Käyttäytymistieteellinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Rannanheimo, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    My aim in this study is to outline what kind of circumstances urban policy as a new form of societal governance provides for political agency of citizens. I am looking at the nature of this governance and the way it works between citizens and the city organization in projects seeking to promote the involvement and influence of citizens. I am especially interested in how these goals are promoted on behalf of the city organization, how citizens are addressed, what kind of agency seems to be called for, and what kind of tensions may arise during this process. I formulated my research material from project documents produced in the Pilot Experiment for Local Democracy in the city of Helsinki. Some of my own observation notes from various events connected to the pilot experiment were also added to the material. I approached some of my research material in relation to the strategic program of the city of Helsinki to delineate the most common strategies of the city concerning citizen participation. I analyzed my material by applying a Foucault-oriented discursive approach and theoretizations of new governance and political agency. In light of my analysis, I conclude that seeking to promote citizens’ possibilities for local participation and to influence the city organization simultaneously ends up defining and limiting the terms and preconditions for such actions in many ways. It seems that project work as a form of governance is significant considering how the contents and goals of citizen participation and citizens’ agency itself is to be formed. According to my analysis, projectified governance works firstly by feigning invisibility, i.e. guiding the attention from actual ambitions and goals to the form of actions to ”the right way” of governing those actions. Secondly, it works by sharing more and more power and responsibility among different agents, simultaneously limiting the possibilities of this agency. This kind of governmentality can be seen to set its sights on being efficiently internalized through the ideal of active citizenship and consensual collaboration between the city organization and citizens into so-called participatory local democracy and citizen agency. On the other hand it may also enable new possibilities for describing the genuine political agency of the citizens in urban policy. In order for these possibilities to open up, I consider it crucial to bring forth continuous critical conversation and to question what it is that is actually being pursued by projects seeking to promote citizen participation, what it is that is actually done, and what kind of consequences these questions have from the perspective of political agency.
  • Nuorteva, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The new Finnish curriculum (FNBE, 2014) calls for active and engaging learning that supports students’ agency and active role in their own learning. It emphasizes creating meaningful contexts that interrelate also with students’ out-of-school interests. Research shows participating with organized out-of-school activities has a positive relation to school grades. In addition, it seems that school engagement is low among Finnish 6th graders (Salmela-Aro et al., 2016). However, little is known of what currently interests Finnish pupils and how their topics of interest are related to academic well-being. This study explores the topics of interest and interest-driven participation and further, their relation to school engagement, school burnout and grades (GPA) of 6th graders. The study was part of Mind the Gap project (Academy of Finland #265528) and the participants (n=735) were 6th graders from Helsinki. I conducted content categorization of the whole sample that showed a rich variation of interests, largest categories being sports (43.8%) and arts (27.9%). The quantitative analyses looked at the intensity and form of the activities. I identified three interest profiles with two-step cluster analysis: Organized team participators, Informal individualistic participators and Intensive participators. The Organized team participators were most interested in team sports. They reported high school engagement, low burnout and high GPA whereas Informal individualistic participators had lower school engagement, high GPA and moderate school burnout. They were the most interested in music and arts. Intensive participators, who were especially interested in social interaction, were engaged to school, but had higher levels of burnout and the lowest GPA. The results indicate lack of supporting interest-driven participation in schools: only Intensive participators were almost as active inside as outside of school. It may be difficult for teachers to adopt new practices that call for supporting interest-driven participation. However, it would be important to use students’ personal interests to bridge between school world and students’ lives and to promote student agency and support school engagement.
  • Virtanen, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Depression is a psychiatric disorder composed of several clusters of symptoms, which do not necessarily reflect common pathways of pathophysiological processes. Thus, a new conceptualization of depression has been proposed, which suggests that depression should be dissected to its key components instead of treating it as one homogeneous concept. Personality trait neuroticism is a risk factor that is consistently linked with depression. Several models have been suggested for the association between neuroticism and depression. One of them is a so-called common cause -model, which assumes that a shared etiology explains the co-occurrence of the two. Research from twin studies supports this notion, as neuroticism and depression have been found to share a large proportion of their genetic basis. However, earlier research has examined depression as a composite concept, and there are no studies to date which would have examined the shared genetic basis of specific symptoms of depression in relation with neuroticism. This study tests the common cause -model by estimating, whether the same genetic and environmental components are relevant in explaining the covariation between neuroticism and specific symptoms of depression. The data used in this study was from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study (n = 1515, av.age = 62.0). Depression was measured with The Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale (CES-D), and separate analyses were conducted for three factors: somatic complaints, (lack of) positive affect and depressed affect. The results showed that all of the depressive symptoms shared the same genetic and environmental components when modeling the association with neuroticism, which supports the common cause -model. Over a half of the phenotypic correlation was explained by genetic influences between neuroticism and somatic complaints, as well as neuroticism and positive affect. Half of the co-variation between neuroticism and depressed affect was due to genetic influences. Findings of the current study suggest, that genetic and individual specific environmental influences are important in explaining the relationship in all of the symptoms. For future endeavors, it is suggested to search for concrete risk factors and neurobiological endophenotypes that are shared between specific symptoms and neuroticism. While the use of composite concept of depression was supported in this study, the research question has not been yet examined in molecular genetic studies. A twin model can only differentiate sources of variation, not concrete risk factors. Thus, the results presented here only apply in the context of twin modeling. Also, the robustness of the results should be tested by replicating the results among younger samples.
  • Kruskopf, Milla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The purpose of this study is to increase scientific understanding of children’s conceptual change in computational thinking during a summer school intervention. With a mixed method approach of self-report questionnaire and interview, the investigation highlights modern children’s knowledge, beliefs and understanding of as well as attitudes, emotions and motivations towards computers, programming and artificial intelligence. Think-aloud –tasks are also used to investigate children’s computational thought processes. The SRQ data with an intervention group (n = 28) and a comparison group (n = 21) was analysed with repeated measures and independent samples t-tests, MANOVA and ANCOVA, with the pretest condition as covariate. The data revealed a change in the intervention group’s conceptions about embedded cyber-physical systems and the application of computers in different industrial and artistic fields. A slight shift towards a strong AI –mindset was discovered in the intervention group through the SRQ. The interviews for the intervention group (n = 6) and two comparison groups (n = 4, material comparison n = 4) reinforced this conclusion and showed a strong enhancement of computational thinking attitudes and perspectives in the intervention group in contrast to the comparison groups. The computational skills were found to be tightly knit to level of mathematical understanding, and didn’t change notably during the summer school intervention.
  • Pöyhönen, Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Onni Savola was a key person in the development of the art of poetry reading in Finland from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century. Although he was often regarded as the first professional elocutionist in Finland, there was not much written about him in the literature. The aim of the thesis is to find out in what ways the career of Onni Savola as an elocutionist develops, and reflect that on his influence as a pioneer of the Finnish art of poetry reading and elocution. The aim was also to clarify the influence of Onni Savola on to the Finnish literature of recitation and the history of Finnish speech science. According to earlier research literature, the poetry reading and the recitation share the same roots in the history of Finnish speech science. The thesis is biographical and its context is the history of the art of poetry reading as well as the Finnish literature of the recitation. The data consist of official documents, press, biographies, memoirs, photos and approximately 20 pages of Onni Savola’s autobiography. In addition the letters sent and received by Onni Savola as well as memoirs and interviews by Onni Savola himself and the people who has written about him were used. The data is from 1870’s to 2000’s. In his literature, Onni Savola had a profile in helping other elementary teachers working in the field of poetry reading as well as in authoring of books and teacher guides. When comparing Savola and his fellow teachers in terms of material production, he was a forerunner in his pedagogy with an emphasis on students’ own interpretation and voice. He was also the first elocutionist who widely offered his services to many people in the field. The career of Onni Savola is a textbook example of the shift in the traditions of poetry reading in Finland from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century. Yet, his main achievements are in teaching of poetry reading. One can say Onni Savola had a remarkable influence on derivation and the development of the traditions of theatre and academic poetry reading.
  • Offermann, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Objectives. Teachers' perceptions of sustainable development has been studied in the past and showed mediocre results. But primary school students' perceptions and experiences of sustainable development has been studied only marginally. The aim of this study was to identify the primary school students' perceptions and experiences of sustainable development. And additionally to provide insight to dimensions, differences and similarities of sustainable development in school and home activities. Methods. The study questionnaire was developed for this study. The research method used in this study was the mixed methods testing procedures. The quantitative research survey data was analyzed by statistical methods and the open questions questionnaire data was analyzed using content analysis method. The study is a comparative case study and was conducted in spring 2016 at two Espoo-based primary schools. A total of 53 students in fourth grade participated in this survey. An additional method that was used in this study was a questionnaire, completed by two research schools teachers in autumn 2016. Results and conclusions. The outcome revealed individual as well as school specific differences in the definition of sustainable development. Although that the students' definitions of sustainable development at school varied, the definition of sustainable development at home did not show any significant differences. The differences between both research schools can be explained by differences in school culture that impacts to adopted values and attitudes of students. From the students' responses it can be concluded that sustainable development is perceived to be normative, anthropocentric, ecocentric as well as influencing human activities and changing ways of thinking. In addition some of the students connected sustainable development with intangible values. A third of the students pointed out the global aspects of sustainable development and its impact throughout the world. The majority of the students had a perception of sustainable development and recognized sustainable development as necessity.
  • Mäki, Piia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Objectives. The aim of this study is to inquire from secondary school students, the necessity of numerical assessment in physical education during comprehensive school. In addition, this study intends to answer from a student point of view, which components form the grade for physical education. The research task was to study the opinions and experiences students had towards numerical assessment. In two publications issued by the Board of Education, the evaluation of physical education had been researched. Additionally, there are multiple Master’s Theses, which have studied the evaluation of physical education from the viewpoints of both the student and teacher. Methods. My research sample consists of 171, first and second year, upper secondary students from two schools in Satakunta. The research material was collected through an online questionnaire. This research is basically a quantitative survey; however, a qualitative approach was used when analysing questions with the option of a written response. The quantitative research material was analysed using the SPSS statistics analysis programme. Questions with the option of a written answer were analysed using content analysis. Results and Conclusions. According to the upper secondary school students, the most favoured form of assessment in regard to physical education was a combination of numerical and written feedback. The second most favoured method of assessment was numerical assessment and least favoured method was a pass/fail evaluation. 59,6% of respondents felt that physical education should be numerically assessed in primary school. 23,4% of respondents did not wish for numerical assessment. Over 60% of respondents had received an explanation for what their grade in physical education consisted of. When asking which components, the respondents felt defined their grades, physical condition and tests measuring physical fitness were most frequently mentioned. A great number of respondents felt that staying active during free time had an impact on the grade for physical education. Very few participants felt that receiving a number for physical education had a negative impact on sports activities undertaken during their free time.
  • Räsänen, Milana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Objective of the research was to find out factors affecting attitude among 1st to 6th grade primary school teachers towards adding movement during a school day. The study has multi-method approach as it utilises two different research methods. As research methods I used interviews and questionnaire. Methodically the study focuses on qualitative research, and as a method of analysis I used data-driven content analysis by the theory. I reviewed the quantitive part of the research through circle graphs and cross-referencing methods provided by the SPSS Statistics software. Research material consisted of interviews with six class teachers from three different localities in Finland, and questionnaire to 89 class teachers around Finland. The interviews were conducted on-site at schools or by phone, and responses to the electronic questionnaire were collected via links shared through Facebook. On the basis of this study, it can be stated that there are many factors, both individual and communal, that affect to class teachers’ attitude towards adding movement during the school day. The most important individual factors are teacher’s personal values, notions and experiences together with teacher’s knowhow of movement and it’s effects. Out of communal factors, the most affecting ones are the possibilities offered to teachers to add movement, and the generally prevailing though about what movement is and what kind of meaning it has especially in schoolchild’s everyday life. Teachers can be divided roughly into three groups based on their attitude towards adding movement: those who already include movement naturally into the school everyday life, those who have positive attitude towards movement but whose means and notions are yet incomplete, and those who have negative attitude towards adding movement. My study gives valuable information about how to affect attitude among school teachers and school teacher students towards adding movement, and the means by which they can be helped to build a school environment that includes movement. The results also bring up the need for both initial and continuing education for the content, effects and methods of adding movement during a school day. It is possible to affect teachers’ attitude towards adding movement, but it requires
  • Mantere, Selena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Goals: Earlier studies have shown that a low concentration of prenatal vitamin D is associated with child’s psychological well-being. The connection between prenatal vitamin D level and, for example, eating disorders and neurocognitive development has been shown to exist. Child’s temperament has shown to predict later mental health. It is commonly believed that temperament has roots in fetal period. However, there is no earlier research on the connection between prenatal vitamin D level and child’s temperament. The goal of this study is to examine whether or not such a connection exists. Methods. This research is part of a Helsinki University Children’s Vitamin D Intervention Study (VIDI). The material for VIDI has been gathered between January 2013 and June 2014 in Kätilöopisto Maternity Hospital in Helsinki. Current study includes participants with information on prenatal vitamin D levels and on maternal rated temperament at the age of one year (Revised Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ-R)) (n=839). The connection between prenatal vitamin D level and the superfactors of the temperament dimensions were examined with regression analysis with confounding variables (child’s gender, mother’s maternal smoking habits, mother´s education, marital status, age and BMI before pregnancy). The superfactors are Surgency/Extraversion, Negative Affectivity and Regulatory/Orienting. Prenatal vitamin D level was treated as a continuous and a dichotomous variable. Vitamin D levels were measured in early and late points of pregnancy, and categories low and high were created accordingly. Cut-points for categories were ≤ 73.70 nmol/L in the early point and ≤ 59.70 nmol/L in the latter point. Also, the association between the change in prenatal vitamin D level—or it staying low during pregnancy—with the superfactors of child’s temperament was examined. Results and conclusions. Vitamin D level (25(OH)D) in the early-pregnancy was associated with child’s negative emotionality: a higher vitamin D level predicted a lower negative emotionality score at the age of one year when examined as a continuous variable. The connection remained statistically significant after controlling for confounding variables. Vitamin D level in early pregnancy was not associated with any other superfactors of temperament. Moreover, early-pregnancy vitamin D categories were not associated with any temperament superfactors. Prenatal vitamin D level in late pregnancy was not related to temperament superfactors, measured either as a continuous or as dichotomous variable. Also, the change in prenatal vitamin D level, or it remaining in the low category in both measuring points, had no statistically significant associations with the superfactors of child’s temperament. The results are in line with the earlier findings that vitamin D level—especially in early pregnancy—is associated with the child’s psychological development. The functional mechanism of vitamin D level in early pregnancy is believed to be based especially on the sensitivity periods of the prenatal development of a brain. It is possible that a low prenatal vitamin D level modifies temperament through the development of the brain—which affects disorders of psychological development. In this case, temperament can account for at least a part of the connections that have already been found between prenatal vitamin D level and psychological development. This gives important knowledge of the origin of psychological disorders.
  • Lyytikäinen, Anto (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Technological readiness and -educations has been widely studied in Finland and elsewhere world. Unlike other countries Finland has retained a traditional handicraft in curriculum instead of a technological subject. However technological education is given inside other subjects like math and physics and other natural sciences. Technological society needs competent workers as much as possible and primary school dropouts as few as possible. This thesis is trying to investigate technical abilities of pupils of the flexible basic education. The main Hypothesis is that there are students who has better abilities on average in a technical area. In other word presumption is that there are students in flexible basic education groups who could be underachiever in technological area. In the spring of 2016, 41 students from five flexible basic educational groups from Helsinki metropolitan area took part in this research. Students were 14–16 years old. The data was collected using three different tests which are measuring three dimensions of a technological competence; psychomotor skills, cognitive and affective areas. These three areas to construct a student´s technological abilities. The data was analysed by using SPSS finding correlations, averages and differences between groups. In addition, results were compared with the larger data from others research. Results show that the flexible basic education groups fared slightly less well in cognitive and affective field that control groups. Results of the psychomotor skills were on average or a little beyond on average. The Individual level seven students got points over the average in all three tests. Results supports the idea of the technology based flexible basic educational group to students with special needs and students who have a motivation problems.
  • Vihavainen, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The aim of this master’s thesis was to find out what kind of promoting and hindering supervisory experiences doctors who have graduated from Aalto University School of Engineering had during their doctoral studies and what kind of differences were found between those experiences. Based on previous research literature it can be stated that the quality of supervision of doctoral studies has an effect on the experiences of doctoral students, their well-being and their graduation. My data consists of 10 theme interviews of doctors who have graduated from Aalto University School of Engineering in 2012-2014. I used qualitative content analysis to analyse my data. Based on my research results, the promoting factors of doctoral studies include high-quality and sufficient supervisory relationships and supervision of the research process. The most significant supervisory relationship was the one with the personal supervisor. Competence, pedagogical know-how, enthusiasm, prioritizing supervising and regularity of the supervisory meetings were valued when the personal supervisor is concerned. Supervision of the research process had promoted doctoral studies if supervision and feedback were received regularly; supervision was supportive and motivating; and it was focused on the content of the doctoral thesis, usage of research methods and the study processes of the doctoral student. Poor-quality and insufficient supervisory relationships and supervision of the research process were experienced as hindering factors of doctoral studies. Personal supervisor who lacked competence, interest and time on academic supervising was a significant hindering factor in doctoral studies. Research group activities did not promote student’s own research if the research agenda of the group was remarkably different from the research topic of the student. The lack of peer group activities was also experienced as a hindering factor. Supervision of the research process was experienced hindering one's doctoral studies if the student did not receive enough support on the contents of the doctoral thesis, usage of research methods, planning his or her studies and research, academic writing and publishing or applying for finances. Based on the differences of the supervisory experiences I split the interviewees into four groups: 1) satisfied with supervision, 2) those who described contradictory supervisory experiences, 3) unsatisfied with supervision and, 4) those who extended their supervisory network. Based on my results it can be stated that there were remarkable differences between supervisory experiences of the interviewees. The quantity of supervision varied from daily supervisory discussions to years of lonely work and the quality of supervision varied from productive collaboration with supervisor and other researchers to indifferent and insufficient supervision. To improve the supervisory experiences of doctoral students it is recommended in this master’s thesis that supervisory teams could be used, peer group activities could be organized, supervision could be increased especially in the planning stage of studies and research, more research method courses could be organized and postgraduates could be given support in applying for finances.
  • Hirvelä, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Objective: Depression and anxiety disorders are mood disorders which may result from a number of psychological, social and biological reasons. Dysregulation of HPA-axis, such as hypercortisolism and hypocortisolism, is thought to be connected to depression and anxiety. On the other hand depression and anxiety are also connected to the personality characteristics like high neuroticism. The aim of this study was to examine the connections of personality characteristics and evening cortisol to depression, anxiety and their comorbidity. These have not been previously studied together. Methods: This study used data from the second wave of the MIDUS (Midlife in the United States) longitudinal study. The data was collected by the Institute on Aging at the University of Wisconsin-Madison during 2004-2006. Personality characteristics were assessed by the short personality scale of MIDUS, where respondents assessed the suitability of 25 adjectives to themselves in a four-step scale. Depression and anxiety were measured by MASQ (Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire) which had been modified for MIDUS. Cortisol was measured from saliva at four different time points during four days. ANOVA, linear regression and multi-nominal logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results and conclusions: Low evening cortisol level appears to be predictive of anhedonic depression in low educated young people. The personality characteristics of high neuroticism and low conscientiousness predicted all symptom groups, which is in line with previous studies. High neuroticism was the biggest risk for comorbid depression and anxiety. In addition to high neuroticism and low conscientiousness, female sex, middle and low level education also predicted somatic anxiety and hypocortisolism, female sex, low extraversion and middle and low level education predicted anhedonic depression. Furthermore, a low level of education was positively associated with comorbidity. Neuroticism is a risk for mood disorders and understanding its development in childhood requires further research. Neuroticism should be taken in account in clinical practice. Psychotherapy might be effective to reduce neuroticism.
  • Kröger, Heta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Objectives: The present study examines dyslexia related to perinatal risks and its persistence into adulthood. It is known that perinatal risks affect later cognitive outcomes but influences related to language development and reading are poorly understood. Dyslexia is a specific reading disorder and its prevalence rate is about 5-10 %. Dyslexia is predicted by early deficits in language development and reading difficulties are known to persist from childhood to adulthood. The present study focuses on prevalence, predictors and persistence of dyslexia in the perinatal risk group. The hypotheses were 1) that the prevalence of dyslexia among the perinatal risk group is higher than usual 2) that early problems in language skills are associated with reading and writing skills in school age and 3) that reading difficulties show continuity from school age into adulthood. Methods: The present study is part of a longitudinal research project examining long-term effects of perinatal risks. Examinees were Finnish speaking adults with one or more perinatal risks (n=168). Reading and phonological processing skills in adulthood were assessed in neuropsychological examination and the examinees were classified to fluent or non-fluent readers by reading tasks. In the longitudinal analysis the childhood data of language skills (at the age of 5) and reading and writing skills (at the age of 9) were examined by linear and logistic regression. Results and conclusions: In the perinatal risk group there was a 15,5% rate of non-fluent readers. Language skills at the age of 5 did not predict reading and writing skills at the age of 9, but reading and writing skills at school age affected reading and phonological processing in adulthood. It appears that perinatal risks are associated with a higher risk of dyslexia which continues from childhood into adulthood. The usual predictors of dyslexia were not found in the present study. Dyslexia related to perinatal risks may differ from usual dyslexia by etiology and development.
  • Vainio, Iris (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    In this study my aim was to find out if students’ spontaneous communication changes when a therapy dog is present. People with ASD have challenges in communication which appear already early in the childhood. The challenges in communication reach also the area of spontaneous communication and at worst, a person with ASD can lack the ability to spontaneous communication altogether. An assistant dog placed in a family has been documented to improve and increase the communication of a child with ASD. In addition, animal assisted education has been proposed to improve the social skills of children with ASD. Animal assisted interventions have been researched in different kinds of clinical studies and therapy situations. It has been stated that the presence of a dog can increase the inter-action of the person with ASD, first with the dog and later on with humans as well. My research is a qualitative Master’s thesis, where my target group was a class of six students of different ages, four of whom had been diagnosed with ASD and two with features of ASD. A therapy dog works in the classroom. For my thesis I filmed video data on four different days when the dog was present and on four days when she wasn’t. I wrote transcripts of the data, and searched them for verbal initiations in communication. Based on those findings I did a content analysis and finally counted how many initiations were represented in different classes. I examined the amount of the initiations, to whom they were directed and how the communicative functions could be divided accorcing to the criteria defined by Wetherby and Prizant (1993). I examined first the class as a whole, and later each student individually. The results showed that the presence of the dog increased the spontaneous communication of the students. The spontaneous communication nearly doubled. The spontaneous communication was most often directed to the teaching assistants when the dog was absent. When she was present, more initiations in communication were made towards the whole class. The presence of the dog clearly influenced most of the students in the class. The results show that the amount of spontaneous communication of at least four students increased when the dog was present. In addition, the quality of spontaneous communication enhanced for at least three students when the dog was present. Only one of the students was seemingly unaffected by the support of the dog when it came to spontaneous communication. The results indicated that the communicative functions were divided differently depending on the presence of the dog. In both situations, joint attention was presented most out of all the initiations. When the dog was present the amount of social interaction was increased significantly; when she was absent there was nearly none. The amount of behavior regulation was approximately the same, but when the dog was absent, there was a relative increase in protest towards an object or action. There were also differences when it came to joint attention: When the dog was present, the children commented more on the action, but when she was absent they shared more of their emotions and delight. The subcategory of emotion sharing also includes refusal and expression of negative interest. The greater amount of the initiations related to those explains their growth when the dog was absent.
  • Rytioja, Maarit (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Sustainable and diverse use of natural resources has a significant role in developing environmentally benign processes and products in the future. There is a growing need for ecological and natural dyes. The aim of this study was to examine the dyeing properties of the fungus Cortinarius armillatus and the stems and leaves of sunflower, Helianthus annuus. Also, the mordant remnants in natural dye baths were under investigation. Metal mordants are commonly used in natural dyeing to enhance the binding of the dye to the fibre. These auxiliary substances can be harmful to human health and the environment. The amount of the used metal mordant varies in the dyeing recipes. Therefore, the second object of the study was to find out how much of the mordant remains in the dyeing liquid after the dyeing process and to determine if the amount is hazardous to environment. Woollen fabric and yarn meta-mordanted with different concentrations of alum and ferrous sulphate were dyed with C. armillatus and H. annuus. The obtained shades were red from the C. armillatus and yellow and green from the H. annuus. The CIELAB values varied depending on the used mordant. The concentration of the ferrous sulphate had a greater impact on the colour than the concentration of the alum. The colour fastness to washing was more stable in the samples dyed with C. armillatus than dyed with H. annuus. The light fastness was moderate in all the dyeing conditions, whereas the rubbing fastness properties were generally good. The mordant or its concentration did not have consistent effect to the light or rubbing fastness. The applied mordant did not totally bind to the fibre. The amount of the remaining metal substances was high and even higher than the original amount. Mordants were bound to the fibre most effectively in the premordanting procedure. In addition, ferrous sulphate bound better to the dyed fibre than alum. The amount of the remaining mordant was affected by the dye and the dyeing procedure, therefore it was difficult to draw general conclusions about the optimal mordant concentrations. Although the aluminium and iron remnants were high compared to the original applied amount, their use is not environmentally hazardous in domestic scale applications.