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  • Veijalainen, Jouni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    A child's emotional self-regulation skills affects clearly on how he/she behaves, reacts and builds his/hers understanding in different kinds of everyday activities. This research focuses on examining how children's emotional self-regulation skills occur in the everyday activities in Finnish day care and how it will effect on the children's social strategies. There were two research problems: (1) How a child's emotional self-regulation skills occur in the everyday ac-tivities in day care? And (2) How emotional self-regulation skills occur in children's social strategies? The theoretical relation of the emotional self-regulation skills and day care's every-day activities were supported by several self-regulation related international researches and theories. Child's Social Strategies were operated through Reunamo's (2007) different views of the relationships between perception and environmental change -theory. The method of this research was quantitative. The data used in this study was a part of Reunamo's (2010) Orientation project which included evaluation of the children's skills (n = 862), child observations (n = 18 364) and interviews (n = 805). 892 different children of the 47 different day cares and 17 child minders participated in the project. The instrument of the child's emotional self-regulation skills was based on teacher's likert scale evaluation of how a child recognizes his/her own feelings and how he/she can deal with them. The data was ana-lyzed by using t-test, correlation, cross tabulation and chi-square. The results of the research brought out that children who had good emotional self-regulation skills had more often a social target on themselves than other children. Good self-regulation skills improved their ability to recognize other children's feelings and affected how they adapted to new situations with others, and to participate eagerly and with initiative to different activities. The poor skills of emotional self-regulation appeared in the child's tendency to use his/her influence and willpower towards other children. They were also strolling everywhere, seeking and waiting more often than other children. The children with poor emotional self-regulation skills didn't get involved in the day care activities as often. Nor did they use their imaginations to role play as other children did. Their social strategies were more often uncer-tain in social situations and they did not know how to react on them.
  • Marjokorpi, Jenni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    According to the recent draft of the renewed Finnish national core curriculum, the basic concepts of grammar are to be learned already in the primary school when they are taught by a classroom teacher. As the basis of metalinguistic awareness, the grammatical concepts are complex and abstract, and a body of research evidence has raised public worry about the teachers insufficient pedagogical content knowledge in this area; some authorities have even suggested replacing the classroom teachers, who receive very little grammar instruction during their training, with subject teachers of Finnish as the mother tongue in the fifth and sixth grades of basic education. This study aims at understanding student teachers grammatical thinking from the point of view of the sentence elements subject and object, both usually taught during the fifth grade. I research the students capability of identifying and defining the sentence elements and the minitheories they used in this cognitive process. I also study the relation between each minitheory and success in the grammar test. The study is part of a project that evaluates the student teachers grammatical content knowledge, for which the data was collected in 2011. The students (N = 128) took a grammar test in which they identified the sentence elements, explained the strategies they used in the task, and also marked a fifth-grader s grammar test. I studied the minitheories using content analysis of the open-ended questions and examined their effectiveness with quantitative methods. I also considered the students earlier performance in the national matriculation exam in relation to the level of grammatical content knowledge pictured by the test. The students were familiar with the concepts of subject and object as well as their semantic definitions but only 9.4 % of the participants managed to identify all the five subjects, and 21 % of them all the four objects. The separate and content-based analysis of the minitheories of subject and object showed that the students searched for both of them by using the same minitheories that I call semantic, syntactic, interrogative, and morphological. The morphological minitheory appeared effective in both cases, the syntactic minitheory in the subject tasks, and a combination of many minitheories in the object tasks. Therefore, the teacher education needs to put emphasis on the students content knowledge in order to ensure that they have the profound grammatical understanding required by the curriculum.
  • Varmola, Milka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    In this study I examine how textiles were patched and darned in Finland from the 1920s to the 1960s, and how changes in everyday life affected it. Modernization, the following of fashion and the rise of ready-made clothes industry in the 1920s declined into a shortage of textiles and a demand on self-sufficiency during the war years in the 1940s. After the war clothes were bought ready from shops and their value related to people s assets was reduced. Alike, people s attitudes towards textiles and mending them changed. The data for my study consisted of articles from Kotiliesi, Omin käsin and Emäntälehti from 1924 to 1959, contemporary guidebooks from 1920 to 1966 and craft teacher students samples and notebooks from the the 1920s to the 1940s. In addition I interviewed four women who were born between the years 1918 and 1938, three orally and one with written questionnaire. Because mending textiles has hardly been studied in previous research, I needed to gather the information from many sources. I used different qualitative data analysis and discourse analysis methods to put together pieces of the story. In the 1920s and the 1930s mending textiles was considered almost a platitude. Especially in the countryside the majority of clothes and home textiles were self-made or made to order, although in the cities ready-made clothes could already be purchased. The value of a single cloth was considerable and because of that a lot of time was spent on mending it and different instructions how to darn by hand or with a sewing machine were published in women s magazines and contemporary guidebooks. New textiles were hard to purchase during the depression caused by the Winter War and the Continuation War, therefore good care had to be taken of the textiles already found from homes. Instructions and articles focused especially on advices on how to patch socks. After the war mending of textiles was often emotionally connected to the shortage of the wartime and the amount of mending instructions given in women s magazines decreased. New type of nylon socks reduced the need to darn and patch them, but Kotiliesi still published articles on how to mend different types of clothes, though the instructions were directed to skillful light-fingered women. Publishing articles about mending in women s magazines ended in the 1950s, but the women I interviewed told that they have continued mending until present-day. At the end of my study I consider why mending is still current in the 21st century.
  • Korpisalo, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Tiedekunta - Fakultet - Faculty Faculty of behavioural sciences Laitos - Institution Department Department of teacher education Tekijä - Författare - Author Sanna Korpisalo Työn nimi - Arbetets titel - Title EsKon kanssa kouluun Vantaalaisten esiopettajien näkemyksiä esiopetusvuoden tarkoituksesta ja merkityksellisistä kouluvalmiuksista Oppiaine - Läroämne - Subject Education (early childhood education) Työn laji ja ohjaaja(t) - Arbetets art och handledare Level and instructor Master´s thesis / Kristiina Kumpulainen Aika - Datum - Month and year May 2014 Sivumäärä - Sidoantal - Number of pages 91 pp. + 11 appendices Tiivistelmä - Referat Abstract This study examines preschool teacher´s views about the purpose of preschool year and significant school readiness skills in a municipality where a uniform way of transferring information from preschool to school is in use. The preschool teacher´s aims of using child observation form, which is the part of municipality´s EsKo-information transfer process and the effects of EsKo-information transfer process to preschool teachers work are being examined. The theoretical contexts of the study are sociocultural theory and Bronfenbrenner´s ecological systems theory. Sociocultural theory understands learning and teaching as an interactive, social and cultural phenomenon. Ecological systems theory emphasizes the effect of the growing environments to development. Both sociocultural and ecological theory examines the relationships and interaction between individual and environment. The material of the study was collected at half structured pair and group interviews witch were taken part in 13 preschool teachers from city of Vantaa at the group of 2-3 persons. The interviews were recorded, videotaped and transcribed for analysis. The analysis was done with the methods of content analysis. The results of the study show that the preschool teachers who were interviewed had a wide view about the purpose of preschool year. Answers that describe the purpose of preschool year were divided between three time dimensions: preschool year, transfer to school and learning through life. Preschool teachers experienced that the most significant school readiness skill was child´s ability to move his motivation from play to learning activities. Other significant school readiness skills were self-regulation skills, social skills and coping independently everyday life in school. Child observation form, which is the part of EsKo-information transfer process was used to plan activities for the whole group, to survey the level of knowledge and skills of a single child, as a teacher´s own information package and to help teacher in professional conversations. The benefits of EsKo-information transfer process were that the preschool teachers experience that it has brought appreciation to pre-education, structured the preschool year, strengthened the co-operation with parents and made the information transfer to school easier and more equal. This study suggests that city of Vantaa has been able to create uniform procedures to the preschool education that prepare children to school at uniform ways. Interviewed teachers pursued to preserve their early childhood educational professional identities even though school transition and preparing to school was determined via EsKo-information transfer process. Avainsanat Nyckelord - Keywords preschool education, primary education, transition to school, school readiness, information transfer Säilytyspaikka - Förvaringsställe - Where deposited City Centre Campus Library/Behavioral Sciences/Minerva
  • Ruuska, Anna Kerttu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The traditional nuclear family is the most common type of family in our society. During the last decades other kinds of family models have appeared besides the nuclear family. Every child comes across with the diversity of families at some part of their lives. It will happen during their lives or when they start the early childhood education and school. Children should know how to meet the diversity and grow to understand it so that everyone would feel themselves appreciated. Children s books can be a tool to handle diversity of families with children. Through children s books, a child can observe different kinds of families and their lives from a reasonable distance. From a book, the child can find objects to identify to. The child also learns to understand his/her own family as well as other kinds of families. All this widens up the child s picture of the world and teaches how to tolerate dissimilarity. The goal of this research was to find out what kind of families can be found from the popular children s book series Risto Räppääjä, and how the families are represented in it. Another goal was to reflect how educators could use the series in preschool and in elementary school while discussing about diversity of families. The research also tries to broaden the impressions of parents and other educators towards how children s literature can be used variedly when teaching children liberality and how to be a member of the society who accepts dissimilarity. This research was qualitative. The research method was content analysis, where fictional documents were analyzed. The documents were 13 books from a children s book series Risto Räppääjä. Many kinds of families were found from the children s book series Risto Räppääjä. The extended family Räppääjä and nuclear family Perhonen were the most relevant families in this research. These two families broke many of the stereotypes that are placed towards families. Children s points of view and thoughts about families in general also surface from these two families. An adult reader and a child reader find opportunities to reflect the families to their own lives and consider their attitudes through these two families. Also through all the families in the series reader will learn different kinds of ways of living. The children s book series Risto Räppääjä can be used in many ways in preschool and elementary school, for example in conversations, drama and artwork.
  • Kangasaho, Elisa (2014)
    Tavoitteet. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on kuvata suomi-venäjä –kaksikielisten ajatuksia kieli-identiteetistä. Tutkimuksessa on perehdytty kaksikielisyyden kehittymiseen, kaksikielisyyden etuihin ja haittoihin, venäjänkielisten kohtaamiin asenteisiin Suomessa sekä identiteetin rakentumiseen erityisesti kieltenoppimisen suhteen. Aikaisempia tutkimuksia kaksikielisten aikuisten suhteen on hyvin vähän. Tässä työssä perehdytään niihin tekijöihin, jotka vaikuttavat kieli-identiteetin kehittymiseen. Tutkimuskysymyksiä oli kaksi: minkälaisiksi kaksikieliset kokevat oman kieli-identiteetin ja miten tilannesidonnaisuus vaikuttaa kielen valintaan. Menetelmät. Tutkimusta varten on haastateltu yhtätoista kaksikielistä aikuista: neljää miestä ja seitsemää naista. Haastattelut toteutettiin teemahaastatteluna. Aineisto on analysoitu sisällön analyysillä ja se on teoriasidonnainen eli analyysiyksiköt on poimittu aineistoista, mutta niitä on ohjaa teoria. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Monelle vastaajalle kaksikielisyys oli enemmänkin identiteettikysymys kuin kielikysymys. Vastaajista vain neljä koki identifioituvansa yhteen kansallisuuteen. Kuusi vastaajaa koki kuuluvansa molempiin kansallisuuksiin: toimintapuolelta suomalaiseksi ja tunne- sekä ajattelupuolelta venäläiseksi. Ajattelun kieli määräytyi enemmin tilanteiden (puhutun kielen ja aiheen) mukaan, kuin kansallisen identiteetin kautta. Asenteet vaikuttivat kaksikielisyyteen kahdella tavalla: Suomessa monet vastaajista olivat joutuneet salailemaan kaksikielisyyttään negatiivisen asennoitumisen kautta. Venäjänkielisessä maassa kielitaito on yksi olennaisimpia identiteetin määrittäviä tekijöitä. Monet vastaajista kokivat, etteivät saa olla venäläisiä heikon kielitaidon takia, vaikka identiteetiltään kokivatkin näin. Tilannesidonnaisuus oli suurin tekijä kielen valintaan. Kaksikieliset usein ulkoistivat kielenvalinnan keskustelukumppanilleen. Näin ollen he pääsivät puhumaan suomea, joka valtaosalle oli helpompi tai venäjää ja näin myös ylläpitämään ja kehittämään sitä.
  • Syrjänen, Sakari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Objectives of the study: Multidiscipline knowledge is needed in evaluation of person s functional capacity in work: physical and psychosocial factors must be considered. Generic models and tools are needed to provide common practices to evaluate work-ability (or demands of the work) and to understand the relevance of multifaceted factors underneath. Reflective processing of one s own knowledge and intuitions is seen to improve a person s ability to understand the relevance of unfamiliar information and to achieve a higher cognitive congruence in a multi-professional group. That can be achieved through group-learning practices. In a current research effect of IMBA- methods training is studied. It is assumed that training will increase the cognitive congruence between professionals evaluating work-ability. Methods: Three training groups were arranged in 2005. 51 professionals of vocational rehabilitation participated (43 women and 8 men). They evaluated both the functional capacities of a person and the demands of work before and after their IMBA-training. Evaluations were done on the basis of written case-information. The data of these evaluation tasks is data of this study. Both independent samples and repeated measures settings was used. The effect of training is analyzed as a measure of absolute agreement indexes (ICC and rrg) Results and conclusions: The results agreed with the hypothesis: After IMBA training the level of absolute agreement was higher in evaluating both the demands of work and the functional capacities of a person. Differences between training groups, features of the task or familiarity of the material didn t seem to influence the effect. Agreement got higher in evaluating physical and psychosocial factors of workability. The effect was very systematic. The evaluations were more congruent after training even though the effect was not strong enough to reach statistical significance with these samples. What was surprising was that demands of work were systematically evaluated lower after training as the functional capacities of persons were evaluated the same or a little higher after the training. Interesting question is: Do the professionals overestimate the demands of the work in general when making evaluations based on their intuitive thinking? If that s the case, the customers of vocational rehabilitation are seen as more disabled compared to demands the work than they are in real. The possibility of a systematic error like this in evaluating workability must be studied more in the future.
  • Koirikivi, Iivo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Empathy is the human capacity to understand and feel for the other human in distress. The capacity to understand the others emotions and the capacity to feel for the other are separate, dissociable processes, called cognitive empathy and affective empathy, latter of which is the focus of this study. A review of the current methods of assessing affective empathic arousal revealed that there is currently a dearth of available ecologically valid ways to test empathic reactions. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop a new way to measure affective empathy called Pictorial Empathy Test (PET), and assess the reliability and validity of this new test. Pictorial Empathy Test (PET) consists of 7 pictures of people in distress. Subjects were asked to rate their emotional arousal in a five-point scale. It was hypothesized that seven pictures all showed variance in one latent trait, affective empathy. The fit of one-latent-factor model was assessed using structural equation modeling. PET s validity was assessed with tests of other theoretically related and unrelated concepts, such as self-reported empathy, social intelligence, intuitive thinking and gender role orientation. Correlations between PET scores and other scales were assessed to determine the validity of PET. Also, relationships between PET scores, participants sex and gender role orientation were analyzed using mediation analysis. PET was shown to be a reliable and valid measure of affective empathy. One-latent-factor model was shown to be a good fit to the data. Relationships between PET scores and other related concepts were all in the hypothesized direction. Mediation analysis showed that although gender role mediates much of the effect of participants sex on the final PET scores, there was still a significant unique portion on the sex directly to the PET scores. The strengths and weaknesses of the present study are discussed. PET is recommended as a free and easy-to-use tool in further research concerning affective empathy.
  • Rantanen, Mirjami (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Tavoitteet. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää, millä tavoin verkko-opetus voi tukea oppimista kotitaloudessa. Tutkimuksen kohteena on Etäkoulu Kulkurin järjestämä kotitalouden etäopetus itäsuomalaisessa Kolin koulussa syksyllä 2013. Teoreettinen viitekehys muodostuu perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman, kotitalouden ydintaitojen ja verkko-opetuksen aikaisemmalle tutkimukselle. Tutkimuksen pääkysymykset ovat: 1. Miten verkko-opetus voi aktivoida oppimiseen? 2. Miten verkko-opetus voi tukea vuorovaikutus- ja yhteistyötaitojen, käytännön työtaitojen sekä tiedonhankinta- ja käsittelytaitojen kehitystä? Menetelmät. Aineisto kerättiin yksilöhaastatteluina stimulated recall -menetelmää hyödyntäen. Aineiston tuottivat viisi Kolin koulun seitsemäsluokkalaista sekä kolme opetuksen asiantuntijaa. Tutkimusaineisto analysoitiin laadullisen sisällönanalyysin keinoin. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Haastateltavien mukaan verkko-opetuksessa oppimiseen aktivoivia elementtejä ovat osallistaminen ja yhteistoiminnallisuus, vuorovaikutuksellisuus sekä kokemus opetuksen jatkuvuudesta. Toisaalta oppimista vaikeuttivat tekniset ongelmat ja haasteet oppimisalustan käytössä sekä ohjauksen puute. Tulokset osoittavat, että verkko-opetus on mahdollista toteuttaa sosiokonstruktivismista käsin perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman tavoitteet huomioiden. Verkon välineet voivat myös toimia tukena taidon oppimi-sessa. Kotitalouden ydintaitojen harjoittelu yksinomaan verkossa ei kuitenkaan täytä kotitalousopetukselle asetettuja tavoitteita. Verkko voidaankin nähdä yhtenä olennaisena kotitalouden tulevaisuuden oppimisympäristönä.
  • Rikabi-Sukkari, Leila (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Suomen perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteita uudistetaan parhaillaan Opetushallituksessa. Uudet opetussuunnitelman perusteet tulevat käyttöön elokuussa 2016. Opetussuunnitelmassa määritellään opetuksen ja kasvatuksen arvopohja, tavoitteet sekä keskeiset opetettavat sisällöt. Opetussuunnitelma on vahvasti arvosidonnainen asiakirja, joka heijastaa ympäröivän yhteiskunnan arvoja, tapoja ja perinteitä. Uudistuksen kannalta on siis keskeistä ymmärtää yhteiskunnassa vallitsevaa arvomaailmaa ja yhteiskunnallisia muutoksia. Perusteluonnos on ollut ensimmäistä kertaa valmisteluvaiheessa vapaasti kommentoitavana Opetushallituksen www-sivuilla. Tarkastelen tutkimuksessani uuden opetussuunnitelman luonnokseen liittyvää palautekeskustelua: mitkä asiat koetaan tärkeiksi opetussuunnitelman ja koulutuksen kannalta nyt ja tulevaisuudessa? Tutkimukseni aineisto koostui 963 kommentista, jotka annettiin Opetushallituksen www-sivuilla koskien uuden perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman yleisten linjausten luonnosta. Avoin kommentointi toteutettiin 17 päivän ajan marras- joulukuussa 2012. Laadullinen aineistolähtöinen analyysi toteutettiin teemoitellen Atlas.ti -ohjelman avulla. Aineistosta löydetyt teemat käsittelivät monipuolisesti suomalaista koulua ja sen sivistystehtävää sekä kommentoijien omia arvostuksia. Päätuloksiksi nousivat 1) yhdenvertaisuus ja tasa-arvo; 2) autenttisten oppimisympäristöjen käyttö ja yhteistyö koulun ulkopuolisten tahojen kanssa; 3) suomalaisen kulttuuriperinnön ja uskonnon opetuksen asema sekä 4) kestävä kehitys ja maailmankansalaisuus. Tutkimuksen tulokset kuvastavat niitä teemoja ja arvoja, joita pidetään juuri nyt tärkeinä tulevaisuuden sekä suomalaisen koulun ja yhteiskunnan kehittämisen kannalta.
  • Vidgren, Noora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Tämä tutkielma käsittelee lukiolaisten informaalia englannin oppimista ja sen yhteyttä englannin oppimiseen koulussa. Tutkielmani tarkoituksena on selvittää, kuinka suuren osan englannin oppimisestaan lukiolaiset arvioivat tapahtuvan koulun ulkopuolella, missä tilanteissa he oppivat englantia koulun ulkopuolella ja mikä yhteys koulun ulkopuolisella oppimisella on koulussa tapahtuvaan oppimiseen. Tutkielman teoreettisessa osassa tarkastelen englannin kielen asemaa Suomessa ennen ja nyt sekä englantia maailmankielenä. Tämän lisäksi käsittelen englannin kielen informaalia oppimista. Tutkielman empiirinen osa esittelee kvantitatiivisen tutkimuksen, joka tutkii lukiolaisten informaalin englannin oppimisen määrää ja laatua sekä sen yhteyttä englannin oppimiseen koulussa. Tutkimusmetodina toimii kyselylomake. Tutkimukseen osallistui yhteensä 240 lukiolaista pääkaupunkiseudulta. Kerätty aineisto analysoitiin SPSS-tilasto-ohjelman avulla. Tutkimukseen osallistuneista lukiolaisista neljännes kertoo oppivansa englantia suurimmaksi osaksi tai ainoastaan koulussa, lähes puolet yhtä paljon koulun ulkopuolella kuin koulussa, ja reilu viidennes suurimmaksi osaksi tai kokonaan koulun ulkopuolella. Yleisimmät oppimistilanteet koulun ulkopuolella ovat television ja elokuvien katselu, internet ja musiikin kuuntelu, ja informaalin oppimisen katsotaan vaikuttavan etenkin sanastotaitoihin. Sen perusteella, kuinka suuri osuus informaalilla oppimisella on oppijoiden englannin oppimisessa, tutkimukseen osallistuneet lukiolaiset voidaan jakaa institutionaalisiin oppijoihin, universaaleihin oppijoihin ja informaaleihin oppijoihin. Sukupuoli on merkittävä tekijä englannin informaalissa oppimisessa, sillä 80 prosenttia informaaleihin oppijoihin kuuluvista oppijoista on poikia. Englannin informaalin oppimisen ja arvosanojen välillä löytyy tilastollisesti merkittävä korrelaatio: informaaleilla oppijoilla on muita korkeammat arvosanat. Tämän lisäksi englannin informaalin oppimisen ja perinteisen koulutyöskentelyn välillä löytyy tilastollisesti merkittävä negatiivinen korrelaatio: informaalit oppijat käyttävät vähemmän aikaa läksyjen tekemiseen ja kokeisiin lukemiseen kuin institutionaaliset ja universaalit oppijat. Kolmanneksi englannin informaalin oppimisen ja englannin oppimisen vaikeustason välillä löytyy tilastollisesti merkittävä korrelaatio: informaalit oppijat kokevat englannin oppimisen helpommaksi kuin institutionaaliset ja universaalit oppijat. Tutkimustulokset osoittavat, että informaalit oppijat ovat luokkahuoneissa etulyöntiasemassa. He saavuttavat vähemmällä vaivalla korkeampia arvosanoja kuin institutionaaliset ja universaalit oppijat.
  • Shin, Shania (Sun Won) (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    1. Objectives This research seeks to uncover the latent potential in mentoring relationships to move towards a reciprocal and mutually beneficial partnership in cross-cultural contexts. While the prevailing concept of mentoring remains vague and limited to one-way knowledge transmission in existing literature on mentoring. Cultural Historicial Activity Theory was employed in this study to shed light on the metorship process as a transformative activity towards building reciprocal partnerships. For that purpose, the trajectory of mentorship discourse was scrutinized using various typologies of questions, typologies of shaping meaningful targets and within the framework of an interactive activity system. The three research questions posed in this study are 1) How different typoesof question is used in the direction of dynamic discourse in different mentoring processes, 2) How the meaningful and shared targets are formed and shifted in the reciprocal mentorship processes, and 3) The cross-cultural context is recognized and employed when the dyad shapes the meaningful targets in the mentorship processes. 2. Methods In this study, three different mentor-mentee dyads were selected among 28 dyads representing 21 nations; these dyads had beenparticipating in a pilot mentorship program organized by the Helsinki Education and Research Area (HERA) from September 2012 to April 2013. Diversity in terms of mentor and mentee s educational, occupational and cultural context was taken into account as a core criterion of the selection process. The successive meetings of the three dyads were video-taped and transcribed for the purpose of analyzing and comparing the three trajectories in the different mentorship processes. In order to answer the three research questions, the discourse of the three selected dyads was scrutinized and reconceptualized using different approaches such as typology of questions, the lapse of time, the different types of meaningful targets as well as the perspective of activity theory. At the same time, the researcher s qualitative analysis and interpretation were complemented with quantitative analysis based on predetermined criteria and triangulation methods. 3. Results and conclusions This study finds that the function of questions in the mentorship process to be a meaningful indicator promoting reciprocal discourse. Second, the trajectory of shaping meaningful targets in the actual mentorship process was reconceptualized by correlating questions to the potential of mutually beneficial mentorship. Last,the modeling stucture of an activity system in mentorship was identified as a novel approach to understand and mobilize resources surrounding the practitioners. These findings demonstrate cross-cultural mentorship to potentially lead to a reciprocal and mutually beneficial partnership. In the mentorship process.
  • Raivio, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Employers are constantly increasing their interest towards communication competence and computer-mediated communication. The use of different kinds of technological applications in organizations and educational institutions is growing. The research on these applications is extensive, but is mostly quantitative and focused on synchronous (same-time) communication and learning results. The goal of this thesis was to find out adult students thoughts and experiences of computer-mediated communication and computer-mediated communication competence in the virtual online classroom. The thesis was a qualitative case study, and it was carried out for a Finnish specialized vocational institute. The data for this thesis was collected by interviewing seven adult students, who had taken part in a virtual online classroom session in the fall of 2013. The class was deployed by using web-conferencing solution, Adobe Connect Pro. The interviews were implemented as theme interviews and the themes were partly based on Spitzberg s (2006) model of computer-mediated communication competence. The data was analyzed by using data-driven content analysis. The results indicated that adult students perceptions and experience of computer-mediated communication were mainly positive and the use of different communication channels was diverse. The results indicated that the requisite communication competence in the virtual online classroom consisted of knowledge about communication context, skills to communicate in task-oriented and relationship-oriented ways and motivation to learn to use new computer-mediated technologies. In addition, instructors communication competence was seen important in enhancing the interaction of the virtual classroom. The findings also provided information of students user experiences of the virtual online classroom; its benefits, challenges and suggestions for improvement. Technology and connection problems in particular were seen as a challenge because they were seen to decrease interaction. This thesis provided information about computer-mediated communication competence in the context of new learning technology. The results can be useful for different kinds of organizations and educational institutions in planning, developing and using virtual technologies in distance education.
  • Nykänen, Irina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    It is possible to participate in leisure activities and handicrafts with different levels of commitment and devotion. Dimensions of handicraft activities can also vary along with hobbyists. The aim of this research was to get an overall picture of the dimensions that are typical for Finnish handicraft leisure and what separates hobbyists from each other. The research was descriptive and explorative. Leisure handicrafts were approached through five problems: 1. To what extent different handicrafts are made as leisure? 2. To what extent craft hobbyists seek for inspiration, information or instructions from different sources? 3. To what extent different dimensions of serious leisure occur in handicraft activities? 4. To what extent different social actions occur in handicraft activities? 5. To what extent different motives guides handicraft activities? Quantitative data was collected using web survey during spring 2013. The survey was advertised through craft-themed webpages and Facebook-groups. The data (N=3009) was female oriented. It was analyzed using statistical software SPSS 22. Central tendencies and frequencies were observed. For further analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, K-means cluster analysis and correlations were computed. The aims of these analyses were to deepen the results and observe the connections between the dimensions of the research. Handicrafts were made mostly daily and 1 2 hours at one time. Knitting, crocheting, and making accessories were the most popular forms of crafts. Making crafts in company varied between respondents, but making crafts as gifts was quite common. Making holistic and ordinary crafts varied between respondents and weren t connected to the dimensions of serious leisure. Most respondents found their skills and ways of doing crafts positive. The extent in which the respondents participate in craft activities was connected to identifying with leisure pursuit. Inspiration, information and instructions were often sought from webpages, -goups and -blogs and from craft books and magazines. Handicrafts were mostly made for process-centered reasons and uniqueness, but the manufacture-based and experiment-based motives were also present. Respondents could be grouped to four groups whose results varied within the key parts of this research and within background variables. For example, respondents differed in their identification to the hobby and in their overall activeness in this pursuit. However differences in seriousness of the leisure couldn t be defined. The results of this study, along with the methods and terminology used in this study, can be applied to future studies and developed further based on more specific designs.
  • Lyijynen, Tuiri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The heart of instrumental study in music school is formed by collaboration between a professional instrumental teacher and pupil with individual qualities. Individuality of learning, a learner-centered approach and goal-oriented demands are combined in music school curriculums and other instructions. Subjects concerning the diversity and difference of learning are, however, under discussion the fields of elaboration and development in music institutes. Also in reports has taken notice in increased needs of pedagogical know-how concerning this area. The purpose of this research was to focus on learning diversity by way of expertise experiences of the instrumental teacher. In order to explore this, I asked six experienced string teachers to contemplate a pupil they considered as different or special. With narrative thematic inquiry, qualitative and phenomenological approach and content based content analysis, the aim was to examine how the teachers acted with their pupil and experienced as experts in their work actions. The result of the research displays four experience-related elements of expertise, relating to each other: the independent agency of the teacher, different teachership, knowledge and teacher s reflection on what is the best from pupil s point of view. The position of the instrument teacher as an institutional actor was significant both in pedagogical and practise decision making concerning studying in music school. Different teachers put it in practise in different ways, too. Also diverse or special learning produced different teachership as instrument teachers felt like stepping out of their professional core know-how. Instrumental teachers also based their actions and decisions largely on previous experiences and found their knowledge inadequate when meeting learning challenges. Teachers experienced contradictions between meaningful and pleasure giving approaches and teaching they could offer. According to these results, music schools should improve in practices that offer professional support for instrumental teachers. Also, they should bring more out the questions related the support of pupils with learning and other difficulties. That concerns both curriculum work and a teacher profession concerning questions. This would improve pupil equality and increase the pedagogical well-being of the instrumental teacher.
  • Sipilä, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Purposes. This is an ethnographic case study about elementary school teacher as a listener of a child's voice and about children as ethnographers in the classroom. The current study aims to make visible factors that limit listening child's voice at school and especially in the interaction between the teacher and the student. It also describes children's views and thoughts about school. This study is a part of consortium research Children tell of their well-being who listens? (TelLis, a project number 1134911). Methods. The study was conducted at the school during four weeks at spring 2013. The data was gathered using children as ethnographers -method and consists of 57 classroom diaries written by fifth and sixth grade students and reflected by their four elementary school teachers. In addition, data includes children's drawings, teacher's interviews before the study, two teacher's group interviews and observation notes. In this study I describe teachers as listeners of students' voice during children as ethnographers -period. I ask, what kind of knowledge teachers find in children's classroom diaries. I also ask, how teachers make use of classroom diaries at their work. Analysis is based on qualitative content analysis. Findings and conclusion. Teachers found knowledge of students culture and knowledge of their action, thoughts and opinions in classroom diaries. In addition, teachers looked for knowledge to evaluate competencies and developmental needs of students' and the class. Teachers used classroom diaries primarily as a tool of evaluating and educating children, but also as a tool for listening children and educating themselves as professionals. According to content analysis, listening to child represented mostly listening based on evaluating and educating children and themselves. There was less listening based on developing the school and the least listening based on encountering a child. Because of teachers' strong aims of evaluating and educating, listening to child was limited. The current study shows, that despite of several factors limiting listening to child's voice in society, school community and class community, teacher with his/her aims, views and actions has an emergent role as a listener of a child's voice. Teachers should create especially those kinds of listening moments that are based on encountering a child naturally and humanely.
  • Rauhala, Carita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Writing is one of the most important skills learned in school. Studies have indicated that pupils´ writing skills need improvement which evokes to observe the practices of teaching writing. This thesis contemplates the teaching of writing from the feedback´s point of view. The goal of my thesis is to find out what kind of conceptions the sixth-graders have about the feedback they receive from writing and how pupils describe the meaning and effectiveness of feedback. Research type was qualitative study. Data was gathered from three different classes by using method of empathy-based stories. Data consists of 69 pupils empathy-based stories that deals with response given from the opinion essays. Material was analysed by using qualitative theory-guided content analysis. Study indicated that according to pupils´ stories feedback wasn´t given until the text was finished. Response consisted mainly of text evaluation. In the pupils´ stories the response was given verbally and in writing generally by classmates and the teacher. Besides the content of the text and pupils working effort, the feedback was often focused on opinions in the text. When feedback was given by the classmates it was sometimes targeted at the pupil receiving the response and contained inappropriate features such as mocking. Empathy-based stories showed that feedback clearly had a meaning but experience of the feedback may consist of many different factors. In the story conceptions and expectations considering the feedback had the most influence on pupil´s experience. In most cases feedback had an effect on pupil´s experience at emotional level. In the stories feedback was also seen to have an influence on future writing, pupil´s self-esteem, conception of feedback and person giving it. The results showed that the pupils have lots of resources to reflect the quality of the feedback and its meaning for the writer. According to the stories the benefit of feedback was tangential from the writings point of view and the idea of giving feedback was in accordance with conventional evaluative feedback. I think the results support the idea that feedback should be more firm part of the actual writing process. The person receiving the feedback should be more active and the pupils´ aptitudes to utilize the feedback should be supported more.