Kasvatustieteellinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Pietarinen, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Education is one of the newer export items in Finland. Since 2010 the Ministry of Education and Culture has published a policy document on education export every third year, providing direction for the Finnish education exporters. The policies play a part in commodifying education and increasing academic capitalism, where higher education institutions become more business-like. The aim of this study was to describe how these education export policies have evolved over time, and to find out what elements of support the policies offered to education exporters to carry out their work in practice. The research questions were: 1) How have the Finnish education export policies evolved from 2010 to 2016 concerning motives, aims and the export product?, and 2) What kind of support for conducting education export in practice do the Finnish education export policies contain? The three education export policies, 87 pages in total, were analyzed using Mayring’s qualitative content analysis and the QCAmap software. The analysis showed that the education export policies have become more detailed and concrete over time. During the researched period the motives in the policies for engaging in education export were to capitalize on the existing demand for Finnish education and the good reputation of Finnish education. The aims for education export in all three policies were financial, focusing on increasing turnover from education export, and related to branding, focusing on portraying Finland and Finnish education to the rest of the world. Over time the policies have become more specific and comprehensive in depicting the education export product. In the latest policy, degree programs, various types of education, technology, and a multitude of consultancy services were depicted as export products. The three policies were found to contain 207 elements of support for exporters to carry out education export. The majority of these related to productization (64), providing advice for education exporters (47), and encouraging networking and cooperation among exporters (42). The policies reflect the political ideology of the parties ruling at the time they were written. A new trend in the latest policy is to pay attention to the individuals carrying out education export activities. For the first time rewarding and motivating these individuals is mentioned in a policy. Paying attention to the actual exporters in large organizations like higher education institutions can be expected to improve future education export performance. A concern is whether there is enough resources to implement all the support.
  • Aarnihuhta, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives. The purpose of this thesis is to get a view on one teacher’s pedagogical thinking in the stage of interaction and post-interaction (teaching and reflection) inside the cycle of the instructional process of a teacher. The goal is to find out on which pedagogical levels of thinking (action level, object theories, meta theory) does the thinking of the teacher in question set and what reasons does she state for her pedagogical decisions. Previous studies have shown that teacher’s thinking is usually quite directed on the teaching action itself without many justifications, eg. distinct learning theories. This master’s thesis is an extension to my bachelor’s thesis on the same teacher’s pedagogical thinking in lesson-planning. Methods. The subject of this thesis was one classroom teacher from Southern Finland. The research material composed of five lesson videos and the teacher’s own thoughts on them. The material was collected by stimulated recall method: the videos were watched together with the teacher and discussed upon. The material was analysed by categorizing the teacher’s thoughts under the different thinking levels of the Pedagogical Level Thinking Model (Kansanen et al., 2000). Results and conclusions. In accordance with previous studies it is possible to deduce from the results of this thesis that pedagogical thinking during the interactive and post-interactive stages of the instructional process of teaching is very oriented towards the teaching content and goal-setting and it can be categorized on the action level and level of object theories of the Pedagogical Level Thinking Model. While the thinking is very goal-directed it is strongly directed only on the action itself. It seems that some of the pedagogical thinking and knowledge of the teacher in question is tacit. The teacher taking part in this study justified her pedagogical decisions mostly with reasons relating to her own knowledge and her own practical theories in teaching. Not many differences can be found in the teacher’s thinking between different school subjects.
  • Ipunen, Tuula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The purpose of my previous research (minor laudatur thesis, year 2005) was to clarify how the comprehensive school and the Steiner school approach the special education pupil as well as to examine what sorts of similarities and differences there are between the Steiner education and special education. Through my thesis I also attempt to examine how the ideologies/intellectual worlds and teachings of the Steiner school and the comprehensive school could be combined and brought closer to one another as well as how the best parts of both schools could be combined in order to take advantage of them in both schools. The research was implemented as a review of literature. At the beginning of my research the ideology and development of inclusion, integration and inclusive upbringing are examined as the basis for the next chapter, in which the concept of man is examined from the viewpoint of special education. I discuss the idea of man on the basis of four central principles. These principles are human dignity, integrity, the right of self-determination and participation in life and society. The fourth chapter provides a detailed introduction to the concept of man from the viewpoint of the Steiner education. First the points of departure and bases of value of the Steiner education are discussed, and then on the basis of these the idea of man and man’s different aspects of being in the Steiner education are discussed, as well as the development rhythms and the seven year stages of the child. I examine the differences between these two educations by comparing their ideas of man. The Steiner education is based on Steiner's educational views and the concept of man, upon which these views are based. The concept of man guides the raising and education of the child and is thus also strongly connected to how the special education pupil is approached in the Steiner school. I consider the fourth chapter to be of particular importance for the reader because it is there that I discuss the concept of man of Steiner education as well as the development rhythms of the child, among other things. Without becoming acquainted with the concept of man of Steiner education it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to understand methods used in approaching the special education pupil, such as temperament training and form drawing. The concept of man of special education also creates the basis for how a pupil requiring special support is approached in the comprehensive school. The fifth chapter discusses methods used in approaching a pupil requiring special support in the Steiner school. The sixth chapter discusses methods used in approaching a pupil requiring special support in the comprehensive school. At the end of this research I attempt, on the basis of the comparison between these two educations, to disclose the similarities and differences of them in approaching the special education pupil. I complemented my minor laudatur thesis by taking in account the 3-phased support model.
  • Laurell, Jenni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Happiness and welfare are extremely hot topics at the moment, especially in the western countries where pursuing happiness is an important part of people’s lives. According to researches it can be said that happiness is based on welfare. But how can we affect our welfare and what are the key elements of it? Can we increase it by attending life philosophical mass lectures? Research of positive psychology has explored interventions focusing on increasing positive feelings as well as personal strengths. In this particular research we are focusing on Paphos Seminar, which can be considered globally quite unique seminar combining life philosophical mass lectures and socially intense learning environment. In this study we contrast life philosophical Paphos seminar to a positive psychology interventions even though Paphos seminar is not considered or named to be an intervention. In the seminar, participants are encouraged to reflection via life philosophical lecturing together as a group and by themselves. Environment and the atmosphere together with the lecturing make a unique space for the participants to reflect on their lives and thinking in a different and probably in a “fresh” way. The point of life philosophical lecturing is not, however, ”to teach” anyone. On his lectures Esa Saarinen uses multidisciplinary research and methods, for example videos, music and dialogs, to activate people’s thinking and reflection instead. The atmosphere of compassion and pro-sociality is critical for the lectures, which focus on goodness, opportunities and transition of participants. There are no exact quantitative or qualitative goals on the lectures, only a deep hope of flowering of the participants. This research is the first one to study Paphos Seminar. There are previous researches studying the lectures of Esa Saarinen with university students from the aspects of welfare or cognitive strategies. Change in cognitive strategies are also claimed to change during Saarinen’s lecturing through the engaging learning experience. According to these studies, it can be addressed, that seminars have increased participants’ welfare and changed their perception of knowing as well as cognitive strategies. This longitudinal study is aiming to examine is it possible to experience increased well-being and life satisfaction after participating to the Pafos Seminar. Participants of this study took part in Pafos Seminar in summer 2015. At the same time this study is measuring motivational strategies and epistemological beliefs. Furthermore the persistence of the transition has been studied in this research by the follow-up measuring with three groups (n= 87, n = 58, n= 36). Material was collected by inquiry in three different measurements between June 2015 and March 2016 and the change in well-being, motivational strategies and epistemological beliefs within eight months. Changes in all the three variables were measured with repeated measurements t-tests and Wilcoxon test. Reflection strategies and perception of knowing were studied with the one-way variance analysis. Relation between well-being, motivational strategies and epistemological beliefs were studied with the Spearman’s correlation coefficient to see if there were any interesting changes in between them during and after the seminar. Results of this research show that welfare and satisfaction of life were increased during the seminar concerning all participants (n = 58). Seminars capability to increase emotional, psychologic a social well-being and satisfaction in life was proven but there was a downward trend in longitudinal perspective after the follow-up measurement. Positive change in well-being can be said to be linked to participant’s motivational strategies. Seminar as an intervention of positive affects to participant’s well-being fits perfectly for individuals appreciating reflection alone and together with others. Appreciating doubtless knowledge might be obstructive for the increase of well-being in this context.
  • Järvinen, Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Aims. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of students’ achievement goal orientations on their perceptions of error climate in the mathematics classroom. Achievement goal orientations refer to relatively stable tendencies to favor certain goals and outcomes in achievement-related situations. Five orientations were included in this study: Mastery-intrinsic refers to a focus on learning, mastery-extrinsic to striving for absolute success, performance-approach to the aim of relative success, performance-avoidance to a focus on avoiding mistakes, and work-avoidance to the aim of minimizing effort. Previous studies suggest that achievement goal orientations affect the way students perceive and evaluate their learning environment, as well as how they respond to errors. Different combinations of orientations (i.e., achievement goal orientation profiles) have also been linked to distinct outcomes. This work examines the role students’ achievement goal orientation profiles have in their perceptions of error climate, that is, practices and discourses related to dealing with errors in their classroom. This holds importance for educational research and practice, as error climate has been linked to the adaptivity of students’ reactions to their mistakes. Methods. 169 students (aged 13–14) from four secondary schools completed an electronic questionnaire during their school day about their achievement goal orientations and perceptions of error climate in the mathematics classroom. Five distinct achievement goal orientation profiles were identified using SPSS TwoStep cluster analysis: mastery-oriented, success-oriented, indifferent, performance-and-avoidance oriented, and avoidance-oriented. The mean differences between the groups in perceptions of error climate were analyzed using ANOVA. Results and conclusions. As expected, the mastery- and success-oriented students perceived the error climate more positively in comparison to both performance-and-avoidance- and avoidance-oriented students. Indifferent students did not differ significantly from other groups. These findings highlight the significance of students’ motivational mindsets on their perceptions of the learning environment and practices related to error climate. These differences should be recognized and taken into account when designing instructional practices, in order to ensure a safe and non-judgmental environment, where students with different goals and needs can learn from their mistakes.
  • Koski, Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Tiivistelmä – Abstrakt – Abstract The purpose of this thesis was to examine with the help of one case factors which make possible the fact that the pupil ended up designing the school massacre and to threaten with it and also what factors prevented him from carrying out his intentions. The idea of the study was created by itself when I was working as a teacher in the centre of events. The case woke me to look for the answers and manuals to the difficult and demanding situation. At the same time, it led to analyse the structures of the school and my own and my values as a teacher also more deeply. Case under examination in this thesis has been teased and suffered from the loneliness during his whole comprehensive school time. The missing of the sense of belonging caused in him anguish, depression and the lack of the motivation. Because the case of the study was examined from two directions, from a teacher’s position and from the case examined, I have taken as my one background theory an ecological system theory. I hope that this theory gives a frame to examine the case from wider point of view. The thesis is the case study in which I interviewed the person under examination repeatedly and furthermore, again about five years after he threated with school massacre. In addition to this, the material consists of my observations written by me when teaching him when the events happened. The analysis of the material was carried out with a Grounded Theory approach, reading narratives again and again. I mirrored my own observations to the story of interviewee building the story about them where the experience of the interviewee and my own observation as a teacher who has taught him combine. The study sharpened considerably towards the end, including theory background. The lack of sense of belonging and the loneliness interviewee felt caused him a serious depression and lack of the motivation. The indifference of the adults of the school and fact that the one did not become heard caused anger because of an unjust treatment and lack of confidence towards the adults. All this together leads to hopelessness and rage. For this kind of a young, the big and changing multi-professional expert groups can cause bigger lack of confidence than before towards the school. It would be important to be heard in the school community and feel sense of belonging there to both the teacher and the pupil. The study brought out also the how vulnerable young like this is when moving along from the comprehensive school. The study brought out also the how vulnerable young like this is when moving along from the comprehensive school. The study wakes to think about the new procedures and structures with school bullying and loneliness and for the support of the transitional stage when moving along from the comprehensive school
  • Parikka, Jarno (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    It can be challenging to combine studies and purposive sports training for a young athlete. However, education facilitates the transition to working life after the sporting career. The objective of this study is to explain the experiences of Finnish top level football players who combine a sporting career and simultaneous studies. In order to be able to research combining top level sport and studies at different levels of school, the development of a footballer to the highest level, should also be understood. For the purpose of the study, seven Finnish football players who have had successful football careers and who also have had varied study experiences, were interviewed. The data was collected using focused interviews. The phenomenographic method of analysis was used in order to analyze the collected data. The results of this study support the early engagement theory. Successful football players started their football career at a young age. They have always participated in high volumes of organized football training as well as participated extensively in non-organized or social football as well as personal football training throughout their career. The top level players were always very motivated with regards to their football training. They also received encouragement and pressure-free support from their families. There is no need for special arrangements when combining sports and studying in elementary school. However, football players who attended sports schools while in elementary school enjoyed having more sports in their curriculum. The sport high schools were excellent institutions for combining upper secondary education and studying in Finland. Purposive sports training and studies can be combined in normal high school as well, if school staff members have the desire to support young athletes. On the contrary, purposive sports training was difficult to combine with studies in the higher education institutions for football players. However, with high motivation as regards to studies, studying alongside a top level football career was possible. Athletes need support for combining a sports career and studies, especially after completing studies at the upper secondary level. The development of sport academies is important, so as to enable an increasing number of athletes to achieve success in fields of sport as well as studies in the future.
  • Inkiläinen, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives. Participation has been studied extensively in the recent years, and its relevance has been commonly recognized. Participation studies regarding elementary school have generally been aimed at studying older children, even though participation should cover all education from first to ninth grade, based on the 2014 curricula for compulsory basic education. The objective of the study is to discover how second grade children experience participation in their school environment. Recent studies show that children’s participation does not occur in broad communities as effectively as in smaller communities, such as families. Some reasons for the lack of occurrence of participation have been seen as children’s incompetence, teachers’ lack of resources, and schools’ hierarchies. Children’s experiences of participation have been previously studied by Kiili (2006), Thornberg and Elvstrand (2012), Alanko (2013), Virkki (2015), and Weckström, Jääskeläinen, Ruokonen, Karlsson and Ruismäki (2017). I will be reflecting on the success of participation compared to the example that has been adapted from the standard of participation by Salmikangas (1998) and Flöjt (1999). Methods. The study is based on phenomenographic tradition of study. The material was collected by executing focused interviews and inquirie to four second grade classes in a school located in the Helsinki Metropolitan area. 56 children took part in the inquiry. Children being interviewed belonged in a student council as either regular or deputy members (n=7). Analytical methods used in analyzing the material were thematizing and narrative analysis. Results and Conclusion. The children experienced that it is easy for them to voice their opinions at school, but teachers didn’t always necessarily acknowledge them. This is seen to weaken the experience of participation. Voting seemed to be a suitable way to make decisions in the class, although deliberative democracy was also brought up as a means to decision making. Having an influence in the school’s affairs was important to children, and having a say was seen as potential activity due to wide use of pronoun we. The children stressed the role of their own active human agency. However, social isolation prevented the experience of successful participation. The children diversely estimated the experience of participation, and demonstrated that they are the experts of their own lives. In the future, it would be seminal to advance children’s opportunities to influence, and children should be further included in curriculum planning regarding matters that concern them. My study contributed important information about children's participation experiences, and will help further develop the awareness about participation in schools.
  • Nyfors, Ulrika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Previous studies have not focused on milk’s meaning and role in study books. The aim of this research is to find out in which ways study milk is presented in environmental studies’ study books and what kinds of meanings are related to milk and dairy products. The research also aims to find out how these milk-related meanings have changed between years 1969–2016 and how they are being weighted. It is also studied if Finns are driven to consume milk and dairy products and why milk is so meaningful for most of the Finns. This research aims as well to find out what kind of potential consequences textbooks have on child’s ideas and attitudes towards milk and dairy products. The research was carried out by studying environmental studies’ textbooks made by publishing house Otava published between years 1969–2016. Milk-related entities were collected from textbooks. By using the collected material different milk-related categories were formed. The data was analyzed by using content analysis. This research showed that milk was presented in four different categories in textbooks. These categories were Milk as nutrition for young, Milk as means of earning one’s living, Milk as health’s contributor and Miscellaneous. The bias and the presence of these categories varies between and through the years and classes. The present critical view on milk could not been seen in textbooks.
  • Julku, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives: The purpose of this master´s thesis is to study the everyday life of homes, based on the articles published in Helsingin Sanomat. The articles were published in 2005-2015. The focus for the research was the ”Kodin arki” article collection (Janhunen-Abruquah [ed.] 2009. It was decided to analyse the articles in Helsingin Sanomat (HS) because it is the widest newspaper by its circulation in Finland and the articles were also available as digital material. The theoretical part of this thesis is focused on everyday life, on the changes of it within society and on the research done on the subject. The research questions are the following: 1. In which style is the everyday life of homes written about? 2. Which themes of everyday life are brought up in the articles? 3. Which common factors can be found from the themes brought up from the writings of the everyday life at home? The study consisted of 33 articles from Helsingin Sanomat and were intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the image created by one media representative regarding the everyday life. By analysing an overview of the individual articles, a more reliable description of the media style becomes visible and the result may also differ from the type of image the random may form. Methodology: The methodology used in this research is of qualitative and descriptive. The method used in analysing the data is content analysis. Since the content of the articles always represents a wide range of perspectives and the different connections between various matters, it is important to remember that in this type of research these matters are described as accurately as possible and interpreted in a variety of ways. People's experiences of the data vary and consequently the causes and consequences are of diverse nature. In contrast to qualitative research which does not aim at statistical generalizations but instead aims at describing phenomena or events, in understanding a particular activity or in giving a theoretical interpretation of a phenomenon. Results and conclusions: Home and everyday life are much analysed subjects in the media, including the press. HS writings also deal with these topics from many different perspectives. Everyone has one's own experiences and opinions on the topic in question. The topics which HS and other media chooses to write on modifies the opinions of the citizens, raising certain issues and topics which are being discussed in different contexts in the society. The everyday life at homes is reflected in HS articles as a busy and effective activity or as a continuous struggle on everyday basis, such as social or interpersonal relationships. The readers are told of everyday experiences which are familiar to many working adults. Eleven articles were discovered out of the data and four of them were summed up. These were as follows: skills, the endurance, the actions and the environment. These themes appeared in all articles with a slightly different emphasis on the type of writing and could be seen as aggregating factors in the context of everyday life in HS.
  • Hannula, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Parents are to an increasing extent guiding their children to take part in organized leisure time activities. The volunteers who usually steer the activity groups are the parents of the children involved. The parents generally finish their work as volunteers at the same time with their children. However, few of them continue working as volunteers in the same organization. In this thesis I examine this kind of parents by interpreting their talk around the topic. The main concepts of this study are Commitment and the Forms of capital. The commitment is essential for the continuity of the volunteer work. The reason to use the forms of capital concept is that it is a crucial prerequisite for a person to possess in order to be able to work as a volunteer. The aim of this study is to find the reasons behind the commitment of long term duration. It is important for voluntary organizations to identify the reasons since they lose valuable knowledge and experience with the individuals leaving the organization. The target group of the study consisted of 11 parents. All of them had started as volunteers at the same time with their children and continued even after their own children gave up the leisure activity. The data consisted of interviews and it was analyzed using a qualitative content analysis method. Two main categories were formed on the grounds of an analysis: the first one consisting of individual based and the other collective based reasons to work as a volunteer. Commitment was defined as a uniting high level category. The most significant factor to explain the commitment was the relationships among adults and children in the organization. The social capital of volunteers increased because of these relationships. Out of the individual based reasons the most significant one was considering the volunteer work as a way of life. Volunteers were able to find time and prioritize the work because they found it meaningful for themselves and were committed to it. The challenge to find the time for the work was significant and the lack of it limited the participation. This was defined as a category of its own. The other challenge was a tension between the different roles of a volunteer. The need to balance between the roles of a parent and a volunteer was decreased after the children of their own had given up the leisure time activity. The other reasons to continue as a volunteer, according to the data, were competence development, emotional reasons, social and community based reasons and willingness to contribute to the development of the organization they worked for.
  • Eloranta, Oona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Aims. Food education in daycare has a significant impact on children’s eating habits and in forming children’s attitude towards food. Encouraging and positive food talk has a positive effect on children’s eating, while pressuring or forcing interaction lowers children’s attitude towards food. Food education in daycare centers will experience changes in the fall of 2017, when The National Curriculum Guidelines on Early Childhood Education and Care in Finland are updated. With the new regulations, the importance of food education will be emphasized and it will become more goal orientated. The aim of this study is to find out how food education is currently being implemented as a part of early childhood education in a daycare center in Espoo, and how the different areas of food education are presented in food talk of the daycare centers personnel. Methods. The material of the qualitative study was collected ethnographically by attending breakfast-, lunch- and snack times for the duration of two weeks in a daycare center in Espoo. The material was collected by recording the daycare centers personnel and the children speaking as well as by observing dining situations and making notes. Quantitative research data was collected to support the qualitative data by calculating the frequency of food talk themes with a predetermined table. Qualitative research material was analyzed by thematising. The nursery group consisted of 21 children, one teacher and two nurses. A trainee, a volunteer or a substitute was occasionally present. Results and conclusions. The daycare centers food talk included all the different areas of food education, but their emphasis varied greatly. Most emphasized ones were tasting the food and table manners. The personnel spoke to the children about the food mainly in a positive tone and they also spoke to the children about the origin and methods of cooking the food. There was hardly any reference to hunger or thirst of the children, and the names of the foods being served were not always told to the children. Children were not encouraged to use the food plate model. Various food cultures or food-related responsibility education were not very strongly present in the food talk. Based on the results, food education in the daycare center could be developed by balancing different areas, so that food education would better meet all the goals set for it, even when the new National Curriculum Guidelines on Early Childhood Education and Care will come into force.
  • Fleming, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The objectives: The objectives of this research have been to increase the research data available on the maths learning of the Swedish language immersion pupils and to see if sex/gender, language in instruction and one’s idea of oneself as a maths learner affect learning results of language immersion pupils. The research questions were: How did the language immersion pupils do in the maths test in comparison to the pupils studying in Finnish? Did the language immersion girls and boys’ results differ in KTLT and the technical reading test, Tarzan? What was the connection like between the a pupils’ performance in KTLT and Tarzan? Which group had a stronger correlation between Tarzan and KTLT? The pupils studying in Swedish or in Finnish? How did the language immersion pupils see themselves as maths learners? Did this experience have any connection with the way the pupils performed in the maths when comparing girls and boys’ to each other? Which categories did the interview data produce and did the theory resemble any of them? There has been reasonably little research so far on the maths skills of language immersion pupils, but far more on the learning results of pupils studying in high school and especially on the differences between girls’ and boys’ results during the last ten years. Thus there is a lot of research data one could compare the results of this research. The methods: This research took place in a junior high school in Kirkkonummi and students from four classes on the grades 8 and 9 were tested. On each grade there was one language immersion class and one Finnish speaking class. Together 67 pupils were tested out of whom 25 were from the language immersion classes. All the pupils were tested with KTLT and Tarzan after which an interview was carried out with the 25 language immersion pupils. The data was analysed with statistical research methods and category analysis. The results and conclusions: This research didn’t show statistically significant difference on the maths and language skills between pupils studying in the language immersion programme and the Finnish control group. A pupils’ sex/gender didn’t have a statistical significance on the results though the boys studying in the language immersion programme received better results on KTLT than the girls. The girls studying in the language immersion programme, however, received better grades on maths. The lower results on the testing could be partly explained by the more negative experience of oneself as a math learner by girls. Also earlier research literature have showed a connection between performing in tests and one’s experience as a learner. Why girls’ grades a better than boys despite this lower performing status, the research data doesn’t explain. However, that could be a topic for a further study.
  • Korpi, Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Goals. The purpose of the thesis was to survey expectations and ideas before and after education of separate special education teacher´s studies who started study in Helsinki university in autumn 2016. The background theory was the special education teacher´s profession. The purpose of the thesis was to clarify why teachers want to qualify to special education teachers and how important professional growth and specialty teacher´s profession and expertise are to them. In addition the thesis also clarified if the education was in accordance with the preconceptions and if there were differences in this themes. The research aims at providing a general view of the development needs of separate special education teachers from a students point of view. Methods.The research was carried out as a quantitative survey and the research subject was 100 students from three groups (ELO, EO and VEO), according to the previous degree. The initial survey was carried out in autumn 2016 and it`s participants were 63 students whose average age was 40 years. The final survey was carried out in spring 2017 and it`s participants were 48 students whose average age was 38,6 years. The statistical analysis of the data was carried out with PASW Statistics 24 –program and the open questions were analysed in a qualitive way. Results and conclusions. The professional growth and expertise / aptitude to special education teacher´s work were very important to all the participants measured as a sum variable. There weren’t statistically significant differences in age and teaching experience, which would have had impacted the results. The participants wanted to get qualification for special education teachers work and better employment opportunities, through their education. Special pedagogical knowledge and practical tools to strengthen vocational skills were also wanted. The impact of the education was examined as a sum variable, which concluded that expectations weren’t always fulfilled in all respects. A small significant difference came out between two groups. Special early childhood educators felt that the education gave little means for supporting pupils compared to special education class teachers. Yet special education teacher´s profession was seen as significant with all the participants especially with teachers with the least amount of teaching experience but it wasn´t statistically significant.
  • Lerssi, Mira (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives. The aim of the present study was to examine the differences in experiences of non-material rewards and work engagement in relation to individual- and employmentfactors. In addition, the study examined relationships between non-material rewards and experiences of work engagement. Non-material rewards refers to organization’s policies, values ​​and practices that individuals experience as rewarding. Work engagement is a fulfilling, positive, affective–cognitive and work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. Both, non-material rewards and work engagement have been found to be related to individuals’ emotions and well-being. Based on previous research, the assumption is that the experiences of non-material rewards and work engagement differ when comparing individual- and employmentfactors. In line with research on well-being at work, this study assumes also that there are positive relationships between non-material rewards and the experiences of work engagement. Methods. The study involved 512 employees who work in vocational schools. Factor analysis was formed to descripe the internal structures of non-material rewards and work engagement. General Least Squares analysis with Direct Oblimin rotation was performed for the non-material rewards and the solution was forced into four factors, based on the previous research. For work engagement, Maximum Likelihood analysis was performed and one factor was extracted. Because there came only one factor, the rotation could not be performed. The differences in experiences of non-material rewards and work engagement in relation to individual- and employmentfactors were examined by using t-test and analysis of variance. The relationships between non-material rewards and experiences of work engagement was examined with regression analysis. Results and conclusions. Experiences of non-material rewards differed by gender and form of employment relationship. Men experienced more fairness regarding rewards than women, and employees in fixed-term employment relationship experienced more appreciation and feedback at work than employees in permanent employment relationship. Experiences of work engagement differed by gender and age. Women experienced more work engagement than men, and 51-55 year-old employees experienced more work engagement than employees under 35. There was positive relationship between two of the dimensions of non-material rewards (rewards from formal competence and appreciation and feedback) and experiences of work engagement. According to the results, experiences of non-material rewards and work engagement differed between some of the individual- and employmentfactors. In addition, there were positive relationships between non-material rewards and work engagement. Taking these results into account when designing reward systems, can promote well-being and even work engagement in organizations.