Browsing Kasvatustieteellinen tiedekunta by Publication Year

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  • Rantanen, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims. The aim of the study was to find out which elements of the physical learning environment are related to the safety and school comfort experienced by students. The study examined how safe and comfortable students found their physical learning environment in general and what elements of the environment were associated with students perceiving the school building and its yard as safe. Previous studies have found that the comfort of a school building has an impact on student safety. Methods. The study used questionnaire data produced by Anne Konu's School Welfare Profile series, which was collected in the 2017–2018 academic year. 10477 students from grades 4-6 answered the survey. The questions in the material were divided into four themes, one of which dealt with the physical conditions of the school. The study focused on analyzing these issues. The questions related to the safety and comfort of the school building and the yard, the comfort of the canteen, the size and temperature of the classroom, the cleanliness, the toilets, and whether one can play in the schoolyard. The data was analyzed using statistical measures, the Spearman’s correlation coefficient, the Mann-Whitney U-test, and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results and conclusions. Students were mainly satisfied with the safety and comfort of the school building and yard. They were least satisfied with the cleanliness of the school and the toilet facilities. All of the factors in the physical learning environment studied were related to whether students perceived the school building or its yard as safe. Sixth graders differed from students in other grades in all variables and were more dissatisfied than other respondents. Fourth and fifth graders differed in some of the variables. The biggest difference between the different grade levels was in the comfort of the yard. Girls and boys also differed in some of the variables. The most significant differences were in the class temperature at which the girls were more dissatisfied than the boys. The boys, on the other hand, were more dissatisfied with the toilet facilities. Based on the results, the safety and comfort of students will be increased the most by improving the cleanliness of schools and toilets. In addition, the safety and comfort of older students will be improved by adding more things that interest them to the schoolyard. The safety and comfort of girls will be improved by focusing on classroom temperatures and boys by improving toilet facilities. However, the study found that the correlation and the degree of explanation of the physical structures to the safety experienced by students were generally low.
  • Poranen, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Previous studies have shown that physical activity of children and adolescents is decreasing. The task of school physical education (PE) is to support the growth of a physically active lifestyle and to provide positive experiences of exercise, in which case physical activities would also be transferred to leisure activities. A teacher’s pedagogical choices are linked to the formation of a favorable motivational climate in PE. The motivational climate has also relationship with students` motivation, enjoyment, well-being, and perceived competence. Therefore, it is important to map PE teachers’ perceptions of the motivational climate and a connection between a teacher's activities and the favorable motivational climate. The aim of this study was to investigate the motivational climate of PE from the perspective of PE teachers. The target was also to find out perceptions and practical solutions to support the favorable motivational climate in PE. The study was conducted using qualitative research methods. The research data consisted of essays and semi-structured interviews by seven physical education teachers. The data was analyzed by using phenomenographic analysis and content analysis. Physical education teachers divided perceptions of the motivational climate into the atmosphere and goal orientation during the lesson. The teacher's ways of working, a student, a student group, and a learning environment were seen to be related to the formation of a motivational climate. The importance of the motivational climate in the planning of PE teaching was reflected in the consideration of the heterogeneity of the student group, in the choice of contents and methods, and supporting task orientation. The favorable motivational climate in practical teaching situations was supported by teachers verbal approaches, their own attitudes, creating an inspiring learning environment, supporting student`s self-determination and goal orientation, as well as observation and response. According to PE teachers, the favorable motivational climate is related to quality of motivation, enjoyment, participation and trying in PE classes, as well as social relatedness of the student group. This study highlights the teacher’s perspective on the motivational climate and provides practical solutions to support a favorable motivational climate in PE.
  • Mäenpää, Linda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives. The aim of this study was to examine the motivation, goal orientation and perceived motivational climate of figure skating exercises and physical education. In addition, was examined how motivation, especially intrinsic motivation, goal orientation and perceived motivational climate, are connect to each other. Previous studies have shown that intrinsic motivation has a positive connection to figure skaters task orientation and a task-oriented motivational climate. The aim of the study is to strengthen the results of previous studies and to increase information on the motivation of young people in physical education and figure skating practice. Methods. The data collection was carried out through an online survey in December 2020. A total of 182 figure skaters from all over Finland responded to the survey. The goal orientation was measured by the children's version of the Perception of Succes Questionnaire (POQS) (Roberts, Treasure & Balague,1998), motivation was measured by Sport Motivation Scale 2 (Pelletier, Rocchi, Vallerand, Deci & Ryan, 2013) and perceived motivational climate was measured with validated scale by Soini, Liukkonen and Jaakkola (2004). The data was analyzed using the SPSS computer program by using factor analysis, Cronbach alpha value, correlation factors and t-test. Results and conclusions. The motivation of figure skaters was very high. Intrinsic motivation was higher in figure skating than in physical education. There were more task-oriented than ego-oriented, and the most perceived motivational climate was task-oriented. Intrinsic motivation was connected to the task orientation and task-oriented motivational climate in physical education and figure skating exercises. Task-oriented goal orientation and motivational climate have the greatest impact on the development of intrinsic motivation. The ego orientation was linked to extrinsic motivation and the ego-oriented climate. In other words, action that increase ego orientation in physical activity weaken the emergence of intrinsic motivation. Teachers and coaches can support the development of intrinsic motivation by promoting task-oriented goal orientation and motivational climate in action.
  • Niemelä, Jasmin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Surveys conducted in recent years reveal that many organizations face skill gaps and challenges in competence development. The aim of this study is to understand the support for learning and competence development in IT organizations. As the IT industry has evolved rapidly, it provides an interesting starting point for this research. Supporting learning is approached in this study through viewpoints of HRD professionals. The study seeks to find out how HRD professionals approach learning in organizations, how learning is supported, and what kind of challenges are related to supporting learning. The study was conducted using qualitative methods and the research material consisted of seven interviews. The interviewees were working in IT organizations and their area of responsibility included supporting learning and development. In this study, the interviewees are referred as HRD professionals. Organizations that were selected to this study, were IT organizations that focused on software development. Of the selected organizations, six were consulting companies and one was a product company. The material was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The HRD professionals described learning very broadly and saw learning as ongoing. In their descriptions, there were similarities with the metaphor of knowledge creation. Learning was supported through practical models that support individual learning as well as collective learning. In addition, learning was supported by shaping the learning environment in the organization. The roles of management, work community and organizational factors were identified as key factors here. The ways of supporting learning were mainly very consistent with the learning-promoting practices presented in previous research and theory (eg self-determination theory, dimensions of a learning organization, organizational mindsets, psychological safety). The biggest challenges in learning and supporting learning, were lack of time, taking individual interests into consideration and encouraging employees to share their knowledge and participate in collective learning activities. The pandemic created challenges for learning and supporting learning in terms of shaping work practices, well-being challenges and the knowledge sharing.
  • Halme Roosa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives. The Finnish Education Evaluation Centre (FINEEC) has defined quality indicators for early childhood education and care (ECEC), which can be used to assess the quality of ECEC. According to the law (540/2018), ECEC is defined by a self-assessment obligation, which makes it possible to evaluate the pedagogical activities produced by ECEC staff. The study examined the quality of ECEC, from the perspective of quality process factors. The study was conducted based on self-assessments of ECEC staff. The aim of the study was to describe the factors that weaken the process quality of ECEC and to find out the effect of the educational background of ECEC staff on self-assessments. The study also examined development targets for the process quality of ECEC. Methods. The study was conducted in a mixed method manner using data and method triangulation. The research material was collected with an e-questionnaire. The survey was sent via social media to Facebook groups for ECEC staff. The study material consisted of 202 respondents and 260 open-ended responses. The research material was analyzed by appropriate methods using qualitative (content analysis) and quantitative (one-way analysis of variance) analysis. Results. The results of the study show that shortcomings in ECEC resources, professionalism and interprofessional co-operation were perceived as factors that weaken the process quality of ECEC. The results of the study also show that the self-assessments of highly educated staff differed from the self-assessments of vocational education staff, for one attribute. The research shows the need for comprehensive development work on the quality of early childhood education. Pedagogical activities in early childhood education must be enabled with sufficient resources and a well-functioning culture, and the well-being of staff must be safeguarded.
  • Halonen, Enni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The challenge of teaching mathematics is to make the student’s mathematical thinking heard and visible. To find out how students mathematical thinking can be supported I familiarized concept of mathematical languaging. Mathematical languaging allows student to express their thinking through the language, orally and in writing. Theoretical background of this study is Joutsenlahti’s and Rättyä’s model of four languages of mathematics, which allows students to express their mathematical thinking. The purpose of this study is to find out which mathematics languages teachers emphasize in their teaching and how teachers guide students to languaging in mathematics lessons. In addition, I also explore which mathematic languages the textbooks tend to use, and how the textbooks support the teacher’s role in guiding students languaging mathematics. The material of my study was based on video material: Oppimaan oppimisen avaimet, which was filmed in fall 2012. It included eight sixth grade math lessons. The videos featured a total of seven teachers, one of whom taught a lesson to two different classes. Mathematics textbooks, which were used in the lessons, from four different book series were also used as research material. The data were analyzed using quantification and sosiosemiotics analysis. The videos showed that the lessons were quite teacher-regulated. Teachers asked questions that students answered briefly and accurately. Teachers guided students to use mainly natural language and symbolic language, and to switch between these languages. The textbooks guided to interpret the text in natural language as well as in symbolic language and to produce only symbolic language. Teachers and textbooks also guided to use pictorial language mainly in connection with the contents of geometry. The content of the subject of mathematics influences the language used by the student to express mathematical thinking. Teachers guided oral languaging in the classroom, while textbooks supported written languaging.
  • Niskanen, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Previous studies indicate that a background in elite sports is seen as a positive experience in recruitment. However, concurrently many elite athletes feel that finding the first job after a sports career is both challenging and time-consuming. Studies addressing generic skills have shown that skills especially valued in work-life in today`s society are good co-operative skills, goal orientation, persistence, and commitment. Studies made in the field of elite sports show that these skills are found and highlighted precisely among employees who have an elite sports background. The purpose of this study is to examine recruiters’ viewpoints on how they find a job applicant’s experience in elite sports and what type of generic skills they associate with elite athletes. Moreover, the purpose is to clarify how recruiters feel that their own background influences their perspective as recruiters. There were eight recruitment consultants from an international company in the recruitment industry participating in the study. The study used qualitative research method and the data was collected using semi-structured theme interviews and analysed using a theory-based content analysis. The analysis was guided by the data as well as the hypothesis formed based on Mustonen (2016) whereby a sports background of a recruiter is felt to have an influence when recruiting elite athletes. Theoretical background was also conducted by previous research on present-day generic skills and elite athletes’ transition from sports into working life. Recruiters who are former athletes felt that they understand the demands and sacrifices of elite sports and value the skills gained through sports. Recruiters that did not have a sports background comprehended elite sports more often as a hobby or as an experience similar to collective activities, whereas recruiters with sports background saw elite sports as work experience. The recruiters had rather similar views on elite athletes’ generic skills, which highlighted good interpersonal skills, co-operative skills, commitment, and goal orientation, as in the earlier research. The study showed that elite sports experience is seen in varying ways depending on the recruiter, and it articulated the importance of the ability of job applicants with elite sports background to verbalize their generic skills during a recruitment process.
  • Lehikoinen, Eveliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Goals. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of teachers work arrangements, digital skills and age to teacher’s well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Spring 2020. Well- being was examined through three basic psychological needs of the self-determination theory. Three basic needs are autonomy, competence and relatedness. These needs indirectly affect the teacher's well-being, as the social and physical environment affects the satisfaction of the needs. It is important to examine and support the well-being of teachers because it affects students’ learning, well-being and success at school. Methods. The data (N=717) was collected from teachers around Finland during the Spring 2020 as part of the Bridging the Gaps – research project. Participants filled in questionnaires that measured well-being, work arrangements, digital skills and self-determination. Participants were divided into groups based on their work arrangements during the school closures. Differences in psychological needs between the groups were examined by analysis of variance. Two-way ANOVA was used to analyse the effects of teacher’s age, digital skills and work arrangements to teachers three basic needs. Finally, the long-term effects of the pandemic were examined with t-tests by dividing teachers into two groups according to the date of response. Results and conclusions. Generally, teachers’ well-being was strong during the pandemic but few differences between the groups were identified. Teachers working remotely experienced weaker relatedness than teachers working in classrooms. In addition, poor digital skills were found to be linked to a lower sense of competence and relatedness. Teacher’s age seems to be also linked to teachers' competence, autonomy and digital skills, with older teachers experiencing stronger autonomy and competence than their younger counterparts. Inversely younger teachers have better digital skills than teachers with more seniority. The results were mainly in line with previous studies, but in the future, closer examination of the effects of the pandemic would be necessary to be able to better support teachers in atypical situations.
  • Karjalainen, Emma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The aim of the study was to describe climate change in primary school 5th and 6th grade environmental studies textbooks and teacher guides. In addition, the aim was to find out what ways do they provide to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Climate change is one of the biggest environmental problem that requires urgent action. The aim of climate education is to guide students towards more sustainable lifestyle and to find ways to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Previous studies have shown that climate education in schools is quite limited. Teachers need more high-quality and diverse materials related to climate change. Textbooks play a key role in schools and are the framework on which learning is often built. This study examines information on climate change in textbooks and teacher guides. Research material in this study consisted of 5th and 6th grade environmental studies books. The material consisted of 6 textbooks and 6 teacher guides. The material was analyzed using theory-guided content analysis. According to the results, the textbooks clearly differ in the amount of information. Some of the books deal with climate change much more than others. Textbooks and teacher guides address climate change through causes and consequences. The biggest causes of climate change are human action and industry. The consequences were described, for example, through melting ice and rising sea levels. The mitigation measures were the use of renewable energy sources and energy saving in general. Climate change mitigation was particularly evident in assignments that emphasized students own actions through, for example, video production or campaigning. One of the biggest shortcomings of the books was that they do not provide enough ways of mitigating climate change.
  • Halsas, Ada (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The purpose of this study was to describe how job demands, job resources, and work engagement are presented in ICT-enabled mobile work in the health technology sector. There are previous studies on job resources, job demands and work engagement in mobile work and this research aims to bring new knowledge to the topic from the perspective of mobile workers in the field of health technology. This study was conducted as a qualitative case study in the field of health technology. The interviewees in the study were all mobile work employees in the same health technology company. All interviewees had several years of mobile work experience. The material was collected through semi-structured thematic interviews and a total of eight interviews were conducted. The interview material was analyzed through theory-guided content analysis. According to this study, mobile work in the field of health technology is associated with demands and resources that are in line with previous research on mobile work, as well as industry-specific factors. According to this study, in the field of health technology, experienced meaningfulness of work, good customer relationships, trust in employees, clear goals and work autonomy were emphasized as work resources. The job demands were poor working conditions, flexibility of working hours, loneliness at work, low feedback, social pressure experienced in client premises, travel for work, communication, variability of work and language skills required at work. Some of the demands of work, such as variability in work and working hours were also perceived as job resources. According to this study, work engagement was enabled best at customer premises. At customer premises were strong feelings of vigor and absorption present. Work in the healthcare sector was perceived as meaningful and the interviewees were proud of their work.
  • Leikas, Elisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Goals. The aim of this study was to investigate how first and fourth graders’ parents perceive functional home-school collaboration, and find out whether there are considerable differences between the first and fourth graders’ parents perceptions. The following research questions were asked: 1) How do the parents of first graders describe functional home-school collaboration? 2) How do the parents of fourth graders describe functional home-school collaboration? 3) Do the parents’ perceptions in different grade levels differ? Functional home-school collaboration is meaningful for students, parents, as well as their teachers, highlighting the need to investigate the matter. Methods. The study is a qualitative study, in which a phenomenographic approach was used to analyze and interpret research data. The data were collected using an online survey, which was distributed through two Facebook groups, each consisting of people living in a specific district in Helsinki. The questions in the online survey were mainly open questions. 45 parents took part in this study. The collected data were analyzed by forming units of meaning from the parents’ answers. These units of meaning formed subcategories for a further, deeper analysis. Results and conclusion. The results of the study showed that functional home-school collaboration consists of 1) regular and active communication and dissemination of information, 2) open and quick communication, 3) trust and respect between the parents and the teacher, and 4) positive collaboration, including shared goals. The perceptions of functional home-school collaboration did not differ between the first and fourth graders’ parents. The needs, thoughts, and expectations of the parents about functional home-school collaboration were rather similar between the two groups of parents.
  • Kovalainen, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The purpose of this study is to find out how classroom teachers use music as part of their teaching and as a unifying factor in primary school grades 3–6. In addition, the aim is to find out which factors classroom teachers find conducive to bringing music into their cross-curricular teaching. The theoretical framework of the study presents three models of integration: the methods of horizontal integration, Bresler's integration styles and DiDomenico's perspective on the integration of teaching through music. The framework also examines the role of music in primary school grades 3–6 in the light of the basics of the 2014 basic education curriculum and the benefits of teaching through music, and examines the classroom teacher's preconditions for implementing integrative music education. The study was conducted as a qualitative case study with the help of a thematic interview. The research material was collected by interviewing four classroom teachers who had experience using music as part of their teaching. The interviews were mainly conducted using online connections. One of the interviews took place in a face-to-face meeting. The analysis of the material utilized theory-based and theory-guiding content analysis. According to the study, classroom teachers integrated music into cross-curricular teaching naturally. Integration was carried out in a variety of ways. The social integration style was central, which was particularly evident in the importance of various events and celebrations and cooperation related to them. Music lessons were also taught in parallel with common themes in other subjects. The position of music as an integrative subject ranged from low cognition to an equal, cognitive position. The teacher's own background, enthusiasm and willingness had a significant effect on the realization of integration with music. Classroom teaching was also perceived as a factor facilitating integration. The most important result of the study was the importance of well-being as a factor guiding integration through music. According to the study, it seems that by integrating music into teaching it is possible to meet the goal of basic education in supporting the holistic development of the pupils.
  • Khan, Mina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Finnish students with an immigrant background get lower learning results compared to their native peers. According to previous research, home-school collaboration has a significant impact on students’ school performance. Therefore, this study is interested in the experiences foreign parents have with home-school collaboration, how home-school collaboration manifests in practice and what kind of suggestions do foreign parents have to improve the quality of home-school collaboration. Hornby’s (2000) model for parental involvement will act as the theoretical background for this study, as it illustrates what kind of needs and contributions parents have regarding collaboration with the school. This research was conducted as a multiple case study. The data was gathered through interviews with and was analysed by a deductive content analysis. A total of six parents took part in the study. Three parents spoke Farsi as their mother tongue, two spoke Bengali and one spoke Dari. The interviews were conducted in the parents’ mother tongue and when needed, an interpreter was present. The foreign parents’ experiences with home-school collaboration regarded how the school pays attention to the needs and wishes of the parents. In the positive experiences which the parents’ mentioned, the school had been able to take notice of the parents’ needs. However, in the negative experiences the school had ignored parental needs. The lack of attention to parental needs were also reflected in the parents’ suggestions for improving home-school collaboration, as they mentioned their wish for schools to take more into consideration the needs and wishes of parents. The results of this study make apparent how the school is unable to utilize the contributions of foreign parents’ contributions. Additionally, they do not attend to the needs of foreign parents. One way to improve home-school collaboration with foreign parents, is to utilize the resource of multilingual advisors as this way at least the language barrier between home and school would be removed.
  • Hakuli, Arttu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Justice is based on experiences of fairness. In my master’s Thesis I am going to investigate fairness experiences of elementary school students. My object is to find out what sort of fair and unfair situations children encounter at school, and which are the factors behind these experiences. The aim of the study is to discover ways for maintaining and developing elementary school justice. I apply theory of justice forms, combined by Sabbagh and Schmitt (2016). These forms are distributive justice, retributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice. Furthermore, I examine children’s justice experiences from perspective of justice sensitivity, which tells about strength of feelings against unfair events. Rest on previous studies every form of justice is represented at school. Experiences of fairness apply to distributing of resources and punishments, processes of school and interactions of situations in school. Interpretations about what causes fairness, depend on interpreter. Differences in justice sensitivity and its perspectives are perceived as individual features. On the other hand, studies show that person’s age and sex have an impact on how people see fairness and justice. I collected data for my study in autumn of 2020. My sample consisted of 20 Finnish elementary school students, 13 girls and 7 boys. For acquisition of data, I used internet questionnaire. In analyzing phase I utilized both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The study showed that distributive justice and interactional justice are the most important factors of elementary school’s justice experiences. Likewise procedural justice is important part of elementary school’s fairness. Instead, retributive justice did not appear a lot in children’s responses. Respondents’ justice sensitive was low from victim’s perspective, when comparing results with other facets of justice sensitivity. Correlations between age and justice sensitivity were not found. Girls’ justice sensitivity was higher than boys equivalent particularly from beneficiary and perpetrator perspectives. These results state that to enable fairness at school resources must be shared rightfully and interactions between teachers and students need to be fair. In addition, fair processes of school are truly important part of schools’ justice. Educators should also consider effects of children’s low victim justice sensitivity and girls’ high justice sensitivity in discussions of justice and fairness in school.
  • Tyyskä, Ville (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives. The objective of this pro gradu thesis is to survey what primary school music teachers think about songcrafting. I use the term songcrafting to reflect activities where a teacher is guiding or teaching composition or using it as an educational tool. In songcrafting the teacher is the leader but pupils are the composers. It has been stated that composition is a useful activity to include in music education. Also the Finnish curriculum demands to offer opportunities for composing. However, composing is found by many teachers challenging to implement. In this study I strive to find out what are the things that primary school music teachers consider important for the success in songcrafting. This study aims at collecting information about things that should be focused on in songcrafting and in teacher training to make songcrafting easier to implement. Methods. I collected the material of this study by interviewing four class teachers who are specialized in music education. The interviews were semi-structured thematic interviews. I analyzed the material by using qualitative content analysis. Results and conclusions. According to the interviewees' perceptions, teachers’ skills are the key to success in songcrafting. In particular, subject matter knowledge appeared to be important. Interviewees suggested that learning material could be a way to compensate for incomplete subject matter knowledge. Additionally, in-service teacher training was seen as a good way to develop teachers’ skills. Songcrafting was described as containing planning, evaluation, pupil participation and support of pupils. Teacher skills were described as being linked to all of these. According to previous research and this thesis, one should consider how teachers’ skills could be supported and developed in the best possible way. Providing quality learning material and in-service teacher training might be the solution. Therefore those should be explored and developed further, in order to make songcrafting possible for a growing number of teachers.
  • Paananen, Matilda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    With the growing popularity of video games, it has been considered how interest and motivation to study science could be increased through games. However, more research is needed on the benefits of learning games to support teaching, especially in grades 1-6. Observation of species and familiarization with their habitats, as well as inquiry-based learning, are essential in science education, but the research is still lacking on learning games on the subject. Information is also needed about game engagement and attitudes toward games, as they have been found to have a connection to learning. The purpose of this study was to examine students’ engagement, learning, and attitudes toward game content in a learning game about ants, their ecology, and research. The aim was to provide information on the use of a learning game using an inquiry-based approach in the context of science education. This mixed methods research used both quantitative and qualitative methods. The study design was a quasi-experimental intervention study. The data were collected through a questionnaire involving 38 fifth graders. The students responded to a pre- and post-questionnaire on learning, engagement, and attitudes, between which an intervention was conducted by playing the Anter learning game. Qualitative data on ant structure (drawings) as well as ecology and research (open-ended questions) were categorized and quantified, after which qualitative and quantitative data were analysed using statistical tests. In addition, thematic design was used in the analysis of qualitative data to investigate research problems. According to the results, the learning game statistically significantly promoted the learning of ant characteristics, ecology, and research. Based on the responses, the engagement to the Anter game was at a fairly high level, although it did not reach the same level of engagement when compared to the students’ favourite games. Engagement in playing a learning game correlates statistically significantly with attitude dimensions, such as interest in ants and their research. Fear of ants is negatively correlated with interest in ants and their research. Girls and boys achieved similar results in learning, but boys were more interested in ants and their research than girls. The fear of ants was stronger in girls than in boys. The results show that a learning game appropriate to their context can bring a useful addition to the teaching of science education, as the game allows students to learn even challenging details, knowledge, and research skills independently.
  • Mannonen, Oona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The aim of this thesis was to examine what kind of achievement orientation goal profiles can be identified among employees, and how the employees belonging in different profiles differ in work burnout and engagement. The topic was viewed in the context of transition from studies to working life. Achievement goal orientations describe individual and generalized ways of dealing with achievement situations and preferring certain types of goals. Work burnout consists of exhaustion, inefficacy and cynicism, and work engagement consists of vigor, dedication and absorption. Connections between achievement goal orientations and well-being have been found in the study context, so it is meaningful to study this topic in the work context as well. The first hypothesis was that three or four achievement goal profiles can be found among the employees. According to the second hypothesis, learning- and success-oriented employees will experience high work engagement, but success-orientation is connected to higher burnout. Avoidance-orientation and being uncommitted is most likely connected to lower engagement and higher burnout. The data of this thesis was a part of a data collected for the FinEdu-study in the fall 2016 and spring 2017. The participants (n = 535) were 28- to 30-year-old employees who were at the beginning of their professional careers, and they filled in a questionnaire that measured achievement goal orientations, work burnout and work engagement. A person-centered approach was used, so the participants were first divided into achievement goal profiles using a cluster analysis. The differences between the profiles concerning work burnout and engagement were analyzed with analysis of variance. Four different achievement goal orientation profiles were identified in the data: mastery-oriented, success-oriented, indifferent and disengaged. Mastery-oriented employees experienced quite a lot of work engagement and only a bit of burnout. Success-oriented employees were also engaged, but they experienced more burnout than mastery-oriented employees. The indifferent and disengaged employees weren’t as engaged, indifferent employees experienced efficacy and cynicism, whereas burnout of the disengaged employees was average. Overall, however, the employees experienced more work engagement than work burnout. The results can be applied for example when there is a will to help employees set their personal goals, improve work environment and tasks and enhance well-being at work.
  • Forss, Krista (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    In the context of education, ADHD has already been studied quite a bit. However, the way that teachers understand the ADHD diagnosis and what kind of image they create in their speech about children diagnosed with ADHD has received less attention. The purpose of this thesis is to find out what kind of meanings teachers generate for the ADHD diagnosis and what kind of image teachers create about children diagnosed with ADHD. It is important to study the way teachers speak because the way they speak can have either a positive or negative impact on the well-being and learning of children diagnosed with ADHD. I have collected the material for my thesis through an e-form, which has been answered by 70 teachers working in early childhood education and basic education. Respondents to the form were found through social media. The form consisted of open-ended questions and the data was analyzed using discourse analysis methods. I identified a total of six interpretive repertoires for the diagnosis of ADHD: diagnosis as evidence of medical background, diagnosis as a provider of understanding, diagnosis as an explanation of behaviour, diagnosis as a provider of support, diagnosis as a possible label, and diagnosis as a questionable phenomenon. The diagnosis appeared to be mainly necessary and good in these interpretive repertoires, but the possible negative effects of the diagnosis were also brought up. A total of six subject positions were produced for a child diagnosed with ADHD: patient, different child, troublemaker, child in need of support, labelled child and ordinary child / misunderstood child. Teachers described children diagnosed with ADHD mainly through problems and challenges, but the writings also conveyed an empathic attitude towards the child. I hope this thesis will inspire teachers to reflect on their ways of speaking and to think about the origins and consequences of the meanings they have given to the diagnosis.
  • Rantakari, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The purpose of this study is to describe what kind of understanding pre-service class teachers have about thinking skills and teaching thinking in primary school. In addition, I am interested to find out whether or not the students in the field of educational sciences and the students in the field of educational psychology differ in their perceptions of thinking. The study examines thinking skills from the perspective of cognitive processes and uses the Integrated Model developed by Moseley and his group (2005a) to support the definition. The study was conducted as a phenomenographic study. The data consisted of 12 individual interviews and was collected in February 2021 from pre-service class teachers. Data analysis was performed using phenomenographic analysis. The study showed that the pre-service class teachers perceive thinking skills as a complex concept for which there was not seen a clear definition. Thinking skills were described as individual and evolving skills whose interrelationships were described in different ways. Thinking skills were perceived as tools that a person uses to perform various tasks. The teaching of thinking skills was seen as an investment for the future, as it was believed to promote learning and cultivate citizenship. Teaching was seen to take place mainly through pedagogical means. According to the subjects, thinking skills should be developed through diverse ways, with an emphasis on co-operation and supporting student agency. In addition, the importance of the teacher, the school and the learning environment was emphasized. Teaching thinking was also seen challenging. The students in the field of educational psychology and in the field of educational sciences largely followed a common line in their perceptions of thinking, but differences were found at the subcategory level. The most significant difference can be considered as the lack of creative thinking in the responses of educational psychology students. In addition, the study found that the pre-service class teachers had challenges in defining thinking skills as well as justifying pedagogical choices. This could suggest that they lack the metacognitive and pedagogical knowledge of thinking skills that Zohar (2005) considers as a prerequisite for teaching thinking skills. In the future, it would be good to further study the abilities of pre-service class teachers in terms of teaching thinking skills.
  • Stenberg, Saara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims. Well-be and qualified early childhood education professionals ensure the quality of early childhood education. Pedagogical leadership that notes the fulfillment of psychological basic needs has the crucial role. Recently, however, leadership in early childhood education has greatly diversified. The purpose of this study was to clarify how the pedagogical leadership in early childhood education enables the fulfillment of the psychological basic needs of early childhood education professionals in their work. The aim of this thesis was to study the experiences of early childhood education professionals, how the fulfillment of psychological basic needs manifests in their work. In addition, the aim of this study was to find out the promotional and preventive factors related to the fulfillment of basic needs. Methods. This thesis is a qualitative case study. A theme interview was used as the data collection method. The framework of the interview was based on an interview formula measuring the fulfillment of psychological basic needs at work. Five early childhood education professionals were interviewed for this study. Theory–based content analysis was used as a method of analysis. Results and conclusions. The results showed that early childhood education professionals felt that psychological basic needs were filled quite well in their work. Fulfillment of psychological basic needs was associated with good pedagogical leadership. Based on the experiences of early childhood education professionals, the success of pedagogical leadership and thus supporting the fulfillment of the psychological basic needs of early childhood educators requires resources and leadership skills. According to the results, it is important to pay attention to the quality of the interaction, time available for the interaction, and the balance between work tasks and working hours. To support the fulfillment of the psychological basic needs of early childhood education professionals is essential to draw attention to adequate resourcing and the development of pedagogical leadership skills.