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  • Heiskanen, Inkeri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Background: Theory of mind (ToM) refers to the ability to perceive and interpret the mental states of self and others, such as desires, intentions and beliefs. ToM problems have been observed both in people suffering from chronic schizophrenia and in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) as well as at-risk populations. Therefore it has been thought that ToM deficits could predict the beginning of psychotic illnesses. Object: This study was the first to examine the ToM measure Hinting task in a Finnish population. The study compared the performance of FEP patients (n=42) and controls (n=38) on the task. The aims of the study were to explore group differences in Hinting task performance when controlling for neurocognitive factors as well as investigate the potential impacts of symptom severity on task performance. Data: The data is a part of an on-going project of the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT Oy), the University of Helsinki and Aalto University. For this study participants who had completed the Hinting task before September 2014 were selected. Results: As hypothesized, FEP patients performed significantly worse than controls on the ToM measure. Patients who met the DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia performed weaker than other patients. There was also a significant group difference on the Hinting task between patients operating better and worse on the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale. The performance of the best operating patient quarter did not differ from the control group. The linear regression analyses revealed that the general neurocognitive deficit associated with FEP - especially problems in episodic memory and executive function - explained most (64 %) of the variance between the control and patient groups on the Hinting task. Within the patient group, neurocognition only covered 26 % of the variance between the two groups differing in overall functioning (GAF). Conclusions: These results support the growing evidence that ToM deficits can be seen in the early phases of the psychotic illness. The means and standard deviations of the patient and control groups on the Hinting task in the current study are consistent with previous findings. However, this study showed great differences in Hinting task performance between both groups and individuals. The findings of this study do not give an unambiguous answer to whether ToM problems are secondary to the neurocognitive deficits observed in FEP and symptom severity in the acute phases of the illness or whether ToM deficits can be seen as a more general and independent feature of the illness.
  • Fagerlund, Hanne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Objectives. Late-preterm birth (34+0-36+6 weeks’ gestation) has been associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes in executive functioning during early childhood. There is still little knowledge of long-term disadvantages associated with late-preterm birth. A majority of infants born late-preterm are also born with intrauterine growth restriction, which has been shown to increase risk of adverse outcomes in executive functioning in childhood and also in early adulthood. Although these factors have similar adverse effects in executive functions during childhood, there is little research of their possible additive effects. Previous studies have also used mainly performance-based methods to measure executive functions, which places doubts on ecological validity of previous results. The aim of this study is to examine whether late-preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction or their additive effects are connected to self-rated executive functioning in early adulthood. Methods. The study sample comprised 2193 regionally sampled infants, who were born 1985-1986 and participated in the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study (AYLS). Basic measures from peri- and neonatal periods were extracted from maternity hospital records and maternal interviews. Intrauterine growth restriction was estimated with being born small for gestational age (SGA). The participants’ gestational age was reliably specified and they filled in the standardized and self-report based Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning- Adult Version (BRIEF-A) at age of 24-26 years. The final sample comprised 634 participants, of whom 88 were born late-preterm and 37 were born SGA. The effects of late-preterm and SGA birth to self-reported executive functioning in early adulthood were analyzed using multiple hierarchical linear regression, controlling for multiple confounders. The additive effects were analyzed with multiple MANOVA. Results and conclusions. Late-preterm birth and additive effects of late-preterm birth and SGA were not associated with adverse effects in self-rated executive functioning in adulthood, although negative trend was found. SGA was significantly associated with fewer adversities in self rated executive functioning. The systematic loss found in the study sample and the possibly positively skewed views of SGA adults may have affected found connections. Therefore, more research is needed from effects of late-preterm birth and SGA on executive functioning in adulthood.
  • Sund, Marie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Aim of study. The aim of this study was to determine how the processing of pitch cues in spoken words is affected by listeners’ native language. In previous studies, listeners’ have shown a better sensitivity to acoustic features that are linguistically relevant in the native language. It has also been shown that the processing of pitch information is lateralized to the left hemisphere when the information is linguistically distinctive and lateralized to the right hemisphere when it is not carrying linguistically relevant information. The processing of lexical pitch has been shown to be language specific. Pitch is lexically discriminating in Estonian, but not in Finnish. Therefore, native speakers of Estonian were hypothesized to show a better sensitivity to changes in pitch than the native speakers of Finnish. They were also hypothesized to show a lateralization to the left when processing linguistically discriminating changes in pitch. Methods. 12 native speakers of Estonian and 12 native speakers of Finnish participated in the study. Mismatch negativity (MMN) components of event-related potentials (ERP) were measured with electroencephalography (EEG). Stimuli consisted of Estonian words, which showed differences in duration and pitch. Results and conclusions. Scalp maps of neural activation suggested a larger sensitivity for small changes in pitch for the Estonian group, as well as a tendency towards lateralization of the processing of pitch cues to the left hemisphere for the Estonian group, and to the right for the Finnish group. These observations were supported by a significant interaction effect between language group, lateralization, and stimulus type. However, further pairwise comparisons were only marginally significant. Due to large variation in the Estonian group, the group was split based on geographical background information, since the use of pitch cue has been shown to vary regionally in Estonia. This analysis indicated regional variation in the processing of the pitch cue; the western Estonian group showed lateralization to the left hemisphere while processing stimuli with a small change in pitch. The findings of this study are in line with previous studies, showing that the native language affects the processing of pitch. It also suggests that the local language variety has an impact on these processes.
  • Firon, Rasmus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The main focus of this study is to examine if Finnish university-students’ family background (measured as the education and SES of their parents) is associated with their 10-year degree completion rate. Class-based analysis examines the association between educational outcomes and students’ social background. Selection on the basis of social class on different educational levels still appears in the Finnish educational system, despite a declining trend in the magnitude of this effect. For example, students from socially disadvantaged backgrounds are still underrepresented in universities in Finland. In this study the discussion of retention, dropout and graduation rates at Finnish universities is put in a Bourdieuan perspective. The association between graduation rates and the following variables are analysed: students’ social background (educational level and SES of mother and father), gender, age, mother tongue and type of degree when enrolled at university. In addition, the association is analysed on different study programs or faculties. The research questions were analysed using register-based data compiled by Statistics Finland. The data covers all the new students enrolled at universities in Finland in 2002 (N = 21 341). The examined final sample consisted of all of the students who didn’t have a university degree when enrolled on a program leading to a Master’s degree or equivalent (N = 16 910). Degree completion rate by 2012 was reported for students with different backgrounds. The difference between groups was tested with chi-square and the effect of the background variables on the dependent variable was tested with logistic regression. The results showed that all the background variables were associated with degree completion, although with fairly small effect sizes respectively. For instance; women were more likely than men to graduate within ten years on all faculties, and the offspring from families with more educational capital were more likely to graduate within ten years. However, the association between graduation and educational capital in the family was not statistically significant on all faculties. The results are discussed within the framework of equality and social class in higher education.
  • Inkinen, Eeva (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Aims. The aim of this research was to study the reasons why novice teachers decide to leave the teaching profession only a few years after graduation. Previous studies have shown the difficulties of teacher induction and the importance of support during the induction phase. Teachers’ career changing has become a common issue, and has raised a conversation about the sufficiency of qualified teachers in the future. This demonstrates the importance of support during the induction phase. The purpose of this research is to increase to knowledge about the forbidding factors present in teachers’ work and thus give tools to successful commitment of novice teachers. Methods. This study is a qualitative case study and phenomenological in approach. The data were collected by a semi-structured theme interview on a quitting novice teacher. The teacher’s thoughts about her decision and the reasons to quit teaching were discussed during the interview. The person had worked as a teacher for a year and a half when the interview was conducted. Gathered data was analysed by using a theory-driven thematic analysis. Results and conclusions. The reasons for the teacher’s quitting were influenced by the work-place, working time, amount of work and the lack of support. Due to these factors the novice teacher’s image and the reality about teaching were not corresponding and giving her satis-faction from the work. The joy of teaching and the pupils were seen as a reason to not quit teaching. The teacher also had personal development targets and was too conscientious to quit teaching immediately. The call to teach and interest in education and school resisted the quitting decision. The novice teachers’ decision to quit seems to have arisen from various cru-cial factors, both internal and external. In all, this research gave some empirical and intimate knowledge about the phenomena that have been studied very little before in Finland. The study also demonstrated current issues and important themes for further studies and devel-opment.
  • Uotinen, Nina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Tiivistelmä – Abstrakt – Abstract Aims. Narrative skills are an essential part of interaction since early childhood. Narratives consist of different kinds of linguistic structures which are used to create the semantic content of a narrative. With the help of linguistic structures, it is also possible to convey information which cannot be expressed by describing only plotline/storyline. It is noted that linguistic structures and errors in them are the most effective part of narratives in distinguishing children with language impairment from children with typical development. This study examined linguistic structure, connectives and both number and quality of linguistic errors in the narratives of typically developing Finnish children and children with language impairment before school age. Methods. 10 five-year-old children participated in this study. Five of them were typically developing children and five had language impairment. The linguistic structure of the narratives was assessed with a set of toys, a picture book about a boy, a dog and a frog, and a Bus Story sequence of pictures. In the set of toys children had only toys with the same theme to elicit their narratives. In the picture book condition children had 24 temporally and logically ordered pictures and in the Bus Story; both picture sequence and an auditive model of the story to support narration. Narratives were analyzed with qualitative methods taking advantage of numbers, means and standard deviations. Results and conclusions. The results indicated that children with language impairment used simpler linguistic structure and they had more errors in their narratives than typically developing children. There were both fewer elliptical constructions and subordinate clauses in the narratives of children with language impairment than narratives of typically developing children. Children with language impairment also used simpler and more inaccurate connectives in their narratives. Children with language impairment made more of all kinds of errors but particularly errors which affected the sentence structure, distinguished research groups from each other. Elicitation method influenced most to the narratives of children with language impairment although there was variation in the narratives of typically developing children too, especially in complex language structures, but in much smaller effect. Children with language impairment used the weakest linguistic structure in narratives based on the set of toys. When there was more support to create narratives, children with language impairment were able to use more complex language. However, children with language impairment also made more errors in the most supported Bus Story narratives. Differing from children with language impairment, typically developing children used the most complex language in narratives based on the toys and the simplest language in the Bus Story. Elicitation method had only subtle effect on errors made by typically developing children.
  • Viitikko, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract In this thesis, I want to raise awareness, visibility and the importance of R & T play. About R & T play, I discuss in more detail in following aspects; R & T play or aggression, boys’ and girls’ R & T play and the benefits of R & T play. In addition, I deal briefly with peer relationships and a sense of community. My research questions have been formed on researchers’ studies and based on my own experiences. My thesis theoretical framework is a socio-constructivist view of learning, including learning community, as well as building of knowledge sharing and processing it with others. The research questions are: what types of situations R & T play get started? What is the structure of R & T play in different situations? How R & T play, rampage and aggressiveness differ? The theoretical part is composed on the basis of written R & T play research articles. There is no research articles about R & T play in Finnish language. In my research I videotaped twelve, one integrated special group, 4 to 5 year old children’s play situations. Research material consisted of video episodes that had a total of 38. Research material I collected in late autumn 2014 and spring 2015. Total video material was 253.91 minutes. About 10 Video-file episodes I did content logs. Content logs I described of molecular- and the molar level. Molar level I analyzed about the script point of view. It is important to allow children's play in different situations and locations. Fun mode has a big impact on what kind of play is chosen and how it is formed. State attracts a certain kind of play and thus the direction of children's ideas of play. Playing is vital and all forms of play, also R & T play, produces joy to children and strengthen their social skills. With the help of the video-episodes, I tried to show that also R & T play is important. However, R & T play is only a tiny part of the whole play-flame. I think adults need "RTP-eyeglasses", see R & T play first and second, allow it. Children with special needs, challenge and / or puzzles play skills, are unable mutual R & T play. There are needed a good playing skills to RTP.
  • Halminen (ent. Lepistö), Emmi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to examine articles on nutrition and food choices in Kotitalous-magazine and to focus on the changes that have occurred in Finnish peoples food habits during 1952–1982. The end of food rationing in the beginning of the 1950’s to-gether with continuous increase in the food assortment created a need for information. The magazine tried to fill this need as the research period went on. The study explores how na-tional nutrition problems; food culture and nutritional education are illustrated in articles published in Kotitalous-magazine. The pivotal message in their content, the changes of perspective in the writing and their frequency is analysed from the data. The research questions are: 1. How do the articles reflect on solutions to national nutritional problems? 2. How are changes in food culture reflected in the articles? 3. How is nutritional counselling and teaching reflected in the articles? Methodology. The data consists of Kotitalous-magazines from 1952 to 1982, which con-sists of 300 issues containing 1500 articles in total. Off the aforementioned articles 352 concern nutrition and nutritional choices. The qualitative analysis of the material was done by analysing the content of these articles in relation to the relevant theoretical background. Results and conclusions. At the beginning of the researched time period articles in Kotital-ous-magazine instructed people how to survive deficiency diseases and the composition of right kinds of nutrition while the focus shifted more towards the preventing of new public health issues like cardiovascular diseases as the research period went on. The intake of essential nutrients, fats and sugars played a major role in the magazine articles. The change in food culture was presented in the articles as the amount and assortment of foods available increased more and more. That was when the food culture began to diver-sify and took on influence from for example abroad. Dietary recommendations and nutrition counselling strived to educate consumers to consume healthy food, increase vegetable intake and decrease the amount of sugars and fats consumed.
  • Viitanen, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This research examines the views and experiences regarding communication about personal crisis in work communities. The focus is both in the community as a whole as well as in the individual communicational relationships. The study centralizes around the perspective of the people who experienced the crisis. Theoretical frames are home-to-work spillover and social support. Spillover means the study of how different life spheres affect one another. Social support on the other hand is the study of how people try to help each other by e.g. expressing sympathy, giving advice or offering practical assistance. This is a phenomenological study. The data was collected via online survey during July and August 2015. The study had 40 respondents with different occupational background. Analyzing method was qualitative content analysis with additional support from the more quantitative content differentiation. The results address why the people who have experienced a personal crisis want to or does not want to discuss it with their work community, who they talk to and who they don't talk to, how people felt their community reacted to the situation, what kind of support did they experience, how was the community a burden during the crisis and what kind of positive or negative views and experiences arose from the communicational relationships. One of the main results of the study is that people who have experienced a personal crisis hope that their work community expresses sympathy, understanding about their situation and offers practical support in order to reduce their work load. How people wish sympathy and understanding should be manifested differs greatly. Some hope to receive active empathy while others wish that co-workers wouldn't speak about the situation at all. Six narratives are presented based on the answers. They summarize how different people wish their work community would relate to the crisis, how they talk about the crisis themselves and how they think others react to their situation. Finally, propositions are given to organizations and work communities that wish to be prepared for the personal crisis among their members.
  • Ärmänen Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Objectives. Functioning impairments as an outcome for severe mental disorders have been well established. There is also growing evidence for early functioning impairment being a vulnerability marker for psychotic disorders. Recent findings suggest that especially early social functioning impairment may predict later psychotic disorders. However previous studies are few and they are limited to pre-selected psychosis risk samples. In addition, little is known about early functioning in other severe mental disorders. The aim of this study is to determine the level of functioning in adolescents at entry to general psychiatric services and to examine whether early functioning impairment predicts later psychosis or psychiatric hospitalizations directly, and when controlling for the effect of psychosis risk symptoms. Methods. This study is a part of the larger Helsinki Prodromal Study conducted in the National Institute for Health and Welfare. The sample consists of 154 treatment-seeking adolescents aged 15–18 years, recruited at the first visit to psychiatric services in Helsinki. Semi-structured psychiatric interviews were conducted for all participants at baseline. Functioning was assessed with validated and reliable functioning measures for social (Global functioning: social) and role functioning (Global functioning: role) and an experimental functioning measure for psychological functioning (Global functioning: psychological). Information about hospitalizations was extracted from the Finnish hospital discharge register during a 2.8–8.9 year follow-up until the end of 2011. A Cox regression survival analysis was used to examine whether functioning domains predicted later hospitalization for psychosis or psychiatric hospitalizations overall. Positive and general psychosis risk symptoms as well as psychosis risk status were controlled for the analyses. Results and conclusions. The functioning of adolescents at entry to psychiatric services was mildly impaired and the impairment was greater for individuals in psychosis risk and those with a mental disorder diagnosis. 7 transitions to psychosis and 26 psychiatric hospital admissions emerged during the follow-up. The level of psychological functioning was the only significant predictor of increased risk of hospitalizations whereas the level of positive symptoms was the only significant predictor of increased risk of psychosis. Neither social nor role functioning predicted the outcomes. The results concerning social functioning are in contrast with previous finding, which may be attributable to the low incidence of psychosis in the sample or the treatment received by the participants. Overall the results emphasize the importance of interventions for early symptoms to prevent these severe outcomes.
  • Rajala, Roope (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Learning agility is a concept that arose around the year 2000 as a reaction to changing challenges of work-life. Learning agility is usually defined as willingness and ability to learn from experiences in order to perform successfully in difficult situations. However, there has been criticism against this definition saying that it is rather imprecise and complex. The definition combines too many different elements of learning. This study aims to clarify the context of learning agility by defining learning agility as ability to learn quickly and flexibly. The study examines how learning agility is related to managers’ attributions of their own managerial competences and goal orientations. Goal orientations are individual tendencies that affect how people set their goals under performance conditions. In addition, it is investigated if goal orientations act as mediator between learning agility and managerial competencies, which would mean that learning agility is related to managerial competencies through goal orientations. Research environment is Finland’s Slot Machine Association (RAY), and the goal of this study is to provide new perspectives for RAY about how RAY can develop its leaders and supervisors. Sample consisted of RAY’s supervisors and leaders. Data was collected with electronic survey during May and June of 2015. Total of 63 supervisors and leaders answered to survey and 32 of those were male and 31 were female. Data was analyzed by using statistical methods. Analyses that were primarily used were t-test, Pearson correlation and regression analysis. In order to test the mediation 12 regression analyses were performed. Results showed that learning agility was statistically significantly related to both learning orientation and the way managers feel about their own managerial capabilities. Learning orientation was more strongly related to managerial capabilities than learning agility. Performance orientations were negatively related to both learning agility and the way manager’s feel about their managerial capabilities. Based on mediation analysis there were found three mediations of which two were partial mediations and one was full mediation. Mediators were learning orientation and performance-avoidance orientation. Results indicate that willingness to learn is at least as important as the ability to learn. Developing leadership competencies and learning should focus more on supporting learning orientation than enhancing the learning abilities. Moreover, results address a question if learning agility is in fact a combination of other learning-associated concepts such as cognitive capability and goal orientation rather than separate and independent concept.
  • Heiskala, Kaisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This study examines the views on careers of white-collar employees and organization of Fiskars. The study answers two questions: what kind of views on careers the white-collar employees have, and what kind of views on careers the Fiskars organization has. The theoretical foundation of white-collar employees’ views on careers is based on the concept of subjective career and Schein’s career anchors theory. The theoretical foundation of the organization’s view on careers consists of the concepts of psychological contract, career planning and career management. Previous research has shown that careers are increasingly variable and that they have become more versatile and flexible. This study generates knowledge on careers from both individual’s and organization’s perspective. The target is to create an overall picture of careers. The concept of view in this study is defined as the perception of the research subject of the interviewed persons formed through experience and thinking. The target organization of the study is Fiskars and ten white-collar employees of Fiskars and three persons from management and human resources department of Fiskars were interviewed for the study. The research methodology is qualitative and the research data was collected using theme interviews method. The research data was analyzed with content analysis method. The interviewed employees experienced the concept of career in a positive way and described a career mostly using the career path metaphor. Employees from different age groups also had different views of careers. For younger employees work is no longer the center point of life or a separate part from other aspects of life but rather a natural part of it. Employees’ and organization's views were the same when asked who is responsible for career. All the interviewees had strong opinions that the party ultimately responsible for a career is the individual her/himself and that the role of the organization is to provide career opportunities and the role of the manager is to support the employee in career development. White-collar employees’ and organization’s thoughts of career direction and career moves were horizontal but both groups emphasized that the idea of vertical career moves continues to exist. Career planning and career management were weak in the target organization and both white-collar employees and the organization hoped that career planning and career management would be improved in the future. Challenges of future careers also affect the target organization. The target is that the results of this study will help Fiskars organization to better support employees’ careers and career development and also create career management and career
  • Rapeli, Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Aims. As the amount of tracheostomized patients is increasing the clinical caseload of speech and language therapists (SLT) working with this population is expanding. International surveys show that many SLTs have poor clinical confidence while working with this population, many confront problems in their work environment what comes to team work and most SLTs believe additional training in tracheostomy management would be beneficial. There are some inconsistencies and variation in tracheostomy management among SLTs. The aim of this study was to explore the assessment and rehabilitation patterns of clinicians working with tracheostomized people as well as the role of SLTs managing this population in Finland. Clinical training preparing to work with this population was also examined. Methods. An electronic survey of University of Helsinki was sent to 1163 SLTs via the Finnish Association of Speech Therapists. The whole questionnaire was directed only to the SLTs having previous work experience with at least one patient with a tracheostomy. 61 SLTs completed the survey. Frequencies and percentages were computed to analyze the data quantitatively. Also Kruskall–Wallis -test was applied. Questions relating to clinical activities were classified according to the level of clinical consensus. The answers to the open questions were analysed qualitatively by grouping the answers according to the themes arising from the data. Results and conclusions. The respondents had little experience on assessment and rehabilitation of tracheostomized patients. Most referrals were received for dysphagia and communication assessment. SLTs found their role in tracheostomy management often poorly defined. Patients were usually assessed and rehabilitated as a team and teamwork was found important and practical. The respondents had had only a little education and practical training on tracheostomy management. Most SLTs felt they needed more training on assessment and rehabilitation of patients with a tracheostomy. The clinical confidence of SLTs working with this population varied. National guidelines in tracheostomy management for speech and language therapists would help to define the role of SLTs in this field. Additional training would help to improve clinical confidence of SLTs working with this population.
  • Koistinen, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Tiivistelmä - Referat - Abstract The aim of this study is to investigate and describe the environmental an intrapersonal factors, which have influenced a musician-composers musical giftedness potential, as a promoter or as a blocker. The theoretic background of this study is based partly on Gagnés theory of giftedness and partly on theory literature about musical giftedness. Gagnés model is used especially from the environmental and intrapersonal factors point of view. This is a biographic case study, where the material was collected from one person´s eight interviews, and from a writing task, which was given to the examinee beforehand. The material gathered from the interviews and writing task, were transcribed, categorised, and content-analysed after Gagnés DMGT –model. According to the results, the biggest promoting factors for the examinees musical giftedness potential were family, which included also grandparents, accessing the music class in elementary school, and the teacher´s support there. From formal studies, the biggest promoting factors were music-institute and private guitar lessons, and the private teacher´s supporting attitude. Friends and hobbies were also very important factors, especially meeting the other band members. Significant promoter happenings were relocations to Helsinki and Spain, the master of Finnish rock –competition participation, Depeche mode´s appearance in Copenhagen 1990, father´s death, intoxicants and sobriety. The biggest blocking factors were record label industry, conservative atmosphere in north Karelia in the eighties and use of intoxicants. The biggest promoting intrapersonal catalysts were very high self-esteem, self-efficacy, self-confidence, and also extremely high intrinsic motivation towards music-making. Sobriety was one of the biggest sea changes in interviewees life. The impacts caused by alcoholism and sobriety transfixes every area of interviews life from youth until the present day. These impacts came up in the examination of both intrapersonal and environmental factors.
  • Heimo, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    There is not much research about Trageton`s method, which is learning to read through writing on a computer. In this study Trageton`s method was used among the same children when they were preschoolers and first-graders. The purpose of the study was to find out children`s experiences of the method, and to observe their interaction when working in pairs on a computer and the differences of interaction in the first and second study year. In addition, the aim was to investigate the playful use of a computer in the classroom. The study questions were: What kind of experiences do the children have in writing on a computer? What is the interaction of pairs on the lessons like? What differences are there when working in pairs as preschoolers and as first-graders? In the study group there were three pairs of children from preschool and the same pairs when they were on the first class. In addition, a control group of three other pairs was chosen from the same first class. There were eleven lessons: five at preschool, five on the first class and one for the control group. The pairs wrote a shared story and illustrated it. Except on those lessons, children did not use computers at preschool or at school. The data were collected by participant observation, video recording and by “ALLU”, the Reading test for primary school. The pairs were interviewed on both years. Discourse analysis, inductive content analysis and numerical analysis were used when analyzing the data. According to the results Trageton´s method motivates preschoolers and first-graders, also first- graders in the control group. The co-operation was difficult in the both years. One pair of preschoolers and one from the control group succeeded in pair work. All the children, who were interviewed (5 from the study group and 4 from the control group), said that writing on a computer was easier than writing with a pencil. This supports Trageton´s own opinion about his method. In the Reading test for primary school the pupils of the study group exceeded the average level of their age when identifying words and in reading comprehension they were at the average level (2 pupils) or above it (4 pupils). Conclusions can be drawn that writing on a computer can promote learning to read.
  • Salonen, Noora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Nowadays design has an important role in people’s everyday life. The goal of design education is to help children and young people to be more aware of and to understand different forms of design in our society, and learn how to apply design methods in practice. This is the way to promote and develop important future skills, such as knowledge creation, critical thinking and problem solving skills. In the new Finnish National Curriculum for Basic Education 2014 designing is an important part of craft education. This Master´s Thesis is part of a wider design-based research which consists of work done by me and Päivi Heikkilä. Our research theme was to design and develop new design-based teaching material for secondary school craft education. The goal of the material is to inspire teachers and pupils to get familiar with the design process and to exploit it in a more holistic way in craft education. The original teaching material was designed, based on the background theory and experience, together with Päivi Heikkilä. After that we continued developing the material using the methods of user experience research. The survey for the craft teachers was part of my own Master´s Thesis. The aim of the survey was to collect opinions and development ideas from the teachers working in the schools. The beta version of Muoto & käsityö teaching material was sent to 115 craft teachers around Finland and they evaluated different features of it. They were also asked to give ideas how to develop the material. The data was analyzed using statistical and qualitative research methods. According to this research, teachers are seeing the Muoto & käsityö teaching material suitable for craft education. They see the appearance and the overall structure clear, the content suitable for the secondary school pupils and the theoretical part important introduction to understand the design process. Teachers were also pleased with the usability of the project part. All of our goals for the teaching material were achieved. Teachers are seeing the Muoto & käsityö teaching material as a current and necessary addition to craft education, especially now when the new Finnish National Curriculum for Basic Education will take effect.
  • Nimbekar, Emma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The purpose of this research is to explore neohumanist philosophy by Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar in order to produce new information to the early childhood education in Finland. It is an educational philosophy, which neohumanist education is based on, and it is relatively unknown to the professional educators. The values and educational ideas guide the practical work of educators and that is why profound knowledge of different kinds of educational philosophies helps the educator to make the right choices in the practical work. This research is focused on clarifying the central concept of universalism. The purpose is to find out how Sarkar describes universalism in his writings. A commentary was written of the book Liberation of Intellect: Neohumanism to separate and clarify the concepts of neohumanist philosophy. Concept of universalism was found to be a central concept and it was chosen as the focus of this research. A systematic analysis was done of writings where the concept of universalism was mentioned. The main material was the book Liberation of Intellect: Neohumanism where the central concepts of neohumanist philosophy were introduced by P.R. Sarkar. Secondary materials were writings from The Electronic Edition of the Works of P.R. Sarkar V7.5 where the concept universalism was mentioned. All together there were 36 quotes from 28 different articles which were included in this research. These quotes were analyzed to clarify how Sarkar describes the concept of universalism. The results show that Sarkar describes quite consistently universalism as a spiritually based love towards all beings. The concept of universalism, neohumanist philosophy and neohumanist education were discussed in the context of Finnish early childhood education.
  • Keskitalo, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Recent studies suggest that a moderate negative correlation exists between study burnout and engagement. A negative correlation has been shown particularly between cynicism and dedication to studies as well as between exhaustion and exuberance. Previous studies have contradictory results about link between gender and study burnout: on the one hand, no connections has been detected and on the other hand there women have been found to experience more exhaustion and inadequacy than men. In addition study phase seems to be related to study burnout and engagement. In general study burnout increases during the studies while engagement declines. It has also been verified that recovering from stress increases engagement and declines burnout. Furthermore, it has not been unambiguously shown whether working during studies is perceived as harmful or beneficial for university students. This should be considered with i.a. the amount and placement of the student’s working hours, total capital from the work and the working field. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the connection between study burnout, study engagement, working and studying of university students. FSHS Higher Education Health Survey 2012 data were used in this study with regard to university students (n = 2545). The findings of this thesis showed that the amount of completed credit points, the recovery from strain, and the time used for supervised studying and employment had connections on study burnout. The recovery from strain, the time used for independent studying and the perceived importance of the studies had connections on study engagement. The students who were working considerably were more cynical towards studying than the students who were not. The combination of employment and independent and supervised study also produced experiences of exhaustion. Student burnout is often justified with employment and the following slowdown in the studies but in this thesis the phenomenon seems more complex. The effects of study engagement should be always taken into account when investigating study burnout. In this thesis five student profiles were found: Exhausted employee, Work engaged, Study engaged, Exhausted who are studying and Study exhausted. Student profiles differed in the year of presence, the amount of completed credit points, the recovery from strain, the full-time employment and the perceived importance of the studies. An interesting topic for further studies would be whether students who study general or professional fields differ in experiencing study burnout and engagement. Dividing studies into these fields requires background information on students major. The question, whether the student is working in the same field as s/he is studying, had too many missing values and it was excluded from the analyses. It is possible that the field where the student works has a large impact on how the multidimensional phenomena of study burnout and engagement could be seen.
  • Määttä, Tuomas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Purposes. The purpose of this study is to construct a picture of experienced Finnish b-boys’ viewpoints on learning in breakdance culture. The theoretical framework for this study is constructivist learning theory which is used to form understandable claims for questions such as how to describe the learning framework in breakdance culture and what are the fundamentals in learning from individual and social perspective. Methods. The study was executed as a qualitative research and the used methodological philosophy was phenomenography. The research material was collected by using half structured interviews. The interviewees had at least 15 active years experience in breakdance culture. There were five interviewees in this study, though the interviews were plentiful. The analysis is based on content analysis. Conclusins. Learning in breakdance culture is a process inside the culture structures (pseudonym, rituals, movement and style, tradition). Creative and constructivist activity combined with meaningful belonging to the culture was the fundamentals in learning. There were several perceptions of teaching and a teacher. Traditionally breakdancers saw teaching as a sosioconstructivist process, where every person in the community acted as a teacher and a learner. Since the dance schools has become a notable learning enviroment, there were also a clear teacher role. B-boys and b-girls evaluated learning as a given or recieved respect from other people.
  • Järvinen, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Objective: Previous results support the use of video examples in voice therapy. Patient adherence and motivation for practice was improved in the video-enhanced voice therapy compared to the “written” condition. A previous study has also shown that an instructional videotape has potential to increase people’s awareness about voice misuse and treatment options. However, this area is still poorly studied. The goal of this study was to review the experiences of educational video material. The focus was to map out the experiences and benefits of using the video material. The purpose of this study was also to determine if patients` voice quality and the quality of life could be improved by providing videos of vocal hygiene instructions and voice exercises exemplified by the therapist. Methods: The population consisted of 12 patients of HUS Speech and Voice Clinic who participated in an independent video-enhanced intervention. All participants were women (20-63 years) and they had a functional voice disorder diagnosed by a phoniatrician. Before the intervention participants filled up two self-assessment questionnaires: VHI and VAPP. During the intervention participants kept an exercise diary. After the intervention participants filled up three self-assessment questionnaires: VHI and VAPP once again and also a questionnaire about the experiences of educational video material. The data were analysed applying qualitative content analysis and statistical method. Results and conclusion: The participants considered the video material, especially the informative part of it, clear and useful. The training videos were also considered clear and quite easy to manage. Practice frequency was how ever quite poor. Nobody practiced every day. During one month (30 days) the participants exercised in 5 to 27 days. During one day they exercised about eight minutes. Some of the participants seemed to benefit from the independent video-enhanced voice therapy. 7/12 participants had better VHI and VAPP scores after the intervention compared to the scores before the intervention. The difference in VAPP scores of the whole group before and after the intervention was considered statistically significant (p-value =.048 < .05 ). However, there were so wide variation in the practice frequency and the VHI and VAPP scores, that no exact conclusions can be made.