Käyttäytymistieteellinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Raitala, Pieta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The main purpose of this study was to figure out how early childhood educators describe and identify ethical education. The theoretical part of this study is about defining ethical education and its purpose and about ethical nature of educational work. The study was an interview study and the analysis method was discourse analysis. The theoretical frame of this study was social constructionism. In this study, the reality was constructed through linguistic interaction. Six workers of kindergarten took part in this study. The analysis of the study was theory-guided. By analysing the interviews five main discourses (in this study: interpretative repertoires) were formed. The five main interpretative repertoires were the following: Ethical education in day-to-day-life, Values, Personal growth as a human being, Child as an ethical thinker and Hectic modern times. After identifying the interpretative repertoires I also wanted to analyse how the repertoires are realized in education and what kind of effects they might have. The results of this study pointed out that early childhood educators described and experienced ethical education as a very important part of educational work. However, interviewees thought that there was too little discussion about ethical education. Ethical education was especially related to each educator’s personal growth as a human being. The main focus of describing ethical education was on defining the ultimate purpose of humanity and education. The results of this study also showed that interpretative repertoires of ethical education were likely to be realized in everyday life as they were identified, because ethical education was strongly affected by workers' personal views and not, for example, by national curricula. There is not much earlier research on ethical education in early childhood education. However, the research findings are convergent with the earlier research on ethical education in the elementary school. This study argues that teaching is ethical by nature and the ethical dimensions of early childhood education work should be consciously emphasized.
  • Pursi, Annukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The study examines teacher-child interaction in the early childhood classroom using improvisation as an analytic tool to locate pedagogical moments of spontaneous play and sustained shared thinking. The goal was to contribute to the understanding of the interactional mechanisms that occur when creativity is distributed throughout the group. Research of play interaction is fundamental in the context of early childhood education. More precise theoretical formulations of what happens during the play-based interaction between an adult and children are yet rare. One of the reasons is that play as a research phenomenon is complex and hard to operationalize in a systematic way. This study explains, by the means of in-depth case study findings, how the theoretical concept of improvisation can produce more careful descriptions about the early childhood teaching and the intricacies of teacher-child interaction in play based activity. Data for the narrative case study was collected through observations and video recordings of naturally occurring activities and encounters in a toddler play-based classroom. Data was enriched through video-elicited interviews (stimulated recall) of a single teacher. Research material was transcribed and analysed by the means of critical narrative analysis (CNA). Video recordings were also analysed through observing the involvement of the children (LIS-YC) and the engagement of the adult (AES). Focusing on early childhood education and play from the perspective of adult-child relational interaction, this research puts forward and presents evidence for two claims. First, in the context of early childhood education play should be understood as a professional skill of an adult and as a life-long qualitative dimension of interaction. Second, study findings suggests that improvisation, pedagogical sensitivity and introspective self reflection together could provide a new, more holistic interpretation to educational activities such as play in the viewpoint of adult's pedagogical practise. The results indicate that there is similarities between the logic of improvisation and the characteris-tics of pedagogical sensitivity. Study findings are consistent with theoretical perspectives that emphasize the active role of the adult in the development of the children's play competence.
  • Halinen, Hannamari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study examines and describes sense of belonging of seventeen preschoolers in groups where art education is the main support for children with special educational needs to support their learning and developing. Children were interviewed twice in autumn and in spring. Preschool groups were part of Taikava- project and in all groups art educators were working every weekday in early childhood education instead of group assistants. Art educators were working with other early childhood educators. This study examines possibilities to support children with art education and especially in sense of belonging. The theoretic part of this study is about the possibilities of art education to support children with special needs. In Vantaa there has been quite similar project before, TaikaVoima, but the art educators did not work fulltime in day care centers in that project. TaikaVoima- projects results proved to encourage children with special needs and affirm the sense of belonging in their groups. This study has both qualitative and quantitative data and results. In this study there were 17 preschoolers interviewed twice in a year. Seven of these children were having special educational needs. Additionally it was examined kindergarten teachers perceptions of children´s behavior and art educators and kindergarten teachers group work about the challenges and the targets for the first year of the project. Children´s experiences were scrutinized with three different material by method of triangulation. This qualitative research has phenomenological and hermeneutical features. It is researching the world in which preschoolers are living in, and their experiences in their groups and the meaning of their experiences. The awareness and knowledge of preschoolers about their own skills and abilities and challenges did deepen during the interviews. Children had learned new social skills and skills to express themselves with art educators. Children need more support from educators to understand the needs of other children and to learn to help and take others in to account. Children were positive surprised of the help that other children gave them. They were also surprised of the new friends and games that came out if educators decided playmates.
  • Valtola, Merja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of this current study is to increase awareness and to provide insight into the human psychological constraints and their contribution on hazardous situations at work as well as to provide new tools for the further development of occupational safety. Interruptions at work are common and may result in hazardous situations. The accident risk caused by interruption is often based on the employee´s work experience converted into automatic cognitive processing. We know very little about the impact of interruptions on the automatic processing. In addition to other adverse effects it may cause, interruption may result also in cognitive bias. Interruption may lead to a situation, where we falsely believe that what has been started, has also been done. The case study used data that has been screened in international and national fatality investigation databases. The selected cases were analysed by applying a cognitive analysis of interruption method. From the available literature, research and analysis of the cases, it appears that the automatic cognitive processing is very vulnerable to interruptions. Vulnerability was manifested especially in situations where the attention demanding controlled processing broke off automatic performance. Automatic processing can also lead to situations with significant risk when unexpected change in the environment is occurred or if environmental conditions no longer reflect the current automatic cognitive processing. In automatic work process, which includes subtasks operated always in same specific order, case analysis gives a clue to the emergence of cognitive bias. This is manifested in a situation where already started subtask or part of the started work, which is perceived as a whole, is interrupted. However, more research is needed to determine the exact mechanisms behind this phenomenon. The damage interruptions might cause during an automatic work performance can be reduced by the use of external cognitive tools to increase attention and to ensure situational awareness especially when disengaging and/or resuming the original task and by the development of technical security solutions.
  • Turunen, Piia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Object: The object of this study is to examine whether children’s proficiency in different aspects of reading after first grade can be predicted by a set of basic skills assessed before first grade and background attributes independently and jointly. Reading proficiency is examined as three separate skills: reading accuracy, reading speed and reading comprehension. The goal is to find out which skills and factors predict these different aspects of reading and whether they are the same for all three. This in turn will help in recognizing the children in need of early support. It will also help in selecting the focus of these early interventions. Previously, several different and partially conflicting theories about the causes of reading difficulties have been proposed. Examining reading from different angles might help solve this controversy. Methods: The participants were 152 native Finnish speaking children of whom 70 had a familial risk for dyslexia. At pre-school age (mean age: 6 years 5 months) the children were evaluated for their verbal IQ, phonological skills, rapid naming skills, working memory and letter naming. Information about background attributes, such as the socioeconomic status of the family, was gathered with questionnaires. Reading skills were assessed after first grade. Children were categorized into two groups in accordance with their performance in different reading skills. Using logistic regression analysis, the information about background and the basic skills assessed at pre-school age were used to predict who performed worse than average at a specific reading skill. Results and conclusions: The three aspects of reading were predicted to some extent by the same set of skills and attributes. Common predictors of all three aspects in unison were verbal IQ, rapid naming, phonological skills, letter naming and working memory. Familial risk of reading difficulty was included in predicting reading speed and accuracy, but for reading comprehension the length of the parents’ education was more essential. Those who were younger and had poorer phonological and verbal reasoning skills had greater odds of reading less accurately. Those at familial risk of dyslexia, slow at naming and those with poorer phonological skills had greater odds of being slow readers. Those with poorer verbal reasoning skills, phonological skills and working memory skills and boys had greater odds of being poor at reading comprehension. These results agree in part with previous findings. They also bring new insights into the various skills and factors that are connected to different aspects of reading and can be directly applied into practice.
  • Halinen, Henri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Objectives of the study Depression is one of the greatest factors to decrease the quality of life. However, its etiology has no clear scientific base. It has been thought that depression is a latent variable, but this view has been questioned. According to the network approach stressful life events are directly linked to depressive symptoms without a latent variable. Body image dissatisfaction is a more long-lasting and stable depressive symptom than the other symptoms. In addition, body image dissatisfaction predicts depression, but depression does not predict body image dissatisfaction. It is probable that body image dissatisfaction is linked to appearance. In this study I examine if different adverse effects of unattractive appearance are associated with body image dissatisfaction, when the level of depression is controlled. If this is true it would indicate that body image dissatisfaction cannot be explained by one-dimensional depression. In this study the adverse effects of unattractive appearance were low income level and living alone, which are both linked to unattractive appearance according to previous studies. Methods In this study there were 1638–2969 participants depending on the analysis. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study was used as the research material. Item response theory model and logistic regression were used to examine differential item functioning (DIF) in this study. DIF appears when an item of some latent variable has different scores in different groups even if the groups have the same score in the latent variable. Therefore I examined if equally depressed people do differ in body image dissatisfaction if they belong to the low income or living alone groups. Results and conclusions According to this study it is possible that depression is not a one-dimensional phenomenon. Low income level and living alone were inked to depressive symptoms and body image dissatisfaction. In addition, income level was associated differently to body image dissatisfaction than other depressive symptoms [χ²(2) = 459.01, P < 0.001]. Living alone was not. Regardless, questioning the one-dimensionality of depression demands same kind of examination of other depressive symptoms in the future research.
  • Mansikkaviita, Heli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to analyse what kind of motivation types there will be composed from 9 to 12 years old Finnish figure skaters who answered to Student Athletes’ Motivation toward Sports and Academics Questionnaire (SAMSAQ). Joy L. Gaston has developed the Questionnaire, but it has been used also by Michael P. Shuman (2009), J. Nathan Althouse (2007) and Guidotti, Minganti, Cortis, Piacentini, Tessitore, & Capra-nice, (2013). Because of there has been so much conversation in the media for the last couple of years about how young athlete’s future looks like, it was really important for me to study this subject as a becoming teacher. In this study I will analyse quantitatively what are the motivation types of young figure skaters and how they are related to school grades. The purpose is also to evaluate if the SAMSAQ I used would give the same kind of motivation types than Gaston got in his study. In the previous studies results have shown that young athletes who are trying to get to the top of the sport elite are not academically motivated. Methods. Figure skaters all around Finland were asked to answer the questionnaire in February and March in 2013. In the end of March 2013 there were 152 skaters who were between 9 and 12 years and were willing to participate in to my study. The skaters were form all around from Finland, and eventually from 30 different Finnish figure skating clubs. The questionnaire was answered in Internet in a service called ”E-lomake”. Analysing met-hods were explorative factor analysis and Pearson’s correlation. Results and Conclusions. There were eventually found three different motivation types: Elite sport practicing motivation, academic and sport practicing motivation, and academic motivation. The mean result of the correlation study was that if the skater was motivated to both study and practice she or he would have better future plans and opportunities after she or he has end hers or his skating career. However the best grades at school did go to those who were purely academically motivated. The results shows that sport clubs should concentrate to train the child for sport and to support child’s academic motivation.
  • Lukkarila, Carla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study was made to find out how the teacher students’ comprehend the role of the teacher during the school meals service. It was believed that there was a lack of earlier studies concerning the matter. Although the topic is valuable and under the lens of the ongoing discussion about health and welfare of the nation. The earlier study has come to show that teacher’s role in the school meal service is essential. The motive for this study is to recognize the opinion of the teacher students’ over this matter. This study was conducted to acknowledge the need to understand current comprehension in the field. The study will serve a future study in the means to illustrate the prevalent situation. The study is qualitative, with parts fashioned by the quantitative research, such as frequency analysis. The data was collected using a static web query. 83 candidates answered and all the material were analyzed. The research material got read, and categorized in groups. The groups were formed by their qualities to model a role of a teacher. Content analysis was applied to set the types, which depicted a role the best. The practice of frequency analysis was used in this study to count how many times the roles were mentioned in the whole sample. It shed a new light to the study in the form of understanding the essence of a teacher during the school meals service. The research result was that the teacher students mentioned four roles for the teacher during the school meals service. The roles are in order based on the commonness of the role;The teacher as a nutrition educator, The teacher as an example, The teacher as a good manners’ and etiquette teacher and The teacher as a supervisor and also fifth theme was Other aspects of School meals service, such as not having a role at all. The other part of the study was to focus on the teacher’s role’s activeness and social side and educative view. It got studied with a result of teacher being active, sociable and educative, viewed by the teacher students. Exploring the views of the teacher students’ also means, that the answers are subjective. Therefore it is harder to make an epitome general concept of the matter.
  • Lawson Hellu, Ernest (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Objectives. The purpose of this research is to find out if there is a connection between importance ratings in certain fields of life and perceived competence. This research also aims to investigate the connection between the aforementioned and self-esteem. The hypothesis, based on former studies, is that high importance ratings and perceived competence are connected to strong self-esteem. Methods. This survey-based study was a quantitative one. 156 participants answered the question-naire. The material was analyzed by using PASW Statistics. Methods included correlations, t-tests, factor analysis and Analysis of Variance. These methods aimed to gather infor-mation on the relations between importance ratings, perceived competence and self-esteem. Results and conclusions. A connection between importance ratings and perceived competence was found. Statistical-ly significant connection was found between: the importance rating of friendships and thesocial self-perception (r=.562, p<.001), the importance rating of hobbies and the hobby-related self-perception (r=.523, p<.001), the importance rating of behaviour and the behav-iour-related self-perception (r=.205, p<.05), the importance rating of relationship with one’s parents and the self-perception of the relationship with one’s parents (r=.642, p<.001) and the importance rating of one’s development in work and the self-perception of one’s work- and study –related comfort (r=.283, p<.001). Based on these strong connections, it can be assumed that high perceived competence predicts high importance rating and low compe-tence is connected to low importance rating. According to these results, big differences between importance ratings and perceived competence are connected to low self-esteem. A strong connection was found between the ratings of one’s appearance, perceived competence and self-esteem. It can therefore be assumed that the smaller the difference between one’s importance rating and perceived competence is, the better one’s self-esteem is as well.
  • Holmberg, Marika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The purpose of this qualitative study is to find out whether the aims of Finnish peer support services, set by Mannerheimin lastensuojeluliitto, are met in a school in Espoo. 12 first-graders and nine fifth-graders were individually interviewed for the study, and the purpose was also to see if the views of first-graders and fifth-graders differed from each other. The interviews were semi-structured and done at the pupils’ school. Afterwards the interviews were transcribed and analysed with a content analysis. The three main aims for peer support services are supporting communality, supporting the pupils’ growth and supporting the national curriculum. These aims were divided into smaller parts. The results section shows that peer support services are met mostly with a positive attitude, but not all the goals were successfully fulfilled. Supporting communality seemed to have the best success, since the pupils spent most of their time together playing different kinds of games in bigger groups. This made it possible for the smaller pupils to learn not to exclude anyone in their games. Supporting the pupils’ growth had been partly successful too, by teaching the smaller pupils all kinds of games or school rules and by acting as though in the role of a bigger sibling. The curriculum came in to the picture with the older pupils teaching the younger ones reading or maths, but also by showing them how to treat everyone nicely and with respect. However, especially the first graders thought there hadn’t been enough time to spend with their peer supporter, and many of the relationships between the pairs were not as close or mutual as would have been ideal. Some of the fifth-graders kept on playing their favourite games – football, mainly – while at the same time not taking into account the first-graders’ hopes. There weren’t great differences between the first-graders’ and fifth-graders’ views: the biggest ones seemed to be the first-graders’ hopes for more time together and the fifth-graders’ more detailed stories about the time spent. The transcript covered all the interviews as whole and transparency was taken care of throughout the study, which contribute to the quality and credibility of this research. There was no hypothesis in this study and I did my best to maintain an open mind while interviewing and analysing the results. Then again, some of the older students may have responded in ways they thought were suitable for the occasion instead of being completely honest. However, I feel that the study gives a reliable description of the peer support services in the school and hopefully helps to develop them further in the future.
  • Tuomela, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of this study is to explain how student initiations construct in classroom interaction. Study is based on framework of socio- cultural theories. The specific view is on student initiations in whole class lessons and what is the nature of these initiations. Previous studies of classroom interaction has been made especially from teacher’s point of view. Research about student interaction has been made about group work and peer interaction. Previous studies have shown that classroom talk is dominated by teachers, but students have growing possibilities to participate classroom discussions. The method of this study is video research and content analysis. The data was part of Learning Bridges – research project. The data was collected by videotaping one third grade class of 18 students and their teacher in comprehensive school. For this study I analyzed four lessons from which I searched for notable patterns considering research questions. The results indicated that student have an opportunity to construct classroom interaction and by making initiative turns they can affect in the content of discussion. Students initiative turns were firstly motivated by lesson themes, secondly classroom practices and thirdly questions that weren`t related to ongoing lesson. Students initiative turns have an influence on student commitment. Student initiations were mostly directed to the teacher, but teachers and students constructed interaction mostly together. The study shows that teacher has a conducting role in classroom interaction that provides many possibilities for student participation. The study offers examples of in which way student initiations construct classroom interaction and what is the nature of these student initiations.
  • Turunen, Eveliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Objectives. Feeding disorders affect families in many ways, like causing challenges for parenthood and daily routines. Parents’ perspectives on their children’s feeding disorder and its rehabilitation has not been investigated thoroughly. It is according to clinical practice guidelines to take parents’ view into account for parents being in essential position in their children’s rehabilitation. Parents’ experience can also help speech-language pathologists to improve their practices. The objective of this study was to describe parents’ perspectives on their children’ feeding disorder and its rehabilitation in speech-language therapy. Also the impact of the therapy to the family was examined. Method. Nine parents were interviewed for the study, whose children with feeding disorder had been evaluated by speech-language pathologist in the specialized medical care. Children were under 2.5-year-old and their rehabilitation had ended less than a year earlier. Children’s etiologic background differed significantly of each other. Parents were interviewed using a semi-structured theme interview. The themes were formulated using previous research literature and clinical expertize. The interviews were recorded and transcribed, and the data were analysed using inductive content analysis. The categorisation was made from the content into themes. The themes were analysed and complemented using previous research literature. Results and conclusions. The feeding disorder manifested in children’s eating and behaviour in various ways. The feeding disorder caused mental, physical and social burden for the family. It had caused a lot of negative emotions, stress and daily challenges to the parents. Thus an early intervention could be beneficial for the family. The parents found the rehabilitation positive and beneficial. The rehabilitation took parents’ expertize and daily concerns into account, increased parents’ understanding and emotionally encountered them. The therapy methods were diverse and interdisciplinary team approach was used. The rehabilitation had changed parents’ behaviour and attitude, which was seen for example in feeding practises, parents’ emotions and competence. The effect of the rehabilitation appeared in children’ oral sensorimotoric functions and in feeding behaviour. Children were more active, self-regulated and their reaction to feeding were eased in many ways. The feeding rehabilitation can affect positively both to parents’ competence and children’s feeding disorder. In future it would be beneficial to study what kind of feeding intervention services families undergo outside specialized medical care.
  • Kytöharju, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aim. In conversation mutual understanding is achieved through co-operation of each participant. Mutual understanding might be more at risk in conversation where one or more participants use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). To be able to support people who use AAC and guide their communication partners, interventionists should understand how communication problems and challenges are being resolved in a natural conversation. The aim of this study is to describe how participants orient to problems in AAC conversation. Conversation partners´ other-initiations of repair and the problems these initiations indicate are being studied. Method. The database consists of two videotaped conversations where one aided speaker, a 15-year-old boy with cerebral palsy, talks with a speech-language pathology student (conv 1) and with his speech-language pathologist (conv 2). The data was originally videotaped for speech therapy follow-up. Problems and how they were managed were studied using conversation analysis (CA) and one of its basic organizations, repair organization. CA enables detailed examination of natural interaction. Results and conclusion. Almost every other-initiation of repair fell upon the problems in aided speaker´s turn and were initiated by conversation partners. These problems related broadly to speech understanding, more precisely to understandability of utterances. No problems of hearing were raised. Reasons underlying the trouble sources were most often conversation partner´s difficulty in understanding the meaning of aided speaker´s whole turn or part of a turn, extra words or other mistakes in selecting symbols, or vague reference. From all the conversation partners´ other-initiations of repair interpretative means, candidate understandings, were used most often and the initiations of repair were at the same time pointing a problem and trying to resolve it. Interpretation seemed to be explicitly on display in both conversations. It was used to show understanding of AAC turn and to initiate repair. In order to be able to understand how to support AAC users´ human agency and active participation in conversation, more research needs to be done on different conversations.
  • Kuivalainen, Nina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Ethical questions concerning fur material have put fur garments in a contradictory position. This exceptional status makes fur garments an interesting theme for research. Based on the public debate it was assumed that there are strong attitudes both against and in favour of fur. The attitudes based on ethical values are specified in this research. Since clothing can be seen in a symbolic manner this study also explores the symbolic meanings of fur garments. The purpose of this study is to analyze how ethical attitudes affect on the meanings given to fur garments. This study draws its inspiration from the fur researches of Leena Alalääkkölä, conducted in 1987 and 1991. Nevertheless there are little research and literature available on fur in clothing. This means that the literature and research used in this study is mainly of clothing and consumer studies in general. The quantitave data was collected during spring 2015 using a web survey. The data (N=831) was oriented in young females and it was analyzed using statistical software SPSS 22. By computing K-means cluster analysis the data was divided into five groups based on respondents fur related ethical attitudes. The symbolic meanings given to fur garments by these groups were then analyzed by using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney –tests. In addition to the quantitative data a qualitative data was formed of the comments written by the respondents. This was used to explain the results of the quantitative analyses. Attitude groups found in this study were named as very positive, somewhat positive, case-specific, very negative and extremely negative. The key factors definining the attitude were about fur farming, Finnish wild furs and recycled fur garments. The attitude towards fur affected meanings given to fur garments. People with positive attitude saw fur garments as diverse garments. Case-specific respondents did not have a strong opinion on the symbolic meaning of fur in general. Negative attitude provided an unfavourable view on fur garments and fur-users.
  • Haapalahti, Mirjami (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The topic of this study was the career and the production of Kaarina Kellomäki as a fabric designer of Marimekko. The purpose of this study was to create a picture of Kaarina Kellomäki as a person and a fabric designer and to describe the work of the designer both on a general level and from the viewpoint of Marimekko, too. The study created a picture of the history of Marimekko, especially of its phases in the 1960s, when Kellomäki worked in the company. Reproduction of Kellomäki’s prints, rich in the 2000s, was a significant part of this study. The 1960s and its most important phenomena functioned as the background information of this study. The data of this study primarily consisted of the information that was gathered by interviewing Kaarina Kellomäki in the springs 2012 and 2015. To complement these interviews, a theme interview was carried out with Mika Piirainen. His work and ideas as a fashion designer of Marimekko caused the reproduction of Kaarina Kellomäki’s prints at the beginning of the 2000s. Minna Kemell-Kutvonen, Marimekko’s Design Director, was involved in the interview. The archive data that I received from Designmuseum and Marimekko’s archives in Herttoniemi supported the information of the interviews. There is no prior research on Kellomäki’s career. This one was a case study, and for analyzing the data, the methods of the visual analysis and contextualizing were used. The career of Kaarina Kellomäki as a fashion designer of Marimekko continued less than a year, from the autumn 1965 to the spring 1966. In its shortness, it was in many ways a very significant time. The production of Kaarina Kellomäki in Marimekko consists of nine print patterns. In addition, she designed two patterns that were not produced. All the eleven patterns were designed in 1965—1966. Reproduction is a significant part of the career of Kaarina Kellomäki in Marimekko. It began in 2003, when Mika Piirainen chose Linssi-pattern to become reproduced in fashion designing. Since then, the reproduction has been rich and it has been important for the designer herself. During her career, Kellomäki become well known both as a fabric designer, a teacher of the University of Arts, Design and as a textile artist. The work period of Kaarina Kellomäki in Marimekko ended because of the designer’s desire to get more freedom on the one hand and more limits on the other hand. The young designer wished to have more systematic guidance in her own job. The job of the designer in Marimekko was independent but only a small amount of patterns was yearly produced. The job as a freelancer that Kaarina Kellomäki adopted for several decades after her year in Marimekko, was more appropriate for the designer. The desire to remain as an independent artist and not to work in the midst of strong artist personalities was part of her longing for freedom.