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  • Surakka, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Target. There are currently few tools to evaluate young adults’ linguistic abilities in the Finnish language. Previous studies have shown that nonword repetition, sentence repetition and grammaticality judgment are typically weak functions in language impairment in some languages. The aim of this study was to create a tool for evaluating grammaticality judgment and pilot that tool. The assessment tool developed here is based on Poll, Betz and Miller’s (2010) study on identification of clinical markers of specific language impairment (SLI) in English-speaking adults. In addition, the studies of grammatical difficulties by Finnish-speaking children with specific language impairment were also considered when developing the new tool. Methods. Six young adults with the history of SLI and six young adults with typical language development, matched as closely as possible with the SLI persons, participated in this study. Participants were 19;2-20;8 years of age. This study started with creation of the new assessment tool. Data were then collected using the assessment tool. Altogether 108 sentences were created to evaluate grammaticality judgment. Out of these 50 sentences were translated from the study of English-speaking young adults, 48 sentences were created based on the studies of Finnish-speaking children having SLI and the remaining 10 sentences were training items. Participants listened to sentences and were asked to judge their grammaticality and by indicating whether the sentence was right or wrong. Data were analyzed mainly quantitatively due to the relatively small number of participants. Results and conclusions. The participants with SLI made more errors in this test than did their peers with typical language. However, the result was not found statistically significant. Participants with SLI also used more time running the test than their counterparts. SLI participants made most of the errors in sentences, which included accusative case or tense inflection. The results are similar to the study on English-speaking young adults. Therefore, examination on a larger test group is needed in the future.
  • Tähtinen, Minni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This thesis analyses how young, blogging girls see and experience commercialism in blo-gosphere. My aim is to find out what kind of consumers these girls are and which qualities are typical among them. Do thes girls feel that blogs have the possibilty to have an influence on other peoples consuming and does commercialism have some kind of role in their blogs. The-re are some previous studies about adults and older adolescents and their roles in finnish blo-gosphere and that is why this study concentrates on 13¬–15 year old girls. The theoretical background of this thesis is based on consuming, social media and commercialism on internet and blogs. The data of this study was collected from 13–15 year old girls who write blogs quite reguralry. They (N=17) answered to five different open questions and were able to see all the other girls’ answers and comment on them. Beside this data I also used some blogs and blogposts that these same girls have written. This is a qualitative study that was analysed with the following methods: qualitative content analysis, themes and types. In the analysis I introduce some common thoughts and thoughts that vary from other answers. I have created three different types of a young, blogging girl. These types can be used when constructing curriculas and lessonplans especially in home economics classes These girls’ thougts about consuming do vary quite a bit according to my data. Their wish to be a critical consumer came up in many answers and some of them were able to show some qualities of critical consuming in their answers. These girls were also able to find some factors that have an influence on their consuming in social media. They had different opinions regar-ding the commercialism of the blogosphere. It is a common thought that their own blogs have some forms of commercialism in them even though they don’t have any official co-operation with any companys. Their thoughts of commercialism in social media were very mature.
  • Rockas, Katri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Objective: Prenatal maternal stress has been associated with a higher risk of psychiatric problems of the offspring in childhood. Recently, the study focus has started to shift to stress that is associated to the pregnancy itself, i.e. pregnancy-specific stress, which has been found to have better predictive value on different offspring outcomes in the first years of life, but research of its association with psychiatric problems of the child is still scarce. In this large, longitudinal and prospective study we examined the association between pregnancy-specific stress and psychiatric symptoms of the child at preschool age. We also examined whether the associations are independent of mothers’ concurrent wellbeing when evaluating the child and whether the sex of the child or the timing of exposure to pregnancy-specific stress would have moderating effects on the presumed associations. It was hypothesized that higher levels of pregnancy-specific stress would be associated with higher levels of psychiatric problems and that exposure to pregnancy-specific stress specifically on the first and/or second pregnancy trimester would result in higher amounts of psychiatric problems. Methods: This study is part of a multidisciplinary PREDO-project. The current study sample comprised 1888 mother-child pairs. The mothers filled the Pregnancy Experience Scale which was used to measure mothers’ pregnancy-specific stress (frequency and intensity of hassles) four times during pregnancy. They also filled the Child Behavior Checklist which was used to measure psychiatric symptoms of the child (total, internalizing and externalizing problems) once at the 2-5 year follow-up point. Linear regression analysis was used as analytic method. Mothers’ concurrent depression and multiple socio-demographic, prenatal and birth outcome factors associated with a risk of psychiatric problems were used as covariates. Results and conclusions: Higher levels of pregnancy-specific stress predicted higher levels of total, internalizing and externalizing problems of the child in preschool age, independently of several covariates. The interaction between the sex of the child and pregnancy-specific stress did not predict psychiatric problems. Pregnancy-specific stress experienced in all of the three pregnancy trimesters predicted psychiatric problems and none of the trimesters were found to be consistently more vulnerable for the exposure to pregnancy-specific stress. The frequency of hassles was consistently associated with psychiatric problems independently of mothers’ concurrent depression and was found to be a better predictor of psychiatric problems than the intensity of hassles. The current results extend the research on pregnancy-specific stress and offer new insight to the developmental origins of psychiatric problems by demonstrating the independent etiological predictive role of fetal developmental factors; specifically of prenatal stress.
  • Rimpeläinen, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The curriculum serves as a guideline in teacher’s profession. In Finland all are bounded by the Finnish national core curriculum for the basic education. There are also more specific targets that are documented by a local council. These goals can be further defined by an individual school. A curriculum defines the value basis and aims of teaching as well as the core contents to be taught. Teacher must follow the curriculum. Student’s guardians must be able to influence the defining of curriculums educational goals. Curriculum reflects surrounding society’s prevailing values, customs and traditions. In this research I examined what are the conceptions of parent’s on the teacher’s most important tasks lessons and compared these conceptions with the curriculum. This study is a case study. The data was collected from one school in spring 2008. Research forms were sent to student’s parents to collect the data. 90 of those forms were used in this study. Parents answered to a question: “which three teacher’s tasks are the most important during lessons.” 270 response units were collected and analyzed using qualitative method. The study also examined if the parents getting acquainted with the curriculum affected to their answers. The research revealed that three main themes are found both in curriculum education organization basis and in the collected data. The three groups were educating, KASVATTAMINEN and creating the atmosphere. The parents getting acquainted with the curriculum or not, did not show any differences in this study. All of the data were able to be linked to the curriculum, but not the entire curriculums education organization basis was found from the data.
  • Hurmalainen, Reetta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Objectives. This study describes the development process of one exercise focusing on textiles in the Finnish National Museum’s workshop Vintti. Study’s mission is to develop the existing textile exercise in co-operation with the museum staff. The planning of the new exercise is done co-operation with the museum staff, where the developing has done during this study individually. The elaborated exercise is analysed by what kind of experiences it causes in its users. Methodology. Development research is the methodology of this study. The development process was done by following Jorma Kananen’s (2012) model. The research data was the development process of the textile exercise, the elaborated exercise and the experiences it caused in it’s users. Informants (n=4) exerperinces were collected with thinking aloud-method. Experiences were analysed with the model introduced by Eeva-Katri Ahola (2007). Results and conclusions. The exercise got elaborated during this study, and the new exercise caused experiences connected to emotions, progress and corporeality in informants. Aholas intruduced sections of experiences only experience connected to personal involvement did not show in this study. The exercise got elaborated more versatile and to more senses using. Although there is still chance to expand the exercise to inform with more knowledge.
  • Aronen, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The purpose of the study was to examine the associations between the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extroversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience and agreeableness) and insomnia symptoms. The insomnia symptoms were difficulties to initiate sleep, awakenings during sleep, waking up too early and feeling tired after a night’s sleep. According to theories on insomnia and to empirical research, high neuroticism, low extroversion, low conscientiousness and low agreeableness may be associated with insomnia. In empirical research, high neuroticism has consistently been associated with insomnia but also low extraversion, low conscientiousness and low agreeableness have been associated with it. It was therefore hypothesized that high neuroticism, low extraversion, low conscientiousness and low agreeableness are associated with insomnia symptoms. The participants, aged 30-45, were derived from the Young Finns study. The sample size was 1708. The Big Five personality traits were assessed with the NEO-FFI measure and insomnia symptoms with Jenkins’s sleep problems scale. Ordinal regressions were used in analyzing the data. All of the Big Five personality traits were associated with at least some of the insomnia symptoms. In general, high neuroticism and high openness to experience were associated with more insomnia symptoms, whereas low extroversion, low conscientiousness and low agreeableness were associated with better sleep. High neuroticism had the strongest associations with most of the insomnia symptoms. When it comes to the trait openness to experience, the results of this study were inconsistent with previous studies, and therefore more information on the subject would be needed. The results of this study could be used in planning interventions for insomnia sufferers.
  • Prittinen, Satu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims of the Study. This Study’s Aim was to find out the factors that influence Well-Being in the storycrafted stories of Finnish and Palestinian Children. In the past ten years the research of Children’s Well-Being has partly developed to a more childperspective direction. Children have slowly started moving from being objects to active subjects and becoming experts of their own Well-Being. This sort of expertese and respect of Childrens own visions has been the Aim also in this Study. In the present Study the focus is on both the resources and suppressors of the Well-Being as well as the similarities and differences between the stories of the Children from two Nationalities. Awareness of the factors influencing Children’s Well-Being can on it’s part help the Adults working with Children to pay more attention to the things that are meaningful for Children. Methods. The Research Data was given as a ready collected data from the research project Children tell about their Well-Being – Who listens? (projectnumber 1134911), that was funded by Academy of Finland. The research consortium was a collaboration between the Universities of Helsinki and Oulu. In the University of Helsinki it was led by professor Liisa Karlsson. The Finnish stories were retrieved from the Finnish Social Sciences data archive. These stories were collected between the years 1996-2001. The Palestinian data was gathered in Lebanon among the Palestinian refugees between the years 2006-2012. Alltogether the datas consist of 81 stories, of which 42 are from Finns and 39 are from Palestinians.Children in both datas were 2-12 years old. In the review of the stories the wellfare theory by Erik Allardt(1976), a Finnish sosiologist, was used as a guideline. The resources and suppressors of Well-Being were monitored through Allardt’s dimimensions of wellfare; material conditions (having), social relationships (loving) and the socieltal level (being). In the analysingprocess quatifying and contets specification were used. Results and conclusions. The resources of Well-Being in the stories from both datas were home, the satisfaction of basic needs, happiness, play, peer relationships, family and the possibility to influence in their own matters. In addition to these, in the stories of the Palestinians feeling secure and the possibility to influence thorough dance were also regarded as resources. In Finnish stories also autonomous adventures with peers were labelled as resources. Suppressors for Well-Being in the stories of both datas were shortcomings of material conditions, fear and shortcomings of the possibilities to influence own matters. Suppressors in the stories of Palestinians were also the lack of peer relationships, impossibility to play or to attend school, loss of close-ones and the unsaturation of basic needs. Additional suppressors in the stories of the Finns were difficulties in play and being left alone. In the stories of Palestinian Children one can find the experiences and consequences of War from the Child’s point of view. In the stories of Finnish Children material conditions and possibilities of influencing own matters were better than in the Palestinian stories. Finnish stories revealed also challenges in peer relationships. As a conclusion from the stories of the Children peer relationships, play, family, satisfaction of basic needs and the possibility to influence ones own matters appear to be meaningful for the Well-Being of Children from both countries.
  • Mattsson, Markus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In this Master’s thesis I examine the measurement invariance of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), the perhaps most widely used questionnaire instrument in traffic psychology, across samples of Finnish and Irish young drivers (18–25 years of age). The DBQ was developed in the beginning of the 1990s based on principal component analyses. The questionnaire was originally based on a well-tested theory in cognitive ergonomics (the Generic Error Modeling System, GEMS), but in the research that has ensued, the item pool and the factor structure has been determined in an exploratory fashion. This has resulted in an abundance of DBQ versions, which comprise anything from nine to over one hundred items and from one to seven factors. Further, in research articles based on the DBQ, it is a common practice to calculate sum or average scores and compare them across subgroups of respondents. The 28-item version of questionnaire, which is currently perhaps most widely used, is thought to measure two, three or four latent variables. In this thesis I use confirmatory factor analysis and, specifically, analysis of measurement invariance to examine which of the three alternative factor structures functions as the most fitting description of the responses of Finnish and Irish young drivers. The analysis of measurement invariance is based on fitting a series of increasingly restrictive models to data. At each stage of the analysis, an increasing set of parameters are constrained to equality across the samples under comparison. In case the constrained model does not fit the data worse than the unconstrained model, the constrained model can be applied in all (in this thesis both) data sets. The models that are fit to data are, in order: 1) The configural model in which only the number of factors is constrained, 2) the weak invariance model, in which factor loadings are constrained to equality, 3) the strong invariance model, in which also the intercept terms of each item are constrained to equality and 4) the strict invariance model, in which also the error terms of each item are constrained to equality. In addition, models of partial invariance are applied. In these models, only some of the constraints related to each stage of the analysis are preserved. In addition to comparing the models statistically, their fit to data is examined using various descriptive statistics and graphical representations. As a central result I propose that the four-factor model offers the best fit to both data sets, even though the model needs to be modified in an exploratory mode of analysis to ensure sufficient fit to data. Further analyses show that two of the four factors are different in nature in the two samples and that only in the Irish data set do all of the items load on the factors they are expected to. On the other hand, the analysis of the other two factors shows that the items that load on them are interpreted essentially similarly in the two samples and that weak invariance can be assumed on their part. In addition, partial strong invariance can be assumed in the case of one factor, even though even then the values of most of the intercept terms need to be freely estimated in the two data sets. As a conclusion I suggest that, in contrast to the prevailing practice, comparing sum scores based on DBQ factors is dubious and that comparing latent variables scores may be justified only in the case of one factor out of four. As a practical recommendation, I suggest that the factor structure of the DBQ be further developed based on theories of cognitive ergonomics and cognitive psychology and that invariance analyses be performed as a matter of routine before carrying out comparisons of groups based on results of factor analyses.
  • Koskinen, Sini (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of this study is to explore factors that affect novice teachers´well-being and thereby gain increased understanding for teachers´situation in Finland. The purpose of this study is to examine how novice teachers experience their first year of teaching and well-being, which factors affect novice teachers´ well-being, how novice teachers perceive mentoring, what can lead to teacher resignation and how it can be prevented. In this qualitative study I have used phenomenographic analysis. In this analysis the focus is on description and understanding of experiences. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and there were six respondents in total. The respondents were all novice teachers. Three of the respondents work as primary school teachers and the other three respondents have left the teaching profession. The interviews were arranged in September-November 2014. The findings show that the transition from student teacher to newly qualified teacher is a period filled with confusion, insecurity and excitement. Many of the respondents felt unprepared for the working life. All the respondents highlighted the importance of support during the first year of teaching. All the respondents felt mentally energetic and were emotionally invested in work, even though they all described the first year of teaching as an exhausting and tiring period of their lives. The findings also indicate that there are several factors that affect the well-being of a novice teacher. The respondents felt that it was challenging to find themselves, their working methods and routines. They also noticed having too high demands placed on themselves. The working environment is mentioned as one of the most important factors that influence teachers´well-being. The results also show that there are huge differences in how new teachers are being introduced to the school environment in Finland. All of the respondents felt that they were welcomed to their schools, but only three of the respondents received an own mentor. Respondents explained that they mostly needed help and guidance with different practical things. They also think that a supporting work climat is the most fundemental thing that promotes teachers´well-being. The findings of the study show that there are several factors that influence teacher resignation, for example a desire for greater challenges and more opportunities for career development. The teaching profession can be frantic, stressful and the workload can become overwhelming. Many respondents also think that teachers are underpaid and overworked. Respondents think that more effective mentoring methods could prevent teachers from leaving their profession. It is important to keep on developing new methods that support novice teachers during their first year of teaching.
  • Viitanen, Kirsi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Many international organizations have defined the so called 21st century learning skills that students should have in order to be successful in today’s society. Digital literary is one of those skills. Experts say that schools do not really have the concrete tools to teach these skills. Research shows that digital storytelling is one way to develop many of the important 21st century skills. The purpose of this study is to analyze how students could develop their digital literacy by creating digital stories. More precisely, what kind of media content production, editing, and sharing skills will they learn by making their own video stories. This study is based on Digital Storytelling Project by the University of Helsinki. The project was a part of Finnable 2020 research funded by Tekes. This study involves all the 6th graders that participated to the Digital storytelling project from Finland, a total of five classes. The research material consists of student and teacher interviews and video stories made by the students. The research material was analyzed with content analysis. The framework for the analysis was based on research on digital literacy, digital storytelling and film narrative. The results of this study show that the students learned many digital literacy skills involving media content production by creating video stories. By making their stories the students learned to plan their own content, to search for relevant information and material to their stories, and to use mobile devices for filming. They also learned about filming, and how to deliver their own message through the video stories. By editing their stories the students practiced how to edit and remix pictures and videos with different video editing tools. By sharing their video stories with others the students learned how to share information, how to evaluate their own work and the work of others, how to consider the audience, and how to interact and influence through video stories.
  • Palkkimäki, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This thesis analyzed interaction and learning in simulation debriefing. Simulation usage has increased in the social and health care during the last years, and the new technology has given more opportunities to use high-fidelity simulations more widely. Simulations enable a new way for students to learn different kinds of patient situations in the real life and in work-based environments that are still completely safe. The investments are expensive and create discussion in universities whether these simulations can create the learning they are supposed to create. The research focused on simulation debriefing is an essential phase in simulation learning. The research approach drew on adults learning theories as well as on simulation and debriefing research. The approach is based on socio-constructivist understanding on learning and on studentcentered teaching (Engeström 1982; Miettinen 1993), which represents criticism towards traditional classroom teaching and introduces the concept of learning activity. From these theoretical starting points emerged three key learning concepts, interaction, feedback and reflection. The research questions were: 1. How is the interaction of the debriefing constructed? 2. What kind of feedback by peer students and by the instructors and 3. what kind of reflection takes place during the debriefing? The data was collected from one simulation center’s simulation day in the Southern Finland University of Applied Sciences. The data includes one simulation group’s (9 students and 2 instructors) all five videotaped debriefing situa-tions. The analysis was both data and learning theory driven, and both qualitative and quantitative research methods were applied. The results indicate that debriefings interaction was led by the instructors, and was based on a question–answer dy-namics. The analysis found three different kinds of peer feedback types, four instructors’ feedback types and five self-reflection types. Both the peer and instructor feedback were mostly positive encouragement. Students’ self-reflection was mostly reflecting on the confusion caused by the simulation. . Clinical skills were emphasized in both feedback and self-reflection. It can be concluded that debriefing’s script and the way it is used leads and restricts the interaction. The script should be developed to be more dialogical. Especially the form and meaning of peer feedback should be critically con-sidered. The peer feedback remained quite superficial, whereas instructors’ feedback has a clear impact on students’ constructive self-reflection. The instructors’ cultivation of constructive criticism would best enhance the students’ learning.
  • Kallunki, Jarmo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The subject of this study is the historical formation of the university funding formula in Finland during 1995–2010. Funding formula is approached via its historical context, and the aim of this study is to discover and construct regularities that enable and restrict the formation of the funding formula. The main foci of this study are the funding formula, and its components the funding criteria. The primary research material of this study consists of memoranda and decrees of the Ministry of Education in 1995–2006, and legislative material from the university reform in 2007–2010. The frame of this research is built by combining Kari Palonen’s topological conception of politics on one hand, and the Foucauldian genealogical-archaeological discourse analysis on the other. Following Palonen, politics is conceptualised here both as activity, and as a sphere borne out of that activity, which can be analysed from nine different perspectives (topos). Discursive formation is conceptualised as set of objects, subjects, concepts, and strategies that are connected to each other by discursive regularities. This study creates a description of a discursive formation, in which and under who’s conditions the university funding formula and funding criteria are formulated. The result of this study is extensive and detailed description of the discursive formation. As results it is asserted that there are five discursive regularities that govern the formation of funding criteria: the conflict between the funding model politics and general university politics, policy, internal variation, conceptual changes, and functional extension. The formation of the system of subjects is governed by the relationship between the universities and the Ministry of education. Concepts emerge as a result of a regularity called borrowing, and concepts fade away as soon as they are unneeded. Two strategies, the funding model politics and the general university politics, emerge by the support of the system of subjects, and a third strategy emerges as a conflict zone of the two, functioning as a conflict mediator.
  • Rintala, Maiju (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of this study was to develop two teaching implementations that used genre pedagogy and teach two genres, a news report and a narrative. The goal of this research was to test teaching writing using genre pedagogy and also to develop a new model for using genre pedagogy and two improved teaching plans for teaching a news report and a narrative using models of genre pedagogy and the findings of this study. This study was carried out as a qualitative action research. The research was carried out in a third grade of comprehensive school and 21 students, 13 girls and eight boys, participated. The research period lasted for 20 lessons that were video-taped. As data in this study were the texts which the students wrote, tests and the filmed lessons. The filmed lessons were used to describe the course of the study. The texts and tests were analyzed using genre pedagogical criteria. The students wrote texts that fell well in both the genres. When writing a news reports almost everyone succeeded very well, the biggest problems were in answering the news questions. There was a wider distribution in points of the narratives, but almost every student did write a narrative. Most improving was needed in executing the stages of a narrative. In the improved teaching plans these things were highlighted more. As an outcome of the research is a new model for applying genre pedagogy presented.
  • Nuutinen, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The main purpose of this study was to find out what kind of means the home economic teachers use to ease pupils who need support in the learning process. The goal of this study was learn how information of the support needed was transferred to teacher and to learn what kind of additional resources are available. In addition, this study focuses on teachers’ reactions to integrate the pupils in a normal teaching situation. Also this study focuses on tools that teacher education offers to meet pupils needing special support. The data for the qualitative study were collected during the spring 2014 in two separate stag-es: by collecting critical incidents and semi-structured interviews. The data were collected by discretionary sampling. Ten home economics teachers working in Pirkanmaa and Uudenmaa region took part in this study. The data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. According to the main outcome, pupils are heterogeneous groups and the need for support varies from minor to major. The main problems areas for pupils according to teachers are learning and behavioral problems. Also social and psychological problems have increased. The information of support needed among new students was transferred from class teacher to home economics teacher but in some cases the need for support was noticed during clas-ses. Teachers have several means to support pupils’ learning. For example, the teachers used demonstrative means, graphic guidance and they split working stages into smaller de-tails. Sometimes it was also possible to get a supportive person into the classroom. The teachers used more time and effort to evaluate the pupils in need of assistance and assigned more practical tasks for them. The communication between teacher and parent is very im-portant according to the interviewees. The idea of integration of the pupils needing support into the normal teaching program is good, but to bring this into practice is challenging. According to the teachers their education did not give them the tools needed in teaching special pupils. Many teachers would like to have more practical guidance to support their teaching methods. Hopefully the findings of this study will raise discussion and help the newly graduated home economics teachers to meet special pupils at their work in the future.
  • Ahlroth, Linda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of this study was to through mothers stories deepen the understanding of how mothers had experienced the colic time period and how they had experienced the support in the situation. The theory in this thesis has a parental perspective and deals with subjects about the everyday life and the interaction in families with colicky infants and the support that is aimed at these families. On the basis of the theoretical frame of reference the following research issues were formulated: - How did mothers to colicky infants experience the colic time period? - How did mothers to colicky infants experience the interaction with the child? - How did mothers to colicky infants experience the support in the situation? Seven mothers to infants who had had colic participated in theme-centered interviews that took place in spring 2014. The results of the study show that the mothers experienced the colic time period and the interaction with an excessively crying child as burdening all though the mothers felt the attachment was normalized to this date. The support that is offered to parents with colicky infants was experienced as lacking by the mothers and therefore a development of both the information and the support provided is considered important.
  • Tamminiemi, Riitta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Objectives.The aim of this study was to study how peer support appears in interaction of high school students. In particular, spontaneous, informal situations in which students helped and supported each other have been studied Methods. The data was analyzed with conversation analysis. Data were video recordings recorded in the autumn 2011 and in the spring 2013 at high school in Western Finland, within the research project Språkmöten. The main subjects were two students, but there were also two-four other informants in various situations. In total, the video material amounted to 86 hours, of which ten situations were selected for detailed analysis. Situations were accurately transcribed by marking speech, tones, gestures, and glances. The analysis was carried out as well as with transcripts that recording streamed form. Results and conclusions.There were three types of peer support: 1) student needing help asked for it, 2) other student offered advice or help, and 3) a problem was built together. When help was asked or offered, the solution of the problem was important element of the conversation. When students were constructing problem situation together, the process was more essential than the solution. Students´epistemic status varied, and it was not always clear. Expertise was not negotiated but it came out as questions and advices in conversation. In particular, it was emphasized that students had a mutual understanding, and they were close friends.
  • Sarparanta, Saana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Objective: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) are serious psychiatric disorders highly prevalent in clinical settings, characterized by multiple forms of distress, functional decline, and increased risk of suicide. MDD and BPD often co-occur and the co-occurrence of the disorders is associated with the course of MDD. Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) refer to maladaptive internalized representations of the self in relation to others that develop early in life. EMSs are associated with depressive and BPD symptomatology and symptom severity. However, the associations between EMSs and psychiatric comorbidity have rarely been studied. The aim of the present study was to provide new insight into the comorbidity of BPD and MDD by focusing on the associations between EMSs and BPD symptomatology among depressed inpatient population. Methods: The sample consisted of 43 adult inpatients (29 women and 14 men). BPD symptomatology was measured via Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Personality Disorders and EMSs via Young Schema Questionnaire-S2-Extended self-report questionnaires. A three-level linear regression model was created to predict self-reported BPD symptomatology: In level 1, linear regression analysis was conducted for each individual EMS separately, EMSs entered as predictors for BPD symptomatology. In level 2, gender, age, education level and employment status were added to the model as covariates. In level 3, also current level of depressive symptoms measured via Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale was added to the model as a covariate. Results and conclusions: Higher scores on 10 of the 18 EMSs were significantly positively associated with elevated self-reported BPD symptomatology. However, only one EMS, Unrelenting Standards and Hypercriticalness, was independently positively associated with self-reported BPD symptomatology and explained variance over the effect of current depressive symptom state, gender, age, education level and employment status. According to the findings of the present study, Unrelenting Standards and Hypercriticalness may act a specific cognitive risk factor for elevated BPD symptomatology and symptom severity among depressed individuals.
  • Niemi, Miia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Background and aim. Bilingualism is a worldwide and old phenomenon. It is also a current topic in speech therapy. Bilingualism can be defined in many ways, for example by the age when a person has been exposed to his/her languages. Bilingual children are common clients in Finnish speech therapy field due to increased immigration. When evaluating the linguistic skills of a bilingual child the speech therapist might need to co-operate with an interpreter. In this research the aim was to identify how the SLT’s feel the co-operance with the interpreters in evaluation situations. There is only few former studies about this subject, especially in Finland. Some studies have been made to examine the co-operation of the interpreter and another healthcare provider. In this study we also asked if there are some typical challenges in the co-operation and could something be done to develop this liaison. Methods. In this study 12 SLT’s were interviewed. They worked in the capital area of Finland. I contacted the leading SLT’s to recruit the examinees. The SLT’s had been working 2-34 years and they all had evaluated bilingual children in co-operation with an interpreter. The semistructured interview material was gathered and transcribed in the autumn 2014. After transcribing the material was separated into four main themes for reporting the results. Results and discussion. Co-operation between SLT and interpreter shows out to be working mainly fine. Typical challenge mentioned is for example achieving a natural interaction. There are still some lacks in the language skills of the interpreters and the SLT’s hope to develop the co-operation with a better guidance (also in the training program of logopedics) and diverse co-operation opportunities. The SLT’s seem to appreciate interpreters’ social skills, language proficiency, natural interaction with children and flexibility in diverse therapy situations.
  • Tulensalo, Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims: The etiology of mental disorders in childhood is still partially unknown. In the last decades researchers have started to study the role of prenatal factors, for example maternal prenatal anxiety symptoms, on child psychological symptoms. In most previous studies prenatal anxiety has been studied as a part of stress and together with depression, so studies concerning particularly its association on child psychological symptoms are still rare. In this study we examine if maternal prenatal anxiety in different trimesters is related to child internalizing, externalizing and total problems at the age of 1 to 5 and does the timing of the prenatal anxiety symptoms matter to child symptoms. We also study if maternal postnatal anxiety mediates the association between prenatal anxiety and child psychological symptoms, and if there are differences between genders within these associations. Methods: This study is a part of the multi-disciplinary Prediction and Prevention of Pre-eclampsia (PREDO) -study’s psychological branch. The sample size of the current study was 1962. Maternal pre- and postnatal anxiety symptoms were assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) self-report questionnaire four times during pregnancy and when the child was 1 to 5 years old. Paternal anxiety symptoms were also collected with BAI six months after birth. Child’s internalizing, externalizing and total problems at the age of 1 to 5 were assessed with The Child Behavior Checklist 11⁄2–5 - questionnaire rated by the mother. The associations were investigated using linear regression analysis, controlling for postnatal maternal and paternal anxiety symptoms, many sociodemographic factors and other factors associated with fetal development. Results and conclusions: Results indicated that higher maternal prenatal anxiety symptoms were associated with elevated internalizing, externalizing and total problems in the children. High anxiety symptoms especially during the last pregnancy trimester were essential considering child psychological symptoms. Moreover, although maternal postnatal anxiety symptoms partially mediated the association between maternal prenatal anxiety and child psychological symptoms, prenatal anxiety also had independent effects on psychological symptoms in the children. There were also differences between genders, since maternal prenatal anxiety during the first trimester appeared to be particularly important for boys’ psychological symptoms. Results provide strong evidence that prenatal anxiety has a direct, independent effect on child’s psychological symptoms and support the notion indicating that the fetal environmental factors have impact on child’s development.
  • Juurikkala, Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims. The purpose of this study is to explore, interpret and describe Ghanaian home economics education. The data for the study were collected during my university exchange in Ghana in the spring 2014. The theoretical background focuses on learning and teaching and cultural relatedness in those two phenomena. It also sets Ghana in the context of Sub-Saharan Africa with the focus on Ghanaian education. This study describes the contents and the implementations of home economics education through a cultural perspective. Methods. The data were collected using three different methods. It consists of interviews of three local home economics teachers and a learning assignment for 22 pupils which was implemented in a home economics class. Also, the data were produced by observing home economics classes in two different junior high schools for six weeks. The data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Results and conclusions. According to the study, home economics appeared as a subject that increases well-being. From the teachers’ point of view home economics has far-reaching impacts for pupils’ futures. The teachers had an urge to make pupils learn. The role of a teacher was significant in the classes and the interaction between pupils and teacher quite one-sided. The inadequate resources for teaching made it difficult to teach with diverse teaching methods. The results of the learning assignment reflected the contents and the implementations of home economics education. The answers were many-sided but less creative. Culture was strongly present in everything. The study does not qualify for broad generalizations about Ghanaian home economics education. However, culture and its impacts on teaching and learning are important to take into consideration in every educational context.