Käyttäytymistieteellinen tiedekunta

 

Recent Submissions

  • Ripatti, Minttu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Speech is a sum of a complicated, multifunctional neurological and motor action. By changing the articulatory setting, the resonance properties of the vocal tract change and a new sound is created. Speech can be described as a continuum of articulatory manoeuvre; each manoeuvre has its own function and they´re added together to gain the target articulation. Ventriloquism is speech without visible speech manoeuvres. Previously only few studies about ventriloquism have been published. Studies have focused on articulation, expiratory air pressure, fundamental frequency, laryngeal action, perceptual voice quality and simulation of compensating sounds of a ventriloquist. This study wanted to find out about the articulatory strategies of ventriloquists. Nasality, fundamental frequency, duration and the actual ventriloquism as a speech technique were examined – the writer learned the art of ventriloquism during research. Results show higher fundamental frequency, more nasality and longer duration compared to normal speech. However, differences between the participants were found. We can also rename ventriloquism as velar speech technique by the results obtained from the study. The results show, that velar speech technique may have a potential rule in helping those with structurally disturbed articulators. e.g. oral and throat cancer patients during post-operative speech therapy.
  • Väisänen, Kia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The objective of my study was to examine the policy of youth self-responsibilitation in neoliberal ethos. Young people and youth have been in part of societal debate which focus on society adhesion and concerns about social exclusion. There have been also expectations and demands by society to young people, but at the same time social exclusion is seen self-responsibility-based problem. In this study I asked how youth is located and how the ideal youth is produced by the political programs. The policy of youth self-responsibilitation is examined by how it is appearing and what meanings it takes in political programs. The perspective of this study is based on neoliberal ethos and societal change. The study data consist of two political programs about youth policy which one represents the ministry of education and culture in Finland and the other is European union youth policy report. I examined these reports with the critical discursive research. The analysis based on critical thinking, challenging conventional way and highlights that things can be done and said in “other way”. In the political programs youth were located with tensions, conflicts and problem-orientation. The ideal youth was produced by targets of active citizenship, participation and management one’s own life. The self-responsibilitation of youth was appearing the way that focus to individually-based in young people, whose ability and capacity should be improved and utilized. At the same time the structural conversation was minimal and shallow. Social and societal problems, such as unemployment, were dealt individually by blaming young people. The self-responsibilitation of youth were meaningful as part of diversity politics. There were many different youth policies which were specified and listed, but young people situation as a whole and profound were not represented. This study concludes that young people and youth should be seen more dignified and humane way which means the transition to youth intensification to dignified and humane youth.
  • Kivinen, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Goals. The goal of the study was to determine how foodstuffs were advertised in Pirkka magazines during the years 1954-1964. The theoretical framework of the study was that the choice between different foods is a socially and culturally determined phenomenon that can be influenced by nutrition education and advertisement. History of eating in Finland and the nutrition challenges faced during the set time period were also examined in the study. This is to help describe the social and cultural environment as related to food in the examination pe-riod. The period was set to approximately ten years after the food rationing ended. Methods. The materials in the study were advertisements in Pirkka magazines that were published between the years 1954-1964. Advertisements were collected from microfilms and from original copies. A total of 510 advertisements of foodstuffs from every other year were chosen as a representation of the total material base. The contents of the advertise-ments were categorized according to a predetermined set of variables as per the advertise-ments’ references to the product group, persons appearing in the advertisements, and the claims to nutritional qualities and other attributes. The results acquired through the categori-zation were analyzed through the means of content analysis. Results and conclusions. The advertisements focused on advertising consumer grade stimulants, and processed or new foodstuffs. Common fresh products were not represented in the material. The most advertised products were coffee, wheat flour, oatmeal, margarine, and butter. The advertisement of food stuffs was not directly related to the amount of food-stuffs consumed. Foodstuffs were advertised especially by emphasizing the perceptible quality and healthiness of the product. The healthiness of the product was argued to be as-sociated to its vitamin content. The persons appearing in the advertisement were mostly women and children who were to appeal to the viewers’ emotions and to set the target audi-ence. Contemporary nutritional challenges and nutrition discourse were also reflected in the advertisements as nutrition science’s period of vitaminology and the rivalry of butter and margarine were observable in them.
  • Koivunen, Tiia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Objectives. The objective of this study was to find out from Helsinki university’s master graduates about their experiences on generic skills, approaches to learning and the similarities of those two. The study sought to answer three questions: 1. What kinds of generic skills students feel they learned during their university studies? 2. What kinds of approaches to learning can be found from the graduates’ studying descriptions? 3. What kinds of similarities are there in generic skills and approaches to learning? Similarities have only been studied in quantitative researches so there is a need for qualitative analysis. Methods. The data is a part of a dissertation research of Tarja Tuononen (University of Helsinki) and it was collected in the spring of 2013. The data consist of 10 interviews from students who have already graduated. All the interviewees worked while studying and most of them studied in generalistic fields. First two research questions were conducted with theory-bound content analyses. Top categories were created based on theory because full detachment from previous knowledge would have been difficult. The third research question was conducted on the basis of the results from two previous research questions. Results and conclusions. From the students’ descriptions of generic skills, six top categories were separated. Some of those skills were divided into subcategories. Top category skills were knowledge processing, reflection, organization skills, thinking skills, argumentation and social skills. Some of the students felt like they had not learnt any generic skills when asked directly but as the interview progressed, some generic skills appeared. In the second face of the research, students’ descriptions of approaches to learning were studied. Three top categories were created based on previous theory: deep approach, surface approach and organized studying. Especially deep approach and organized studying were visible in the interviews and descriptions of surface approach appeared in a few interviews. When examining the similarities between generic skills and approaches to learning especially deep approach and organized studying included similarities. Surface approach had little similarities with generic skills. It can be said based on this research that for example organization skill is nearly identical with organized studying, when examining students’ descriptions on both dimensions. Additionally, the descriptions of thinking skills and the descriptions of deep approach included many similarities. Social skills and argumentation from the generic skills did not contain similarities with approaches to learning in this study. It can be said on the basis of the analyses that generic skills and approaches to learning have some similarities but this topic needs to be further researched qualitatively underlining individual profiles.
  • Konttinen, Anni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The objective for my study was to analyse the collaboration between a professional costume designer and a professional cutter. My assumption was that a successful collaboration in a long-term collegial relationships requires both personal and organizational knowhow which is often difficult to articulate, whereas this kind of knowledge is essential for maintaining the skill required in these professions. According to former studies, the technical guidelines in this kind of process are explicable whereas the specific know-how typically remains tacit. In order to articulate and transmit the tacit, organizational knowledge should be processed on different levels and from various points of view. The focus of my study was in the process of designing and making a stage costume, and the viewpoint more specifically in the tacit and explicit knowledge within this process. The questions were about the characteristics and the know-how in the process of designing and executing a stage costume. How do the designer and the cutter as experts in their own field transmit it to each other? How is the development and transmission of sectoral knowledge sustained and cumulated in this process? The data of this case study was collected in Helsinki City Theatre during years 2014–2016. It consisted of three interviews and two observations. My focus group was Sari Salmela, a costume designer and Riikka Canth, a cutter. In this study they were both considered as experts due to their long-term collegial collaboration and personal working experience. For the analysis I categorised the interview and observation data according to themes. The data was mirrored against literacy, theoretical background, and then interpreted basing on the process model of co-designing. Based on the interview data the process first involves – in addition to the focus group – the group of the director, designers, and actors. When the process proceeds from defining the guidelines to executing the costume itself the responsibility is fully passed to the costume department. The visible part of designer's and cutter's know-how appeared as explicit and combined to tacit via intuition. This construction seemed to increase trust which both of them considered crucial. As experts in their own field, they were able to transmit their know-how in both directions in an equal setting. Close-knit collaboration, interaction, and trust between the colleagues plays an important role in transmitting the knowledge. When the outcome, the costume, meets with the guidelines set in the beginning, the knowledge can be considered successfully transmitted.
  • Martikainen, Joni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Depression is a phenomenon determined by multiple factors and it can be conceptualized both from psychological and physiological point of view. Psychological and physiological risk factors form a vulnerability that predispose to depression. The purpose of this study was to research the relationship between the psychological risk factors of depression and physiological stress reactivity. Cloninger’s temperament trait harm-avoidance (Temperament and Character Inventory) and tendency for ruminative thinking (Self-rumination Scale) were used as psychological risk factors in this study. The physiological stress reactivity was measured by the individual differences in the heart rate variability. 58 women were invited to laboratory based on the earlier web-based study (n=588). In laboratory the women answer to self-report questionnaires and their EKG was measured under a stressful task. Study found a statistically significant association between psychological risk factors of depression and physiological stress reactivity. Psychological risk factors of depression constituted a whole that predicted physiological stress reactivity in a spesific experimental setting in a statistically significant way. The results of this study can be used as a foundation for the development of more effective medical interventions and psychotherapies, and for the development of more specific categorization of depressive subcategories.
  • Salmi, Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract The purpose of this thesis is to find out how human rights education is present in Finnish elementary schools. What do teachers know about human rights education and how it's tied to the elementary school and teachers' professionalism? My hypothesis is that human rights education exists in elementary schools but it is not well-known. There are no previous studies done of this subject. Closest is Mia Matilainen's doctoral dissertation from 2011, where she examines human rights education in high schools. The research is done by using the interview method. I interviewed six elementary school teachers form four different schools and 3 different municipalities. Two of the schools were comprehensive schools. In addition to the teachers, I interviewed two human rights specialists from two different organizations. The interview material is analyzed by using content analysis. The this thesis includes several direct quotes to give it a more down to earth feel, and also to stay in touch with the interview method used. Human rights education was a foreign concept to the teachers I interviewed. However, they thought that with the current elementary school curriculum (in 2016), human rights education will become more familiar and its meaning will become more important. Human rights education was seen as being a part of current subject contents, such as religion, ethics and history. Handling every day issues such as conflicts and bullying were seen as part of human rights education also. Its presence was seen in class rooms, but there is room for improvement in within the school culture, especially when it comes to getting people involved. Teacher's own values were seen as a key element in human rights education. Teacher's role in Finnish schools is still very autonomous, and that it's up to individual teachers how human rights education fits in with the everyday school life. This means that human rights education and taking part in it varies within schools.
  • Ränninranta, Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The purpose of this study is to examine whether attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) related to perinatal risk factors is linked to depressive symptoms and excessive alcohol consumption at age 40. There is a lot of scientific information about perinatal risk factors and their effects in childhood and connection to ADHD, but only few studies have researched adults. ADHD generally has a wide psychiatric comorbidity. This study examines whether ADHD related to perinatal risk factors is linked to depressive symptoms or excessive alcohol consumption in adulthood. Examinees consists of people who have 1) ADHD related to perinatal risks (n=45), 2) perinatal risks without ADHD (n=387) and 3) a control group (n=73). Research problems are: Does the ADHD group have 1) more depression symptoms and 2) more excessive alcohol consumption in their fourties than other groups, 3) is there a similar pattern of correlations between adulthood ADHD symptoms, depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption between all groups and 4) does alcohol consumption mediate the correlation between adulthood ADHD symptoms and depressive symptoms? ADHD related to perinatal risks had a connection to more substantial depressive symptoms comparing to other risk group but not to control group. Alcohol consumption on average did not differ from other groups. ADHD group did have more severe depressive symptoms and more harmful or addictional alcohol consumption. In all groups adulthood ADHD symptoms, depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption shared a similar correlation pattern. The correlation between ADHD and depressive symptoms was greatest and that correlation was strongest in the ADHD group. When the alcohol consumption was controlled over all groups, it was possible to notice that alcohol consumption mediates the correlation between adulthood ADHD and depressive symptoms. These results suggests that depressive symptoms and harmful alcohol consumption are possible associative problem to ADHD related to perinatal risks. This emphasized the significance of early symptoms recognizing and support to people with ADHD and also continuing psychosocial support until adulthood.
  • Pohjoismäki, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The goal of this thesis was to research the interaction in Finnish as a second language lessons and the support of visual elements to the students and to the use of Finnish vocabulary in the classroom. In the thesis it was researched how the students possibly use the visual elements in the classroom to help them to find a specific Finnish word. The aim of this thesis was also to research if the assignments the students did during the lesson might helped them to learn Finnish vocabulary. There are only few studies on the support of the visual elements in the classroom and to the students learning. The data was collected as a part of the Long Second research project. The lessons were recorded twice a week in 2011-2012 in instruction preparing for basic education lessons. The data of this thesis was recorded in January and February 2012. The lessons consisted the human body and it´s functions. In this thesis was used four Finnish as a second language lessons. There were five to six students in each lesson and they were 7 to 12 years old when the lessons were recorded. The data was transcribed and analyzed using the methods of the conversation analysis. In the classroom there is rich interaction between the students and with the teacher but also with using the support of the visual elements. Using the methods of the conversation analysis examples was presented where the students used the visual elements to support their interaction in the classroom. On the basis of the collected data, it seems that the visual elements in the classroom might support the learning and remembering of the Finnish vocabulary of the students. Furthermore it seems that the student`s assignments done during the lesson possibly support the interaction of the students and help them to constitute a joined understanding on a subject.
  • Koverola, Mika Jaakko Tapio (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Specific Language Impairment is a broad spectrum disorder of language development, not including deficits of non-verbal intelligence. It typically manifests in a slower rate of learning new words. According to previous research, the disorder is connected with anomalous lateralization of speech related neural processes. The neural basis of Specific Language Impairment has mainly been studied in adults and school aged children, even though the disorder manifests already in preschool age. Studying the neural representations of words and their changes during a learning process in preschool children can help to recognize the cognitive risk factors of Specific Language Impairment. This study aims to confirm, whether neural representations of words are anomalously lateralized in Specific Language Impairment. In addition, differences in the rate of formation of the neural representation of words between children with Specific Language Impairment and children with typically developed language skills are studied. 12 children with Specific Language Impairment and 12 children with typically developed linguistic abilities between the ages 3 to 6 participated in the study. The differences between groups in event related potentials for a known word and an unknown pseudoword and the changes they undergo during passive listening were explored. It was found that the evoked response potentials for both stimulus types were more clearly lateralized on the left side in linguistically typically developed children than in those with Specific Language Impairment, suggesting atypical organization of word representations. Group differences were also found in the event related potentials elicited by the pseudoword: in the control group the event related potential for the pseudoword differed significantly from the one for the known word in the beginning of the experiment (lexicality effect) and resembled it by the end of the experiment (lexicalization), whereas no such difference in the beginning of and change during the experiment was observed in the experimental group. Based on this study Specific Language Impairment is associated with anomalous neural functions both in the automatic activation of the neural representations of words and in the formation of new word representations during passive listening. Both of these phenomena may be related to abnormal language development, but the mechanisms should be determined in more detail in further investigations.
  • Kärnä, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The aim of this study is to find out, describe and interpret the novice classroom teachers’ perceptions of the challenges they encounter in their job in the elementary school and how they cope with them. The main research question is: what kind of professional challenges and coping methods novice classroom teachers have at the beginning of their career. To help answer this question there were two subquestions: which factors are challenging at the beginning of the career according to novice teachers and which factors help coping with the challenges and, therefore, help the novice teachers at their job. The gap between the university studies and the actual work, the induction phase of a novice teacher and the challenging nature of the profession from a novice teacher’s perspective have all been previously studied and the studies have proven that the induction is hard and strenuous on the novice. The previous studies as well as my own experience as a novice teacher formed the theoretical context and basis for this study. The material for this study was gathered from seven novice classroom teachers who worked in the Helsinki region and who had experience in teaching no less than one and no more than three years. I interviewed each novice teacher individually. I analyzed the interviews with the help of content analysis based on previous theories. I looked for themes in the interviews: what kinds of challenges and coping methods were mentioned. The interviews provided information on which factors are considered challenging and which support the novices’ work and how. Novice teachers mentioned multiple challenges at the beginning of their career. Some of the challenges overlapped with each other and they concerned the number of different tasks and roles a teacher has, the pupils, the work community and the difficulties in collaboration, the everyday aspects of being a teacher, the school practices, teaching, the community outside the school, and the collaboration with parents. The coping methods and factors supporting the work concerned a well-functioning work community, peer support, pupils and their parents, the balance between work and free time, the novice’s own attitude, and feeling that the work is meaningful. A few factors, for example the work community and the pupils, were in some cases a challenge and in other cases something that supported the novices in their work. The results of my study could be utilized in the induction phase, making it easier, and at the final stage of the university studies, when the teacher students are being prepared to start their teaching careers.
  • Alavilo, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Previous studies have shown that both self-regulated learning and cognitive-attributional strategies are related to academic success and proceeding in studies. It seems that student’s skills in self-regulation could be weaker in the beginning of studies in higher education rather than in the master degree studies. However there is still too little information regarding different phases of studies. In this study my intention was to investigate the self-regulation skills and cognitive-attributional strategies of students in the faculty of humanities. My focus was in two type of study phase that is bachelor students whose studies are delayed compared to how they should have proceeded. And another group was students in master degree. I also used cluster analysis in order to form student profiles based on their values on self-regulation and cognitive-attributional strategies. My interest was also to find out how masters and bachelors were situated in these profiles. Each profiles study success was evaluated according to GPA. The questionnaire and given data was produced by The Helsinki University Centre for Research and Development of Higher Education along with the Faculty of Humanities in the University of Helsinki. The questionnaire included statements regarding self-regulated learning and cognitive-attributional strategies. There is no statistically significant difference in self-regulated learning between masters and bachelors. However masters seem to use more optimistic strategy and less self-handicapping strategy compared to bachelors. Following profiles were based on self-regulated learning and cognitive-attributional strategies: A) Task avoidant and skillful students in self-regulation B) Optimistic and skillful students in self-regulation C) Optimistic and students who have weak skills in self-regulation and D) Task avoidant and students who have weak skills in self-regulation. The majority of masters situated in profile B and majority of bachelors situated in profile A. According to results in this study students in profile B were most successful in their studies and less successful were students in profile D. Using optimistic strategy does not compensate the lack of skills in self-regulation and on the other hand those who have good skills in self-regulation don’t seem to have best benefit from them if they use self-handicapping strategy and not optimistic strategy. Support should be focused not only in improving skills in self-regulation but also in helping those students who seem to use self-handicapping strategy even though they would have good skills in self-regulation.
  • Kaivolainen, Viivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Traditionally mental health has been viewed as the absence of psychopathology. Quite new alternative view of mental health views mental health being composed of two separate dimensions: positive mental health and mental illness. Positive mental health is conceived of as emotional and psychological well-being, positive functioning and social well-being. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between positive mental health and mental illness. Furthermore, the connection of social support to positive mental health, and the moderating effects of social support to the relationship of mental health and mental illness were examined. The applied data is from population study of Lapland, Mielen tuki – project, in year 2012. The data was collected in mail questionnaire from 15-80 years old. Positive mental health was assessed with short version of Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being scale (SWEMWBS). Mental illness was assessed with GHQ-12 and social support with Oslo-3 scale. Variables were examined with regression analyses. Results showed that mental illness and positive mental health were moderately and reversed connected. Results also supported the separation of the two. Social support was autonomously related to better positive mental health and worse mental illness, but the moderating effect was not shown.
  • Melin, Marianna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Objectives. Teacher attrition and the possible lack of qualified teachers has been a topic of public discussion for many years and has also raised concern in Finland. This has raised a need to examine teacher stress and the reasons behind teacher attrition. The aim of this study was to investigate how work stress, estimated by Siegrist’s (1996) Effort – Reward Imbalance model (ERI model), affects class teachers’ intention to leave teaching career. The main hypothesis was that high effort combined with low rewards predicts intention to leave teaching career. In addition it was investigated how different levels of effort, reward and overcommitment effect on intention to leave the profession. Methods. The data for this study were collected with a questionnaire in 2013-2014. The subjects were 1-6 grade teachers from randomly picked schools in Helsinki metropolitan area. Altogether 74 teachers from 34 schools participated to this study. The age of the participants was 43,5 years on average (range 25-63 years). Work stress was measured with ERI-questionnaire. Results. The effort-reward imbalance predicted teachers’ intention to leave the profession. Also lower rewards predicted teacher’s intention to leave the profession. Closer examination of the data showed that the lack of ’esteem’ was the only variable that caused the connection between low rewards and intention to leave teaching. High effort or overcommitment didn’t predict teachers’ intention to leave the profession. Conclusions. This study shows that ERI model can predict Finnish school teachers’ intention to leave teaching. Moreover this study demonstrates the importance of ‘esteem’ at the work environment when predicting teachers’ well-being and intention to leave the profession.
  • Laakso, Milja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Objectives. Studies have shown that word finding difficulties form a significant trouble source in speech of individuals with moderate Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However systematic research has focused typically in naming tests even though managing in test situations does not reveal how word finding difficulties really affect in conversational interaction. Analysis of conversation have shown that continuing word finding difficulties complicates person’s possibilities to participate in an interaction. The aim of this study is to report what kind of word searches appear in a conversational interaction of individuals with moderate AD. Using conversation analytic approach this study focuses on what kind of traits typically appear in word searches and how speakers deal with word searches. Methods. Participants of this study were four individuals with moderate AD who participated in a conversation group. Database was formed from two filmed appointments and the total duration was 70 minutes 16 seconds. Conversation group appointments were held by two speech and language therapist students and their instructor. Appointments were transcribed and word searches were identified by using verbal and nonverbal traits that indicates word search. Using conversation analytic approach word searches were analyzed and each indicating trait was classified. Results and conclusions. Nearly three thirds of all word searches found in this data were solved successfully. Approximately half of them were solved by the speaker with AD himself and a bit less than fifth of word searches were solved in co-operation with the communication partner. However solution was not always completing target word but reformulating the trouble source or elaboration made by the communication partner. Around fourth of word searches were left unsolved and persons with AD had great difficulties to handle the trouble source. This study has given knowledge about conversational interaction of individuals with moderate AD and results highlights the significance of conversation partner in maintaining a conversation.