Faculty of Educational Sciences

 

Recent Submissions

  • Nuutinen, Anna Maaria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää, miten SCIS ohjelman mukaan opiskelleet viidesluokkalaiset osaavat opetussuunnitelman perusteiden mukaisia luokkatasonsa biologian peruskäsitteitä. Lisäksi selvitettiin sukupuolen ja luontoharrastuneisuuden sekä äidinkielen ja biologian todistusarvosanojen yhteyttä osaamiseen. Tutkimusaineisto koottiin keväällä 2005 espoolaisessa peruskoulussa. Tutkimukseen osallistui koulun yhden viidennen luokan kaikki 21 oppilasta, joista tyttöjä oli yhdeksän ja poikia 12. Oppilaiden osaamista arvioitiin kolmeosaisella testillä. Ensimmäinen tehtävä mittasi eliö- käsitteen hallintaa: luokittelua ja perustelua, toinen tehtävä ravintoketju- käsitteen hallintaa ja kolmas tehtävä mittasi tuottaja-, kuluttaja- ja hajottaja- käsitteiden hallintaa. Tutkimusten aineistolle suoritettiin tilastollinen analyysi ja päättely. Tulosten mukaan oppilaiden käsitykset eliöiden luokittelusta osoittautuivat hallituksi. Vaikeuksia tuotti ainoastaan koivun luokitteleminen eliöksi. Tulosten perusteella viidesluokkalaiset oppilaat osasivat erottaa elolliseen ja elottomaan luontoon liittyvät asiat ja luokitella ne. Oppilaat perustelivat eliöiden kuulumisen eliöihin joko eliöalan tai eliön ominaisuuksien mukaan, mutta eivät molempien mukaan. Oppilaat osasivat täydentää yksinkertaisen ravintoketjun. Valtaosa oppilaista osasi luokitella elolliseen ja elottomaan luontoon kuuluvia tekijöitä tuottajiin, kuluttajiin ja hajottajiin. Auringon ja kärpässienen luokittelu ei onnistunut kolmasosalta oppijoista; lähes kaikki oppilaat luokittelivat kastemadon virheellisesti hajottajiin. Tytöt menestyivät vain hiukan paremmin testissä kuin pojat. Ero ei ollut tilastollisesti merkitsevä. Äidinkielen ja biologian arvosanoilla ei ollut yhteyttä testissä menestymiseen eikä myöskään luontoharrastuneisuudella. Tämän tutkimuksen tulosten mukaan SCIS ohjelma soveltuu hyvin yhdeksi vaihtoehdoksi luonnontieteiden peruskäsitteiden opettamiseen peruskoulun alakoulun oppilaille.
  • Salo, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Communication between airline pilots and cabin crew plays an important role in aviation safety. However, little research has been conducted in the area of pilot-cabin crew communication and relationship. The aim of this study was to identify and name competing discourses in pilot-cabin crew relationship and to describe how these discourses compete with one another. Theory of relational dialectics (Baxter JA Montgomery 1996; Baxter 2011) was used as the theoretical framework. Eight members of cabin crew and six pilots were intervieved. Members of cabin crew were interviewed in pairs. Two of the pilots were interviewed individually and four in pairs. The interviews were analyzed using contrapuntal analysis. Contrapuntal analysis aims to identify competing discourses and their interplay. Six competing discourses were identified in pilot-cabin crew communication and relationship. They were predictability-novelty, one crew-two crews and ideal-real. The predictability-novelty struggle became apparent in the discursive struggle of different work positions being occupied with different crew memebers and in the discursive struggle of official and unofficial communication during the flight. The discourses of one crew and two separate crews were played against one another in the discursive struggles of equality-hierarcy and efficiency-politeness. The discursive struggle of ideal-real constitutes a scene on which the other discourses compete. One coherent and egalitarian crew, where each crew member communicates openly and predictably according to the rules and regulations attached to his/her position was presented as ideal. This ideal is often, but not always, accomplished.
  • Salo, Johanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The aim of this research is to study what kind of conceptions class teachers have about elementary school's festival traditions and especially Christian based festival traditions. This is a fairly topical issue at the moment. Over the last decades the Finnish society has come more plural and that has highlight the questions what festivals should school celebrate. In the centre of this discuss are Christian based festivals and festival tradition. The subject hasn't been researched much. So this study strives to answer this need of research. I approach the subject from the perspective of the pedagogics and the cultural heritage education. My research problems are: 1. What kind of conceptions have class teacher about the elementary school's festival traditions? 2. Which overtones is relation with these conceptions? 3. What kind of conceptions have class teachers about the reasons of school festivals? The nature of this study was quantitative and qualitative survey research. All together 245 class teachers of elementary schools from Satakunta (n=118) and Helsinki (n=127) took part in survey which was gathered in the fall of 2012. I chose these two areas because of their difference in population, culture and environment. By gathering large sample from two different areas I tried to conservative extrapolate these responses to all class teachers. The material was analysed by statistical analysis methods as means and factor analysis and by using qualitative research basic ideas: categorising and formulating types. According to the results of this study the teachers perceived Christian based festival tradition as part of the cultural education of the school. Teachers also thought that the school festivals were great opportunity to get to know Finnish culture tradition. The culture tradition of other cultures was also seen very important part of the school festival. Teachers' experience was that pupil's religious diversity didn't make school festival tradition significantly problematic although it has impact to the staging of the school festivals. Teachers saw that most of the meanings of the festivals were engaged to the purpose of the festival and in to the celebration of the festival. Teachers from Satakunta felt school festivals a bit more important than teachers from Helsinki. However altogether teachers' conceptions were positive against the school festival traditions. It seems that based on this study celebration of the school festival isn't that problematic thing that public conversation sometimes implies. The school festival tradition definitely needs more research. One viewpoint for the future study could be which issues teachers estimate to include in the Finnish culture heritage, which transmitting is the one assignment of the school.
  • Kotiranta, Pauliina (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Aims The aim of the Vesisankarit project is to encourage children in practicing their water skills around the year. The project offers materials to teachers and parents and provides them with tools in teaching water skills to children. In this master's thesis I investigate, firstly, how schools carry out Vesisankarit events and how the participants experience them. Secondly, I study what forms of symbolic capital the participants mobilize in the event. My third focus point is interviews conducted with the participants about their thoughts concerning their swimming and water rescue skills. The theoretical framework of the study is based on childhood research, the concept of functionality of children and Pierre Bourdieu's different forms of symbolic capital. As this thesis is the first study of the Vesisankarit project, my aim is also to generate general idea of the project in order to encourage teachers and parents, for example, to carry out their own projects of similar kind. Methods The data is collected from five different Vesisankarit events carried out in the Helsinki metropolitan area. The data was gathered using ethnographical methods. I participated and observed each event. I also interviewed pupils in small groups after the events. I carried out 14 interviews in total and participants consisted of 20 boys and 26 girls of age 8-12 years old. Results and conclusions To successfully carry out a Vesisankarit event it requires an operational culture from the school that supports functionality. Also the organizer has to be motivated over the subject. To carry out the event requires a lot of team work among all the organizers and pupils. Most of the participants got positive experiences out of the event. They generally thought that the skills taught and learned at the event were important skills to master in the future. The most popular tasks were the ones where pupils got chance to operate actively with others. Different forms of capital used by participants were mainly capitals learned from prior experiences and through hobbies. Most of the pupils who took part in the interview told that they have been going swimming with their parents or grandparents. The swimming lessons given by schools were criticized for being too formal. Swimming was experienced by the participants as a social event a moment to have fun with your friends and family.
  • Vidgren, Noora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Tämä tutkielma käsittelee lukiolaisten informaalia englannin oppimista ja sen yhteyttä englannin oppimiseen koulussa. Tutkielmani tarkoituksena on selvittää, kuinka suuren osan englannin oppimisestaan lukiolaiset arvioivat tapahtuvan koulun ulkopuolella, missä tilanteissa he oppivat englantia koulun ulkopuolella ja mikä yhteys koulun ulkopuolisella oppimisella on koulussa tapahtuvaan oppimiseen. Tutkielman teoreettisessa osassa tarkastelen englannin kielen asemaa Suomessa ennen ja nyt sekä englantia maailmankielenä. Tämän lisäksi käsittelen englannin kielen informaalia oppimista. Tutkielman empiirinen osa esittelee kvantitatiivisen tutkimuksen, joka tutkii lukiolaisten informaalin englannin oppimisen määrää ja laatua sekä sen yhteyttä englannin oppimiseen koulussa. Tutkimusmetodina toimii kyselylomake. Tutkimukseen osallistui yhteensä 240 lukiolaista pääkaupunkiseudulta. Kerätty aineisto analysoitiin SPSS-tilasto-ohjelman avulla. Tutkimukseen osallistuneista lukiolaisista neljännes kertoo oppivansa englantia suurimmaksi osaksi tai ainoastaan koulussa, lähes puolet yhtä paljon koulun ulkopuolella kuin koulussa, ja reilu viidennes suurimmaksi osaksi tai kokonaan koulun ulkopuolella. Yleisimmät oppimistilanteet koulun ulkopuolella ovat television ja elokuvien katselu, internet ja musiikin kuuntelu, ja informaalin oppimisen katsotaan vaikuttavan etenkin sanastotaitoihin. Sen perusteella, kuinka suuri osuus informaalilla oppimisella on oppijoiden englannin oppimisessa, tutkimukseen osallistuneet lukiolaiset voidaan jakaa institutionaalisiin oppijoihin, universaaleihin oppijoihin ja informaaleihin oppijoihin. Sukupuoli on merkittävä tekijä englannin informaalissa oppimisessa, sillä 80 prosenttia informaaleihin oppijoihin kuuluvista oppijoista on poikia. Englannin informaalin oppimisen ja arvosanojen välillä löytyy tilastollisesti merkittävä korrelaatio: informaaleilla oppijoilla on muita korkeammat arvosanat. Tämän lisäksi englannin informaalin oppimisen ja perinteisen koulutyöskentelyn välillä löytyy tilastollisesti merkittävä negatiivinen korrelaatio: informaalit oppijat käyttävät vähemmän aikaa läksyjen tekemiseen ja kokeisiin lukemiseen kuin institutionaaliset ja universaalit oppijat. Kolmanneksi englannin informaalin oppimisen ja englannin oppimisen vaikeustason välillä löytyy tilastollisesti merkittävä korrelaatio: informaalit oppijat kokevat englannin oppimisen helpommaksi kuin institutionaaliset ja universaalit oppijat. Tutkimustulokset osoittavat, että informaalit oppijat ovat luokkahuoneissa etulyöntiasemassa. He saavuttavat vähemmällä vaivalla korkeampia arvosanoja kuin institutionaaliset ja universaalit oppijat.
  • Kattelus, Enni (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Objectives. Narrative means a way of report, understand and structure a lived experience. It is an important mean of self-expression and interaction and people use it to share information with each other. The ability to narrate appears when child becomes an active participant in fantasies, stories and actions related to himself. Children with speaking disabilities often use communication books or other equipment as an alternative or augmentative mean of communication. Their possibilities to narrate can be more limited than speaking children, due to several reasons. This study describes the characteristics of augmented narratives that are formed with communication books. This study also describes how the characteristics of narratives differ when the elicitation method is changed. Also the role of communication partner and communication aid is discussed. Methods. Study consists of two physically disabled 13 to 16-year old boys who used communication books as a alternative mean of their communication. The research material was gathered during the spring of 2014. The material consists of video recordings of examinees performing three kinds of narrative assignments. The video material was transcribed and analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively in the contexts set by the research questions. Results and conclusions. Macrostructure of the narratives produced by communication book varied. Most diverse narratives filled the characteristics of a perfect narrative whereas the most compact narratives mainly focused on describing individual events. The narratives were mainly short and use of grammatical function words was scarce. Expressions of cohesion was mainly scarce and monotonous as its best. Narratives of children communicating by AAC-means differ from ones of children developing normally and expressing themselves with speech especially on microstructures' behalf. These results support and complement previous research. Further research is important to achieve a sufficient perception of particularities of augmented narratives so that the communication aids can be developed to better support the language development and expressional needs of these children.
  • Rontu, Elisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Objectives. The purpose of this study is to find out how well the kitchen solutions in the shared apartments of Foundation for Student Housing in the Helsinki Region (Hoas) currently correspond to the needs of residents. The aim is also to identify the kitchen activities from the perspective of today's students and consider how to improve the functionality of the kitchen, so that living in a shared apartment would be as smooth as possible. The specific aim of the study was to form kitchen planning principles for Hoas. Methods. The research data consisted of interviews and photos. I interviewed ten residents of Hoas, and also a representative of the Foundation. During the residents' interviews pictures of the kitchen solutions of each shared apartment were taken. Interviews and photographs were analyzed by content analysis. In addition, the kitchen space solutions were evaluated based on the criteria formed in this research. Conclusions. The residents were mostly pleased with kitchen layouts. The actual working spaces as well as storage rooms, however, were considered insufficient. Existing squares in the kitchen should be used better in the future. Residents thought that the comfort of living in shared apartments depends on the people and their practices, even though many technical solutions can improve housing conditions and social interaction between residents. The kitchen planning principles presented in this study are based on the problems identified in the current state of kitchens in shared apartments. Similar results have also been obtained in other studies that have investigated the student housing in Finland.
  • Tyrni, Miina (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    I look at my study teachers' conceptions of the school and the theater cooperation. The research task is to find out the motives of the audience development of the primary schools and how teachers perceive the importance of that. The study examines student groups, cooperation skills, forms of cooperation, as well as the importance of informal education. I interviewed twelve (12) teachers who participated audience development of the National Theatre of Helsinki. They participated between 2013 and 2014. I try to find out and to identify their experiences and views on the impact of that audience development of the classes. This paper presents an overview of the drama education view, as well as its working methods and the specific characteristics of this day. The research goal is to be part of the development between theaters and schools. My work is a qualitative case study. The data collection method is a semi-structured theme interview. Interviews were conducted with twelve (12) teachers who had participated in the National Theatre of Helsinki events between 2013 and 2014. The results showed that teachers perceive group formation of the class closely. They felt they had to get to be a positive role of the observer and learn their class during working days. Main goals of the audience development was audience increasing. Working days between schools and the National Theatre were considered inspiring and energizing experience overall, but some classes got more out of them. Each of the teachers used the drama ways of working of their class, also with other subjects in class. Eight teachers stressed the importance of today's quiet and withdrawn pupils. Most of the teachers knew a lot about the audience development necessity and on why it is done. Special was that the fact that the schools are able to benefit from it much more. Each teachers assure that the team spirit improved during the working day. In particular, those teachers who kept a preliminary and gather lessons before and after the day mentioned the importance of classroom integration. The common experience was rated as good for the team spirit.
  • Kari, Juha (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In this study I was examining means to better take into account the special needs of a sensory hypersensitive student in the first six grades of the comprehensive school. The sub-research problems considered means for taking into account the needs of a sensory hypersensitive child in the context of classroom as a physical space, teaching, social interaction, physical education, transitional situations and eating. Previous studies about sensory hypersensitivity in the context of school are relatively rare, especially in Finland. The research material was acquired by carrying through five semi-structured interviews. Three occupational therapists and two special needs teachers were interviewed. The material was analyzed using phenomenological approaching method. There are also features of content analysis and discourse analysis in the study. The results were that ne needs of a sensory hypersensitive student can be taken into account in school by decreasing the amount of stimulus and the sensory load that a hypersensitive student under-go. This can be actualized by modifying the physical environment and the teaching process as well as understanding the student's special needs and accepting them. In order to do so the child's parents and teacher must collaborate and be well aware of the situation. All the suggested improvements can be carried out with relatively low costs.
  • Salonen, Jonna-Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Objectives. Online discussion forums are part of extensive interactive network environments known as social media. Large part of the public debate today takes place on its fields. Any search for information on the internet may easily lead to online discussion forums. Speech therapy and issues related to it are also discussed on many discussion forums. The aim of this study was to identify the main themes being discussed about speech therapy and to analyse the forum users' perceptions of speech therapy. The theoretical framework of the study relies on social constructionism and socio-cultural learning theory. Perceptions are constructed by language in social interaction, and are based on one's own and others' experiences. Sharing experiences, peer support and information online are part the cultural change taking place in society. The change affects the ways of learning and retrieving information. Connectivism is a digital age learning theory that is based on the learning online via networks. Methods. The survey was conducted by analysing 88 online discussion chains from a popular Finnish online forum. The discussions had taken place 2005-2014. The data analysis was carried out using content analysis by means of themes and phenomenographic research approach, which focused on the interpretation of the perceptions from the online discussions. The network of perceptions was contemplated by interpreting the expressed cause-and-effect relationships between the themes. Results and discussion. Based on analysis there were a total of 11 themes in discussions. Three main themes were speech therapy resources, differences of municipal and private speech therapy, and speech therapists' role and job description. All the other themes were related to the three main themes. The cause-and-effect relationships between the themes were a basis for a interpreted network of speech therapy perceptions. Online discussions can be considered to partly reflect the situation in society, as well as to follow other media. Lack of resources in speech therapy and many other social and health services has become reality in Finland in recent years. Health care services transfer to the private sector has been a topic of discussion also in traditional media. Information provided by analysing attitudes, opinions and perceptions of speech therapy could help to address the customers' needs and direct the guidance, advice and support in the best possible manner.
  • Kilpinen, Raija (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The purpose of the research was to give a micro level perspective to joy of learning. In the theoretical part of the research I study the concepts of learning, emotion and joy of learning. Learning is seen in this research as a social action. The research problem was: In what kind of situations is joy of learning visible in the video material of the high school students' school day? The research material of the first grade high school students was recorded in a high school during three days. I analyzed the material with the help of conversation analysis, which gave tools for the detailed processing of the material. For the analysis, I chose interaction situations in which there was initial evidence of joy of learning. The choice criterions were laughter, vocal pitch, volume, prosody, facial expressions and gestures. The analysis shows that joy of learning was visible during the school day. In the classroom, the students expressed their emotion less intense than outside of the classroom, although the topics of the interaction situations were the same.
  • Nikolainen, Paula (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Objectives: Depression is one of the most common mental disorders. It causes significant individual suffering as well as societal economic burden. In this study hostility refers to a multidimensional personality trait, which includes cynicity and paranoia towards others and feelings of anger. Previous studies have shown that hostility is associated with depressive symptoms and different psychosocial problems. However, it is not known if there is a two-way relationship between depressive symptoms and hostility over time. Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine, whether depressive symptoms predict higher levels of hostility, and also, whether hostility predicts later depressive symptoms. The hypothesis was that depressive symptoms would predict higher hostility. No hypothesis was set to whether hostility would predict later depressive symptoms. Methods: The sample of this study (n=1528) has been collected in a longitudinal and still ongoing study (the Young Finns study) started in 1980 of the risk factors for coronary heart disease of Finns of age 24–39 in 2001. Depressive symptoms were measured in 2001 and 2007 using a modified version of Beck's depression inventory (mBDI). Hostility was evaluated in 2001 and 2007 using three different scales which measure cognitive and affective dimensions of hostility. The scales of cognitive dimensions (cynicity and paranoia) are originally a part of the MMPI and SCL-90R inventories. Affective dimensions were measured using the anger scale included in Buss and Durkee's hostility scale. The research setting controlled for perceived social support, socioeconomic status and health behavior and they were assessed in 2001. Results and conclusions: A two-way relationship between depressive symptoms and hostility was found. The controlled factors did not attenuate the association between depressive symptoms and hostility. In addition, this study found that perceived low level of social support, a lower socioeconomic status, smoking and the male sex were weak predictors of hostility. This study also supports earlier results that depressive symptoms and hostility are relatively permanent traits. Recognizing a two-way relationship of depression and hostility may help in developing interventions for both conditions.
  • Kataja, Ulla (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Aims: Public health care in Finland has the main responsibility of rehabilitation, which means that public health care has to provide for persons with the severe disabilities the therapy or the rehabilitation needed. If a person fulfills the criteria of having severe disablity he is admitted Disability Allowance at its middle or highest rate. This is required for getting medical rehabilitation for persons with severe disabilities, which in Finland is financed by KELA. The speech therapy for the severely disabled organized by KELA is mainly carried out by private sector. There were approximately 500 private speech therapists under the contract of KELA during 2011-2014. Altogether 7439 persons were receiving speech therapy by KELA in 2014. The speech therapists under the contract of KELA are divided somewhat unevenly in Finland, therefore the availability of speech therapy is not equal in the whole land. Particularly areas with less inhabitants seem to suffer from inequality. The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 3.5.2008 was aimed at guaranteeing equal human rights to disabled people and to promote and support their human value. Methods: This Master's thesis looks at the availability of speech therapy in Finland both quantitatively based on open statistics by KELA and qualitatively on the nature of positive and negative decisions in the Medical District of Kanta-Häme. Results and Conclusions: The availability of speech therapy for persons with severe disabilities is not by KELAs statistics fully equal in Finland. The uneven division of speech therapists has lead to the fact that there are for example, at the insurance district of Oulu considerably more speech therapists than at the insurance district of Satakunta.The speech therapists under contract of KELA are like many other highly educated people situated close by the universities and other schooling areas, By U.N agreement the persons with disabilities should have rehabilitation near where they live and timing it optimally.The severity of language impairment was the main reason in positive decisions in the Medical District of Kanta-Häme and the insufficiency of arguments in the negative ones, which seem to refer to the fact that there, with an adequate application, speech therapy is guaranteed for the persons with most severe disabilities. One of the aims of the future social welfare and health care reform is to improve the availability of speech therapy in Finland. It remains to be seen how successfully it will answer the growing need.
  • Värtö, Saara (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Aims. The aim of my research was to study those teachers who have not undergone any teacher education and their thinking about teacher's work. This phenomenon was chosen as the research subject because it has been studied very little compared to the research on regular teachers in Finnish schools. My research task was to study the thoughts on and experiences of working as a teacher and formal qualifications of teachers without teacher education. Moreover, the aim was to outline the teaching career of these teachers as well as their thoughts on and experiences of teacher education and professional development. Methods. The research was conducted through literature and through the narratives of six people who either are working or have been working as teachers without any teacher education. Three of these people worked as teachers without any teacher education at the time of the research whereas the other three had applied and been accepted into teacher education after having already worked as teachers. One of the latter had also already graduated with a certificate of education. This was a qualitative study and the data was gathered by doing theme interviews and analysed by using inductive qualitative analysis. Results and conclusions. Many similarities were found in the narratives of the interviewees and a more detailed examination of the themes revealed some outliers. The ways the interviewees had ended up working as teachers were very similar but their plans for the future differed. The thoughts on and experiences of working as a teacher were quite similar whereas formal qualifications elicited contradictory thoughts among the interviewees. Teacher education also divided their opinions. The interviewees who had undergone teacher education evaluated the effectiveness of the education in a similar manner. Nearly all the interviewees also criticised teacher education widely. The interviewees felt they had progressed in different areas during their career, even though most of them had not actively sought personal or professional development. Overall, the research elucidated a phenomenon that had been studied very little beforehand. It also revealed some important themes in education policy, which merit further study.
  • Viitala, Sini (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Small group size is considered to be the best option for groups of children under three years old. More and more children in day care centers also spend time in small groups. Small group activities are seen as a structural solution of the challenges the large daycare groups face. The new Early Childhood Education Law will require the wellbeing of children to be taken better into consideration when forming daycare groups in the future. The purpose of this study was to examine the toddlers parents and educators conceptions of group size as well as issues related to small-group activities and the concept of primary nursing in daycare under the age of three. The aim was to find out how small group activities and the use of primary nursing is justified and how these arguments reflect the quality of early childhood education in the groups of children under three years of age. This is a qualitative research using theme interviews as the research method. The study includes interviews of nine educators working at a day care center in groups of children under the age of three and interviews of three parents who had their toddler in day care treatment. The results of the survey suggest that groups at toddler day care treatment are formed primarily on the basis of structural factors, even though the children would benefit more if their needs and pedagogical perspectives would be taken into consideration. However when forming small groups the pedagogical and individual needs of the children were given more weight, though structural factors played a significant role as well. The study suggests that parents will appreciate the small treatment groups. Similarly, the educators in day care centers consider the small groups facilitating the implementation of high-quality early childhood education.
  • Rapala, Emma (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of three Finnish volunteer teachers in developing countries. Specific point of interest was to understand the functions of volunteer learning experiences in developing teacher identities. The objective of the study is to understand the possibilities of personal and professional growth that international volunteer teaching can provide. In this study, identity was seen as socially constructed narratives (Sfard & Prusak 2005). Learning was considered the bridge between actual and designated teacher identities. Teachers' professional growth was seen as interplay between developing the teacher's personal identity, professional identity and collective identity (Heikkinen 2001). This study follows constructivist theories' conception of knowledge as socially and subjectively constructed. A narrative approach defines the study as a whole. The research method applied was a combination of autobiographical narrative interview (Schütze 2005) and a semi-structured interview. The subjects were three Finnish teachers who all had taken part in an international volunteering program for six months. The collected data was analysed using Polkinghorne's (2005) analysis of narratives and narrative analysis. Analysis of narratives was utilised in categorizing the teachers' learning experiences. Narrative analysis then was applied to construct a new narrative: a typical story of the functions of international volunteering in teacher identity development. The teachers' learning experiences through volunteering were substantial and strongly linked to the teacher's personal background. The learning experiences were categorized as follows: 1) adapting in a new country, 2) working in the school community, 3) facing challenging situations in teaching and 4) cultural encounters. All categories except for the first one were linked to teacher identity development in the teachers' narratives. Learning experiences were utilized in two ways: realizing designated identities and creating new ones. International volunteering can support teachers' professional growth, but learning experiences are not linked to professional identities automatically without reflection. For the organizations providing international volunteering opportunities, it is important to identify the reflexive nature of volunteering and be organized in guiding teachers to reflect their experiences.
  • Makkonen, Mira (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Objective. Chronic stress is known to be a significant cause of disease incidence. The current study was set out to assess the relationship between innate temperament and vital exhaustion, a consequence of long-term stress. Previous studies have mostly focused on studying vital exhaustion in relation to cardiovascular disease. Among other things, vital exhaustion has been shown to be a precursor of myocardial infarction and has been associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Similarly, temperament traits have been linked to disorders and risk factors related to vital exhaustion. The direct evidence of the relationship between temperament and vital exhaustion is, however, limited. The aim of this study was to determine whether temperament, as defined by Buss and Plomin, predicts vital exhaustion. Methods. The sample consisted of 1132 adults participating in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns (CRYF) Study. Temperament was measured in 2001 using the EAS temperament inventory. Vital exhaustion was measured in 2001 and in 2007 using the Maastricht Questionnaire. The associations between temperament traits and vital exhaustion were examined by linear regression analyses. All analyses were adjusted for the effect of gender, age, education level and marital status. In additional analyses, vital exhaustion in 2001 was further controlled when predicting vital exhaustion in 2007. Results and conclusions. Higher emotionality and lower sociability predicted higher vital exhaustion over a 6-year time interval. Lower activity also predicted higher vital exhaustion six years later, although it was not associated with vital exhaustion at baseline like the two other traits. As a whole, temperament independently explained very little of the variance in vital exhaustion when vital exhaustion at baseline was taken into account. The results suggest that temperament plays a more important role in explaining the level and stability of vital exhaustion than explaining the increase or decrease in it.
  • Hautala, Anni-Leena (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The goal of the study is to examine the experiences of parents' in arranging childcare outside of their work hours. The study investigates what kind of needs the families with small children have for child care during other times than work hours when the care is provided by others than family members themselves. Additionally, the research finds out what the childcare network consists of, and how parents experience asking for and receiving help. The group covered by the study was confined to families with two parents, in which both parents are either in work life or full-time students. The subject of study was chosen based on personal experiences and topical discussions. There exists a clear need for help in child care, but the networks of families are insufficient. On the other hand, society does not offer explicit services that would contribute to the arranging of help in childcare matters. The empirical portion of the study consisted of half-structured interviews of 13 mothers of families with small children. The participants of the study had 1-5 children and lived in the same household together with their spouse and children. The research is a qualitative case study. Analysis has been conducted by theming. Immediate relatives are the most significant provider of childcare outside of working hours of the studied families. It is the easiest to approach one's parents' and subsequently one's siblings to help with childcare. Also friends were found to provide help occasionally, but the families did not want to bother their friends with their needs for help. Some of the interviewed mothers experienced that only the parents and siblings were potential sources of help. In addition to biological relationship, also an emotional closeness, geographical distance and the potential helper's situation in life were considered meaningful for a childcare relationship to emerge. In an optimal environment, parents would receive help with childcare much more often than what was available during the time of the interviews. The most essential reason for the need was to enable the parents to have their own time and time as a couple. Hiring a helper to come to the home was seen as the optimal alternative, for this would reduce the feeling of bothering someone as well as reduce the feeling of debt of gratitude. Nevertheless, finding and hiring caregivers was seen to be laborious. The use of hired childcare help ought to be made simpler and services should be better made available to families with children.
  • Neuvonen, Pilvi (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The aim of this study was to examine identity narratives and membership narratives of religious minority youth. The theoretical framework for identity consisted of both postmodern identity theory and post-positivist realistic identity theory, thus identity is seen as changing and selectable though guided by social categories. Additionally, the aim was to examine how the youth narrate memberships and negotiate their religious values and social identity in the social context of school. The goal of the study was to analyze how young people who belong to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints narrate identities, memberships and identity and membership negotiations at school. Previous studies have shown that youth belonging to religious minorities often face negotiations at school, concerning their values, lifestyle and worldviews. The data consisted of five interviews of young people belonging to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The study was conducted using qualitative methods and analyzed with theme analysis of narratives. The analysis included characteristics of both narrative methods and content analysis method. Based on the results, identity and membership narratives of the youth belonging to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints were found to emphasize the importance of their religious membership. However, self-definition of being an ordinary young person and having many other identities besides religious identity were also highlighted. In identity and membership negotiations special importance was given to the optimization of the conditions of situations in which membership of the religious group was being discussed. The goal of the optimization was to maintain identity of an ordinary young person and to defend the multidimensionality of one's identity. The study suggests that other peoples' partly negative attitudes towards the religious group of the youth guided their agency in identity and membership negotiations. Being different was more likely to be seen positively in an in-group setting than in an out-group setting. Thus, the outcomes of the negations were influenced by the nature of the relationship the people included in the negotiations had. According to the study, youth belonging to a religions minority see their position in school positively. However, they face negotiations concerning their differing views on values and lifestyle.
  • Mattila, Satu (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to describe the factors that influence junior high age young people as they connect with friends and peer groups, especially from the view of a student who is somehow distinct from the group. The term somehow distinct is used to encompass the wide variety of factors that may influence an adolescent who is left to the fringes or totally outside of a peer group. As inclusion and multiculturalism increases in schools it is important to understand adolescent belief and value systems in order to create an atmosphere that is open to diversity and strengthens peer relationships at school. This study examines short essays by young people on the subject of being an outsider to their peer groups and the preconditions and terms of friendships. In addition, what circumstances support or prevent the ability to join a group and form friendships. In past years this topic has been researched from the point of view of the experiences of special needs students and of general adolescent peer relations. (Ellonen, 2008; Hoikkala & Paju 2013; Korkiamäki, 2014; Koster, Nakken , Pijl & van Houten 2009; Saarinen 2012). In this work the angle of approach is the thoughts and feelings that the somehow distinct adolescent brings out in the peers representing the majority of the group and how to support him/her in order to get to join the group and how to strengthen his/her social competence. Methods. For this study, data was collected from two secondary schools. The students were selected from one class at each school and a total of 49 students returned write-ups. Essays were prompted by four questions about what it means to be an outsider, what factors lead to being outside of the group and the conditions for the process of forming peer relations. Student essays were transcribed and sorted by theme. Themes that emerged were then interpreted by using content analysis. Results and conclusions. The research highlighted the challenges that diversity poses in adolescent groups. Young people looked for direction from adults and guidance in situations where someone was outside of the group. They also brought forth ideas how the social competence of a young person distinct from the group could be supported. Group dynamics and general social climate in the classroom seemed to influence how diversity was handled. There were subtle differences between boys and girls as far as what components supported and what prevented the forming of peer relations. Girls were especially influenced by outward appearances and favored the opinions of girls high up in the class social hierarchy as to who should be accepted in the group. Boys' ability to form peer relations were supported more by social skills and mutual conversation topics and hobbies.

View more