Kasvatustieteellinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Chydenius, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Professional identity is a social construction, which is formed as individuals interpret themselves and their experiences in relation to the surrounding world. According to earlier studies, the professional identity of kindergarten teachers (early childhood education teachers) has been derogated by unclear job descriptions and the difficulty to analyse and articulate professional competence or the essence of one’s professionalism. This thesis examines the background and history of the formation of kindergarten teachers’ professional identity as reviewed through editorials of the Hanna magazine issues 1997–2007, published by The Kindergarten Teachers Union in Finland (LTOL). As a professional agent, the chair of the union has taken part in constructing and moulding the professional identity of kindergarten teachers in editorials, challenging or reinforcing the positions offered to kindergarten teachers by the social operational environment. Research questions are: 1) In what ways is the kindergarten teachers’ professional identity constructed in the editorials? and 2) How has the social operational environment affected the formation of kindergarten teachers’ professional identity? The method in this thesis was critical discourse analysis. Material consisted of editorials of the Hanna magazine from 1997 to 2007. The material was analysed through linguistic analysis of subject positions, which were examined in relation to the social operational environment. The analysis showed that the chair of The Kindergarten Teachers Union has promoted a uniform professional identity for kindergarten teachers, its core consisting of the following roles: academic kindergarten teacher, expert in childhood and early childhood education, social influencer, campaigner for better wages, and expert in education and teaching. Cracks in the professional identity were especially caused by the fact that kindergarten teachers were at the time administered under social welfare services. The results show that, from the point-ofview of their professional identity, a more appropriate professional framework is now being provided for kindergarten teachers by the education administration and legislation.
  • Schüller, Ronja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Globalization is changing and challenging our society. As a result of this change, there is also a growing possibility to develop well-functioning multilingual environments. In the future, teachers and leaders of different associations may often work in environments where two languages are used in parallel with one another. This leads us to the question, how to lead and communicate pedagogically using multiple languages? Multilingualism and multilingual schools, along with their potential, have been discussed in the Finnish media, which makes the discussion about multilingual practices relevant. This study’s aim is to examine how football coaches in a multilingual environment communicate and lead while using multiple languages. The thesis has been written in collaboration with the project UPS-HIFK, a cooperation between the University of Helsinki, FSI (Finlands svenska idrott) and the football club, HIFK. UPS-HIFK was part of a study project called “Ung på Svenska” which was financed by Kulturfonden. The study is inductive and qualitative and data has been gathered through both video and interviews. Moreover, the main participants consisted of four football coaches who were observed in their natural working environment. The coaches were also interviewed to get a deeper understanding of their experiences of the multilingual practice. The coaches’ leadership was examined through Chelladurai’s (2017) multidimensional leadership model as well as through transformational leadership theory; while the multilingual working methods were studied through García’s (2009) multilingual strategies. The results demonstrate a complex leadership role that is shaped by context, as well as players- and coaches’ characteristics. Furthermore, the coach and the environment supported the players' individual growth in many areas, including language development. The coach altered his language depending on the players' language skills and who he was communicating with. The multilingual strategies used could occasionally work as resources for the coaches’ leadership and communication. The coaches showcased a flexible and dynamic communication style that was supported by body language. Every coach had developed their own micro practice to cope in the multilingual working environment. The conditions were given, but every coach’s varying level of language skills and leadership style shaped the outcome of the praxis. The results show that a multilingual approach could be incorporated in other similar environments. However, leaders in these environments need to put effort into planning the work and language acquisition, while maintaining a positive an open mindset to reassure that the environment is pedagogical and developing for the participants.
  • Helin, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Higher education in Finland is expected to provide innovation activities for their students; this is indicated by the Ministry of Education and Culture in their national vision of transition to working life. Changes in work-life are affecting in the whole society in Finland calling for non-routine problem solving, multi-professional collaboration, and knowledge creation. Co-operation between higher education institutions and business life is expected to extend and there is an increasing demand of entrepreneurial skills. In my research context, the innovation activity is provided by facilitation organisation which is a link between all actors. Organisations and companies set complex challenges; then groups of higher education students ideate and create solutions for those demands. The data for this study was collected through ethnographic observations and interviews. The process of observations took several months; I observed groups to obtain information of successes and challenges among the multidisciplinary collaborations. Observations were accomplished at joint events and while students were working as small units. At the end of the project I interviewed students from observed groups individually. In addition, two facilitators and one counselor from partner organisation was interviewed. Throughout the whole research process I wrote notes to my research diary. The initial interest of my study focused on the use of the discipline based languages. Commonly, people from different disciplines are assumed to communicate with different terms and words; challenges in separate epistemic vocabularies are expected to influence to the process of collaboration. Nevertheless, the data in this research showed that the discipline based differences in language are only one challenge among others. The participants in this research described challenges and successful of communication and group work habits. My research highlights the importance of open-minded knowledge seeking and knowledge creating. Two groups and their approaches to this collaboration are compared. One group utilised an approach of collaborative knowledge creation, whereas, another one used a practice of subtasks which were performed individually. Innovation projects require the ability to collaborate, including both sharing own expertise and relying on skills and knowledge of others. The data illustrated how groups operated. On the basis of the research data, the objects of their actions were analysed, and I located the groups in the trading zone dimensions.
  • Holopainen, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The growth towards class teachership – what kind of a teacher one is as an individual and in relation to others and what one strives to achieve – continues throughout teachers’ whole career. Teaching practice and related supervision which are part of teachers' education have a significant effect on their growth. Cooperative teacher supports and advises the student teachers and prior studies have discovered that cooperative teacher's conceptions are easily transmitted to the students. The purpose of this thesis was to examine how cooperative teachers’ conceptions affect their supervision, what significance they perceive their supervision has towards students' growth towards teachership and what kind of challenges they experience in supporting the growth of their students. Data was collected by interviewing eight cooperative teachers from one official training school as well as municipal schools. The interviews where analysed using phenomenography with a data-driven approach. Answers to the research questions were explored by constructing categories from the conseptions of the cooperative teachers. Theoretical framework consisted of the concepts of teachership, teacher practice supervision and cooperative teacher. Cooperative teachers perceived that class teachership consists of diverse duties of a class teacher and that teachership is a profound phenomenon. The teachers' conceptions of class teachership were similar to their conceptions of a good class teacher. The cooperative teachers did not seek to transfer their conceptions of teachership to the students but they acknowledged that they transfer nevertheless. Teachers strove to improve their students and teach them that there is no one correct way to be a class teacher. There was variation in the cooperative teachers’ perceptions of the significance of their supervision in students' growth towards leadership. The cooperative teachers did, however, believe that they had several ways of supporting the students' growth. The experienced challenges in supervision were difficult students, problems in supervision relationships and challenges rising from the practice environment. Attention should be paid to the selection and further training of the cooperative teachers in order to guarantee equal and qualified supervision of the students in their growth towards teachership during their teacher training.
  • Juntunen, Henriikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Aims. Achievement goal orientations have often been studied as rather general individual tendencies to favour certain goals, results and consequences, but they may also demonstrate subject-specificity. Studies taking several academic subjects into account simultaneously, and by utilising a person-oriented approach in particular, are still scarce. Task values (i.e., intrinsic, attainment, utility, cost), in turn, refer specifically to subject-specific beliefs that influence students’ choices and performance. There is a need to understand patterns of subject-specific goal orientations as well as their relations to perceived subject-specific cost and to more general academic well-being better. This study examined upper secondary school students’ subject-specific (mathematics and English) goal orientation profiles and how students with different profiles differ in subject-specific cost (i.e., effort, emotional, and opportunity cost) and academic wellbeing (i.e., schoolwork engagement and school burnout). Methods. Data were collected by questionnaires. Altogether, 434 students from one general upper secondary school in Finland participated in the current study. Preliminary analyses concerning structural validity were conducted using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Regarding motivational profiles, students with similar patterns of achievement goal orientations were identified utilising a person-oriented approach and latent profile analysis (LPA). After establishing groups, analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted to examine group differences. Results and Conclusions. Five distinct goal orientation profiles were identified: mastery-oriented (24,9%), success-oriented (25,8%), English-oriented, math-avoidant (14,3%), indifferent (28,8%), and avoidance-oriented (6,2%). Evidence for both domain-generality and -specificity of goal orientation profiles was found. These profiles differentiated in cost and academic wellbeing. Overall, mastery-oriented showed the most adaptive wellbeing and avoidance-oriented the most maladaptive. Success-oriented group, characterised by high multiple goals, also scored high on cost and both adaptive (i.e., engagement) and maladaptive (i.e., burnout) academic wellbeing indicators. The findings indicate that examining students' multidimensional achievement motivation in different subjects may be valuable for comprehending the motivational dynamics and in recognising the factors endangering and fostering student learning and wellbeing.
  • Rautajärvi, Noona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Aims. Digital games have impacts in motivation and learning. Learning games have often failed in integrating learning and fun. For that reason, they have been called chocolate covered broccoli. The experiential learning environments of games have been mentioned in Finnish national curriculum of history (2014). Games are recommended as learning tools and technology and communication devices should be used in learning. This research examines three history learning games. The aim is to find how the games incorporates good learning principles. In addition, this research aims to review how these learning games answers to the aims of the Finnish national curriculum of history. Methods. In this research three history learning games was analysed: Olivia17, Vihan pitkät jäljet and Flight to Freedom. The data was approached through theory guided content analysis. In analysis was used American researcher Gees (2005) definition of digitals games good learning principles and Finnish national curriculums aims for history teaching in middle school. The data was organized to a table, where the learning principles and answering to aims of history curriculum were described as accurately as possible. Results and conclusions. Good learning principles were shown weakly in the games of this research. Identity and getting information on demand were the learning principles that the games used the strongest. Cross-functional teams was a learning principle that was used weakest, there was no possibility of working together in any of these games. The games answered weakly to the Finnish national curriculums aims for history teaching in middle school. Waking the interest towards history was the aim that was shown the strongest in these games. For weakest the games answered to the aims of finding, interpreting and evaluating resources, and making own interpretations of history. Based by this research these games concentrate learning of the content.
  • Tikkala, Aiju (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objective of the study. Medicine and dentistry are some of the oldest professions in the world and in addition to that also very popular study fields in Finland. Previous research has shown that especially interest in the field of study, altruistic motives and job opportunities are the main reasons why students study medicine or dentistry. Most of the previous studies have been concentrating in the quantitative analysis of study motives. In this study, the centercentre of attention is in the study motives which the students have themselves articulated. The study aims to analyse how these motives express students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Studying the quality of study motivation is crucial since especially intrinsic motivation has been showed to lead to the well-being of the students and better study outcomes. Methods. The research material was collected in the faculty of medicine, the University of Helsinki. The research material was collected with an internet based questionnaire as a part of a study module for first year medicine and dentistry students. The study was conducted by analysing the study motives of 149 students using qualitative abductive content analysis. In addition to that quantitative approach was used for comparison of the number of the motives in different categories. Results and conclusions. The students in this study were motivated by interest in the study subject, factors that related to practising as a doctor or dentist, factors that related to have a professional career and previous personal experiences. Most of these motives could be seen to express the intrinsic motivation of the students. When educating future doctors and dentists the emphasis should be on supporting and fostering students’ intrinsic motivation. This can be done by allowing students to satisfy their basic needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness. Previous research has shown that for example mentoring, encouraging and constructive feedback and student-centred teaching methods are useful tools for supporting students’ intrinsic motivation.
  • Fagerholm, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    (Objective.) Earlier studies have indicated, that reading can improve and refine one’s ability to empathise. Whilst completing my bachelor’s thesis, I indicated critically with research and studies surrounding the exploration on the effect reading and literature can have on human empathy. Four important matters were found and concluded in researches: transportation, narrativity, identifying with a positive character and customs of reading. The research purpose in this thesis is to explore the concept of preventing bullying through literary tools, based on the evidence of these four important matters. The aim of this study was to design, put into practise and evaluate pedagogical application, which is designed to use literature and these four important matters to prevent bullying. In pedagogical application, designed in this thesis, literature, narrativity, identifying with a positive character and customs of reading was used to help children accomplish experiences of transportation and perezhivanie. In the following thesis I propose to introduce and analyse the pedagogical application as an example to use literature as a concise example on how teachers and pedagogical staff can utilise literature as a measure of preventing bullying in schools. (Method.) I accomplished this study using methods of qualitative and action research. The participants of this study were eleven second-graders from an elementary school in Helsinki. As a study material I used interviews and collected textual material created by children, who took part in the pedagogical application. In the application I used drama and literature as a means as of which to work with our subject – bullying. We read one story of Pekka Töpöhäntä -book series written by Gösta Knutsson. I analysed the collected material by discursive analysis and researched the verbal content created by children. (Results and conclusions.) The results of this study attribute with experiences of transportation and perezhivanie. However, the results are by no means fully conclusive, as the research did not consider all means and circumstances surrounding the collection of data. The results give small indications of what may have created a feeling of transportation and perezhivanie amongst children responding at the time, it is however not possible to make generalized conclusions based on this evidence. The pedagogical application I have created is a partly successful tool, which aims to develop and improve understanding of how literature can be used as a successful method and tool to prevent bullying. By following research, it is possible to examine those parts of the pedagogical application, which have or have not shown effect on progressing the perceptions bullying in amongst children.
  • Vehmanen, Martti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objectives. The objective of this thesis was to examine a planning project concerning an informal learning environment, undertaken by the Kaisaniemi Botanic Garden, that used participatory methods in involving students and teachers. Through finding a synthesis between this undertaking and previous research on the subject, another objective was to build a model which other informal learning environments could use in carrying out similar projects in an appropriate manner. The thesis approaches institutional cooperation through the concept of boundary crossing, especially as interpreted by Akkerman and Bakker. Methods. The study was conducted using a qualitative approach. The research data was collected through semi-structured interviews, in which the three employees of the garden who were mainly in charge of the project were heard. The data was analysed using the methods of content analysis, and the model was constructed by utilizing the traditions of grounded theory. Results. The project was considered successful, but it’s non-recurrent execution was deemed problematic. The biggest obstacles were the everyday challenges of large institutions – schools and informal learning environments – and their balancing in relation to one another. The participatory design framework created in the study offers informal learning environments a nine-step plan of action, which runs through three phases – preinteraction, interaction and postinteraction – in a circular manner.
  • Eklund Suhonen, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Aims: The aim of this study was to find out the social support (SS) of the secondary school students and its connection to their psychological well-being and happiness. The focus of this study was on the students who have been frequently supported in the basic education. The earlier studies have indicated that students with learning disabilities have less SS; they become easier bullied and excluded from social communities. The happiness of a student with special needs is also lower than others, according to earlier studies. Methods: The data for the study were collected using questionnaires from 14 Finnish upper secondary schools in the spring of 2016. Both vocational schools and senior high schools were included. There were 1141 answers in total. The data were analyzed using SPSS. Results and conclusions: The levels of the psychological well-being and happiness of the upper secondary students are quite high. On average, they have a satisfying amount of friends. They receive more SS from their mother than their father. A romantic relationship is related to their happiness, but not to their psychological well-being. SS from the school worker is related to students’ happiness and psychological well-being. The students who had been frequently supported in the basic education do not differ in SS, happiness or psychological well-being from the students with no such support. Only the support from mother is stronger among frequently supported group. There is no connection between SS from the school worker and psychological well-being among supported group, neither between romantic relationship and happiness, conversely with non-supported students. The only main difference that a school success indicates among the supported group is higher levels of psychological well-being when it comes to a better succeed students. Generally, the students with the support background in the basic education do not differ much from their peers in SS.
  • Uusimäki, Katriina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Fashion consumption has a big role in our everyday life. The environmental impact of the fashion industry is significant, so it would be important to change our ways of consuming fashion. In this study, I will find out which factors affect people's choices of fashion consumption, especially from the point of view of consumer psychology. I will use the literature and interview material. In addition, I will find out which factors affect the formation of an individual's fashion consumption behavior. In my research, I used an interview as a method of data acquisition. I conducted research interviews in theme interviews. Interviews consisted four 19-36-year-old consumers, who all had slightly different habits regarding fashion consumption. Each interview was about half an hour long. I recorded the interviews and transcribed them into text. After all there was 32 sheets of transcribed text. In the analysis, I first proceeded classification to the entire material and then emphasized to smaller details and search for meanings. Based on literature, important factors behind fashion consumption were the individual's identity, values and attitudes, motivation and needs, and emotional life. These factors were also clearly featured in research interviews. From the basis of both, literature and interviews, it was possible to distinguish factors influencing between the production of fashion and individual factors. Production factors include factors that are not dependent of the individual’s will, such as advertising and marketing, fashion production processes, policy, and access to information. Individual factors, by their name, are, however, closely connected to the individual, such as personality and identity, interests and social relationships. Based on the research results, it seems that the motivation of the individual plays a major role in making consumer choices and in adapting consumer behavior. What matters is whether the individual is motivated externally or internally to consume in a certain way. As Jansson-Boyd (2010, 118) states, those who are internally motivated tend to pursue a certain behavior longer than those who are externally motivated. Therefore, when seeking to change human consumption behavior, it is important to focus on how to motivate consumers internally for sustainable consumption.
  • Riiheläinen, Sirpa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This thesis explores the school memories and experiences of people born in the 1920s, who in the 1930s and 1940s went to internat schools for the deaf mute that taught through speaking and writing.Teaching deaf people from 1880s to 1970s has been described as a bleak period of oralism, forcing deaf people to speak, and using sign language was punished. In individual stories, this period has been described in a positive way as a learning place for child without a language. In this Masters Thesis, qualitative methods were used, based on memory history, using themed interview methodology. The research questions were: What was the interviewee’s view of him/herself as a pupil? In what ways did they interact with different people at school? What kind of structural factors existed in school? The individual interviews (N=6) were undertaken using sign language, lasting from 1.5 to 3 hours. The interviews were shot on camera and the interview story was then transcribed. The themes (Annexe 1) were used for gathering memories, and their significance and interpretations. The idea was that memory information, along with individuality, is part of community’s collective and contextual memory. The interview material was analysed through content analysis, classifying different expressions and connecting them in the end to the theoretical concepts. The interviewees’ biographies, experiences, or enjoyment varied. The cultural view of a conscientious, obedient and courteous pupil was congruent. The interactions in school were described as hierarchical, and the school staff was divided into nice and cruel members of the staff. The pupils were divided into obedient and misbehaving pupils. Teaching was done through speaking. Learning to speak was laborious, but knowing how to speak gave esteem to the pupils. The teaching methods consisted of learning by heart, reading out loud, speaking, and writing. When interacting with other children, the pupils learnt signing and communicated through sign language. In their freetime the pupils enjoyed with their friends. They were playing, and exploring the school town, also the places that were forbidden to go.
  • Pakarinen, Jarkko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tavoitteet. Tämän tutkimuksen tehtävänä oli selvittää, analysoida ja tulkita sitä, millaista miesparien parisuhde ja arki on. Tutkimuksessa minua kiinnosti kuulla myös miesparien ajatuksia heidän elämänsä turvaverkostoista ja sitä, mitkä tekijät tuovat heidän arkielämäänsä positiivista sisältöä sekä onnellisuutta. Halusin saada selville myös, mitä haaveita miesparien elämässä on. Tutkin heidän elämäänsä nimenomaan positiivisesta näkökulmasta. Tutkimuksessa korostuu miesnäkökulma. Teoriassa aihetta lähestyttiin seuraavien pääteemojen kaut-ta: homoseksuaalisuus, parisuhde, arki ja intersektionaalisuus. Menetelmät. Tutkimuksen kohderyhmäksi määrittyi viisi suomalaista miesparia, joiden ikäjakauma oli 25–56 vuotta. Haastateltujen miesparien perustiedoista tehtiin taulukko. Tutkimus toteutettiin kvalitatiivisena teemahaastatteluna kesällä 2018. Haastattelut tehtiin sekä Skype-yhteyden kautta että omassa kodissani. Kaikki haastattelut tallennettiin nauhurilla. Haastattelumateriaali litteroitiin heti kunkin haastattelun jälkeen. Litteroitu materiaali analysoitiin. Tutki-muskysymyksistä muodostettiin 20 teemaa. Haastattelujen vastaukset olivat alateemoja, joita tuli 319. Tätä kautta muodostuivat neljä uutta yläluokkaa. Nämä olivat nykyhetki, tukiverkosto, onni ja ilo sekä haaveilevat pariskunnat. Tutkimustulokset kirjoitettiin auki näiden osa-alueiden kautta. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Tutkimustulosten mukaan ansiotyö oli yksi tärkeimmistä ja vaikuttavimmista asioista kaikille miespareille heidän elämässään. Kaikki miesparit toivat vastauk-sissa esille sen, että työ toi arkeen perusrytmin, toimeentulon, ja sillä oli suuri merkitys heidän elämässään sisällöntuojana. Arkirutiinit koettiin erittäin tärkeinä elämässä. Kaikki miesparit pitivät merkityksellisinä suhteitaan omaan perheeseen, vanhempiin, sisaruksiin, sukulaisiin, ystäviin ja kavereihin. Kaikki miesparit pitivät edellä mainittuja ihmisiä kumppaneidensa ohella elämänsä ja arkensa tukiverkkona. Tutkimuksen miesparit kokivat, että itse parisuhde puolison kanssa tuo positiivisuutta ja onnea omaan elämään. Kaikki miesparit halusivat löytää kokonaisvaltaisen tyydytyksen elämäänsä pitkällä aikavälillä. Keskinäiset arjen pienet asiat ja yllätykset nähtiin ja koettiin merkityksellisiksi kiireisessä arkielämässä. Kaikki miesparit olivat selvästi miettineet yhteistä tulevaisuuttaan ja sen tuomia asioita parisuhteessa.
  • Rossow, Rauna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The Finnish settlement has stayed in Ingria since the 17th Century. They formed two groups, Äyrämöinen and Savakko. These minorities were different from each other by their dialect, religion and dressing. The focus of this study is on Ingrian Finnish, especially the Savakko textile culture. Research material includes the textile collection of Ingrian Finnish Raija Pedak, her interviews, photographs, writings, newspaper cuttings, proofs and drawings. Comparison is based on objects found from the National Museums Finno-Ugric collections. Research is made by following the craft history in one family through four generations. This study examines textiles from Eastern Ingrian Järvisaari, especially the ritual cloth käspaikka, and the folk costume, their techniques and meanings. The aim of this study is to find out how the Pedak`s collection can reinforce studies of the Savakko textile culture in the early 1900s with new knowledge. After the groups of Savakko and Äyrämöinen assimilated, Ingrian Finnishness formed the primary ethnic identity. This study follows one family and the meanings given to crafts in changing historical contexts, from rural Ingria to the revolution and crises of the Soviet period and finally to the national awakening of the Ingrian Finns. The significance analysis method, created originally for museum objects, was applied in this study. The analysis follows different stages, starting with preparation. Then, research material is put in its broad historical context. After familiarization and data acquisition the research material is evaluated with seven criteria. These are representativeness, authenticity, historical and cultural significance, memorable significance, communal significance, ideal situation and usability. As a result, the study shows that the characteristic handcrafting can be understood as a key symbol of Ingrian Finnishness among with the Finnish language and Lutheranism. The folk costume and other textiles have significant position upholding the Ingrian Finnish culture. They played significant part especially during the perestroika and the national awakening of the Ingrian Finns. Notable in the Pedak`s research material are particularly the ritual cloth käspaikka in Lutheran home and the kitska-headdress as a part of the Savakko folk costume.
  • Isotupa, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The impact of workplace and school bullying on well-being has been previously studied from a multidisciplinary perspective. The teaching profession involves the risk of being subjected to other forms of harassment, in addition to the traditional occupational bullying in which either a subordinate, a colleague or a superior harasses an employee. Teemu Kauppi (2015) researched the nature of cross-peer abuse encountered by teachers, in which pupils or their guardians acted as the bully. Among other things, the OAJ Educational Labor Barometer (2017) showed that teachers are faced with bullying by both pupils and their guardians. The aim of this study was to identify the methods used by teachers to manage and prevent cross-peer abuse. The research approach was qualitative and examined teacher experiences of the methods they applied when faced with or attempting to prevent cross-peer abuse. The material was acquired through a group-themed interview with four teachers and openly guided written accounts submitted by 14 (n = 14) teachers. In addition, two teachers wanted to respond verbally according to the instructions in the article. The data analysis method used in this study was content analysis. The main results of the study revealed that the teachers’ assumptions of the cause of bullying are in fact connected to the teachers’ coping strategies. The results also showed that recently graduated and inexperienced teachers felt that they themselves were the cause of the bullying and are consequently trying to change their behavior or even considered a career change. In these cases, the teachers also felt ashamed and attempted to conceal the bullying from their colleagues and superiors. In contrast, more experienced teachers believed the bullying was caused by the bully's personal issues or the result of other external reasons. In such cases, the teachers sought support from their social networks and attempted to solve the issue in a systematic way. The purpose of the study is to provide teachers with the methods and tools that their colleagues have used and found most effective. Feldt and Mäkikangas (2009) state that coping strategies can change over time and they can be developed. That is why I hope that through my research, teachers will learn ways to manage and prevent bullying quicker and more effectively.
  • Räsänen, Kati (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study examines what kind of good things are done to others in two daycare groups. The aim of this study is to show positive things that are happening in daycare. This study is approached with positive concepts which are for example empathy, sympathy, prosocial skills, compassion, good manners, positive psychology, sensitive adult and interaction. Doing good to others is defined in this study through these concepts. This study has been done by observing a group of 3-5 year olds and a preschool group. Observing has been documented by video camera. Both groups in this study were a part of Pieni Oppiva Mieli (POM) -project in year of activity in 2016-2017. Looking at the results both groups had their own emphasis on doing good to others. The 3-5 year olds group had the emphasis on helping, good manners, praise, team spirit and supporting. The preschool group had the emphasis on praise, good manners, tenderness, humor and being happy with each other. According to this research, there were lot of doing good to others in the studied daycare groups. Adult’s strong role in doing good to others showed in the results. Hopefully in the light of these results, there would be even stronger emphasis on doing good to others in daycare.
  • Suominen, Annika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    In my thesis I examined multiculturalism and how it is manifested in the work of kindergarten teachers and classroom teachers. My research questions are, firstly, how the teachers speak about multiculturalism when describing their work, and, secondly, how they describe their co-operation with multicultural families. As the surrounding society becomes increasingly multicultural, kindergartens and schools do the same. This requires teachers to be proficient in multicultural education, which puts their multicultural competence in an important role. Furthermore, multicultural education involves all children, not merely minorities. If there are structures that fail to support the multicultural kindergarten and school environment, and thereby equality on a more general level, changes should be made. For this thesis, I interviewed three kindergarten teachers and four classroom teachers. The method chosen was a narrative interview, in which the interviewees are asked to describe their experiences in a narrative form. In the narrative analysis I examine what has happened, who participated in the events, and what the speaker’s role was. The teachers experienced multiculturalism as such an integral part of their daily work that to separate it from other activities was occasionally challenging. Mainly, multiculturalism presented itself as a positive phenomenon. However, sometimes it created challenges. Respecting the child’s own cultural background was not always possible, or the teacher did not have enough knowledge of the different cultures or the families. The teachers felt it was important to listen to the child who tells about his or her culture. The problems involving language learning created the need for individualized instruction and thus added to the teachers’ workload. If the parents’ Finnish skills were poor or lacking, the amount of co-operation with them ended up decreasing. Otherwise co-operation between the schools and the families was often described positively, although building trust might have required more interaction than it would have if the family had been Finnish. Enough support and correct resources should be paramount when multicultural education is involved.
  • Muttonen, Eeva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Goals. The purpose of the study was to investigate the University of Helsinki student teach-ers' ideas of the importance of research knowledge in the field of Education. In addition, do students think they will need research skills in the future in working life and whether they would be interested in doing the research themselves. Lastly, do students find compulsory methodology studies challenging. This study focuses as well as students' opinions in general, that the differences between the major groups. Methods. The data of the study was collected from the teacher students of the University of Helsinki in the form of an e-form in connection with the compulsory methodology course (n = 492). Teacher student's educational programme in either class teacher education, the major subject education, class teacher education, the major subject psychology, early childhood education, master's degree programme, kindergarten teacher education, special education as a major subject, craft or home economics teacher education or other. The study is quanti-tative in nature and the data is analyzed by quantitative methods. In essence, the interest is to find statistically significant correlation factors from the data, subsequent intergroup aver-ages were examined by variance analysis and perceive students main opinions about the subject. Results and conclusions. The students' ideas of the importance of research knowledge in the field of education are very positive. However, a significantly smaller percentage of stu-dents believe that they themselves need research skills in the future as a teacher, qualitative or quantitative. In addition, most of the participants felt that the pressure due to urgency dur-ing the methodology courses even prevents the learning. As a result, the intentionality of the courses falls away.
  • Määttä, Saku (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Given the rise in prevalence of stress, lack of time management skills and prolonged graduations among university students, promoting student’s well-being and study practices has become very important. While psychological flexibility a.k.a. dealing with all kinds of emotions and being present in the moment has proven to increase sense of well-being and lower stress among working adults, it has not been widely explored in the university context. Along with psychological flexibility, organised studying has been found to be an important factor in relation to academic achievement, study progress and well-being among university students. The purpose of this study is to explore development of psychological flexibility and organised studying in relation to stress, well-being and studying. Total of 106 university students took part in a web-based course aimed at promoting university students’ well-being, stress management skills, psychological flexibility and organised studying. Development of the items were measured by self-report questionnaires in the beginning and in the end of the course. Additionally, a learning report (n=86) was conducted by the students at the end of the course where the students reflected on their development regarding general well-being, studying and learning during the course. Student’s scores improved quantitatively across all the measured dimensions during the course. Mean scores on psychological flexibility, organised studying and sense of well-being increased and the scores regarding stress reduced. The results are in line with the qualitative analysis, in which students report that they learned to organise their studying and use skills related to psychological flexibility in various ways in studying context. The results imply that a web-based course which is aimed to improve student’s psychological flexibility and organised studying would also improve the student’s sense of well-being and reduce stress in their studies.
  • Seppä, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The purpose of this thesis is to find out how companies are able to recruit competent and qualified employees in the IT industry. It focuses on recruitment processes and also rewarding and employee commitment as a part of successful recruitment process. Thesis questions are: how companies recruit the top talents among all applicants and how organization s are able to utilize different kind of rewarding in the recruitment process and thereby commit new employee to the company. To consider various aspects and to ensure coverage and broadness of the material, for this thesis has been chosen recruiters from different positions and companies. Material collection has made by theme interviews and it has been analyzed using theme categorization. On the basis of the analysis companies should comprehensively invest in recruitment process, employer branding and rewarding. It is not enough to pay relevant tangible compensation but rewarding has to be in order and company to be interesting. For top talents job search has changed from traditional recruiting and they don’t need to apply for interesting positions because recruiters will contact potential candidates. At the same time these top talents expectations toward companies have increased. Competition from competent employees will tighten when employers have to develop new ways to tempt and commit employees to the company. To attract and recruit potential candidates companies should utilize their rewarding practices more effective in the recruitment process.

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