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  • Riite, Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims According to previous researches, awareness of the purpose of performance appraisals [PA] improve the benefits of them. Therefore I have sought to provide the answer to questions that how people understand PA's and how are their perceptions of the further development. The aim of this dissertation is to find out how employees and superiors experience performance appraisals. The research question #1 is 'How is performance appraisals construed by employees and supervisors and are there any differences between conceptualisations?' and research question #2 is 'How is the development of performance appraisals construed by employees and supervisors and are there any differences between conceptualisations?'. Methods The research data is based on 12 theme interviews with employees and supervisors, representing a variety of age, gender and backround. I used content analysis method to provide a rich view of phenomenon. This research is qualitative and the theoretical background is based on human resource development, including Learning organization and Talent Management. Results and conclusions The answer for the research question #1: Performance appraisals should be confidential as well as interactive and they should also cause concrete consequences which allows employees and superiors to develop their skills. Employees perceptions of successful PA's focused on the confidentiality and, if necessary, to go through personal matters with concrete consequences. Superiors' perceptions of PA's focused on the interaction between employees and superiors and development of the skills of employees. The answer for the research question #2: The company should provide performance appraisal training courses also for employees. Through training, employee skills will grow and they form a clearer picture of the reasons for the PA's will be held. At the same time employees participate in decision-making processes, which further strengthens their commitment to the company and its objectives. At this time only superiors have experiences in performance appraisal training courses and the employee, who was also a supervisor, mentioned the importance of courses.
  • Suomi, Eeva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Tutkimukseni teoreettinen tausta koostuu kahdesta kokonaisuudesta: puhdastilavaatetus ja käyttäjäkeskeinen suunnittelu. Puhdastilatekstiileistä on olemassa hyvin vähän aiempaa tutkimusta, eikä luotaintakaan ole juuri käytetty vaatetuksen tutkimiseen. Tutkimustehtäväni on kuvailla ja tulkita puhdastilahaalaria työkseen käyttävien henkilöiden käyttäjäkokemuksia luotaamismenetelmää apuna käyttäen. Tutkimukseni ensisijainen tavoitteena oli selvittää puhdastilahaalarin käyttäjäkokemuksia sekä toissijaisesti kehittää käyttäjäkeskeiseen suunnitteluun perustuvasta luotaimesta puhdastilavaatetuksen tutkimiseen soveltuva työväline. Tutkimuksen otteena käytin laadullista deskriptiivistä näkökulmaa ja lähestymistapaa, minkä tavoitteena oli päästä kuvailemaan tutkittavaa kohdetta. Tutkimukseni oli laadullinen, koska suosin ihmistä tiedon keruun instrumenttina ja tietoa kerättiin todellisissa käyttötilanteissa. Tutkimusaineistoni koostui haastattelusta ja luotaintehtävien vastauksista. Tehtäviin vastasivat lääketeollisuusyrityksen puhdastilassa puhdastilahaalaria käyttävät henkilöt, kuusi naista ja yksi mies. Tutkimukseni ei tarkastele varsinaista kenenkään valmistajan tiettyä puhdastilahaalaria. Analysoin tutkimusaineistoni laadullisella sisällön analyysilla teoriaohjaavasti. Laadullinen sisällön analyysi mahdollisti aineiston luokittelun, johon käytin värikoodausta. Tutkimusaineistosta etsin yhtäläisyyksiä ja eroavaisuuksia. Puhdastilahaalarin käyttäjäkokemukset olivat samansuuntaisia, eikä niistä löytynyt keskinäisiä suuria eroavaisuuksia. Ongelmakohdaksi nousi kaulus, jonka valtaosa tutkituista jätti auki sen kireyden vuoksi. Käyttäjät olivat yleisesti tyytyväisiä hihan malliin. Puhdastilahaalari koettiin esimerkiksi viileänä, hiostavana, kuumana, joustamattomana, liukkaana ja kylmänä. Luotain toimi hyvin ja sen avulla saatiin paljon tietoa, mikä teki sen käyttämisen tutkimisessa erittäin mielenkiintoiseksi. Kokeneiden työntekijöiden hiljaista tietoa voi käyttää työnopastuksessa uusille työntekijöille. Vaikeasti sidottavat nyörit voi korvata kuminauhoilla tai muilla ”pikasulkumenetelmillä”. Tutkimuksen myötä siihen osallistuneet henkilöt ovat saaneet työnohjauksellista apua omaan työvaatetukseensa liittyen. Yritys saa tutkimuksen mukana uusia näkemyksiä esimerkiksi työnopastukseen tai vaikka suojaimien valintaan. Tutkimus voi antaa puhdastilahaalarin valmistajille idean kehittää puhdastilahaalaria toimivammaksi.
  • Tala, Amanda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Finnish alcohol culture is in constant change and ever so popular theme in public discussion. Previous research in the area of alcohol studies is quite concise or is strongly based in the framework of public health. The purpose of this research is to examine the special features of Finnish alcohol culture. With this thesis I want to study the reasons which influence Finnish alcohol behavior; what kind of drinks people choose to drink, what are the reasons behind drinking alcohol and what kind of factors are considered when choosing an alcohol beverage. This study concentrates on researching the usage of alcohol on Friday in particular. The research data is a collection of food journals from the Literary Archives (Kansanrunousarkisto) which are collected by Finnish Literature Society (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, SKS). In the Mitä söin tänään? (What I ate today?) -collection participants had described one particular day (12.4.2013) through food, eating and all things involved in the process. The the data group (n=94) of this research consists of journals where alcohol or alcohol consumption is mentioned. The research is based on oral history studies and qualitative content analysis. The alcohol consumption was shown in the everyday of the writers as an uplifting and value adding factor. The alcoholic beverages were considered to be a vital part of good dinner or a social gathering. Alcohol was seen to make a particular situation more meaningful. The most recognizable reason for drinking was Friday itself, being the beginning of the weekend. Another very significant reason was the social context, the meaning of company is undeniable. Wine was single the most popular drink mentioned in the data, followed by beer. Other alcohol beverages gained only single mentions. The most important factor influencing the choosing process was the price. Consumer’s for example ecologic lifestyle was another often mentioned factor concerning the process.
  • Kojo, Aura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Problem solving is a process in which we have to utilize our knowledge in a new way. The teacher can greatly influence how students’ mathematical problem solving process progresses. Usually teachers guide students by asking questions. There are several types of questions and ways of guiding. The purpose of this study is to find out, how teachers guide students during a mathematics problem solving lessons, what kind of questions they ask, and what kind of solutions their students get. The analysis follows the qualitative research methodology. The dataset used in this study contained videotaped fourth grade math lessons where the students solved a mathematical problem. The lessons were a part of a broader study in which the teachers had been giving problem solving lessons to the pupils during three years. The data analysis was based on a theoretical framework in which the teachers’ questions and guidance are categorized. I also studied the structure of the lessons and categorized the answers of the students according to the applied solutions strategies and the obtained results. The research reveals that teachers can guide students in different ways. It is possible that the teacher reveals too much about the problem, preventing the students from searching for their own solution strategies. This is the reason why we need more than merely problem-solving exercises - we need to study, how teachers should guide students during problem-solving lessons. According to this study, the guidance appears to affect the students’ solutions. Motivation and introduction to the problem, especially how the teachers explained the relevant concepts, seemed to influence the students’ work. There was also a connection between the teachers’ questions and their guiding-levels. The teacher asking many probing and guiding questions was guiding in an activating way, while the teacher with fewer questions guided in an inactivating way. As a conclusion, I discuss what kind of questions would help the teacher to guide in an activating way, which should be the goal according to the constructive learning theory.
  • Granström, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In this study I define quality of clothing and analyze how clothing companies tell about quality of their products to their customers. In the first part of the study I concentrate to clear up what quality in the context of clothing means. This part is based on scientific research. I have studied many theories of quality and on this study the most important ones are Garvin’s (1989) and Lillrank’s (1998) theories which I apply to the context of clothes. This study covers the quality of clothes from point of view of both consumers and companies. In the later part of the study I survey the quality communication of five well-known clothing companies. I collected the data from the companies’ websites that are available to anyone. I used Atlas.ti-program to for analyzing the collected data. Five categories of quality formed the framework of content analysis. Quality is a multidimensional concept that is difficult to define as it is tightly related to the context. Subjectivity is also very characteristic to quality. The quality of clothing, as well as any product’s quality, can be seen from five different angles. They are value-based, consumer-based, manufacturing-based, system-based and transcendent quality. Companies highlight all these categories on their web-sites. The data of the study presented also a new category of quality that I call quality experience. All companies concentrate mostly on telling about system-based quality of their products. Although many studies suggest that the manufacturing-based quality is the most important viewpoint to companies, my study doesn’t support that outlook. For consumers, it is difficult to evaluate the quality of clothes. Therefor they evaluate mostly the esthetic features of clothing. Companies provide quite much information of their products’ quality. The information might be helpful for consumers but it should be evaluated critically
  • Oikarinen, Reetta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Dialogue on children’s wellbeing has significantly increased over the past few years. The research focus has been on subjective wellbeing, with the individual’s own experiences as the main concern. The focus in this case study is on the child’s voice, or discovering how well or poorly children were heard at kindergarten meetings, where they discussed photographs that they had taken. The child’s voice in this context refers to the child’s own experiences and perspectives narrated by himself/ herself. In my study, I focus on listening to the child through participation. I concentrate on observing how listening and participation were realized in semi-structured interactive situations within a kindergarten group. In addition, I pay attention to any factors that contributed to the child’s voice being heard. In my research, children’s participation is observed from a sociocultural perspective. The research data was collected in a kindergarten group, whose activities are based on positive pedagogy. The aim of positive pedagogy is to support the child’s overall wellbeing, emphasizing children’s own initiative and involvement in their surroundings. This pedagogical faction that has recently gained popularity specifically pays attention to children’s individual, meaningful experiences, and on positive feelings that the children can process and share in a familiar community. The study represents a child-focused research approach, in which children are direct providers of data. The actual research data consists of filmed interactive situations, in which the children narrate the experiences they have documented. A detailed analysis, applying Harry Shier’s model (2001) on the pathways to participation and discourse analysis, was conducted on reflection discussions among five children. The children’s participation in this study was multilevel: the children’s roles were not only passive, but active when their views were taken into account. Three significant factors that contribute to children’s voices being heard emerged in the study. Strategies of teacher, various tools used in activities, and other children appeared to affect participation and listening in reflection discussions. A conclusion to be drawn from the study is that cultural tools and other people have an effect on how the child’s thoughts and opinions are presented in discussions.
  • Parviainen, Miia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Purpose of the study. The purpose of this study was to describe 6th graders as media con-sumers, especially what comes to news media. By interviewing 6th graders the target was to find out what kind of news early-teens follow and whether they make any comparisons be-tween news sources when selecting and reading the news. Furthermore, the purpose was to find out from the interviewees what kind of support the school has provided in developing their media literacy and how critical media literacy show in their behaviour as media con-sumers. Earlier studies on this subject have indicated that children and youth as ”digi natives” are experienced and skilful media consumers. Lot of knowledge is shared between friends and media skills are developed for a large part outside school life. At the same time there ex-ists concern on the dangers of media and on how children are able to interpret the media. From beginning of next year the new national curriculum emphasizes media literacy as part of multi literacy. The target of this study is to get more information needed for the develop-ment of the media education. Methods. The study was performed by interviewing 6th graders in November 2014 in a capi-tal area school. Nine interviewees were selected from a communication orientated class with consent from their parents. Interviews were conducted following a semi-structured interview plan in the form of pair and group interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, grouped and compiled to conclusions. Findings and conclusions. The findings suggest that 6th graders follow news follow the news infrequently and comparisons between different news sources are made almost solely to secure the validity of the information. Media skills are learnt from friends, whilst at the same time an early-teen is still strongly influenced by the family. The students deemed media education at school insufficient and ”old fashioned”. Schools should connect the taught subjects to real life and give students a chance to find solutions to problems together with classmates. Consequently critical reading skills are in everyday use and not just a blurry concept, which one does not know how to take; with thought, with anger or with a straight face.
  • Niitamo, Oskari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims. This qualitative study explored a phenomenon of epistemic communality around a Twitter hashtag. The primary aim of the study was to explore communal epistemic production on the Twitter platform, especially in the context of a mutually shared hashtag. The study explored the peer- production of knowledge and epistemic structures in the context of a specialist domain collaborating in the open Web. The secondary aim was to explore how Twitter functions as a platform for networked expertise and as a public agora for practitioners’ expert discourse. This nascent mode of cultural production leads to the development of expert cultures on Twitter and in the open Web. This creates new contexts for informal collaborative learning and cultral production potentially answering some of the competence challenges presented by the 21st century. Methods. The hashtag #okfest was launched for the ’Open Knowledge Festival’ conference held in Helsinki, Finland (17–22.9.2012). The participants of the study were open knowledge practitioners who participated in the hashtag discourse of #okfest on Twitter. All public tweets containing the string ’#okfest’ were collected as data. Tweets were analyzed with qualitative thematic analysis exploring the epistemic contributions either included in the tweets or as hyperlinked attachments. Results and conclusions. The analysis indicated how the hashtag was appropriated to serve as a node of communal knowledge sharing beyond mere reporting from the conference. The analysis observed six themes of communal knowledge building in the hashtag space. The communal epistemic activities in #okfest were likened to the properties of a community of practice (Wenger, 1998). A network of practitioners engaging in a mutual domain creates a dynamic ’social learning system’ combining social interaction with the production and dissemination of knowledge. The study yielded a novel theoretical concept of ’expert microblogging’, recognized as a significant genre of cultural production in a specialist domain on Twitter and in the open Web. Finally the Twitter platform was ascertained as a site for the manifestation of cultures of networked expertise.
  • Partanen, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims: Embodied practices among people with aphasia remain relatively little known until now. The aim of this study was to describe free conversation interaction between a seriously aphasic speaker and his wife. This study aims to explore what kinds of nonverbal elements appear during the conversation of the aphasic person, and how the nonverbal elements arise in different conversational turns. The main focus of this study is on the substitutive and the complementary gestures of the speech. Earlier studies on aphasia interaction suggest that gestures are an important resource to construct meanings in turns of an aphasic speaker. Data and methods: This is a qualitative study where conversational analysis is used as a research method. Data consists of two videotaped recordings of the couples’ free conversation at home settings. Results and conclusion: Several nonverbal elements, which had a significant influence for the conversation interaction of this couple, appeared in the data of this study. The wife interpreted aphasic person’s nonverbal elements in the conversation as meaningful elements. The wife gave time and space for the aphasic person to participate in conversation. The aphasic speaker took advantage of the gestures in order to compensate speech loss. In fact, he almost completely relied on the substitutive and complementary gestures in conversation. He used the gestures in many ways and combined gestures skillfully to his limited verbal elements. A significant result in the study was that the aphasic speaker hardly showed any signs for verbal word search before expressing nonverbal elements. He started gesturing often seamlessly just before of his typical turn initiator verbal expressions yeah yes and yeah but or simultaneously with them. Aphasic person´s expression were built fast and effortlessly despite the loss of speech. It can be said that aphasic person had adapted to his handicap caused by aphasia by taking advantage from gesturing.
  • Solén, Taiga (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    When studying hypnosis, it often needs to be known whether the subjects are hypnotizable or not. Hypnotizability can be predicted by suggestibility, which in turn can be estimated with various scales. Different scales yield different estimates of suggestibility. This creates a risk of incorrect comparison of the scores. The comparability of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A) and Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (WSGC) has not been studied much. Suggestibility is sometimes measured repeatedly with different scales and the order of their administration can affect the scores. This effect has not been studied on the HGSHS:A and the WSGC. This study aims to analyze whether 1) the scores yielded by these scales are affected by the order of their administration, 2) the scores are comparable and 3) corresponding suggestions and types of suggestions are passed equally often. It is expected that the order of administration does affect the scores and even more so for HGSHS:A, 2) the HGSHS:A score is higher than the WSGC and 3) the corresponding suggestions are not passed equally often. 58 subjects were studied, (67% female, 33% male). Both scales were administered to each subject. Half of the subjects were first administered the HGSHS:A and the other half the WSGC. The order of administration did affect the HGSHS:A score but not the WSGC. The hypothesis of the HGSHS:A score being higher was confirmed and the comparability of the scores proved to be less than desirable. There were no significant differences between passing the corresponding suggestions. These results imply that repeated testing might be futile if the right scale is chosen. It is recommended to use the WSGC even for subjects with not former experience of hypnosis. Alternatively, certain suggestions could be used separately to overcome the problems related to the common scales. Specific suggestions are recommended for assessing certain types of suggestibility. Furthermore, a summary of what to take into account when assessing the comparability of different studies is provided.
  • Feldt, Sophie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Substantial research has been conducted on recruitment processes within companies, as personnel are such an important component of a company’s success. Prior research shows that the recruitment process isn’t conducted in a reliable and objective way. Since recruiters trust their intuition throughout the recruitment process, they are in danger of making unfair and biased decisions. Recruiters are therefore being critiqued for not managing the process as recommended, in regards to the objective and fair treatment of all applicants. Yet there is scarce qualitative research that examines the recruitment process from the recruiters’ point of view. Thus the aim of this study is to understand what recruiters perceive as challenging within the role, how they approach the requirement to be objective in relation to whether true objectivity is indeed realistic, and what role they give intuition in the recruitment process. This study aims to understand recruitment from the recruiters’ perspective in order to gain a better understanding of the issues involved. The research data was gathered in interviews with 16 recruiters from 9 different recruitment consultancy agencies in Helsinki and Tampere, Finland. The interviews were grouped in to themes that addressed challenges, decision-making and intuition. The transcribed interviews were analyzed inductively from a hermeneutic phenomenological scientific standpoint. The study shows that recruiters don’t regard the recruitment process as objective. Because the process is partly social, it inherently makes room for subjective interpretation. Also, recruiters believe that the information accumulated from social interaction brings added value to the recruitment process. Hence the study shows that intuition has great significance in the recruitment process, as the majority of recruiters use it regularly. Prior research on intuition shows that it can be a source of wisdom and expertise, if used correctly. The recruiters tried to carry out the recruitment process in an as objective and transparent manner as possible. By reflecting, questioning and critically reviewing their own thoughts, opinions and feelings, they aimed to avoid making decisions and judgments based on feelings. Taking the recruiters’ point of view in to account gives new insight in to the recruitment process and the issues therein.
  • Kontinen, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The changes in working life have set new kind of challenges for applicant attraction and recruiting. Therefore, organizations have started to invest more and more on the assessment and development of their attractiveness. The employment image can be considered as a key factor of this process. Previous studies have shown that the measures made especially in the early stages of the recruitment process have significant impact on employment image, corporate image, organizational attractiveness and the applicants’ intentions to apply for the positions. The aim of this study was to assess the external employer branding of the target company, Finrail Oy, in regarding the recruitment process. In addition, the applicants’ experiences of the recruitment process and the recruitment image were studied. Previous studies have indicated that this recruitment image has impact on both corporate and employment image. The need for a closer assessment of the external employer branding was recognized because of the unfamiliarity of the newly established organization. The qualitative research was implemented as part of the firm’s annual recruitment process in February 2015 and the data were collected by using questionnaire. The participants (n=627) were the candidates taking part in recruitment process in 2015. The questionnaire included open questions and eventually 174 candidates answered the question. The results were analyzed by using the coding analyzing method. The results showed that the awareness of the company had grown since the year of establishment. However, the interests of the candidates had divided to other industry segments as well. All in all, both the employment and company images can be seen very consistent. The both images were quite similar and they were based on images as modernity, trust, certainty and stability. The results also showed that candidates had received enough information during the recruitment process. Based on the results and theoretical background some conclusions and recommendations can be presented, concerning familiarity, distinctiveness and employer brand communication. Also, the importance of recruitment image should be considered as an important factor in the recruitment.
  • Martio, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims: Speech and language development is delayed or proceeds atypically with children with intellectual disabilities. Speech expression is limited and a person communicates mainly by early means such as gestures and vocalizations. Interaction is heavily dependent on communication partners. Logopedic interaction studies aim to find out how interaction works when some of the participants have communication problems. Earlier study has brought much information on the communication features of people with aphasia. Communication of people with intellectual disabilities has been studied less. This study provides information on communication features of an adolescent with severe intellectual disability. Methods: The study examined the conversation between Sari and a logopedics student during speech therapy sessions. Conversation analysis (CA) was applied. CA is a qualitative method used to search regularities in naturally occurring conversations. Sari is a 14-year-old girl with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome. She has been diagnosed with severe intellectual disability with autistic features. Her communication is mainly non-verbal. The data consisted of six videotaped speech therapy sessions. The study focused on task phases of the sessions when the participants conducted a speech therapy exercise with four different tasks. For analysis, the videotaped data was transcribed in detail. Sari’s communication features and the sequential construction of conversation were described. Things that made interaction fluent or nonfluent were analysed. Results and conclusions: Repetitive structures of interaction were discovered applying CA. Therapy task sequences consisted of three-part structures, where the student first assigned a task, Sari responded and the student commented Sari’s response. Negotiation sequence was often built between the first and the second turn. Interaction was fluent when Sari’s response to the student’s turn was preferred and nonfluent when Sari’s response was not preferred. Sari communicated mostly with pointing gestures and bodily activity. Success of Sari’s communication was largely determined of how well the student was able to interpret her communication.
  • Hiekkala, Anna-Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This is a qualitative study researching the current state of early childhood education. The purpose of the study was to find out what kinds of things kindergarten teachers are hoping to change regarding the distribution of work between kindergarten teachers and kindergarten´s nursemaids in day-care centers, and how kindergarten teachers wish the director would act regarding these issues. This study was part of the research project “Transition from the education to the profession and staying at work in the kindergarten teacher career” conducted by the teacher training college of the University of Helsinki. The data was collected using an electronic questionnaire and the study involved 490 kindergarten teachers from five counties in the metropolitan Helsinki area. This study focuses specifically on two open questions and total of the answers was 399. The data is analyzed through a content analysis. The theoretical background of the study is focused on the organisation of the distribution of work and leadership in day-care centers. Previous studies have shown that unclarity on the key tasks of the director in the field of early childhood education has affected confusion and excessive liberties in defining both the directors’ and the kindergarten teachers’ work descriptions. (Hujala 2005; Halttunen 2000; Nivala 1999) In addition, previous studies have shown that the growing work distribution trend in the day-care centers where everyone does everything has negatively affected the pedagogical level of staff, and kindergarten teachers have lost their position in the field of early childhood education. (Hujala 1998; Kinos 2008; Onnismaa & Kalliala 2010). The results showed that kindergarten teachers wish for a clearer definition of their tasks. They also hope better organization of work and usage of working time. Kindergarten teachers wish that directors would be involved in the distribution of work in the day-care centers. They also wish that the expertise of different professional groups would be recognized in the process. The results showed that many kindergarten teachers need the director to support the formation of a clear division of labor and its implementation in day-care centers. The results provide information on what issues the kindergarten teachers think should be payed attention to in day-care center leadership, and how they would want to change the distribution of work in day-care centers.
  • Turtiainen, Taija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Purposes. The purpose of this thesis is to find out how students experience the mentoring provided to them by the mentoring teacher. The study focused on finding out how the student-supervisor relationship, previous expectations and the realization of those expectations affected students' experiences on teaching practice. Additionally the study explores the underlying mentors roles that affect the student-supervisor relationship. Previous studies indicate that mentoring relationship and the mentors roles are defined by the goals of the practice, students' need for support and their stages of learning. Therefore this study also focused on development of the students' theory in practice and professional thinking. Methods The research material was collected from six first year teacher students on their first teaching practice. The students wrote free form essays on their experiences and then they were interviewed on mentoring provided to them during practice. The material consists of four single person interviews and a pair interview. Collection of the research data took place in April and May 2013. Theoretical content analysis was applied to analyze the data. Results and conclusions The experiences of the students were significantly connected to the feedback received from the mentoring teacher. The mentoring during practice was generally perceived as encouraging and positive, emphasizing the practical aspects of teaching. The mentoring was straightforward, focusing on instructions and advices. The students perceived the mentoring discussion more like feedback sessions. The cause of this was the lack of dialogue and interactive discussion. However, this was not the case with all the students. One of the student pairs confirmed that dialogic approach took place in their mentoring discussions. The student-mentor relationship was usually relaxed and encouraging. The mentors were perceived experienced and their advice was welcomed. Limiting the student's freedom of creative thinking and teaching as well as the lack of constructive, critical feedback resulted in negative experiences. Students respect supervisors who listen to them and show authentic interest towards them. Mentoring is perceived as fruitful when it provides enough advice, limits and freedom considering students' stages of learning.
  • Pitkänen, Sami (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This Master's study is to determine the Helsinki Region Environmental Services twin school program's impact in the participating schools. The program will be carry out by the Helsinki Metropolitan Area Recycling Centre Environmental School Path and its objective is primarily the reduction of waste at school, but also the students' homes. The most important means of promoting the objective of schools are created with students and teachers, environmental groups, as well as for teachers to share materials and practical support. Previous studies have shown that environmental programs can have an impact on the people involved in the activities and attitudes. Purpose of the study is to find out whether the twin school program effective way to promote environmentally-friendly activities. The research questions were: 1. How does the sponsoring school program will be shown under the school's waste management, to sustainable development, sorting and energy saving measures? 2. Does it have any impact on own and family activities or environmental attitudes. 3 How do attitudes explaining their own and family activities. 4. How can the school explain the co-operation of school environmental actions. The study defendants were eight comprehensive school involved the twin school program during the academic year 2013-2014. This study was un-equivalents of the groups completed layout with repeated measures (Non-Equivalent Groups Desing), in which the test group is participating 5-6 graders. A control group of schools operating in the environmental groups the students. Research assumption was that the twin school program effects are significantly higher in members of the schools environmental than in other students' The data were collected in the first measurement in the autumn of 2013, when respondents were 475 | 80, and the second time in the spring of 2014 respondents 416 | 61. Methods were quantitative analysis. Changes were analyzed for paired t-tests and repeated measures analysis of variance. The attitudes and behavior of the co-operation of the school contact was analyzed by regression analysis and Confirmatory factor analysis suggested created by structural equation models. The results showed that in general the significant change had occurred in the school activities of sustainable development, while their own families and sustainable development in the project change was negative. Environmental group membership was positive, but not statistically significant effect. Between boys and girls had a different response to intervention. Girls' results in decreased across the board, while the boys went up. The differences in attitudes were also significant that environmental negligence is more typical for boys. Attitudes related to the behavior of the way that care about the attitudes towards the environment to explain the increase in environmentally responsible behavior and the environment, while indifferent to the environmental measures decrease. Another interesting result is that the indifferent attitudes are more significant environmentally responsible activities explaining, albeit negative. Although the school environmental activities and the magnitude of the differences, both in schools and in which co-operation is high, the environmental action parameters to be measured are higher. Knowledge of the program a different impact on girls and boys, boys' higher environmental negligence and environmental impact of the school's co-responsible actions to help develop the twin school program teaching and planning.
  • Nurmi, Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Previous study shows that reading motivation among Finnish children and youth has diminished. Recreational reading is known to be an essential factor in literacy development. With support of the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture, new ways of promoting reading are being developed. In Sweden, the municipalities formulate plans of reading promotion with the collaboration of various operators. In Finland, there is no similar system. There are no previous studies or reports to be found on the topic in Finland or in Sweden. This study examined the methods of reading promotion presented in the plans and their justification. The study aimed at considering whether there is something to be learned from the Swedish system in Finland. Plans of reading promotion of 17 Swedish municipalities were chosen as the data of this study. The method chosen was inductive content analysis. The actions of reading promotion described in the plans could be portrayed as efforts between four factors: the professionals, the parents, the children and the material. The professionals aim at both having an impact directly on the children, using methods that take place in children’s groups, and indirectly by informing and supporting the parents. They try to improve the achievability of the material by bringing the library close to the children and by offering reading that is suitable by its contents and suitably easy for each reader. The professionals also aim at improving their own actions and cooperation. The viewpoint of the librarians stands out in the plans. Cooperation with the educationalists does not seem to be widely used in planning, purchasing material or agreeing on the distribution of work. The methods are usually adult-centered. The methods, where the child becomes a subject instead of being an object, stood out clearly: the children were given an opportunity of either collaborating in purchasing the material and making it achievable or influencing each other by developing the library environment and by networking. Significant qualitative variation was found in the plans. This report offers ideas of reading promotion for an elementary school teacher and can be helpful in formulating plans of cooperation of school and library. Comparing the reading interest of Finnish and Swedish children and finding out the effects of planning on reading motivation would further contribute to the findings of this study. That information would make it more possible to evaluate if the Swedish system is worth introducing in Finland.
  • Lonka, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Previous studies show that personality can affect success at work. However, there have been relatively few prior studies on the relationship between success at work and certain personality traits, such as optimism and self-directedness. Current study examined the relationship between optimism, selfdirectedness and success at work in 3 to 10 years follow-up. Success at work was measured by unemployment status, income and occupational status. Women and men were analyzed separately as previous studies have reported gender differences in personality-success at work relationship. Furthermore, the results were examined after controlling the level of education. The hypothesis was that optimism and self-directedness would predict lower unemployment, higher income and higher occupational status. Participants were from the Young Finns study that began in 1980. There were in total 3596 participants aged 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 at the study baseline in 1980. In this current study 1576 participants (993 women, 583 men) were followed from 1997 to 2011 when they all were adults. Self-directedness was measured in 1997 and optimism in 2001. Unemployment and occupational status were reported in 2001, 2007 and 2011. Income was reported in 2007 and 2011. Results showed that optimism and self-directedness were associated with success at work. Low optimism predicted unemployment, especially in women. High optimism and high self-directedness predicted higher income and higher occupational status. However, the associations between selfdirectedness with income and occupational status weakened after the level of education was controlled. High optimism also predicted changes in income. When analyzing changes in income separately in women and men, the result was significant only in men. Thus it seems that optimism affects the career of an individual positively as optimists continuously find new opportunities to advance in their career and earn more money. In practice the results suggest to reflect that objective success at work might be improved by interventions that lead to improving skills in goal making and mindfulness.
  • Huotari, Salla-Maaria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims. The purpose of this single-case study was to investigate the effects of intensive tablet-based treatment in overall language performance level and in reading and writing processes in mild aphasia. The communicative effectiveness and task performances on the tablet software were also studied. The tablet software included tasks where semantic, syntactic and phonological processing were required; written naming, sentence writing and reading comprehension. Previous studies have indicated improvements in language skills after computer-based treatment (Katz & Wertz, 1997; Wade, Mortley & Enderby, 2003). Especially reading and writing skills can be treated by the computer-based softwares (Katz, 2008). Methods & Procedures. In this single subject research the ABA design was used. The participant in this study was a 47 year old man who had a stroke 2.5 years earlier. He had a mild chronic aphasia with difficulties in writing, reading and naming. The data of this study was formed by linguistic tests and by a self-assessment method as the participant evaluated his communicative effectiveness (CETI). The methods used in the analysis of written and read narratives included assessing rate, authenticity and the types of errors. The analysis of written narratives also included assessing word classes and type-token –ratio. Based on the data by the tablet-based software the rate and the share of errors of task performances were assessed. Results & Conclusions. Based on the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) results, the severity of the aphasia decreased but the change was not clinically significant. Naming improved but the change wasn’t stable until the follow-up. The participant showed positive development in his written and reading production; he made less spelling and reading errors after the treatment. At the same time reading and writing processes became slower. The share of lexical verbs, adjectives, pronouns and numerals increased in written narratives. The communicative effectiveness improved. The task performance on the tablet software was faster during the fourth week compared to the first week. Also the amount of incorrect performances decreased or remained the same. Based on the results, an intensive self-monitored tablet-based language treatment was effective to the subject.
  • Alcorn, Sini (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The purpose of this study was to examine two informal interaction situations that students encounter during the breaks in between classes in school; encounters among peers and the encounters between a student and a teacher. To further understand how students behave in these situations, how they see others behave and how they attribute these beaviours. Main idea was to understand these situations through the student’s point of view. Are the situations described as positive or negative encounters, what are the diffenrent topics of the situations and to find out how 6th grade students in Finland understand the situations they describe themselves. Methods. The study gathered picturetask projections from 82 6th grade students, from 3 different schools located around Finland. Picturetask projections had 2 pictures, one from a school yard with peers on it and the other one from the school yard with a student-teacher encounter. Both pictures had assisting questions for the participants. The answers were analysed by using content analysis. They were first devided between negative and positive describtions, then categorised into themes that rouse from the data. And finally categorised by using the 3 main attributional theory classifications; locus of control, controllability and stability, to understand how the 6th graders attributed the situations they described. Results and conclusions. Most of the descriptions were negative, more so in the student-teacher encounters. In these two informal situations there were some themes found in both, like school bullying and nice chats, but there were also some themes that were only found in one or the other. In descriptions from peer situations themes of tough guys were found, whereas in student-teacher descriptions had themes of telling the students off when behaved badly. In regard to attributions the results were very similar in both projections. Most of the situations were described as momentarily and attributed to external causes. In half of the peer situations and in over half of the student-teacher situations students felt able to control the situation.