Browsing by Issue Date

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 21-40 of 723
  • Tala, Amanda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Finnish alcohol culture is in constant change and ever so popular theme in public discussion. Previous research in the area of alcohol studies is quite concise or is strongly based in the framework of public health. The purpose of this research is to examine the special features of Finnish alcohol culture. With this thesis I want to study the reasons which influence Finnish alcohol behavior; what kind of drinks people choose to drink, what are the reasons behind drinking alcohol and what kind of factors are considered when choosing an alcohol beverage. This study concentrates on researching the usage of alcohol on Friday in particular. The research data is a collection of food journals from the Literary Archives (Kansanrunousarkisto) which are collected by Finnish Literature Society (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, SKS). In the Mitä söin tänään? (What I ate today?) -collection participants had described one particular day (12.4.2013) through food, eating and all things involved in the process. The the data group (n=94) of this research consists of journals where alcohol or alcohol consumption is mentioned. The research is based on oral history studies and qualitative content analysis. The alcohol consumption was shown in the everyday of the writers as an uplifting and value adding factor. The alcoholic beverages were considered to be a vital part of good dinner or a social gathering. Alcohol was seen to make a particular situation more meaningful. The most recognizable reason for drinking was Friday itself, being the beginning of the weekend. Another very significant reason was the social context, the meaning of company is undeniable. Wine was single the most popular drink mentioned in the data, followed by beer. Other alcohol beverages gained only single mentions. The most important factor influencing the choosing process was the price. Consumer’s for example ecologic lifestyle was another often mentioned factor concerning the process.
  • Pakkanen, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Objectives. Earlier studies have shown intergenerational continuity in child-rearing attitudes. The child-rearing attitudes reflect the atmosphere of childhood. There is only a few longitudinal studies of this topic and temperament has not been studied earlier in this context. The purpose of this study was to examine the intergenerational transmission of parental child-rearing attitudes (i.e. parent’s perception of emotional significance and tolerance towards her offspring) using longitudinal data. Also, the role of sociability as a mediating factor for the child-rearing attitudes was examined. There were two hypothesis of the study: There is intergenerational continuity in child-rearing attitudes, and sociability mediates the relationship between child-rearing attitudes of the two generations. Methods. The participants of this study (N=1034) were derived from the ongoing prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study. It was started in 1980, when the participants were 3-18 years old. The subsample of this study consisted of six age cohorts (63,2 % women) and their mothers. The self-rated child-rearing attitudes towards the offspring were measured in 1980 by the participants’ mothers and 2007 by the participants. The sociability temperament trait was measured by the participants themselves in 1992 at the age from 15 to 30. Linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between sociability and child-rearing attitudes. Sobel test was also performed to examine the mediating role of sociability. Results and conclusions. In line with the hypothesis, the child-rearing attitudes were transferred from the older generation to the younger one. The intergenerational transmission was stronger with emotional significance and weaker with tolerance towards the offspring. Sociability did not act as a mediating factor in either one of the child-rearing attitudes. However, sociability was associated with parent’s perception of emotional significance of the offspring. The more sociable the participant was at the age of 15-30, the more emotionally significant he/she perceived his/her own offspring in 2007, 15 years later. The interventions that support parenting have long-term effects for future generations because the child-rearing attitudes are intergenerationally transferred.
  • Alén, Hannu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Action video games have been found to improve many cognitive skills. Most established findings are related to faster information processing speed and improved attentional capabilities. Many of the same cognitive processes are better on elite athletes of interceptive sports compared to non-elites. This study aimed to find some preliminary evidence whether the improvements in cognitive processes gained from action video gaming might be beneficial in ball sports. This was done by comparing the performance of action video game players and nonaction-video players on an anticipation of coincidence test. Anticipation of coincidence is a laboratory test, where the task is to anticipate when a moving object arrives at a certain point and to coincide a button press with it. Performance on the task is thought to depend on information processing speed and attentional capabilities. When the speeds and possible speed changes are similar to those encountered in real ball sports, elite athletes of these sports are generally more accurate in the task compared to non-elites. Elite athletes differ from non-elites in their gaze patterns as well. For example, athletes fixate to the target quicker and their quiet eye, meaning the last fixation or tracking gaze before a motor action on a specific target lasting at least 100 ms, is longer. Thus, it was studied whether action video gamers fare better on the anticipation of coincidence task in different constant speeds and in deceleration conditions, and whether their gaze patterns are different compared to non-gamers. 10 action video game players and 9 nonaction-video game players participated in the experiment. The results show that action video game players are more accurate in the task in most constant speed conditions and in a deceleration condition with slow speeds. There was some variation in gaze patters, including that action video gamers had quiet eye more often in fast speeds. The results suggest that action video game players can program more accurate motor responses based on the speed of the target and reprogram wrong motor actions better than nonaction-video game players. In addition action video game players are better able to track fast moving targets. As these skills are important in ball sports, this possible linkage between action video games and ball sports performance should be studied further.
  • Kontinen, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The changes in working life have set new kind of challenges for applicant attraction and recruiting. Therefore, organizations have started to invest more and more on the assessment and development of their attractiveness. The employment image can be considered as a key factor of this process. Previous studies have shown that the measures made especially in the early stages of the recruitment process have significant impact on employment image, corporate image, organizational attractiveness and the applicants’ intentions to apply for the positions. The aim of this study was to assess the external employer branding of the target company, Finrail Oy, in regarding the recruitment process. In addition, the applicants’ experiences of the recruitment process and the recruitment image were studied. Previous studies have indicated that this recruitment image has impact on both corporate and employment image. The need for a closer assessment of the external employer branding was recognized because of the unfamiliarity of the newly established organization. The qualitative research was implemented as part of the firm’s annual recruitment process in February 2015 and the data were collected by using questionnaire. The participants (n=627) were the candidates taking part in recruitment process in 2015. The questionnaire included open questions and eventually 174 candidates answered the question. The results were analyzed by using the coding analyzing method. The results showed that the awareness of the company had grown since the year of establishment. However, the interests of the candidates had divided to other industry segments as well. All in all, both the employment and company images can be seen very consistent. The both images were quite similar and they were based on images as modernity, trust, certainty and stability. The results also showed that candidates had received enough information during the recruitment process. Based on the results and theoretical background some conclusions and recommendations can be presented, concerning familiarity, distinctiveness and employer brand communication. Also, the importance of recruitment image should be considered as an important factor in the recruitment.
  • Kankaanpää, Miia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat – Abstract Aim. Approximately 50—60 children are born with severe to profound hearing impairment in Finland every year. Speech therapy for hearing impaired (HI) children consists of many different methods depending on the child´s and his/hers family´s individual needs. The main emphasis in HI children´s speech therapy in Finland is in the auditory-verbal method. There is only a little information to be found in the literature about the contents of speech therapy for HI children (who use cochlear implants (CI) or hearing aids (HA)). The aim of this study was to find out how much Finnish speech and language therapists (SLTs) have experience about the rehabilitation of HI children. In addition the goal was to find out what components are used in HI children´s speech therapy and what role does the children´s parents have in their child´s linguistic rehabilitation. Method. This study was carried out as a survey. An electronic questionnaire was send via the Finnish Association of Speech Therapists to 1154 SLTs in Finland. A total of 85 responses were received so the response rate was 7.4 %. The data was analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics 22 -program. Frequencies, percentages and descriptive statistical analysis were computed (for example average and standard deviation). The data was demonstrated graphically. Rank correlation of ordinal variables was measured using Spearman´s rho (ρ), Kendall´s tau-c (τ) and Goodman and Kruskal´s gamma (γ) rank correlations. Results and conclusions. The results show that Finnish SLTs have only little experience about the rehabilitations of HI children. The most common components in HI children´s speech therapy were supporting and guiding children´s early vocalizations, auditory training and training of vocabulary. The contents of CI- and HA- children´s speech therapy seems to be very similar. The most common approach used in speech and language therapy was auditory-verbal method but total communication and pictures were commonly used as well. The results show that parent´s role in HI children´s rehabilitations varied quite a lot. It was quite common that parents were not present during their child´s speech therapy and the SLTs reported that they would ask separately if they wanted the parents to be present in some speech therapy session. However the results show that most of the SLTs and parents were equal partners in HI children´s linguistic rehabilitation. More research is needed to discover factors that influence the contents of HI children´s speech therapy and the parent´s role in their child´s linguistic rehabilitation.
  • Ingström, Terhi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study examines bullying in Finnish day-care center groups. Bullying has been studied a lot but bullying among young children has been brought up only recently. Main goal of this study was to find 5-6 years old children who are bullies and get their opinion about bullying and how embloyees intervene bullying among children in day-care. Recent studies has shown that bullying among children before school age can be physical, psychological and verbal. The research material of the study comprises a survey that was made online in day-care centers in Vantaa 2011. The survey was carried out as part of the Helsinki universitys earlychildhood education project ”bullying in day-care settings”. From this survey five bullies was found: two girls and three boys. From the same day-care group was along two children as comperatives. This is a qualitative research and as research method was semi-structured interviews by interviewing 15 children: 8 girls and 7 boys. According to the results of the study, there are bullies in day-care center groups and they vary a lot. They can be confident, week and aggressive. Bullies use mostly physical ways to bully, one of the bullies used only phychological and verbal ways. Children descriped bullying mostly in physical ways. Day-care centre's employees interfere in bullying by giving children some kind of penalty. Mostly mentioned penalty was ”thinking chair”. Result of the study is also that embloyees in day-care centers recognise children who are bullies.
  • Nuortimo, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims. Understanding of emotional processing is important for the research of mental states. A better understanding of the visual system would facilitate understanding the functioning of the entire brain. Emotions are processed in a complex neural network. The aim of the present Master's thesis is to explore the effective connectivity of the occipital face areas (OFAs) and fusiform face areas (FFAs) during the processing of visual stimuli eliciting negative emotion. Methods. The subjects (n = 16) were young adult male students. Negative and neutral emotion were elicited using visual stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired using an MRI scanner. The fMRI data were preprocessed and analyzed using SPM8 software. In order to proceed to the psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analyses, imaging sessions were concatenated and entered into the analyses as one single session. Subject-level model comprised the following regressors: negative emotion, neutral emotion, baseline and a binary regressor for each functional session to model session effects. An effects of interest F-contrast and a negative emotion t-contrast were defined. Spherical volumes of interest (VOIs) were computed for each subject for the left and the right occipital face area (OFA) and for the left and the right fusiform face area (FFA). The PPI variables were computed for each statistically significant VOI. A standard PPI model was defined. Each of the 4 VOIs was used as source region for all other VOIs. A group-level whole brain analysis was done for each PPI source VOI. Group-level VOI analyses were conducted for all PPI source VOIs. Results and conclusions. In the whole brain analyses statistically significant group-level PPIs were found in the following brain regions: left cuneus, right middle occipital gyrus, right and left inferior occipital gyrus, left lingual gyrus, and the left culmen. VOI analyses demonstrated the strong connectivity in the network consisting of the right OFA and left and right FFAs. Negative emotional content enhances effective connectivity in the bilateral OFA-FFA network.
  • Vesanto, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The focus of this study is in private sector kindergartens early childhood special education in Helsinki; used procedures and current challenges from the point of view of special education. It has been studied how the supportive mechanisms and services of children with special needs have been organized in private kindergartens and what kind of choices these kindergartens make when selecting children or when special needs emerge and how the support is carried out. Additionally, It has been studied how the co-operation of public and private kindergartens work and how equal children are depending on whether they are customers of publicly or privately run services. The study also introduces methods how early childhood education in private kindergartens could be economically and functionally available possibility for all families, regardless of increased demand of special support. The study deals with a hot topic. The law about early childhood education is old (1973) and it is finally in process of being modernized. The discussion around its contents has been vivid in both academic publications and media. At the moment private kindergartens are responsible in about 8% of the national budget for early childhood education (2.6 billion €). The percentage is growing. Main material for the study consist of five interviews of professionals working in private kindergartens in Helsinki. The used method is closest to a half-structured interview, in which all interviewees were asked the same questions in flexible order. The narrative theme interviews were recorder. One person was interviewed at a time, except in one case where there were two people answering questions. Central findings of the study were that, as expected, there were hardly any children with special needs in privately run kindergartens. Amongst the applicants there had been children with special needs, but the families had been informed about the limited support possibilities and advised to turn to public early childhood services. The early childhood special education tool kit is vastly more inclusive in public than in private sector. One solution could be to increase the amount of local special education teachers that would working solely on private sector. This would make sure that children would have more equal possibilities to use their local kindergartens, despite the fact that those may be private, and be entitled to first class early childhood education – regardless of their special needs.
  • Harju, Varpu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This thesis is part of a broad research project funded by Academy of Finland, in which the Finnish and Chilean mathematics teachers have given lessons focusing on problem solving for three years. The aim of the study is to describe, analyse and interpret the students’ solutions to an open-ended problem and to find out what kinds of problem-solving strategies students use to reach the solution. In addition, the aim of this thesis is to analyse the students’ problem-solving process under the guidance of the teacher. The theoretical frame of this study is based on defining mathematical problem solving and describing the problem-solving process. The theory also consists of the definition of problem-solving strategies based on LeBlanc’s (1977) research. The research material of this study consists of the answer sheets of six Finnish classes and the videotapes of four of these classes’ problem solving lessons. Firstly, the answer sheets were analysed using data-driven content analysis. Then, to find answers to the second research question, data was analysed using theory-driven content analysis. The videos were analysed using theory-driven content analysis. The pupils’ solutions to the open-ended problem varied very much, especially the amount of rectangles students had drawn to find the solution. On the other hand, almost all the answer sheets included rectangles 10 cm x 5 cm and 1 cm x 14 cm. In addition, it is noteworthy that the right solution was found in just five answer sheets. Among the fifth-graders, there are big differences in what kind of problem-solving strategies they can use. The pupils used three different problem-solving strategies. Experimentation was clearly the most common, and systematic listing of possible solutions the second most common strategy. Only one class of students had tried to find patterns in the problem. The problem-solving process of the students was clearly affected by the problem-solving strategy they decided to use. The pupils’ problem solving process was cyclical and the teacher influenced the process significantly the whole lesson.
  • Valtonen, Emilia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Self-regulated learning (SRL) is a goal-oriented process in which the learner monitors and regulates his or her own learning. Meta-skills of learning such as SRL are important both in formal education and in professional development taking place in working environments. For the teaching profession, it is crucial that teacher education supports its students' abilities to critically reflect on and research and develop their own work. In short, teachers need competences for continuous professional learning. This master's thesis analyzes the connection between student teachers' SRL and competences in continuous professional learning. SRL was defined as forethought of learning, learning strategies, and learning skills. Competences in continuous professional learning were constructed on an understanding of the teacher as a professional capable of researching and developing his or her work. Because there are structural and content differences between class and subject teacher education, this thesis also analyzes whether there are differences in continuous professional learning competences between the two programmes. The data were collected using a web-based survey as part of a research project on teacher education. SRL was measured using a self-report instrument for higher education students, including questions about regulatory strategies of learning and motivational factors. The instrument for continuous professional learning focused on teaching professions' reflective features and professional development. Both constructs were measured using a five-point likert-scale. The respondents were student teachers from University of Helsinki and University of Oulu studying to be either class or subject teachers (N = 417). Data analysis was conducted using correlations, t-tests, and linear regression analyses. In addition, confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were conducted in the preliminary analysis. Students’ competences in continuous professional learning correlated with the different constructs of self-regulated learning, although none of the correlations could be described as strong. Regression analysis indicated that in the forethought of learning dimension, utility value of studies and self-concept as a learner best explained competences in continuous professional learning. In the dimension of learning strategies, self-management was the only statistically significant explanatory variable. In the learning skills dimension, application of theories and rehearsal best explained continuous professional learning. There was a significant difference between class and subject student teachers in continuous professional learning, although the effect size was moderate. The division between class and subject teachers was also a significant explanatory variable in all regression models. Depending on the model, 6.9 to 11.5 percent of variance in continuous professional learning could be explained. The results indicate that self-regulated learning is connected to continuous professional learning competences, but the explanatory power of SRL is not very strong. In the future, it will be important to investigate whether these results are due to an actual relationship between the two phenomena or a matter of data and measurement. Class and subject teacher education seems to some extent to produce differences in continuous professional learning competences. This could indicate that there is a need to develop subject teacher studies in order to make sure that all teachers, regardless of their training, have the necessary competences to develop professionally.
  • Siikaniemi, Kerttuli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The objective of this study was to interpret the phenomenon of modern craftsmanship by studying its dimensions As we live in a modern, technologically charged culture many seek for anchor points and meaningful content for life. For many those can be found in the world of craft. The word “craft” bears numerous meanings, maybe as many as there are interpreters, and one of the aims of this study is to find the one that is valid in this precise time and culture. Grounded theory -method was used as a means to collect and to analyse data. Mainly publicly available data, such as magazines, craft research, blogs and books was used as a ground for the analysis. Also the visual dimension of the data was analysed. Grounded theory is evolved by coding data, seeking categories and making comparative analysis of them. In this study the objective was not to create a theory but a model or an interpretation. The dimensions of modern craftsmanship based on data-analysis are responsibility, experience, making, skills and visuality. All of the dimensions are connected to the idea of a better life, of building yourself a good life. It can be seen as the core of the ideology of today’s craftsmanship. By making yourself one can take control of the future of the entire globe. The choices one makes, when buying and consuming clothes and other things are not only for themselves, but also for the greater ecological good. The responsible choice also concerns valuing used time and its quality. Responsibility of own life is important. Making by hand represents empowerment and meaningful fulfilment of a busy life. Experiences come through making and especially through making together. By succeeding, learning, sharing and focusing hobbyists experience doing craft as doing well. As a rising economical aspect of craft, experience economy offers craftsmen and crafters new ways and opportunities to experience craft. Referencing to craftsmanship both verbally and visually indicates skills, quality and value. Several separate but equal levels of craft culture can be derived from the data-analysis. Modern craftsmanship and especially the modern craft ideology is one of them.
  • Pirinen, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Due to savings the traditional services provided by the welfare state have been weakened. These savings have adversely affected particularly the disadvantaged people, and part of the risk of social exclusion has increased. The third sector or non-governmental organisations, in this study Icehearts, will work to prevent exclusion starting from the pre-school stage. The theoretical background in this study is constructed from the concepts of change in welfare state, non governmental organisations, inter professional collaboration and identity. Organisation’s educator-coaches coach teams, with the principle that everybody can play. Educators work as part of the inter professional collaboration, which is in boys and their families’ life. Educators work at boys’ school; organise afternoon activities, exercises in chosen sport, they are part of the multi-professional network in formal discussions and meetings including social, psychiatric, outpatient clinic and student welfare. Educators’ work-identity or inter professional collaboration has not been studied before, similar studies has been done among social- and care work professionals. This thesis has studied the work of educators and identity as part of a multi-professional network. How educator-coaches’ work-identity is constructed in their talk. How the interprofessional collaboration is described in their talk. Educators work mainly in the school district, both physically and mentally. Interesting is how this context was brought up in educators’ speech. The study material was collected by theme interviews in November 2014 by interviewing six Iceheart’s educator-trainer. They had worked 4-14 years in the organisation. The data was analysed with qualitative content-analysis. Experiences of working as a member of the interprofessional group differed depending from the context. Typical for educators seemed to be their tendency to adapt and use the language other professionals use. The underlying factors behind professional identity were the personal characteristics, Icehearts as organisation and other educators’ support, personal values and the desire to help. Agency as part of the professional identity emerged as an opportunity to work with their own personality and their own way. There are no detailed instructions or only one right way to work as an educator and this was seen as an opportunity. It would be interesting and meaningful to study the effect of the organisation and educators from state point of view, what is the organisation’s role in preventing exclusion. The multi professional co-operation could be studied with a change laboratory method in order to improve collaboration to benefit boys and families in large.
  • Bauer, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of this study was to examine 6th graders’ self-esteem and find out what kind of factors in the school environment are interrelated with it. This study examined interrelation between self-esteem and gender, learning difficulties, school value, school satisfaction, teacher’s behavior, being bullied and participating in bullying. These different variables were chosen based on previous studies about self-esteem. The aim is to gain better understanding of the different factors that influence students’ self-esteem in the school environment and therefore provide help for teachers battling with issues regarding self-esteem enhancement. The data was collected in the spring of 2013 as part of the Mind the Gap -project. Participants (n=735) were 6th grades from 33 different schools. Three different groups according to self-esteem were formed: weak, mediocre, and strong self-esteem in relation to other respondents. Relations between self-esteem and other variables were examined by Pearson’s product-moment coefficient and Independent-Samples T test was used to examine differences between genders. Finally two-way ANOVAs were conducted to investigate self-esteem and gender differences regarding the different variables. According to the results 6th graders evaluated their self-esteem as relatively good. Boys reported better self-esteem than girls. However the boys also experienced more learning difficulties and took part in bullying more than girls. Girls’ reported their school value, on the other hand, higher than boys’. There were no differences between genders in school satisfaction, experiencing teacher’s behavior nor being bullied. The effect of self-esteem was clearly higher than the effect of gender on all the variables. Also an interaction effect of self-esteem and gender was found regarding being bullied. In the mediocre self-esteem group boys experienced more bullying than girls. The boys of the mediocre self-esteem group also participated in bullying the most.
  • Myyrinmaa, Kristiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of the study. A need to involve customers in decision making, planning, implementation and evaluating quality regarding their services has been identified in health care since 1990s’. According to ecological theories, communication should be rehabilitated by impacting both the communication disabled person and his/her communication partners and environments. For communication interventions, ICF classification offers a framework that emphasizes individual’s functioning and participation. In speech therapy, community –based rehabilita-tion has become a common working method beside and even ahead direct ways of working with a customer. Community –based approach means collaborating with communication partners to enable development of communication. Parents have taken part in their children’s speech therapy, but up until the beginning of the millennium their perceptions about the received services had not been explored. The effectiveness of speech therapy can be studied from different perspectives with qualitative and quantitative measures. The aim of this study was to explore parental views and experiences of the impact of the speech therapy their child has received on daily communication and interaction. Method. Data was collected by a questionnaire. Questionnaire was sent to those parents of medical and therapy clinic Contextia’s speech therapy customers, whose child had received speech therapy for at least six months. 25 respondents filled in the questionnaire. Data was analyzed by using key statistic figures and cross tabulation plus qualitatively classifying the an-swers of open questions. Results and conclusions. The impact of the received speech therapy was considered significant relative to development of child’s communication skills and parents were satisfied with the guidance received. The role of spontaneous development was viewed minor and the role of therapy major. Cros-tabulation did not reveal dependency between the perceived impact and potential explanatory variables, since the perceived impact was large and variation was minor. Practicing linguistic skills was considered the most significant content area of speech therapy. Practicing with computer or mobile applications was considered least efficient relative to daily communication. Utilizing their use in practicing has also been guided least to parents and kindergarten/school personnel. Respondents perceived kindergarten’s/school’s role more signifi-cant than family’s role in supporting rehabilitation. The result challenges professionals and de-cision makers to consider how to ensure families’ commitment and support to the goals and the implementation of therapy.
  • Huhtala, Ea (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Objectives. Exposure to maternal stress during pregnancy has been associated with a variety of adverse outcomes in the offspring, ranging from restrictions on fetal growth to long-term psychological impairments. Growing evidence suggests that prenatal maternal stress may also play a role in the onset of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, results from previous studies have not been uniform and methodological shortcomings may have impacted the findings. The aim of this study is to examine whether exposure to prenatal maternal stress is associated with higher levels of ADHD symptoms in the children, and whether the associations are timing-specific and independent of postnatal maternal and paternal stress. Methods. The current study sample consisted of 2,304 mother-child dyads participating in the PREDO project who were recruited from maternity clinics at 12 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks of gestation. The women filled out a reliable and valid stress self-report questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), every two weeks throughout pregnancy, a total of 14 times. Child ADHD symptoms were reported by the mothers at child age of 1–5 years with the Conners’ 10-item scale, concurrently with a repeated assessment of maternal stress. Paternal stress was evaluated with the PSS at child age of six months. The associations between prenatal stress and child ADHD symptoms were analyzed statistically using multiple linear regression, controlling for multiple sociodemographic and perinatal confounders and for postnatal levels of maternal and paternal stress. Results and conclusions. Prenatal maternal stress was associated with significantly higher levels of ADHD symptoms in the offspring. Mid- to late-pregnancy stress had the strongest associations with child ADHD symptoms, while early-pregnancy stress showed a slightly weaker, yet significant, effect. The associations between prenatal stress and child ADHD symptoms were partially mediated by postnatal maternal stress. Nevertheless, even after controlling for postnatal maternal stress, the independent effects of prenatal stress remained significant. Adjusting for postnatal paternal stress had no impact on the effect sizes. The sex of the child moderated the association between first trimester prenatal stress and child ADHD symptoms, so that prenatal stress during the first trimester independently predicted higher levels of ADHD symptoms among boys, whereas, among girls, no significant associations were found for early-pregnancy stress after postnatal maternal stress was accounted for. Overall, the current findings are in line with the fetal programming hypothesis and highlight the importance of prenatal environmental factors in the etiology of childhood ADHD.
  • Holstein, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of this master's thesis is to examine how representatives of employers describe young employees and their approach to work life. In this thesis I will examine young people using the concept of generation when young employees can be called "Generation Y". Because of demographic changes old employees will retire all the time and young employees are entering to the world of work life. Some researchers are expecting that young employees will change the work life practices because their expectations towards the working life differ from older generations. There is a lot of literature about generation Y but less scientific studies. According to the scientific studies young employees, so called generation Y, are not as different from other generations as it’s often implied. According to the studies the differences in approaches to work life between different age groups are based on age and generation affect. The age effect is bigger compared to the generation effect. The generation effect can be observed in the point that family and leisure valuation has increased among young employees. Young employees are also more efforts willing compared to older generations. The research data is formed of 8 interviews. The persons who I interviewed are representatives of employers and they work in Human Resources in different fields. I have collected my data using theme interviews and qualitative attitude research. I have analyzed my results using qualitative content analysis. According to my results the informants describe that young employees are shortsighted, self-confident, ambitious, they have new work standards, and they are individually different. According to the informants, young employees’ approach to work life is positive and they are motivated by the work content, the atmosphere of organization, employment framework, tangible benefits of work and increased employability.
  • Feldt, Sophie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Substantial research has been conducted on recruitment processes within companies, as personnel are such an important component of a company’s success. Prior research shows that the recruitment process isn’t conducted in a reliable and objective way. Since recruiters trust their intuition throughout the recruitment process, they are in danger of making unfair and biased decisions. Recruiters are therefore being critiqued for not managing the process as recommended, in regards to the objective and fair treatment of all applicants. Yet there is scarce qualitative research that examines the recruitment process from the recruiters’ point of view. Thus the aim of this study is to understand what recruiters perceive as challenging within the role, how they approach the requirement to be objective in relation to whether true objectivity is indeed realistic, and what role they give intuition in the recruitment process. This study aims to understand recruitment from the recruiters’ perspective in order to gain a better understanding of the issues involved. The research data was gathered in interviews with 16 recruiters from 9 different recruitment consultancy agencies in Helsinki and Tampere, Finland. The interviews were grouped in to themes that addressed challenges, decision-making and intuition. The transcribed interviews were analyzed inductively from a hermeneutic phenomenological scientific standpoint. The study shows that recruiters don’t regard the recruitment process as objective. Because the process is partly social, it inherently makes room for subjective interpretation. Also, recruiters believe that the information accumulated from social interaction brings added value to the recruitment process. Hence the study shows that intuition has great significance in the recruitment process, as the majority of recruiters use it regularly. Prior research on intuition shows that it can be a source of wisdom and expertise, if used correctly. The recruiters tried to carry out the recruitment process in an as objective and transparent manner as possible. By reflecting, questioning and critically reviewing their own thoughts, opinions and feelings, they aimed to avoid making decisions and judgments based on feelings. Taking the recruiters’ point of view in to account gives new insight in to the recruitment process and the issues therein.
  • Myllymäki, Outi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Objectives. Previous research has pointed out various predictors of school achievement. Along with cognitive capacity, school achievement is associated with female gender, beneficial socioeconomic status, school temperament and school motivation. The aim of this study is to bring together various findings of previous research of qualities influencing school achievement, and to find out whether school motivation is connected with school grades after controlling for pupil’s gender and self-rated temperament. It is important to thoroughly understand school motivation, because among other things it has also been associated with effective use of learning strategies. Through vaster understanding of school motivation it is possible to find ways to motivate pupils in risk of social exclusion. Methods. This research is based on a vast Finnish SITRA school study. This study uses a subsample of 3 040 pupils between ages 13 and 19 from 64 different schools forming a geographically representative sample of Finnish speaking ninth graders. Pupils provided self-rated answers for temperament surveys DOTS-R and TABC-R as well as to school motivation survey created for the use of the SITRA project. Their latest grade point average was also self-reported. The data was analyzed using linear regression analysis. Results and conclusions. As the main result, school motivation explained 38 % of the variation of school grades, when the pupil’s gender and self-rated temperament were controlled. Girls got better school grades than boys. However in regards to school motivation, there was no difference between the genders. There were differences between temperament traits between boys and girls, however ideal school temperament traits were divided to both genders evenly. All school temperament traits were correlated with school motivation. The strongest positive connection was found with persistence and the strongest negative connection with impulsivity. There may be a common factor, school environment for example, explaining the strong correlation between school temperament and school motivation. All results are in line with previous evidence.
  • Antervo, Roosa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Objective. The main purpose of this study is to examine what families with children living in urban areas think about self-preparedness and emergency food supply kits nowadays. Study shows how study subjects understand terms "emergency food supply kit" and "self-preparedness", what they think about their own emergency food supply kits and the necessity of it in urban areas. Furthermore study explains the pros and cons of the newest Kotivara-guide from family perspective. Previous studies have shown that there are too little researches about these topics and the fact that self-preparedness is becoming more common. Method. This was a qualitative research with phenomenographic features and which research data were collected using half structural thematic interviews. Nine families with children were selected for research and by change only women were interviewed. All families were living in Kiukainen. Transcribed research data were analyzed with content analysis. Results and conclusion. The term “emergency food supply kit” (kotivara) was more familiar than “self-preparedness” (omatoiminen varautuminen) and “emergency food supply kit” was typically only related to food storing. All families had subconsciously own emergency food supply kit that probably, however, lacked iodine pills, battery powered radio, cash money and water. Own emergency food supply kit was seen to have a major role in urban areas since it helps in exceptional situations and also in normal daily life. Electricity blackout was said to be the most typical exceptional situation nowadays. As for the findings about guidance, families suggested that the Kotivara-guide could be distributed in child health clinics, family centers and schools. According to research subjects, Kotivara-guide should also have the old guides about foods and other things to store. Based on the results of this research, Finnish emergency food supply kit guidance, Kotivara, is still important thing. In order to improve and be more familiar in Finland, informing should be more humane and targeted at those with the greatest needs.
  • Laine, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Objectives. Education for sustainable development related to efficacy beliefs has been studied in the past, for example, among the subject teachers, but among the class teachers, research-based information is still scarce. Aim of this study was to investigate the class teachers efficacy beliefs and their connection to school action culture in context of education for sustainable development. The study also surveyed the realization of education for sustainable development with classroom teaching and school action culture. In addition the study examined the class teachers and their schools, the differences between their efficacy beliefs and the implementation of education for sustainable development. Methods. The study was conducted utilizing SEED research, supported by the Academy of Finland, sub-project by University of Helsinki, Department of Teacher Education, collected survey data. The SEED projects (Sustainable Food Education for Self-Efficacy Development) aim has been to study and develop the education for sustainable development in Finnish basic education. Sub-project of University of Helsinki Department of Teacher Education surveyed teachers and students factors which influenced sustainable development actions. The questionnaires question sets were analyzed by statistical methods and the questionnaires open questions were analyzed utilizing content analysis. The study was conducted in spring 2010 with national stratified sampling and the questionnaire was answered by 231 class teachers from 80 schools. Results and conclusions. Class teachers described their efficacy beliefs in education for sustainable development as mediocre. Best known was ecological sustainability and the least known part was economic sustainability. The knowledge of the curriculums cross-curricularity of sustainable development was mediocre. From aspects of the Sustainable development the ecological point of view was best achieved in school culture and the worst one of them was the economic aspect. The school action culture which supports sustainable development was found to affect class teachers education for sustainable development positively. Between class teachers there did not show up any differences in sustainability education based on sex, age, class level, the school or the schools classification in the municipality. Schools showed differences in teaching of sustainable development, schoolwork and school culture influence, as well as in the implementation of sustainable development in socio-cultural dimension.