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  • Sipilä, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Purposes. This is an ethnographic case study about elementary school teacher as a listener of a child's voice and about children as ethnographers in the classroom. The current study aims to make visible factors that limit listening child's voice at school and especially in the interaction between the teacher and the student. It also describes children's views and thoughts about school. This study is a part of consortium research Children tell of their well-being who listens? (TelLis, a project number 1134911). Methods. The study was conducted at the school during four weeks at spring 2013. The data was gathered using children as ethnographers -method and consists of 57 classroom diaries written by fifth and sixth grade students and reflected by their four elementary school teachers. In addition, data includes children's drawings, teacher's interviews before the study, two teacher's group interviews and observation notes. In this study I describe teachers as listeners of students' voice during children as ethnographers -period. I ask, what kind of knowledge teachers find in children's classroom diaries. I also ask, how teachers make use of classroom diaries at their work. Analysis is based on qualitative content analysis. Findings and conclusion. Teachers found knowledge of students culture and knowledge of their action, thoughts and opinions in classroom diaries. In addition, teachers looked for knowledge to evaluate competencies and developmental needs of students' and the class. Teachers used classroom diaries primarily as a tool of evaluating and educating children, but also as a tool for listening children and educating themselves as professionals. According to content analysis, listening to child represented mostly listening based on evaluating and educating children and themselves. There was less listening based on developing the school and the least listening based on encountering a child. Because of teachers' strong aims of evaluating and educating, listening to child was limited. The current study shows, that despite of several factors limiting listening to child's voice in society, school community and class community, teacher with his/her aims, views and actions has an emergent role as a listener of a child's voice. Teachers should create especially those kinds of listening moments that are based on encountering a child naturally and humanely.
  • Rawlings, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Aims. The Behavioural Inhibition/Behavioural Approach System (BIS/BAS) is a neurological approach-avoidance system, where BIS depicts inhibition, anxiety, and fear of failure. The BAS system was in this study divided into BAS Inter (seeking social approval and rewards), BAS Impulse (impulsivity, immediate rewards), and BAS Intra (excitement at novel situations, own successes as a reward). Achievement goal orientations describe motivational tendencies to choose certain types of goals in a learning situation. Of the achievement goal orientations, mastery intrinsic describes the aim to learn with subjective, and mastery extrinsic with absolute criteria of success, performance approach the aim to outperform others and performance avoidance to avoid situations where one can fail. The avoidance orientation describes a disinterest in academic achievements and the goal of exerting as little effort as possible on school. The aim of the study was to examine how dispositional sensitivities affect the motivational aims of students. The research hypothesis is that BIS/BAS sensitivities predict the achievement goal orientations students adopt and exhibit. The research task is to examine how the Motivation and Sensitivity to Reward and Punishment questionnaire (MSRP) not yet used in published research succeeds in defining and measuring aspects of BIS/BAS. Method. The data was collected from five classes of eighth-graders in a school in Helsinki (N=78) in 2008 as a self-response survey, where BIS/BAS was measured using the new MSRP questionnaire, and achievement goal orientations with the achievement goal orientation questionnaire. The effects of BIS/BAS on the achievement goal orientations were examined by means of regression analyses. The MSRP was evaluated by examining the construct validity of the measurement, considering its descriptive capacity in relation to the background theories, and comparing the results with those from research conducted with other instruments. Results. The MSRP functioned relatively well. The mastery orientations were related to a tendency for low impulsivity, mastery intrinsic also to sensitivity to enjoy novel situations and challenges. The performance-approach orientation was predicted by the tendency to seek social approval, and performance-avoidance was connected to the punishment-sensitive inhibitory system. The avoidance orientation was linked with high impulsivity and low levels of excitement in personal successes and novelty in situations. Dispositional tendencies and sensitivities have a predictive effect on motivational achievement goal orientations, and generalised attitudes towards learning at school are to some degree affected by individuals inherent qualities. These effects should be considered in school practices, to support and meet the needs of students of all dispositions.
  • Lyijynen, Tuiri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The heart of instrumental study in music school is formed by collaboration between a professional instrumental teacher and pupil with individual qualities. Individuality of learning, a learner-centered approach and goal-oriented demands are combined in music school curriculums and other instructions. Subjects concerning the diversity and difference of learning are, however, under discussion the fields of elaboration and development in music institutes. Also in reports has taken notice in increased needs of pedagogical know-how concerning this area. The purpose of this research was to focus on learning diversity by way of expertise experiences of the instrumental teacher. In order to explore this, I asked six experienced string teachers to contemplate a pupil they considered as different or special. With narrative thematic inquiry, qualitative and phenomenological approach and content based content analysis, the aim was to examine how the teachers acted with their pupil and experienced as experts in their work actions. The result of the research displays four experience-related elements of expertise, relating to each other: the independent agency of the teacher, different teachership, knowledge and teacher s reflection on what is the best from pupil s point of view. The position of the instrument teacher as an institutional actor was significant both in pedagogical and practise decision making concerning studying in music school. Different teachers put it in practise in different ways, too. Also diverse or special learning produced different teachership as instrument teachers felt like stepping out of their professional core know-how. Instrumental teachers also based their actions and decisions largely on previous experiences and found their knowledge inadequate when meeting learning challenges. Teachers experienced contradictions between meaningful and pleasure giving approaches and teaching they could offer. According to these results, music schools should improve in practices that offer professional support for instrumental teachers. Also, they should bring more out the questions related the support of pupils with learning and other difficulties. That concerns both curriculum work and a teacher profession concerning questions. This would improve pupil equality and increase the pedagogical well-being of the instrumental teacher.
  • Randelin, Ellen (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The aim if this master s thesis was to examine discourses about disability in Helsingin Sanomat and to observe how a positive, heroic, stereotype about disability occurs. The background of this was influenced by disability stereotypes and social disability studies view about disability as social construct. A social disability model was mainly used as a tool to perceive disability. Impression behind heroic stereotype exploration was a view of stigmatizing positive stereotypes. Research problems were: What kind of disability discourses do appear in Helsingin Sanomat? and What kind of discourses do appear about heroic disability? The purpose of this study was to challenge perceptions about disability and offer a new perspective to explore disability. My research material consisted of writings about disabled persons in Helsingin Sanomat in 2008-2013, which accumulated altogether 107 articles, altogether 117 pages. The analysis was based on French discourse analysis tradition, where the attention is focused on cultural products that construct reality. With the help of discourse analysis, it was explained what kind of discourses were built and what do they tell about attitudes toward disability. There appeared quite different discourses about disability, but the most noticeable was the tragic discourse. This was however challenged through opposing discourses, in which the problems focus was centered to society instead of focusing the problems toward individual. Difference discourse was striven to be emphasize the differences related to disability, but it was protested by similarity discourse. Heroic disability was constructed through opposing discourse to tragic discourse about disability and overplayed skills and persistence. This study shows that disabled are still in the marginal, though attitudes seem to be changing. Positive stereotypes are stigmatizing and uphold attitudes where skills are interpreted as an exception. At the same time disabled people may be seen as somehow magical creatures. This study highlights attitudes toward disability which can be seen as a tool to challenge prejudice and normative attitudes about disability.
  • Nykänen, Irina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    It is possible to participate in leisure activities and handicrafts with different levels of commitment and devotion. Dimensions of handicraft activities can also vary along with hobbyists. The aim of this research was to get an overall picture of the dimensions that are typical for Finnish handicraft leisure and what separates hobbyists from each other. The research was descriptive and explorative. Leisure handicrafts were approached through five problems: 1. To what extent different handicrafts are made as leisure? 2. To what extent craft hobbyists seek for inspiration, information or instructions from different sources? 3. To what extent different dimensions of serious leisure occur in handicraft activities? 4. To what extent different social actions occur in handicraft activities? 5. To what extent different motives guides handicraft activities? Quantitative data was collected using web survey during spring 2013. The survey was advertised through craft-themed webpages and Facebook-groups. The data (N=3009) was female oriented. It was analyzed using statistical software SPSS 22. Central tendencies and frequencies were observed. For further analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, K-means cluster analysis and correlations were computed. The aims of these analyses were to deepen the results and observe the connections between the dimensions of the research. Handicrafts were made mostly daily and 1 2 hours at one time. Knitting, crocheting, and making accessories were the most popular forms of crafts. Making crafts in company varied between respondents, but making crafts as gifts was quite common. Making holistic and ordinary crafts varied between respondents and weren t connected to the dimensions of serious leisure. Most respondents found their skills and ways of doing crafts positive. The extent in which the respondents participate in craft activities was connected to identifying with leisure pursuit. Inspiration, information and instructions were often sought from webpages, -goups and -blogs and from craft books and magazines. Handicrafts were mostly made for process-centered reasons and uniqueness, but the manufacture-based and experiment-based motives were also present. Respondents could be grouped to four groups whose results varied within the key parts of this research and within background variables. For example, respondents differed in their identification to the hobby and in their overall activeness in this pursuit. However differences in seriousness of the leisure couldn t be defined. The results of this study, along with the methods and terminology used in this study, can be applied to future studies and developed further based on more specific designs.
  • Nuutila, Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The present study focused on the relations between students achievement goal orientations and personal goals. Achievement goal orientation represents a persons generalized tendency towards favoring certain type of goals and outcomes in an achievement context such as school. Achievement goal orientations are related to a variety of outcomes, such as adaptation to school, achievement and subjective well-being. Personal goals work as vehicles through which the individual guides his or her development and they play important role in different life transitions. The way a person chooses and manages his or her personal goals is related to achievement in different life domains, satisfaction in life and well-being. Both personal goals and achievement goal orientations are considered as important factors in adolescents adaptation to different developmental demands. The possible interrelation between the two phenomena however has not yet been studied. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine whether students belonging to different achievement goal orientation groups differ according to their personal goals. 1395 first year upper secondary school students filled in a questionnaire tapping different motivation constructs. Several statistical analyses were run on the collected data and a person-centered approach was applied to the data-analysis. By utilizing latent class clustering, five distinct achievement goal profiles were extracted from the study sample. Following each groups most pronounced motivational tendencies, the groups were named as indifferent, learning-oriented, success-oriented, performance-avoidance-oriented and avoidance-oriented, respectively. Through content-analysis, 13 personal goal categories were formed: present education, work/occupation, relationships/marriage/having children, health, hobbies/free time, friends and family, money/property, life style, future education, travelling, moving, and self-related negative goals. Few differences with regards to the personal goals were found between the identified goal orientation groups. The groups differed according to their interest in goals related to present education, future education, and career, with the less adaptive groups, the avoidance- and performance-avoidance-oriented, displaying significantly less interest in these goals than the other groups. The learning-oriented listed significantly more goals related to future education and career and, somewhat surprisingly, the indifferent had more personal goals related to present education than the other groups. Study and work related goals are considered as important for successful transition from adolescence to adulthood as both adaptation to school and entrance to further education and working life are one of the most important developmental tasks. It seems that the students with less adaptive achievement goal orientation also display somewhat less favorable personal goal preferences. These students might benefit from counseling and guidance, as they might be potentially at a higher risk for disengaging from school.
  • Rauhala, Carita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Writing is one of the most important skills learned in school. Studies have indicated that pupils´ writing skills need improvement which evokes to observe the practices of teaching writing. This thesis contemplates the teaching of writing from the feedback´s point of view. The goal of my thesis is to find out what kind of conceptions the sixth-graders have about the feedback they receive from writing and how pupils describe the meaning and effectiveness of feedback. Research type was qualitative study. Data was gathered from three different classes by using method of empathy-based stories. Data consists of 69 pupils empathy-based stories that deals with response given from the opinion essays. Material was analysed by using qualitative theory-guided content analysis. Study indicated that according to pupils´ stories feedback wasn´t given until the text was finished. Response consisted mainly of text evaluation. In the pupils´ stories the response was given verbally and in writing generally by classmates and the teacher. Besides the content of the text and pupils working effort, the feedback was often focused on opinions in the text. When feedback was given by the classmates it was sometimes targeted at the pupil receiving the response and contained inappropriate features such as mocking. Empathy-based stories showed that feedback clearly had a meaning but experience of the feedback may consist of many different factors. In the story conceptions and expectations considering the feedback had the most influence on pupil´s experience. In most cases feedback had an effect on pupil´s experience at emotional level. In the stories feedback was also seen to have an influence on future writing, pupil´s self-esteem, conception of feedback and person giving it. The results showed that the pupils have lots of resources to reflect the quality of the feedback and its meaning for the writer. According to the stories the benefit of feedback was tangential from the writings point of view and the idea of giving feedback was in accordance with conventional evaluative feedback. I think the results support the idea that feedback should be more firm part of the actual writing process. The person receiving the feedback should be more active and the pupils´ aptitudes to utilize the feedback should be supported more.
  • Raivio, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Employers are constantly increasing their interest towards communication competence and computer-mediated communication. The use of different kinds of technological applications in organizations and educational institutions is growing. The research on these applications is extensive, but is mostly quantitative and focused on synchronous (same-time) communication and learning results. The goal of this thesis was to find out adult students thoughts and experiences of computer-mediated communication and computer-mediated communication competence in the virtual online classroom. The thesis was a qualitative case study, and it was carried out for a Finnish specialized vocational institute. The data for this thesis was collected by interviewing seven adult students, who had taken part in a virtual online classroom session in the fall of 2013. The class was deployed by using web-conferencing solution, Adobe Connect Pro. The interviews were implemented as theme interviews and the themes were partly based on Spitzberg s (2006) model of computer-mediated communication competence. The data was analyzed by using data-driven content analysis. The results indicated that adult students perceptions and experience of computer-mediated communication were mainly positive and the use of different communication channels was diverse. The results indicated that the requisite communication competence in the virtual online classroom consisted of knowledge about communication context, skills to communicate in task-oriented and relationship-oriented ways and motivation to learn to use new computer-mediated technologies. In addition, instructors communication competence was seen important in enhancing the interaction of the virtual classroom. The findings also provided information of students user experiences of the virtual online classroom; its benefits, challenges and suggestions for improvement. Technology and connection problems in particular were seen as a challenge because they were seen to decrease interaction. This thesis provided information about computer-mediated communication competence in the context of new learning technology. The results can be useful for different kinds of organizations and educational institutions in planning, developing and using virtual technologies in distance education.
  • von Becker, Eini (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Objectives: The Finnish Institute of Occupational Health has developed a method of Change Workshop to promote occupational well-being in organizations. Change Workshop is based on the activity theory and developmental work research methodology. The aim of this study was to analyse the emergence of an expansive learning cycle in the Change Workshop and to ascertain what share interventionists and participants have in the learning process. The second objective was to analyse the developmental cycle of one developmental project called Annual Clock during the different phases of the Change Workshop. The Annual Clock was developed as a tool to distribute work load among persons in different Services. Methods: The research data was from a Change Workshop conducted for the Finnish Forest Centre during 2012-2013. The Change Workshop consisted of five sessions each lasting about three hours and which were attended by 12-25 persons and 2-3 interventionists. The Change Workshop sessions were videotaped and audio-recorded. Transcriptions were made from video and audio recordings. There were a total of 1,190 speaking turns. Thematic analysis was applied to analyse the transcriptions. Since the first objective of the study was to examine the emergence of an expansive learning cycle (questioning, historical- and actual - empirical analysis, modelling, examination of the new model, implementation of the new model, reflection on the process and consolidating the new practice), so these formed part of the coding. This was supplemented by some additional codes based on the data: non-expansive learning, organizational issue, Change Workshop method and off-topic or non-related issue. Each speaking turn was first analysed to ascertain if it could represent any phase of the expansive learning cycle. If this was the case, a closer analysis was made to decide which phase in the expansive learning cycle. Quite a number of speaking turns were classified into several classes of expansive learning cycle, e.g. including elements of questioning, the prevailing situation, analysing the actual empirical situation and modelling. If the speaking turn did not indicate any traces of expansive learning, it was coded under the other headings: non-expansive learning, organizational issue, Change Workshop method or off topic (non-related) issue, and only in one of these headings. Since one speaking turn could be coded under several subcategories of expansive learning actions, the number of discursive elements was 1,378. In addition, a distinction in coding was made between interventionists and participants (except for the off-topic). For the analysis of the developmental cycle of the Annual Clock, a separate table was constructed by collecting all the speaking turns including the word Annual Clock and all such disturbances expressed in which the Annual Clock provided a solution. Results and conclusion: Expansive learning comprised 52% of the discursive elements. The learning process proceeded mainly according to the expansive learning cycle, but some of the learning actions, such as questioning, historical, actual-empirical and modelling, appeared throughout the Change Workshop process. The consolidating phase was not discovered during the Change Workshop, but was discussed in an evaluation meeting of the Change Workshop process two months later. The share of participants in discursive elements was 60% and the share of interventionists 37%. In the expansive learning category, the share of discursive elements by the participants was 81% and the share of interventionist was 19%. The Annual Clock as a germ cell appeared already during the first Change Workshop meeting, but it was mentioned not at all in the assignment for the second Change Workshop meeting, whereas afterwards the Annual Clock was again appearing in the discussions and the development of the idea continued according the expansive learning cycle until the 5th Change Workshop meeting.
  • Koljonen, Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Aims of the study. Relative age refers to age differences between children in a school class or in another age-based group of children. In research conducted in the United States and Canada, relative age has been connected to the probability of being diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). According to studies, children who are the youngest in their class have a higher probability of being diagnosed with ADHD. Researchers have hypothesized that this effect could be explained by teachers mistaking the immaturity of the youngest children for ADHD. Other possible mechanisms of the relative age effect include underdiagnosing the relatively older children in a class, and the classroom environment exacerbating ADHD symptoms in the relatively younger children. The aim of this study is to examine whether relative age has an influence on the prevalence of ADHD diagnoses among the patients of Finnish specialized medical care in Helsinki Metropolitan area. Methods. This study compared the birth date distributions of patients diagnosed with ADHD (the sample) and all those born in Helsinki within the same time period as the sample (1983-2011) with a x2 goodness-of-fit test. The sample (N=3051) consisted of patients from child psychiatric and child neurological specialized medical units at the Helsinki University Central Hospital (HUCH), including patients of outpatient clinics as well as of inpatient wards. The sample included all patients treated for ADHD at the aforementioned units between 2nd January 2000 and 2nd May 2013. During their treatment, patients were between 1 and 18 years of age. In total, 2596 of them were boys and 455 girls. The data was collected from hospital patient records. Results and conclusions. The birth date distribution of patients diagnosed with ADHD differed statistically significantly from the birth date distribution of all those born in Helsinki. Those born during the last quartile of the year, who are the youngest in their class in Finland, were 31 % more likely to enter HUCH specialized medical care as ADHD patients than those born in the first quartile. It is not known whether the effect of relative age was caused by a systematic error in recognizing or diagnosing ADHD patients, or whether being among the youngest in a class could increase ADHD symptoms in some children. Clarifying the influence mechanisms of the relative age effect requires further studies
  • Kallankari, Iiris (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Aims. Purpose of this study was investigate how home economy teachers see bullying in their work and what kind of preparedness they have. Earlier studies have shown that bullying in school is quite common. Despite the fact that bullying has been widely noticed in media, there haven`t find explicit ways to intervene. Bullying in home economics classroom haven`t been studied before. Home economics as a school subject differs from other theoretical subjects and that is the reason why ways of bullying might be different. In this study we tried to find out what kinds of bullying exist in home economics classroom, how teachers intervene it and what kind of preparedness teachers experience they have. Bullying phenomenon is very diverse so study`s framework consist of perceiving bullying phenomena, describing nature of home economics and exposing teacher`s preparedness. Methods. The material of study was collected with nine open questions questionnaire. There were also few background questions. Questionnaires were send digitally to home econom- ics teachers who were teaching in high schools and belong in mailing list of Home econom- ics union, Facebook group called Home economics teachers or Home economics and those who`s e-mail address were find from websites of large cities Finnish speaking schools. 44 answers were received and 6 of them by mail. Work experience of answerers varies from less than a year to 34 years. Material were analysed using content analysis. Results and conclusions. In this study noticed that there were specific features of bullying in home economics classroom. For example pupils free moving, plenty of equipment, opportunity to danger situations, rush and the fact that there happens so much at the same time in a classroom. Teachers feel that their preparedness were mainly good. Young teachers were most unhappy about their preparedness. Education doesn´t give enough preparedness to intervene bullying, but working experience and own children does. Teachers intervene bullying by discussion with bully, victim and their parents. When needed also help of other agents and punishments.
  • Bergset, Heli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Research objectives: As the use of social media has increased, writing a blog has become more and more popular in the recent years. For the writer, a blog is a means of communication, a diary, or enabler of writing as a hobby. One blogger group consists of Finnish expatriates. Emigrating means a life change, that according to previous research causes a process of culture shock that can last for years. Integration of expatriates has been studied quite a lot. Blogs and blogging as a relatively new phenomenon has already been the object of an amount of research, but blogging while living abroad has not received much attention, yet. The purpose of this study was to find out, how blog-writing Finnish expatriates experience the significance of blogging in their current situation in life. The meanings given to the blog were viewed in relation to the writers background. The starting point for the study was an assumption, that blog-writing Finnish expatriates possibly use the blog as an aid in adaptation. Methods: The study involved 39 blog-writing Finnish expatriates, who wrote a free-form text about their blogging, guided by some general questions around the focus of this study. In addition, they answered some questions concerning their background. The texts were analyzed using content analysis. The results of the content analysis and the background information were quantified and cross tabulated to find out factors that might be connected to the significances given. Results and conclusions: The majority of significances given to blogging were connected to living abroad, especially when taking into account the subjects of blog posts and the target audience. The reasons for starting a blog were pragmatic, like communication and writing a diary, whereas the current significances also included deeper level functions. The latter were e.g. receiving peer support, pondering issues and using the Finnish language. The significances given to the blog change as time passes and integration proceeds, but it does not become less important to the writer. Many respondents indicated that communication with friends and family in Finland through the blog is often unidirectional. Communication with new connections acquired through the blog, however, was told to be bidirectional. Therefore, writing a blog may in a way close the writer outside of her former social network, but instead it helps to build a totally new network, including members in a similar situation in life. The results suggest that Finnish expatriates use the blog as an aid in integration process. The blog has instrumental value even when integration has come to an advanced stage and the difficult phases of culture shock have been passed.
  • Nurttila, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    In today s society it is desirable to be successful and continuously progressive. At the same time it is seen important to focus on one s well-being and seeking optimal experiences. In studying, the interaction between motivation and well-being as well as the importance of positive learning experiences is an actual entirety. Taking students conceptions of learning and knowledge into account brings in a richer perspective that has been less frequently studied. Conceptions of learning and knowledge, otherwise epistemologies, are crucial in governing student s ways of interpreting and evaluating information, as well as their wiew on the learning process. An important recent insight on the field of educational research is the growing idea that motivational, emotional and cognitive dimensions are not only intrinsically significant, but also in intense interaction with each other and with the learning environment. The aim of this study was to investigate what kinds of motivational factors and problems in well-being do novice students experience in their studies, and also what their epistemologies are like. The approach was person-oriented. Motivational factors were: experienced challenge and competence, thinking strategies and attributions, and study engagement. Problems in well-being were measured through emotional dimension (stress, exhaustion) on the one hand, and through motivational dimension (lack of interest, task avoidance) on the other. Epistemologies measured in this study were: collaborative knowledge building, reflective learning, metacognition, certainty of knowledge and practical value. The data (n=785) were collected in spring and autumn 2012 by using a questionnaire developed by RYM Indoor Environment project. The participants were first and second year students from Aalto university of Technology and four departments in University of Helsinki: Department of Teacher education, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Theology, and Faculty of Law. K-means cluster analysis was used for clustering students into homogenous groups that presented their experienced motivational factors. To see whether the groups differed in terms of problems in well-being or epistemologies, Oneway analysis of varance was conducted. Also potential differneces in certain background variables were investigated by using crosstabs (gender, study discipline) and Kruskal-Wallis test (age). Three studying profiles were identified: 1) pessimistic, 2) bored, 3) engaged. Pessimistic students reported the lowest study en-gagement, optimism and competence and the highest task avoidance and problems in well-being. They valued certain knowledge the most. Bored students experienced the lowest challence, quite low study engagement and moderate optimism, competence and lack of interest. They reported the lowest practical value of knowledge. Engaged students had the highest study engagement, optimism and competence, lowest task avoidance and the least problems in well-being. They valued collaborative knowledge building, reflective learning and metacognition the most. There were not found gender differences between the studying profiles. Instead, it turned out that pessimistic students were the youngest. When comparing different study disciplines, the results indicated that in the Department of Teacher education, as well as in the Faculties of Law and Theology, the largest section of participants was identified as engaged students. Among participants from Aalto university and the Department of Chemistry, the largest section was indentified as pessimistic students. This study demonstrates the idea of the dynamic interplay between motivational, emotional and cognitive dimensions in studying. In conclusion, students personal motivational factors, well-being and epistemologies form unique entireties. It can be deduced on the basis of earlier research, that these entireties are of utmost importance regarding studying and can be either worthwhile or detrimental to it. In the future, more proof is needed about the concrete relations and potential effects on study success, for example, as supporting successful studying and graduating on schedule are topical politico-educational subjects in Finland. Also little is known about the relations between well-being and epistemologies. The results of this study could be utilized in developing and designing higher education.
  • Metsämuuronen, Tuua Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The study focuses on the Nepalese 8 grade Mathematics, Nepali language and Social study teachers confidence to teach their own subject. Every skill, such as teaching skills, brings with uncertainty and insecurity creates a need for security. The aim of the master's thesis is to research how substance knowledge, the teacher's personality, pedagogical knowledge and classroom management, and their components are connected to each other. In addition, has been researched how much personality, pedagogical knowledge and classroom management, explain the teacher's self-perceived competence assurance to teach. Altogether, 1224 of Nepalese teachers responded to the survey. The survey sample was stratified. The questionnaire, teachers were asked to assess their teaching confidence in their teaching subject and its sections, on a scale of 1 to 4. Many studies have been done about teaching and the teacher's impact on learning outcomes. That has been considered as a possible cause of Finnish students' good learning achievements. Since the schools have small differences between them, it is easier to study the teachers and the teaching effect of the student's achievements in a country, where the school differences are considerable bigger. According to Hattie (2003, 2), the teacher effect is 30% of the student learning achievements, in Nepal the corresponding figure is 68% (Acharya, Metsämuuronen and Metsämuuronen 2013, 281 316). The study examined by tree-analysis how personality, pedagogical knowledge and classroom management elements are linked to educational confidence and by regression analysis how much these independent variables explain together the effect of the phenomenon. According to regression analysis, there are age, teaching years, assessment, professional development over the last two years, and the curriculum understanding and using, as well as the school equipment shortages. The study found that the most confident were those teachers who were under the age of 30 teachers; who had teaching experience five years or less; who used the project work as assessment; who experienced that they understood the objectives of the school curriculum, and in addition they experienced to implement it successfully. This study was empirical and explorative work and the results obtained on the regression model shows that the model explains 9.5% of teacher's confidence to teach their own subjects. As regression model explains less than 10% certainty, is the teacher's teaching confidence and competence a good follow-up research object. Another good object would be to compare the self-perceived reliability and the validity of the comparison of the measured whether teachers' own experience of the same qualifications as a measurable skill.
  • Kukkola, Maija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Previous research has implied that parents school choice is a social correspondence process in which they search a school which would match with their child s features. In that case the school peer group is a signifigant criterion of choice. The aim of this study was to examine parental values behind the school choice. The basis of my study were two value-orientations which Bernstein has connected to school. Instrumental values concern improving child s study skills. Expressive values emphasize the child s inner development. One hypothesis behind this study anticipated that instrumental values are related to the choice of class with a special emphasis and way of reaching child s school achievement. The research data consisted of surveydata and interviews. Analysis process included quantitative and qualitative methods. Two kinds of data were used to reach a better understanding. The study compared, did the parents instrumental and expressive values differ, when their relation to mother s level of education, family income and school choice were measured. The study also examined how parents link these values to the school peer group and the class with a special emphasis in their speech. The study revealed that parents represented instrumental and expressive values pretty equally, but expressive values highlighted. Concerning instrumental values those families with mother s low level of education were emphasized. The instrumental order of the school might be connected to the struggle of social position in society. School choice was a way to seek similar selected peer group around the child. Instrumental values aimed at learning environment which would offer keys to child s future success. In expressive values schools were evaluated by the fact how they could offer a happy lifetime experience for the child. When selecting a class with special emphasis the people in the school were more important than the actual subject.
  • Manninen, Marika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The aim of this thesis was to find out what kind of literacy skills are needed in studying history and how these skills could be teached. The focus of history teaching has moved from emphasizing content knowledge towards skill-oriented teaching. Skill-oriented teaching includes the idea of working like a researcher of history. By studying primary and secondary references the students themselves learn to compile historical information: they have to evaluate the information available and match even contradictory interpretations from past events. Studying historical documents requires genre-related knowledge and skills. However, according to many studies the objectives set for school History in the curriculum have not been fulfilled. Transforming the traditional way of teaching history to meet the objectives set by the curriculum has proven to be challenging, because working based on document examination requires cutting down contents and a teacher familiar with teaching historical thinking. This study connects methods needed for both teaching literacy skills and teaching document skills, and based on these a pedagogical model is created, which allows the teacher to concentrate on the teaching of literacy skills particularly needed in history. This study utilized features from design-based research. The starting point for the study was the detection of a practical problem. The study advanced from defining and analysing a theoretical didactic problem for developing a didactic artefact corresponding to a practical problem. The iterative testing process belonging to a typical design-based research was not included in this study at this stage because of the restrictions set by the extent of a master s thesis. The last element of this study is practical. Another end product of this study besides the description of a literacy skills teaching process is a learning material intended for teaching literacy skills. The literacy skills teaching process developed in this study is applied in this material, in which the legend of the first crusade is explored by the means of investigating source documents. The learning material developed in this study offers opportunities for integrating the teaching of history and mother tongue. Testing and developing this learning material according to the principles of design-based research give reason for further study.
  • Naskali, Tuomo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    In the past few decades, Western countries have evolved from industrial societies to information societies. Skills that are useful in life and work are not the same as before. Schools as an institution have been criticized for lagging behind in change. For this reason,21st Century Skills have been developed to work as a model of skills useful in the future. The aim of this study is to observe the ICT projects of some first-graders in one school through the lens of 21st Century Skills. My goal is to study which 21st Century Skills were learned in the projects and how. iPads were used in the projects; two classes made multimedia books of themselves and one made video interviews about different professions. The pupils also used Edmodo, which is a social media and learning environment aimed at schools. Their activity in Edmodo is also studied from the viewpoint of 21st Century Skills. Social media has changed the way people live and work in a global level, but it has not been used or studied much in elementary schools. My study is a case study whose subjects were pupils from three 1st grade classes (age ~7) in an elementary school in Helsinki metropolitan area. The school has a pedagogical ICT support person who planned and carried out the projects together with the class teachers. The projects took place in April-May 2013 and I was present at the school to observe the lessons. The data of my study comprises of my own observation notes, the video material I filmed and the content the pupils produced in Edmodo. The data is analyzed with theorybased themes as per a model of 21st Century Skills. All three classes were analyzed together. The data reflects the future challenges of teaching. Many contents of 21st Century Skills were learned in the projects. Especially, skills related to social interaction, technology, creativity and problem solving were learned. The pupils shared ideas and solved problems together. Their actions were creative and target-oriented. By using iPads the pupils worked on their ICT skills and learned to use new apps and services quickly. Edmodo supported social and technological learning goals. Some pupils uploaded a lot of content to Edmodo, some only a little. Although social media was used only briefly by the students, they learned vital skills for upcoming years in school.