice? 3. The possibilities of the organizations that work with youngsters to improve their food habits: What kind of role do the non-profit organizations have on the youngsters' food habits and healthy food choice? Methods: This study comprises of two types of data. First, a quantitative internet-based survey (N=582) was used to collect data on the 9th graders conceptions and understandings. The data was analyzed with the SPSS-program. Means, cross-tabulations, Pearson's correlations and t-test were calculated from the data. The qualitative data was collected using interviews. The respondents were 12 experts from non-profit organizations. The interviews were analyzed with the qualitative content analysis. Results and conclusions: The non-profit organizations studied have good possibilities to communicate with youngsters through their hobbies. As part of their activities these organizations are able to influence on health-promoting lifestyle and food habits of youngsters. In order to reach more youngsters, these organizations should actively act e.g. in virtual societies of youngsters. Youngsters will participate when activities are voluntary and exhilarating. From the point of food habits doing, learning and identifying are the most important factors to engage the young. Also the models of peers and adults are important. Non-profit organizations should offer youngsters activities but these organizations should also influence on society.
  • Linna, Tiina (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    This study describes experiences of four talented women artistic gymnasts in their progress towards expertise. The background to this study was current research and theories of the development of sport talent. Talent in sports is a multidimensional concept. Present studies show that the following characteristics affect the development of talent: mental resources, physical strength and love for and commitment to the sport and training. In addition, countless hours of practice and favorable environmental factors, as well as a touch of luck, are needed. Francoys Gagné's differentiated model of giftedness and talent is used as the research frame of reference. This study is a qualitative case study, and the material was collected by autobiographical narrative research approach. Narrative involves human thoughts and experiences about their lives and how they build their identity. The narrative is way of knowing, and narrativity is generally associated with the constructivist view of knowing. As a researcher I choose this narrative research approach because in this way I can tell my interviewees' story, "a story of elite gymnasts", in a rather truthful way. I interviewed four Finnish elite gymnasts, and I asked them to tell me their gymnastics biographies. One of the four interviewees is still actively competing on the international level. The other three gymnasts have already finished their active careers as athletes. As key factors in the development of elite athletes were defined active exercise background of childhood, family support and encouragement, as well as financial aid provided by the parents, the right coach and the right team, and the experiences of success in competitions. Gymnastics had brought a lot positive content to the lives of the interviewees. The interviewees felt that sports have contributed to the development of their personality, increasing their self-confidence, perseverance and courage. The life of a young to athlete is very scheduled, and it is guided by studies and exercises, as well as set targets. As negative matters in a top athlete's life were mentioned injuries and challenges in reconciling social relations, school and training.
  • Kyllönen, Kukka-Maaria (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    Purpose This study focused on craft from a standpoint of phenomenological philosophy and craft was interpreted through Maurice Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology of the body. The main focus was the physical phase of the craft process, wherein a product is made from material. The aim was to interpret corporality in craft. There is no former research focusing on lived body in craft science. Physical, bodily making is inalienable in craft, but it is not articulated. Recent discussion has focused on craft as "whole", which emphasizes designing part in the process, and craft becomes conceptualized with the theories of art and design. The axiomatic yet silenced basis of craft, corporality, deserves to become examined as well. That is why this study answers the questions: how craft manifests in the light of phenomenology of the body and what is corporality in craft? Methods In this study I cultivated a phenomenological attitude and turned my exploring eye on craft "in itself". In addition I restrained myself from mere making and placed myself looking at the occurrence of craft to describe it verbally. I read up Maurice Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology of the body on his principal work (2002) and former interpretations of it. Interpreting and understanding textual data were based on Gadamer's hermeneutics, and the four-pronged composition of the study followed Koski's (1995) version of the Gadamerian process of textual interpretation. Conclusions In the construction of bodily phenomenology craft was to be contemplated as a mutual relationship between the maker and the world materializing in bodily making. At the moment of making a human being becomes one with his craft, and the connection between the maker, material and the equipment appears as communication. Operational dimension was distinctive in the intentionality of craft, which operates in many ways, also in craft products. The synesthesia and synergy of craft were emphasized and craft as bodily practice came to life through them. The moment of making appeared as situation generating time and space, where throwing oneself into making may give the maker an experience of upraise beyond the dualism of mind and body. The conception of the implicit nature of craft knowledge was strengthened. In the light of interpretation it was possible to conceptualize craft as a performance and making "in itself" as a work of art. In that case craft appeared as bodily expression, which as an experience approaches art without being it after all. The concept of aesthetic was settled into making as well. Bodily and phenomenological viewpoint on craft gave material to critically contemplate the concept of "whole craft" (kokonainen käsityö) and provided different kind of understanding of craft as making.
  • Turunen, Kati (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Objective. Hearing loss is one of the most common chronic health problems, and the number is increasing as a result of population aging. Hearing aids are regarded as the main rehabilitation method for hearing loss. The goal of this follow-up study was to review the experiences of working aged new hearing aid adopters. The focus was to map out the expectations and satisfaction towards the hearing aid, and the disability experiences caused by hearing loss. This thesis is a part of Minna Laakso, Eila Lonka, Johanna Ruusuvuori and Tarja Aaltonen's research project "Communication with Hearing Aid". Also the data was collected as a part of the project. Methods. The population consisted of 42 working age hearing aid first time users (37 64 years). 16 of them were women. Before the hearing aid fitting the participants filled up two self-assessment questionnaires: Denver Scale and Expectations towards hearing aids. Two to three weeks after implementation of the hearing aid the participants filled up the second Denver Scale questionnaire and also IOI-HA questionnaire. Thus it was possible to compare the expectations, disability experiences and satisfaction. The research also studied the construct of Denver scale by using statistical principal component analysis. The model was then utilized in the other statistical analyses. Three participants were also interviewed. Half-structured interviews provided more detailed information about the experiences towards the hearing aid and the hearing loss. The contents of the interviews were then compared to the questionnaire data. Results and conclusions. The expectations towards the hearing aid were high in the study population, although there wasn t any correlation between expectations and short-range satisfaction. Changes in the disability as the result of hearing aid intervention weren t statistically significant. Principal components of the Denver Scale didn't follow the model introduced in previous studies. The contents of the interviews were moderately consistent with the questionnaire data. In this research it was noticed, that the high disabilities due to hearing loss can also be seen after the hearing aid intervention.
  • Pajula, Laura (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Making leather includes multiple phases and there are several options when executing each phase. The selected tanning method affects most to the properties of finished leather. In literature there are lots of descriptions about the methodology of how to tan furs and skins in a traditional way, but there are only a little information about the properties of these naturally tanned fur skins. The aim of this study is to analyse different kinds of traditional and environmentally friendly tanning methods to be able to make durable leather of a good quality. The research problems of this study are to find the most practical method for tanning wild furs and to analyse if it is possible to make high-quality leather by using natural ways of tanning leather. A review of the literature inspired the idea of comparing single-component tannages against a combination of two conventional tannages. The most practical methods were chosen from the traditional and the easiest ways of tanning furs. Chosen methods were tanning with tealeaves, willow (salix), sour porridge, urine, Novaltan Al and Pretanix C. The data was collected from three red foxes, which were tanned in 11 different ways: six single-component tannages and five combinations of two tannages. Fur skin properties were investigated for tear strength, elongation, water vapour permeability, shrinkage temperature, hair fastness and surface structure. The data collected was mostly numeric and it was analyzed by Spearman's rank-correlation. Scanning electron microscopic photos were taken from the leather surface and the results were compared against numeric data. This study shows that thinner leathers had better tear strength and relative elongation. Water vapour permeability results analyzed with SEM-pictures revealed that aluminium-based Novaltan Al made the leather surface smoother allowing water vapour to pass through it. Meanwhile, other tannages made the surface more spongy, possibly soaking moisture into leather. Plant based tannages had higher shrinkage temperature than any other tannages. The results showed that using two conventional tannages made the leather properties better compared to single-component tannages. The best and probably most practical tanning method according to this study was combination tanning by using tealeaves and Novaltan Al. It's important to think of the desired properties for the leather, and then choose the tanning method that makes wanted properties possible.
  • Niitamo, Oskari (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Aims. This qualitative study explored a phenomenon of epistemic communality around a Twitter hashtag. The primary aim of the study was to explore communal epistemic production on the Twitter platform, especially in the context of a mutually shared hashtag. The study explored the peer-production of knowledge and epistemic structures in the context of a specialist domain collaborating in the open Web. The secondary aim was to explore how Twitter functions as a platform for networked expertise and as a public agora for practitioners' expert discourse. This nascent mode of cultural production leads to the development of expert cultures on Twitter and in the open Web. This creates new contexts for informal collaborative learning and cultral production potentially answering some of the competence challenges presented by the 21st century. Methods. The hashtag #okfest was launched for the 'Open Knowledge Festival' conference held in Helsinki, Finland (17–22.9.2012). The participants of the study were open knowledge practitioners who participated in the hashtag discourse of #okfest on Twitter. All public tweets containing the string '#okfest' were collected as data. Tweets were analyzed with qualitative thematic analysis exploring the epistemic contributions either included in the tweets or as hyperlinked attachments. Results and conclusions. The analysis indicated how the hashtag was appropriated to serve as a node of communal knowledge sharing beyond mere reporting from the conference. The analysis observed six themes of communal knowledge building in the hashtag space. The communal epistemic activities in #okfest were likened to the properties of a community of practice (Wenger, 1998). A network of practitioners engaging in a mutual domain creates a dynamic 'social learning system' combining social interaction with the production and dissemination of knowledge. The study yielded a novel theoretical concept of 'expert microblogging', recognized as a significant genre of cultural production in a specialist domain on Twitter and in the open Web. Finally the Twitter platform was ascertained as a site for the manifestation of cultures of networked expertise.
  • Oikarinen, Reetta (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Dialogue on children's wellbeing has significantly increased over the past few years. The research focus has been on subjective wellbeing, with the individual's own experiences as the main concern. The focus in this case study is on the child's voice, or discovering how well or poorly children were heard at kindergarten meetings, where they discussed photographs that they had taken. The child's voice in this context refers to the child's own experiences and perspectives narrated by himself/ herself. In my study, I focus on listening to the child through participation. I concentrate on observing how listening and participation were realized in semi-structured interactive situations within a kindergarten group. In addition, I pay attention to any factors that contributed to the child's voice being heard. In my research, children's participation is observed from a sociocultural perspective. The research data was collected in a kindergarten group, whose activities are based on positive pedagogy. The aim of positive pedagogy is to support the child's overall wellbeing, emphasizing children's own initiative and involvement in their surroundings. This pedagogical faction that has recently gained popularity specifically pays attention to children's individual, meaningful experiences, and on positive feelings that the children can process and share in a familiar community. The study represents a child-focused research approach, in which children are direct providers of data. The actual research data consists of filmed interactive situations, in which the children narrate the experiences they have documented. A detailed analysis, applying Harry Shier's model (2001) on the pathways to participation and discourse analysis, was conducted on reflection discussions among five children. The children's participation in this study was multilevel: the children's roles were not only passive, but active when their views were taken into account. Three significant factors that contribute to children's voices being heard emerged in the study. Strategies of teacher, various tools used in activities, and other children appeared to affect participation and listening in reflection discussions. A conclusion to be drawn from the study is that cultural tools and other people have an effect on how the child's thoughts and opinions are presented in discussions.
  • Sahi, Kirsi (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Fashion drawing was a main method of portraying fashion before the development of photography. From 1944 to 1951 appeared a Finnish fashion magazine titled Muotikuva. The magazine focused introducing domestic and foreign women's fashion and appeared during eight years time period, four times a year. It is an example of a time when clothes were prepared by hand and pictured by fashion drawing. Kyllikki Raustila (1905-1965) was a pioneer of Finnish fashion drawing. She made a productive career in the field of fashion illustration. For Muotikuva Raustila drew most of the cover images and also illustrated domestic ateliers new fashions such as Ika and La Robe. This study analyses Kyllikki Raustila's way of portraying fashion and its evolution by studying her fashion drawings which were published in Muotikuva. Secondly, the study will analyse how the fashion drawings illustrate the fashion of its time, and what kind of role they have had in Muotikuva-magazine. The research data were Kyllikki Raustila's fashion drawings that appeared in Muotikuva from 1944 to 1951. 19 cover illustrations were Raustila's work and the magazine published over 100 other drawings by her. The data analysis method combined semiotic image analysis and qualitative content analysis. Image analysis was carried out by applying Gillian Rose's (2001/2012) visual data analysis model. From semiotic point of view, images were examined at denotative (structure) and connotative level (content). Fashion was studied from a semiotic point of view, making use of Roland Barthes (1967/1983) theories. Analysis of the fashion drawings was based on the image elements found in fashion photography (clothing, a mannequin, posing and props) defined by Naomi Rosenblum (1984/2007) and Merja Salo (2005). Kyllikki Raustila's fashion drawings utilize the same elements as fashion photographs. The main focus of the fashion drawing is to represent clothes. Drawings are more efficient representations of fashion than photographs. Fashion illustrator presents the main idea of the cloth with abstracting and emphasizing. Muotikuva's mannequin and her posing style remains almost unchanged through the Muotikuva's volumes. The mannequin of the drawings is shown realistic and described poses are natural. Postures of the fashion images are typically asymmetric in relation to different parts of the body. Fashion drawings include asymmetry, in addition to contrasts that create tension and fascination to the image. Development of Kyllikki Raustila's visual expression can be seen in Muotikuva's cover images: Raustila's characteristic Parisian drawing style intensified and cleared. Drawings stabilized rhythmic lines and bold color surfaces, mannequin facial features became more detailed. Overall, Muotikuva-magazine cover mannequin reflected the fashionable ideal of a woman.
  • Hulmi, Pirjo (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Objectives. According to previous research people construct life stories to achieve an identity. We tell stories about ourselves and those stories become part of me. Narrative understanding evolves and the perception of one's life story and past also changes when one grows older. Identity achievement refers to a sense of continuity and of sameness and of direction in one's life and of feeling of being at home in one's body. We can observe identity development in life choices and commitments. Individuals also come to terms with their culture and vice versa through life narrative. The research questions were: how did different art education books that were related to youth arts projects deal with identity and how did they aim to support identity development through artistic work. My goal is to construct an overall picture of this theme because in my opinion it is possible to support identity formation and well-being at school with the aid of visual art education. Methods. This thesis is a systematic and discretionary review. I selected suitable youth arts projects and literature related to them that were published during last thirteen years. The book material was analysed by content analysis. I also considered how the results of the content analysis could be applied pedagogically. Results and conclusions. The literature that was selected to this literature review emphasized different parts of identity. The formation of identity was supported with the aid of art education, artistic work and self-narration. The objective of art education was to support identity formation, narrative understanding, self-narration and dealing with issues related to identity, self-knowledge, knowing one's cultural background, the experience of belonging, inclusion and recognition, the reflection of shared experiences and the meaning of one's experiences and the reflection of one's choices. On the basis of the results I came to the conclusion that self-narration, self-expression and artistic work support the formation of identity and help a young person to define who one is, where one is going and where does one belong.
  • Alve, Anna-Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The aim of the Master's thesis was to investigate the perceptions held by various social actors on the pupil and student welfare during the enactment of the first integral act on pupil and student welfare (1287/2013). The political interest in pupil and student welfare has increased in the past two decades and it is now seen as part of the preventative activities seeking to curb the social exclusion of children and young people. The present research is concerned with the sociopolitical purpose(s) of pupil and student welfare as defined in the referral statements of the draft law. The underlying paradigms of the statement givers' discourse are investigated in the theoretical framework of analytics of government. The purpose of the research was to contribute to the understanding of the sociopolitical discourse(s) on the welfare of children and young people, to shed some light on the ideological currents behind these discourses and to shake their self-evident and uniform nature. The empirical data of the research consisted of 55 referral statements of the draft law available on the web page of the Finnish Government. The reading of the data was based on the basic assumption of critical discourse analysis of the interconnected relationship of language and power. Meaningful phrases were conceptualized into theoretical regimes of governing for the purposes of the analysis. In addition to the "welfare state" and "neoliberal" regimes, the analysis is contextualized by the historical development of the pupil and student welfare and the referral statement procedure. In order to analyze the sociopolitical purpose of pupil and student welfare, four categories were created to illuminate the discourses consisting of the nature, object, realization, responsibility and form of the pupil and student welfare activity. The research shows that the discourse on the sociopolitical purpose of pupil and student welfare has adopted the linguistic concepts of the neoliberal regime although there is variation to be found in the rationalities defining the pupil and student welfare. The focus of the discourse was not the wellbeing of the individual but the needs of the society. This state of affairs common to all four discoursive categories created a tense relationship between the individual and society that was seen to be in connection with the typical sociopolitical discourse of today and to disengage the pupil and student welfare from its historical premise.
  • Lähetkangas, Outi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The purpose of the thesis is to interpret the range of discussion concerning consumerism and the significance of possessions, that is present in the media. The method used is interpretive structuralism, which is a form of discourse analysis. My research questions have emerged from the data and the analysing prosess has restructured and refined them during the prosess. The data consists of 26 Finnish articles and columns in which Marie Kondo’s The life-chaning magic of tidying up, other organizing books or voluntary simplifying are discussed. The articles have been published in 2014–2017. The context of the study is in the Finnish consumer society, the forming of which I will reflect in relation to the development of the western consumer society, massconsumption, throwaway society and the rapid transformation of the Finnish social structure among other things. The standard of living has been dependent on aquiring wealth and on the amount of posessions, but in a mature consumer culture the consumer can also enjoy the act of not consuming. In consumer cultures, consuming is the practice through which individuals take part in social life and bond with each other. The results of the analysis suggest that there are six discourses present in the data: The life-changing power of tidying up, Posessions as burdens, Ecology and restraining consumption, Womens status in the household, Consuming as entertainment and Historical effect ”the burden of scarcity”. A discourse includes various aspects and opinions, positive and negative, which rise from the range of discussion present in the data. These discourses are not clear-cut, they overlap and same topics might be discussed in many of them.
  • Vesterinen, Veera (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Work ability is a less frequently studied area of functioning among people of autism spectrum disorder, even if research has shown its significance for an individual’s quality of life in adulthood. Several qualitative and quantitative studies have shown that high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder encounter severe challenges in achieving successful employment. In this study, my aim is to describe factors that are associated with work participation of high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder. Previous studies have indicated that the employment rate of this population is relatively low when taking into account their cognitive skills and academic success. Studies on the employment rate of this population have failed, however, to explain which factors form barriers to employment and how individuals subjectively interpret these barriers. Fewer studies have researched factors that have had positive effects on their employment. I collected the research data by carrying out six (n=6) interviews with adults with a clinical diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder without comorbid intellectual disability. The interviews consisted of open-ended questions; meaning that the interviewees were expected to describe their experiences following ready-made themes. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. The interviewees’ descriptions of employment experiences varied. I examined separately the experiences of attaining and of keeping employment. Individual’s difficulties in social interaction and communication and the current labour market practices prevented successful attainment of employment. Support that was adjusted according to their individual needs as well as employers’ non-discriminatory recruitment procedures promoted the attainment of employment. Major factors that prevented interviewees from successfully keeping a job were difficulties in social interaction and communication, limitations in psychological and cognitive functioning, and unsuited working environments. Arrangements, which took into account their personal functioning had supported the keeping of employment. This study shows that we can understand more deeply the quality of life of the high-functioning adults within this population by exploring the work life experiences. The results obtained in this qualitative study describe factors that are associated with labour participation of otherwise high-functioning adults. The data also points out the need to develop individually designed support for this group to attain and keep a job. There is also a significant need for further education for organizations, employers and stakeholders regarding autism spectrum disorders.
  • Kauranen, Maikki (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Aims of this study. The purpose of this study was to describe eight-graders' future narratives in terms of both their qualitative contents and narrative construction. The theoretical framework focused on examining the concept of strength and its construction in narratives utilising the approaches of positive psychology, development psychology and narrative psychology. An integration model of strengths was constructed to support the examination. The aim of this study was to describe how the adolescents' future narratives were constructed and what kinds of qualitative factors and strengths these narratives contain. A further aim was to examine the qualitative similarities and differences between the narratives written in 1997 and 2015. By focusing on the concepts of strength, the adolescents' narratives were considered to provide additional knowledge to educational work. This approach was also perceived to provide possibilities for supporting adolescents in shaping their own paths and building positive future narratives. Methods. The research group consisted of adolescents in the eighth grade. The participants consisted of twelve boys and twelve girls in both 1997 and 2015. In total, the examined group comprised of 48 adolescents (N=48). The qualitative data consisted of written narratives from 1997 and 2015. The adolescents' narratives were analysed with the constructed qualitative frame of four phases. The qualitative data were categorized, organized into themes and worked through to depict different narrative forms and plots. The analysis was completed by examining similarities and differences in the narratives. The analysis applied was influenced by a hermeneutic approach and was supported by the theory section of this study. Results and conclusions. The following themes related to strength were identified: love, modesty, innovation, sociality, autonomy, functionality and trust. Additional themes that emerged from the contents included the proximity of the environment, globality, and personal negativity. The structural forms of the future narratives consisted of the following types: future-shaping, prospective, retrospective and archlike (connecting the present to the future) narratives. These forms of narratives manifested the adolescents' ability to reflect on the future. Furthermore, the different themes presented more detailed narrative types: successful, mundane, there is no good without bad, incoherent, and tragic storylines. When comparing years of 1997 and 2015 to each other, in 2015 adolescents' positivity had increased while the themes of the proximity of the environment and globality had decreased. In conclusion, this study provides support for dynamic nature of the concept of strength construction and the importance of its contextual factors.
  • Jussila, Jaana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This thesis studies the views of managers working in specialist organizations regarding leadership and emotional intelligence. The purpose of this study is to form an understanding of what views and concepts of the managers in specialist organizations have regarding emotional intelligence and its significance in managerial work. The purpose is to build an understanding of what the challenges are in managing specialist knowledge and to form an understanding of what the understanding and experience of emotional intelligence is in relation to leading an organization with specialist knowledge. The theoretical framework of the study was formed around three concepts: emotional intelligence, leadership and leadership of specialist knowledge. Theories of emotional intelligence, especially the concept of emotional intelligence by David Goleman and concepts of emotionally intelligent leadership were used as a theoretical framework. Concepts and definitions related to leadership and knowledge and theories in leadership of knowledge - such as the concept of transformational leadership presented by Bernard M. Bass – that have been combined with management that furthers learning by Riitta Viitala and Pirjo Kolari were also used in the study. The empirical research material was gathered by interviewing eight people who work or have worked in managerial positions in the specialist organization. The interviews were conducted as theme interviews. The methodological approach of the study was content analysis through which the research material was analyzed. Based on the material of the research, the challenges of managerial emotional intelligence in the specialist organization were the expectations and broad range of tasks related to managerial positions, substance knowledge, the management of strategic specialist knowledge, motivating, supporting and interaction. According to the study, the most important competences of emotional intelligence were emotional self-awareness, good selfassessment, self-control, transparency, ability to perform, empathy, service orientedness, inspirational leadership, ability to develop others and teamwork and collaboration skills. The conclusion of the study is that in the management of specialist knowledge in specialist organizations, matters such as interaction, individual attentiveness, empathy, ability to motivate and support, being present and enabling are highlighted. In a specialist organization a manager needs sufficient substance knowledge, purely emotional leadership is not sufficient. In specialist organizations, succeeding in knowledge management requires emotional intelligence, substance knowledge and transformational leadership. When these are combined by competent managers, they are able to motivate, focus on individuals and enable development.
  • Rasila, Saana (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Problem solving is important because it develops cognitive skills and creativity, and it motivates pupils to learn maths. Problem-solving skills are essential in our everyday lives. Open-ended problems are common in problem solving. The focus of this research is on open-ended maths problems in problem solving in primary school teaching. The inspiration for this research comes from national and international research that suggests that open-ended questions in problem solving improve cognitive skills, increase creativity and motivate pupils to learn maths. I am investigating the way pupils and teachers perceive open-ended questions and how they think they differ from ordinary maths questions. All the interviewees are participants in a development project regarding problem solving. Three teachers and three groups of pupils were interviewed in spring 2016. They were asked questions about the problem-solving tasks they had solved during the project. The answers were divided into different themes based on the research questions. Different themes from the research questions were found through the categorising process. Recurring themes were: multiple solutions, co-operation, reflection and changes in thought process. According to my findings the pupils were not used to solving problem based questions. However, most of them enjoyed solving the problems and felt a sense of achievement after solving them. The teachers understood the advantages of the problem-solving questions and felt that their own ideas about maths were developed during the project.

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