Käyttäytymistieteellinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Avelin-Torvinen, Jenna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Due to the current three-step intervention model and integration in schools, early identification of students with support needs as well as focusing support on them is becoming increasingly important. Previous studies have shown that timely and properly dimensioned support reduces the shortcomings of linguistic skills as well as learning difficulties arising from learning disabilities. At the moment, there are no tools available for enabling close monitoring or systematic evaluation of learning for special education teachers. This study set out to provide answers for the challenges brought by the current education policy. The aim of this study was to examine the suitability of a screening method developed for the first graders in a municipality in Southern Finland to identify possible support needs in linguistic development. In addition, the focus was on what kind of intervention measures were used with the students identified with the risk for dyslexia and how effective the intervention measures were. The target group of this research was 25 first grade students in a school in Southern Finland during 2012-2013. The RTI model, developed for mapping, monitoring and evaluating students’ linguistic support needs, was used as research data. The screening was done in three separate phases. First, the students were screened for the risk of dyslexia and directed to linguistic intervention groups, if needed. Then the results of the intervention group were compared with a control group. The results were analysed both statistically and qualitatively. With the screening method, students with the need of support in linguistic skills were recognised. They were directed to linguistic intervention organised as part-time special education. The intervention measures were based on linguistic skills development program that was developed in the municipality-wide Kelpo project during the years 2009-2010. The results of the intervention group and the control group converged at different measuring points.This study indicated that the screening method is a suitable tool for systematic monitoring of linguistic support needs. Used with the intervention measures it has positive effects on the development of reading and writing skills among the students with the risk for dyslexia.
  • Viertola, Hannele (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Concentration as a cognitive function is closely related to attention which has many definitions. Functional subsystems of attention are crucial in cognitive processing and attention is related to cognitive performance. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) is a test designed to measure cognitive performance and the newest, fourth edition of the test (WAIS-IV) has also been standardized in Finland. Because attention is crucial in cognitive processing it is relevant to examine the association between concentration difficulties and cognitive task performance in WAIS-IV –test. This Master’s thesis is based on WAIS-IV’s Finnish standardization sample. Observation of concentration difficulties by the examiner was available in 600 cases and self-evaluation by the examinee in 607 cases. In 580 cases both evaluations were available. Based on examiner observation 358 (59,7%) of subjects experienced little, medium or a lot of concentration difficulties. Based on self-evaluation 419 (69%) of the examinees experienced little, medium or a lot of concentration difficulties. Differences between the evaluations were found in distributions of concentration difficulties groups and in relations between concentration difficulties and cognitive task performance in WAIS-IV –test. Concentration difficulties evaluated by the researcher were related to almost all subtests, all indices, General Ability Index (GAI) and to Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) where as self reported concentration difficulties were not related to cognitive task performance in WAIS-IV –test. The results show that concentration difficulties are common and they may have an overall negative relation to cognitive test performance. One of the main purposes in clinical neuropsychological examination is to evaluate the optimal cognitive performance level of the examinee. For this reason it is crucial to pay attention to negative relation of concentration difficulties to cognitive test performance. This improves the reliability of the clinical evaluation of cognitive performance.
  • Stjerna, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Background and purpose: Newborn visual alertness (NVA) and orientation (NVO) are established clinical markers of brain health and maturation. They are thought to reflect the early form of attentional alerting and orienting networks and form the base for the development of more complex cognitive and executive functions that emerge later in infancy and early childhood. To examine this hypothesis, the present study aimed to find out if NVA and NVO are associated with attention regulation at the age of 7 months. Methods: This study was a part of two larger ongoing research projects. A total of 54 full term low risk infants were included in the study. The infants’ NVA and NVO were assessed as part of a regular neurological assessment of a newborn infant. Later, at the age of seven months, the infants participated in an eye-tracking study. Four alternating stimuli (fearful, happy and neutral face and noise stimulus) were presented as the central stimulus and a geometrical shape (black and white balls or checker board) as the overlapping peripheral target. The gaze shift latencies from central stimulus to the peripheral target and the effect of the central stimulus’ content on the gaze shift latencies were analyzed and then compared between the different NVA and NVO groups. Results: NVA: Infants with good and intermediate NVA shifted gaze fast and showed the bias towards a fearful face. Infants who looked only briefly at the moving target as newborns (poor NVA) were also fast but had no bias towards fearful faces. NVO: Infants with good NVO were also fast in shifting gaze and fearful faces modified the gaze behavior. Infants who followed moving targets only with gaze without a head turn as newborns (intermediate NVO) were slower than the other infants in gaze shifting at the age of seven months. Additionally, these infants did not show the bias towards fearful faces. Infants with poor NVO were not different from the infants with the best NVO showing fast and flexible gaze behavior. Conclusions: These results suggest a continuum of gaze behavior from the newborn period to the late infancy. Good alertness and orientation were associated with good attentional and perceptual competence at the age of seven months. Weak alertness was associated with fast and less flexible gaze behavior than in the other infants at the age of seven months. Following with eye movements only was associated with slow and less flexible gaze behavior than in the other infants. The differences in the gaze behavior of the infants who followed only with the gaze or had a poor alertness when compared to the other infants can reflect typical but slower maturation of an infant or more persistent difference in the development.
  • Rönnberg, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Various studies have established that juvenile delinqency is often characterized by group nature. Although co-offending is the most common criminal style during adolescence, solo offenders exists too. Previous studies have shown differences in terms of criminal style, including age and typical offenses. The aim of this study is to explore if there can be found differences regarding the personality structure. We expected to find a more criminal personality profile in solo offenders compared to co-offenders, since co-offending delinquency has been considered in the literature even as a normal phenomenon in adolescence. Furthermore, we expected youths with mixed criminal style to differ the most from other groups in terms of neuroticism, conscientiousness and agreeableness. The data is drawn from the national Finnish Youth Crime Survey 2012 (N = 4855). Personality was assessed with the shortened Big Five Inventory (BFI-S) and delinquency was measured by involvement in five different types of criminal behavior. Criminal style was assessed by asking the youths if they did the offense in question alone or in company of one or more offenders. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) and logistic regression were used to examine the personality profiles and differences between youths representing different criminal styles. Contrary to the hypothesis, solo offenders and co-offenders differed only regarding extraversion. However, when analyzing the results at the offense type level, the results showed preliminary differences concerning other traits. In line with previous studies, the most common offenses for co-offenders were crimes against property, while for solo offenders crime against persons was the most typical offense. As hypothesized, youths with mixed criminal style differed most strongly from the other groups in terms of personality traits. The findings of the study suggest, that to understand why some youths choose to act on their own in the matter of delinquency, we need to study other factors in addition to personality traits.
  • Rantaniska, Viliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Developmental dyslexia is a learning disability in which a person with normal intelligence and proper education has difficulties in learning to read and write. Usually these problems continue throughout the lifespan. Phonological problems are related to dyslexia but dyslexia seems to be a multifactorial disorder, and also executive function problems have been related to dyslexia. Executive functions are a group of different abilities related to planning, initiation and accomplishment of actions. Executive functions are generally regarded challenging to assess. Executive function problems are known to occur in children with dyslexia, but there is little data available concerning the executive functions of adults with dyslexia. The aim of this study is to investigate whether young adults with dyslexia have executive function problems. Based on the research among children a hypothesis is set: “Young adults with dyslexia have executive function problems”. In addition it is examined 1) what kind of executive function problems occur in young dyslexic adults 2) does performance in cognitive executive tests predict the subjective experience of every day executive functioning. Executive functions of 35 young adults aged 18-36 were investigated (25 women, 10 men) as a part of a larger study of the effectiveness of neuropsychological rehabilitation for dyslexia. All participants have meda medical diagnosis of developmental dyslexia. Executive functions were assessed widely with cognitive executive function tests and a self-evaluation (BRIEF-A, Behavior rating inventory of executive functions – Adult version). Young adults with dyslexia demonstrated problems in executive functions according to hypothesis. Generally the performance in executive function tests were heterogeneous. Objectively problems was detected at group level in inhibition, working memory, fluency and shifting. Subjectively adults with dyslexia reported executive function problems in working memory, initiating and task monitoring. No statistically significant associations were found between cognitive executive function tests and self-evaluated problems. These results widen and confirm our knowledge of developmental dyslexia: adults as well as children with dyslexia have executive function problems. In our modern society where studying and working is usually cognitively demanding and requires usage of written material it is important to understand the diversity of deficits related to learning disabilities.
  • Napola, Jukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Recent evidence suggests paranormal and religious beliefs may result from cognitive biases that all humans share. People who think in an intuitive manner are supposedly more affected by these biases than analytical people. Consequently, mounting evidence suggests those who endorse intuitive thinking style tend to be more religious and have more paranormal beliefs than people with an analytic thinking style. However, less attention has been paid to people who are highly analytical but nevertheless have supernatural beliefs. Since analytical people should be less susceptible to cognitive biases, other factors such as metacognitive tendencies might account for these beliefs. On the other hand, if intuitive thinking style is a major causal factor behind paranormal beliefs, an intuitive sub-group among sceptics could be considered an anomaly. Metacognitive tendencies could be a potential psychological factor behind scepticism. A sample of nearly 3000 Finnish participants revealed that there was an analytical and intuitive subgroup among the believers and sceptics. Particularly, analytic believers had more cognitive biases and lesser tendency to belief flexibility than analytic sceptics. Intuitive sceptics had more cognitive biases than analytic sceptics but they adhered more to flexible thinking than intuitive believers. The results of this thesis underline the multifarious nature of both paranormal beliefs and thinking styles. Although analytical thinking may help the person to overcome the automatic and often erroneous shortcuts that the mind produces, it may fail to suppress overlearned and reflectively practiced beliefs. On the other hand, an intuitive thinking style and cognitive biases may not necessary lead to paranormal believing, especially if the living environment encourages a sceptic worldview. Future studies should address the mechanisms that lead individuals with similar epistemological tendencies to acquire totally different metaphysical beliefs.
  • Lunnela, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims. Adolescence is crucial time for establishing friendships. It is known that personality traits are associated with the quality and the characteristics of the friendships. Psychopathy is a personality disorder, which includes significant abnormalities in interpersonal, affective and behavioral traits. The aim of this study was examine the relationship between youth’s psychopathic personality traits and the quality of their friendship. We also examined the associations with the characteristics of the friends. The results of the earlier studies are somewhat conflicting. Based on the earlier studies, we hypothesize that the psychopathic personality traits are associated with the poorer quality and support of the friendships. We also assumed that the psychopathic personality traits are associated with the criminal and psychiatric characteristics of friends. It was assumed that the primary traits of psychopathy were more strongly associated with the quality of friendship than the secondary traits. We also controlled the family-based variable, the parental warmth, to examine the independent explanatory power of the psychopathic personality traits. Methods. The data and the subjects were gathered from the American longitudinal study “The Pathways to Desistance”. In this cross-sectional study the sample consisted from 1238 youths, who were convicted of serious criminal acts. The subjects’ age range from 14 to 19 years. In this study we examine the psychopathic personality traits, the quality of friendship, the parental warmth, and the characteristics of friends. The associations were examined by using the linear regression analysis and the binary logistic regression analysis in two different databases. Results and conclusions. The psychopathic personality traits were associated with the poorer quality of friendship even when controlling the parental warmth found in youths’ family. Youths, who were high on psychopathic personality traits, had higher probability of having friends who had criminal or psychiatric background, were older, and the frequency of contact were higher compared to the youths who were low on psychopathic personality traits. The results indicated that the psychopathic personality traits had an influence on perception of the support and the quality of friendship. These results help us to understand the social consequences of psychopathy for the youths themselves, and their friends. Personality traits can shape perceptions and probably lead to engagement with delinquent peers.
  • Lehtonen, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Study aims. Crime behaviour can be influenced by individual characteristics such as lack of impulse control or social factors such as loose social controls. What the main risk factors for crime are can vary between different contexts. The causes of crime can also differ in adolescence when many people experiment with crime as compared to in adulthood. The primary aim of this study was to compare the effects of family risk factors and personality on juvenile crime in Finland. The expectation was that in the individualistic Finnish context personality would have a larger impact on youth’s crime behaviour than family risk factors. The second aim of the study was to assess whether the impact of family risk factors on delinquency was partially mediated by personality. Methods. The study data was from a Finnish cross-sectional self-report survey on youth crime collected in Spring 2012. The sample consisted of 4059 Year 6 students from 102 primary schools and 4855 Year 9 students from 51 secondary schools. Personality was measured using an abbreviated Finnish version of the original Big Five Inventory of personality (BFI-S). Delinquency was measured through self-reports of crimes committed in the previous year and included 12 varied offences including eg. graffiti, theft, burglary and battery. Family risk was assessed using a cumulative measure of five risk factors; parental unemployment, large family size, subjective ratings of poor financial situation, being from a divorced family and immigrant status. Results and discussion. After adjusting for gender and school year group both cumulative family risk and personality, apart from the dimension of Neuroticism, were found to be significant predictors of delinquency. As hypothesized, personality had a larger effect on delinquency than cumulative family risk. However, including both personality and cumulative family risk in a model predicting delinquency produced the best predictive power. Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were linked with decreased delinquency, whereas Extroversion and Openness to experience were linked with increased delinquency. Personality also partially mediated the effect of cumulative family risk on delinquency. The results of the mediator analyses suggest that the family risk factors may have increased personality dispositions to react in a certain way, which in turn added the risk of participating in criminal behaviour or protected youth from reacting through delinquency.
  • Lappalainen, Petra-Sif Markkusdottir (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Objective. International adoption concerns large groups of children each year. International adoptees often have developmental delays or deficits in the social and physical domains due to depriving early living conditions. The atypical development of attachment has been of special interest in the population of adopted children. The purpose of the present study is to explore the possible connections between an adoptee’s background factors and the symptoms or behaviors indicating disordered attachment. This study is part of the ongoing Finnish Adoption Study. Procedure. The chosen background variables were adoptee’s gender, continent of origin, the number and form of placements before adoption, and adoptee’s age at adoption. Symptoms of disordered attachment were evaluated with a questionnaire developed for this study. The items represented the two types of attachment disorder, disinhibited and inhibited, defined in the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10. In addition, two items concerned clingy behavior. Adoptive parents filled out the questionnaire as a part of a larger questionnaire concerning the background and health of the adoptee in general (n=1450). The questionnaire was mailed to all the parents who had adopted a child internationally between the years 1985 and 2007. The relationships between the variables were investigated using linear regression and two-way analysis of variance. Results and conclusions. The results showed that adoptee’s gender, continent of origin and adoptee’s age at adoption were connected to disinhibited symptoms. Living in a single orphanage and the continents Asia and Africa were related to inhibited symptoms. Only Asia of the explored variables was related to clingy behavior. Based on the results it was concluded that different kind of attachment related behavior problems might have different kind of developmental paths. The results of this study can be utilized in future research to find out more detailed information about the development of disordered attachment behavior in adopted children. The results are important for the provision of well-informed information to adoptive parents.
  • Laitinen, Jenni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Objectives. Previous studies have shown that some personality characteristics are associated with better coping than others. Knowledge concerning temperament characteristics and coping methods among primary school teachers is so far limited. The aim of this study was to examine the association between primary school teachers’ temperament characteristics and coping methods. The hypotheses were that, 1) high harm avoidance is associated with the use of the emotion focused coping, 2) low harm avoidance is associated with problem focused coping, 3) high reward dependence is associated with seeking for social support, 4) persistence is associated with problem focused coping, and 5) high novelty seeking is associated with problem focused coping. Methods. The participants were 55 primary school teachers in the metropolitan area. Temperament was measured using Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). The temperament characteristics were harm avoidance, novelty seeking, reward dependence and persistence. Coping was measured using The COPE Inventory. The questions were combined into 15 coping strategies. The data were analysed using Pearson correlation and linear regression. Socio-economic background was controlled in the first model and the other temperament characteristics in the second model. Results and conclusions. Different temperament characteristics have differential associations with the used coping strategies. High harm avoidance was associated with the use of the emotion-focused coping methods and with the problem-focused coping methods. High novelty seeking was associated with the decreased use of avoidant coping and increased use of the emotion-focused coping methods. High reward dependence was associated with seeking of both instrumental and emotional social support and emotion-focused coping methods. Persistence was associated with decreased use of the problem-focused coping methods. The results of this study should be confirmed and repeated with the use of larger and more representative sample of classroom teachers. Also the future research should study if coping methods work as mediating factors between teachers’ personality traits and well-being at work and associations of Cloninger’s personality theory’s character traits and different personality profiles to coping methods.
  • Laine, Saana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Objectives: Youth violence is a phenomenon that can have long-lasting and serious consequences for its victims as well as the perpetrators themselves. It is important to try and recognize factors that can have an effect on violent behaviour. The purpose of this study was to find out if there are links between exposure to media violence, the Big Five -personality traits and youth violence. In addition to studying these factors separately, it was also studied if some of the personality traits increase vulnerability to the negative effects of media violence exposure. Based on earlier research it was hypothesized that exposure to violent games and violent movies is associated with violent behaviour. With regards to personality it was hypothesized, based on earlier research, that low agreeableness, low conscientiousness and high neuroticism are associated with violent behaviour. In addition it was hypothesized that these same personality traits increase vulnerability to the negative effects of media violence exposure. Methods: This study employs data from survey on youth crime collected by the Institute of criminology and legal policy. The data was collected in 2012. 8941 Finnish sixth- and ninth-graders took the survey. Participants with answers that were assessed unreliable were excluded from the data. The final sample size used in this study was 8791. The main analyses of the study were performed with logistic regression. Results and conclusions: Consistent with the hypotheses, media violence exposure was associated with violent behaviour. With regards to personality, it was found that low agreeableness and low conscientiousness each were associated with all forms of violent behaviour studied. High extraversion was associated with bullying, participating in a fight and committing an assault. Low neuroticism was associated with committing an assault, and low openness to experience was associated with robbery with threatening behaviour. Conscientiousness and extraversion had statistically significant interactions with media violence exposure with regards to violent behaviour. Extraverted people seem to be more vulnerable to the negative effects of media violence exposure. Conscientiousness doesn’t seem to be associated with violent behaviour when the exposure to media violence is high. Parents and schools should be made aware of the negative effects of media violence exposure, so they can monitor and limit the media use of the youth. In the future it would also be important to gain more information about the factors that increase vulnerability to media violence exposure.
  • Kurjenluoma, Leena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Introduction: Previous studies have shown that breastfeeding has an effect, for example, on mother’s mood and stress regulation. There are still no previous studies of the association between breastfeeding and overall life satisfaction. The aim of this study is to find out whether the duration of breastfeeding is associated with parent’s overall life satisfaction or its components i.e. parental, marital and work-life satisfaction. The longitudinal aspect of the data also makes it possible to study the association between the duration of being breastfed as a child and overall life satisfaction and its components. Methods: The data consisted of 1934 participants of the LASERI -longitudinal study, who were born in 1962-1977 and of their parents. Information of the breastfeeding duration and background variables (SES, participant’s sex, age, birth weight and gestational age) was gathered via survey in 1983 from participants’ parents. Parental, marital and work life satisfaction were assessed on a five-point scale by participants’ parents in 1983 and by participants themselves in 2007. Overall life satisfaction was calculated as a mean of these three variables. Also, for the purpose of the analysis the variables were made into new binary variables (low satisfaction/high satisfaction). Results and conclusions: On the basis of logistic regression analyses, breastfeeding duration was associated with the parental satisfaction of the participant’s mothers. Mothers who breastfed longer were 28% (p<.01) more likely to feel higher parenting satisfaction than mothers who breastfed for shorter period of time when the background variables were controlled. Breastfeeding duration did not have statistically significant association with mother’s marital, work life or overall life satisfaction. Breastfeeding duration was not associated with the father’s overall life satisfaction or any of its components. Also, the duration of being breastfed as a child was not associated with the participants’ overall life satisfaction or any of its components as adult. The results of this study broaden the understanding of psychological effects breastfeeding has on parents and increase the knowledge of the things that contribute to parent’s experiences of parental satisfaction. Although, the results of this study do not indicate whether it is the longer duration of breastfeeding that increase the mothers’ parental satisfaction, or are the mothers who experience higher parental satisfaction more likely to breastfeed longer, the results underline the importance of feelings of satisfaction. In the future, it is important to pay attention to supporting mothers who have to stop breastfeeding earlier than they have intended. It is also important to offer support already in the early phases of motherhood to the mothers who are feeling low parental satisfaction.
  • Hiltunen, Henna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims. Participation after a traumatic brain injury (TBI), e.g. return to work and social roles, is regarded to be the ultimate goal of rehabilitation. At the same time patient’s perception of quality of life (QoL) and a subjective satisfaction have become important perspectives in the outcome assessment after TBI. Research shows evidence of relation between participation and QoL, but little is known about the association of the activity specific participation and QoL. In addition correlations between participation activities and subjective appraisals of them are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to explore activity specific participation after TBI and investigate relations between activities and patients’ satisfaction with these activities and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Additionally, less studied effects of elements like sociodemographic factors, injury severity, functional outcome and mood disorders in the association to these were explored. Methods. The study group consisted of a total of 157 adults with brain injury, aged 20–63 years, 101 (64 %) of them being men. The patients participated in an assessment of HRQoL, mood, functional outcome, general health and participation. ICF was the framework used for defining participation. Results. In this study activity specific participation was at best moderately but consistently associated with persons’ satisfaction with these activities and HRQoL. Activity specific participation accounted for 3–27 % of the variance in satisfaction and 6–23 % of the variance in total QOLIBRI score. Sociodemographic factors of the patient had no influence on the results, but functional outcome, injury severity and mood disorders changed associations with work status and independence in household finance and satisfaction and HRQoL. The number of regular hobbies and close friendships predicted greater HRQoL. In turn, additional health problems, help needed in daily activities and mood disorders predicted lower HRQoL. Together these variables accounted for 54 % of the variance in the total QOLIBRI score. Results implicate that according to the level of participation directional assumptions of satisfaction of participation and HRQoL can be made. Yet functional outcome, injury severity, mood and personal preferences have influence. Objective information of the participation and the subjective satisfaction and experience of HRQoL reflect different dimensions of a goal attainment and an outcome assessment of rehabilitation after TBI. Therefore both should be taken into account in a rehabilitation phase.
  • Vesander, Jaakko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims. The number of students with special needs in mainstream classes in Finland has been steadily rising in recent years. The purpose of this study was to determine how well the class teachers, subject teachers and special education teachers feel that they succeed in their work when dealing with students with special needs and what are the things that impact their level of competence. Particular attention was paid to how the special education studies and teaching experience affect teachers' skills in relation to teaching special need students.The research was carried out as a part of a project focused on clarifying the state of teaching students with special needs in Finland today, and later to take advantage of this knowledge to arrange further training and education for teachers. Methods. The study was conducted using quantitative research methods. The data was a random sample collected with a questionnaire from schools in a Finnish city. The questionnaire was responded by class teachers and subject teachers (N= 118), responses were analyzed using SPSS-software. Statistical parameters were used in describing the teachers’ level of competence in different areas of teaching students with special needs. The impact of special education studies on teachers competences were tested using one-way variance analysis. The impact of general teaching experience on teachers’ competences was examined with Mann-Whitneys U-test and the impact of special teaching experience on teachers’ competences was examined with independent samples t-test. Results and conclusions. The results showed that teachers who had completed basic studies in special education or extensive special education studies, rated their skills significantly stronger than the teachers who had completed only the basic course in special education or who hadn’t completed any special education studies at all. The mere completion of the special education basic course didn’t seem to have almost any effect on teachers’ competences when compared with the teachers’ who hadn’t completed any special education studies at all. The amount of general teaching experience had only little effect on teachers’ competences. However special teaching experience had a significant impact on teachers’ competences.
  • Tuominen, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of this thesis is to study class teachers’ opinions on teaching the Bible in Religious Education. The objective of the research is to find answers to the following research questions: What do the class teachers think about teaching the Bible in the school context, and why do they find teaching the Bible important or unimportant? What kinds of methods do they use when teaching the Bible and why? How and how much is the Bible used as a book when teaching its’ contents? The data of this study consists of semi-structured interviews of ten class teachers. These teachers taught third or fourth grade in Southwest Finland and Helsinki metropolitan area. The data was analysed by means of data-based content analysis. The teachers mainly thought that teaching the Bible is an important part of Religious Education, and it has the same functions and goals as teaching Religious Education in general. This opinion was based on pupils’ knowledge concerning their own religious tradition, transferring ethical values, common knowledge, and personal meanings. If a teacher didn’t find teaching the Bible important, then teaching was justified by following the curriculum. The teachers used different kinds of methods for teaching the Bible. They based their decisions on resources, routines, teaching learning skills, achieving good learning results, connecting the content in pupils’ personal experiences, and their own personal interests. The Bible as a book was used as a reference book, a storybook, and as the teacher’s source material. According to the results, these teachers can be divided into four categories: critical, emotional, balanced, and distant teachers of the Bible.