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  • Mattsson , Markus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    In this Master s thesis I examine the measurement invariance of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), the perhaps most widely used questionnaire instrument in traffic psychology, across samples of Finnish and Irish young drivers (18 - 25 years of age). The DBQ was developed in the beginning of the 1990s based on principal component analyses. The questionnaire was originally based on a well-tested theory in cognitive ergonomics (the Generic Error Modeling System, GEMS), but in the research that has ensued, the item pool and the factor structure has been determined in an exploratory fashion. This has resulted in an abundance of DBQ versions, which comprise anything from nine to over one hundred items and from one to seven factors. Further, in research articles based on the DBQ, it is a common practice to calculate sum or average scores and compare them across subgroups of respondents. The 28-item version of questionnaire, which is currently perhaps most widely used, is thought to measure two, three or four latent variables. In this thesis I use confirmatory factor analysis and, specifically, analysis of measurement invariance to examine which of the three alternative factor structures functions as the most fitting description of the responses of Finnish and Irish young drivers. The analysis of measurement invariance is based on fitting a series of increasingly restrictive models to data. At each stage of the analysis, an increasing set of parameters are constrained to equality across the samples under comparison. In case the constrained model does not fit the data worse than the unconstrained model, the constrained model can be applied in all (in this thesis both) data sets. The models that are fit to data are, in order: 1) The configural model in which only the number of factors is constrained, 2) the weak invariance model, in which factor loadings are constrained to equality, 3) the strong invariance model, in which also the intercept terms of each item are constrained to equality and 4) the strict invariance model, in which also the error terms of each item are constrained to equality. In addition, models of partial invariance are applied. In these models, only some of the constraints related to each stage of the analysis are preserved. In addition to comparing the models statistically, their fit to data is examined using various descriptive statistics and graphical representations. As a central result I propose that the four-factor model offers the best fit to both data sets, even though the model needs to be modified in an exploratory mode of analysis to ensure sufficient fit to data. Further analyses show that two of the four factors are different in nature in the two samples and that only in the Irish data set do all of the items load on the factors they are expected to. On the other hand, the analysis of the other two factors shows that the items that load on them are interpreted essentially similarly in the two samples and that weak invariance can be assumed on their part. In addition, partial strong invariance can be assumed in the case of one factor, even though even then the values of most of the intercept terms need to be freely estimated in the two data sets. As a conclusion I suggest that, in contrast to the prevailing practice, comparing sum scores based on DBQ factors is dubious and that comparing latent variables scores may be justified only in the case of one factor out of four. As a practical recommendation, I suggest that the factor structure of the DBQ be further developed based on theories of cognitive ergonomics and cognitive psychology and that invariance analyses be performed as a matter of routine before carrying out comparisons of groups based on results of factor analyses.
  • Lindholm, Anne (2015)
    Multilingualism and multiculturalism are very common phenomena in the global world of today. People move into other countries and integrate in other cultures more than ever before. This Master´s Thesis is a qualitative study on how multilingual people describe their linguistic and cultural identity and how it is to be a minority within the Swedish-speaking minority in Finland. The aim of this study is to increase the knowledge and understanding on people who represent a linguistic minority in the Swedish-speaking linguistic minority in Finland and how they describe their linguistic and cultural identity. The scientific approach of the study is phenomenological, which means that the study aims to describe the phenomenon of multilingualism, multiculturalism and integration based on informants' subjective experiences. Nine people were interviewed for this study, and the collected data were analysed using content analysis. All nine informants were living in the capital area of Finland when the interviews were done, but are born in another country. The results of this study demonstrate the significance of language and culture for a person’s identity. The linguistic and cultural identities form during the entire course of life and can be seen as a lifelong process.
  • Palkkimäki, Susanna (2015)
    This thesis analyzed interaction and learning in simulation debriefing. Simulation usage has increased in the social and health care during the last years, and the new technology has given more opportunities to use high-fidelity simulations more widely. Simulations enable a new way for students to learn different kinds of patient situations in the real life and in work-based environments that are still completely safe. The investments are expensive and create discussion in universities whether these simulations can create the learning they are supposed to create. The research focused on simulation debriefing is an essential phase in simulation learning. The research approach drew on adults learning theories as well as on simulation and debriefing research. The approach is based on socio-constructivist understanding on learning and on studentcentered teaching (Engeström 1982; Miettinen 1993), which represents criticism towards traditional classroom teaching and introduces the concept of learning activity. From these theoretical starting points emerged three key learning concepts, interaction, feedback and reflection. The research questions were: 1. How is the interaction of the debriefing constructed? 2. What kind of feedback by peer students and by the instructors and 3. what kind of reflection takes place during the debriefing? The data was collected from one simulation center’s simulation day in the Southern Finland University of Applied Sciences. The data includes one simulation group’s (9 students and 2 instructors) all five videotaped debriefing situa-tions. The analysis was both data and learning theory driven, and both qualitative and quantitative research methods were applied. The results indicate that debriefings interaction was led by the instructors, and was based on a question–answer dy-namics. The analysis found three different kinds of peer feedback types, four instructors’ feedback types and five self-reflection types. Both the peer and instructor feedback were mostly positive encouragement. Students’ self-reflection was mostly reflecting on the confusion caused by the simulation. . Clinical skills were emphasized in both feedback and self-reflection. It can be concluded that debriefing’s script and the way it is used leads and restricts the interaction. The script should be developed to be more dialogical. Especially the form and meaning of peer feedback should be critically con-sidered. The peer feedback remained quite superficial, whereas instructors’ feedback has a clear impact on students’ constructive self-reflection. The instructors’ cultivation of constructive criticism would best enhance the students’ learning.
  • Rintala, Maiju (2015)
    The aim of this study was to develop two teaching implementations that used genre pedagogy and teach two genres, a news report and a narrative. The goal of this research was to test teaching writing using genre pedagogy and also to develop a new model for using genre pedagogy and two improved teaching plans for teaching a news report and a narrative using models of genre pedagogy and the findings of this study. This study was carried out as a qualitative action research. The research was carried out in a third grade of comprehensive school and 21 students, 13 girls and eight boys, participated. The research period lasted for 20 lessons that were video-taped. As data in this study were the texts which the students wrote, tests and the filmed lessons. The filmed lessons were used to describe the course of the study. The texts and tests were analyzed using genre pedagogical criteria. The students wrote texts that fell well in both the genres. When writing a news reports almost everyone succeeded very well, the biggest problems were in answering the news questions. There was a wider distribution in points of the narratives, but almost every student did write a narrative. Most improving was needed in executing the stages of a narrative. In the improved teaching plans these things were highlighted more. As an outcome of the research is a new model for applying genre pedagogy presented.
  • Nuutinen, Johanna (2015)
    The main purpose of this study was to find out what kind of means the home economic teachers use to ease pupils who need support in the learning process. The goal of this study was learn how information of the support needed was transferred to teacher and to learn what kind of additional resources are available. In addition, this study focuses on teachers’ reactions to integrate the pupils in a normal teaching situation. Also this study focuses on tools that teacher education offers to meet pupils needing special support. The data for the qualitative study were collected during the spring 2014 in two separate stag-es: by collecting critical incidents and semi-structured interviews. The data were collected by discretionary sampling. Ten home economics teachers working in Pirkanmaa and Uudenmaa region took part in this study. The data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. According to the main outcome, pupils are heterogeneous groups and the need for support varies from minor to major. The main problems areas for pupils according to teachers are learning and behavioral problems. Also social and psychological problems have increased. The information of support needed among new students was transferred from class teacher to home economics teacher but in some cases the need for support was noticed during clas-ses. Teachers have several means to support pupils’ learning. For example, the teachers used demonstrative means, graphic guidance and they split working stages into smaller de-tails. Sometimes it was also possible to get a supportive person into the classroom. The teachers used more time and effort to evaluate the pupils in need of assistance and assigned more practical tasks for them. The communication between teacher and parent is very im-portant according to the interviewees. The idea of integration of the pupils needing support into the normal teaching program is good, but to bring this into practice is challenging. According to the teachers their education did not give them the tools needed in teaching special pupils. Many teachers would like to have more practical guidance to support their teaching methods. Hopefully the findings of this study will raise discussion and help the newly graduated home economics teachers to meet special pupils at their work in the future.
  • Kallunki, Jarmo (2015)
    The subject of this study is the historical formation of the university funding formula in Finland during 1995–2010. Funding formula is approached via its historical context, and the aim of this study is to discover and construct regularities that enable and restrict the formation of the funding formula. The main foci of this study are the funding formula, and its components the funding criteria. The primary research material of this study consists of memoranda and decrees of the Ministry of Education in 1995–2006, and legislative material from the university reform in 2007–2010. The frame of this research is built by combining Kari Palonen’s topological conception of politics on one hand, and the Foucauldian genealogical-archaeological discourse analysis on the other. Following Palonen, politics is conceptualised here both as activity, and as a sphere borne out of that activity, which can be analysed from nine different perspectives (topos). Discursive formation is conceptualised as set of objects, subjects, concepts, and strategies that are connected to each other by discursive regularities. This study creates a description of a discursive formation, in which and under who’s conditions the university funding formula and funding criteria are formulated. The result of this study is extensive and detailed description of the discursive formation. As results it is asserted that there are five discursive regularities that govern the formation of funding criteria: the conflict between the funding model politics and general university politics, policy, internal variation, conceptual changes, and functional extension. The formation of the system of subjects is governed by the relationship between the universities and the Ministry of education. Concepts emerge as a result of a regularity called borrowing, and concepts fade away as soon as they are unneeded. Two strategies, the funding model politics and the general university politics, emerge by the support of the system of subjects, and a third strategy emerges as a conflict zone of the two, functioning as a conflict mediator.
  • Solén, Taiga (2015)
    When studying hypnosis, it often needs to be known whether the subjects are hypnotizable or not. Hypnotizability can be predicted by suggestibility, which in turn can be estimated with various scales. Different scales yield different estimates of suggestibility. This creates a risk of incorrect comparison of the scores. The comparability of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A) and Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (WSGC) has not been studied much. Suggestibility is sometimes measured repeatedly with different scales and the order of their administration can affect the scores. This effect has not been studied on the HGSHS:A and the WSGC. This study aims to analyze whether 1) the scores yielded by these scales are affected by the order of their administration, 2) the scores are comparable and 3) corresponding suggestions and types of suggestions are passed equally often. It is expected that the order of administration does affect the scores and even more so for HGSHS:A, 2) the HGSHS:A score is higher than the WSGC and 3) the corresponding suggestions are not passed equally often. 58 subjects were studied, (67% female, 33% male). Both scales were administered to each subject. Half of the subjects were first administered the HGSHS:A and the other half the WSGC. The order of administration did affect the HGSHS:A score but not the WSGC. The hypothesis of the HGSHS:A score being higher was confirmed and the comparability of the scores proved to be less than desirable. There were no significant differences between passing the corresponding suggestions. These results imply that repeated testing might be futile if the right scale is chosen. It is recommended to use the WSGC even for subjects with not former experience of hypnosis. Alternatively, certain suggestions could be used separately to overcome the problems related to the common scales. Specific suggestions are recommended for assessing certain types of suggestibility. Furthermore, a summary of what to take into account when assessing the comparability of different studies is provided.
  • Varmola, Milka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    In this study I examine how textiles were patched and darned in Finland from the 1920s to the 1960s, and how changes in everyday life affected it. Modernization, the following of fashion and the rise of ready-made clothes industry in the 1920s declined into a shortage of textiles and a demand on self-sufficiency during the war years in the 1940s. After the war clothes were bought ready from shops and their value related to people s assets was reduced. Alike, people s attitudes towards textiles and mending them changed. The data for my study consisted of articles from Kotiliesi, Omin käsin and Emäntälehti from 1924 to 1959, contemporary guidebooks from 1920 to 1966 and craft teacher students samples and notebooks from the the 1920s to the 1940s. In addition I interviewed four women who were born between the years 1918 and 1938, three orally and one with written questionnaire. Because mending textiles has hardly been studied in previous research, I needed to gather the information from many sources. I used different qualitative data analysis and discourse analysis methods to put together pieces of the story. In the 1920s and the 1930s mending textiles was considered almost a platitude. Especially in the countryside the majority of clothes and home textiles were self-made or made to order, although in the cities ready-made clothes could already be purchased. The value of a single cloth was considerable and because of that a lot of time was spent on mending it and different instructions how to darn by hand or with a sewing machine were published in women s magazines and contemporary guidebooks. New textiles were hard to purchase during the depression caused by the Winter War and the Continuation War, therefore good care had to be taken of the textiles already found from homes. Instructions and articles focused especially on advices on how to patch socks. After the war mending of textiles was often emotionally connected to the shortage of the wartime and the amount of mending instructions given in women s magazines decreased. New type of nylon socks reduced the need to darn and patch them, but Kotiliesi still published articles on how to mend different types of clothes, though the instructions were directed to skillful light-fingered women. Publishing articles about mending in women s magazines ended in the 1950s, but the women I interviewed told that they have continued mending until present-day. At the end of my study I consider why mending is still current in the 21st century.
  • Marjokorpi, Jenni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    According to the recent draft of the renewed Finnish national core curriculum, the basic concepts of grammar are to be learned already in the primary school when they are taught by a classroom teacher. As the basis of metalinguistic awareness, the grammatical concepts are complex and abstract, and a body of research evidence has raised public worry about the teachers insufficient pedagogical content knowledge in this area; some authorities have even suggested replacing the classroom teachers, who receive very little grammar instruction during their training, with subject teachers of Finnish as the mother tongue in the fifth and sixth grades of basic education. This study aims at understanding student teachers grammatical thinking from the point of view of the sentence elements subject and object, both usually taught during the fifth grade. I research the students capability of identifying and defining the sentence elements and the minitheories they used in this cognitive process. I also study the relation between each minitheory and success in the grammar test. The study is part of a project that evaluates the student teachers grammatical content knowledge, for which the data was collected in 2011. The students (N = 128) took a grammar test in which they identified the sentence elements, explained the strategies they used in the task, and also marked a fifth-grader s grammar test. I studied the minitheories using content analysis of the open-ended questions and examined their effectiveness with quantitative methods. I also considered the students earlier performance in the national matriculation exam in relation to the level of grammatical content knowledge pictured by the test. The students were familiar with the concepts of subject and object as well as their semantic definitions but only 9.4 % of the participants managed to identify all the five subjects, and 21 % of them all the four objects. The separate and content-based analysis of the minitheories of subject and object showed that the students searched for both of them by using the same minitheories that I call semantic, syntactic, interrogative, and morphological. The morphological minitheory appeared effective in both cases, the syntactic minitheory in the subject tasks, and a combination of many minitheories in the object tasks. Therefore, the teacher education needs to put emphasis on the students content knowledge in order to ensure that they have the profound grammatical understanding required by the curriculum.
  • Veijalainen, Jouni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    A child's emotional self-regulation skills affects clearly on how he/she behaves, reacts and builds his/hers understanding in different kinds of everyday activities. This research focuses on examining how children's emotional self-regulation skills occur in the everyday activities in Finnish day care and how it will effect on the children's social strategies. There were two research problems: (1) How a child's emotional self-regulation skills occur in the everyday ac-tivities in day care? And (2) How emotional self-regulation skills occur in children's social strategies? The theoretical relation of the emotional self-regulation skills and day care's every-day activities were supported by several self-regulation related international researches and theories. Child's Social Strategies were operated through Reunamo's (2007) different views of the relationships between perception and environmental change -theory. The method of this research was quantitative. The data used in this study was a part of Reunamo's (2010) Orientation project which included evaluation of the children's skills (n = 862), child observations (n = 18 364) and interviews (n = 805). 892 different children of the 47 different day cares and 17 child minders participated in the project. The instrument of the child's emotional self-regulation skills was based on teacher's likert scale evaluation of how a child recognizes his/her own feelings and how he/she can deal with them. The data was ana-lyzed by using t-test, correlation, cross tabulation and chi-square. The results of the research brought out that children who had good emotional self-regulation skills had more often a social target on themselves than other children. Good self-regulation skills improved their ability to recognize other children's feelings and affected how they adapted to new situations with others, and to participate eagerly and with initiative to different activities. The poor skills of emotional self-regulation appeared in the child's tendency to use his/her influence and willpower towards other children. They were also strolling everywhere, seeking and waiting more often than other children. The children with poor emotional self-regulation skills didn't get involved in the day care activities as often. Nor did they use their imaginations to role play as other children did. Their social strategies were more often uncer-tain in social situations and they did not know how to react on them.
  • Korpisalo, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Tiedekunta - Fakultet - Faculty Faculty of behavioural sciences Laitos - Institution Department Department of teacher education Tekijä - Författare - Author Sanna Korpisalo Työn nimi - Arbetets titel - Title EsKon kanssa kouluun Vantaalaisten esiopettajien näkemyksiä esiopetusvuoden tarkoituksesta ja merkityksellisistä kouluvalmiuksista Oppiaine - Läroämne - Subject Education (early childhood education) Työn laji ja ohjaaja(t) - Arbetets art och handledare Level and instructor Master´s thesis / Kristiina Kumpulainen Aika - Datum - Month and year May 2014 Sivumäärä - Sidoantal - Number of pages 91 pp. + 11 appendices Tiivistelmä - Referat Abstract This study examines preschool teacher´s views about the purpose of preschool year and significant school readiness skills in a municipality where a uniform way of transferring information from preschool to school is in use. The preschool teacher´s aims of using child observation form, which is the part of municipality´s EsKo-information transfer process and the effects of EsKo-information transfer process to preschool teachers work are being examined. The theoretical contexts of the study are sociocultural theory and Bronfenbrenner´s ecological systems theory. Sociocultural theory understands learning and teaching as an interactive, social and cultural phenomenon. Ecological systems theory emphasizes the effect of the growing environments to development. Both sociocultural and ecological theory examines the relationships and interaction between individual and environment. The material of the study was collected at half structured pair and group interviews witch were taken part in 13 preschool teachers from city of Vantaa at the group of 2-3 persons. The interviews were recorded, videotaped and transcribed for analysis. The analysis was done with the methods of content analysis. The results of the study show that the preschool teachers who were interviewed had a wide view about the purpose of preschool year. Answers that describe the purpose of preschool year were divided between three time dimensions: preschool year, transfer to school and learning through life. Preschool teachers experienced that the most significant school readiness skill was child´s ability to move his motivation from play to learning activities. Other significant school readiness skills were self-regulation skills, social skills and coping independently everyday life in school. Child observation form, which is the part of EsKo-information transfer process was used to plan activities for the whole group, to survey the level of knowledge and skills of a single child, as a teacher´s own information package and to help teacher in professional conversations. The benefits of EsKo-information transfer process were that the preschool teachers experience that it has brought appreciation to pre-education, structured the preschool year, strengthened the co-operation with parents and made the information transfer to school easier and more equal. This study suggests that city of Vantaa has been able to create uniform procedures to the preschool education that prepare children to school at uniform ways. Interviewed teachers pursued to preserve their early childhood educational professional identities even though school transition and preparing to school was determined via EsKo-information transfer process. Avainsanat Nyckelord - Keywords preschool education, primary education, transition to school, school readiness, information transfer Säilytyspaikka - Förvaringsställe - Where deposited City Centre Campus Library/Behavioral Sciences/Minerva
  • Ruuska, Anna Kerttu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    The traditional nuclear family is the most common type of family in our society. During the last decades other kinds of family models have appeared besides the nuclear family. Every child comes across with the diversity of families at some part of their lives. It will happen during their lives or when they start the early childhood education and school. Children should know how to meet the diversity and grow to understand it so that everyone would feel themselves appreciated. Children s books can be a tool to handle diversity of families with children. Through children s books, a child can observe different kinds of families and their lives from a reasonable distance. From a book, the child can find objects to identify to. The child also learns to understand his/her own family as well as other kinds of families. All this widens up the child s picture of the world and teaches how to tolerate dissimilarity. The goal of this research was to find out what kind of families can be found from the popular children s book series Risto Räppääjä, and how the families are represented in it. Another goal was to reflect how educators could use the series in preschool and in elementary school while discussing about diversity of families. The research also tries to broaden the impressions of parents and other educators towards how children s literature can be used variedly when teaching children liberality and how to be a member of the society who accepts dissimilarity. This research was qualitative. The research method was content analysis, where fictional documents were analyzed. The documents were 13 books from a children s book series Risto Räppääjä. Many kinds of families were found from the children s book series Risto Räppääjä. The extended family Räppääjä and nuclear family Perhonen were the most relevant families in this research. These two families broke many of the stereotypes that are placed towards families. Children s points of view and thoughts about families in general also surface from these two families. An adult reader and a child reader find opportunities to reflect the families to their own lives and consider their attitudes through these two families. Also through all the families in the series reader will learn different kinds of ways of living. The children s book series Risto Räppääjä can be used in many ways in preschool and elementary school, for example in conversations, drama and artwork.
  • Kangasaho, Elisa (2014)
    Tavoitteet. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on kuvata suomi-venäjä –kaksikielisten ajatuksia kieli-identiteetistä. Tutkimuksessa on perehdytty kaksikielisyyden kehittymiseen, kaksikielisyyden etuihin ja haittoihin, venäjänkielisten kohtaamiin asenteisiin Suomessa sekä identiteetin rakentumiseen erityisesti kieltenoppimisen suhteen. Aikaisempia tutkimuksia kaksikielisten aikuisten suhteen on hyvin vähän. Tässä työssä perehdytään niihin tekijöihin, jotka vaikuttavat kieli-identiteetin kehittymiseen. Tutkimuskysymyksiä oli kaksi: minkälaisiksi kaksikieliset kokevat oman kieli-identiteetin ja miten tilannesidonnaisuus vaikuttaa kielen valintaan. Menetelmät. Tutkimusta varten on haastateltu yhtätoista kaksikielistä aikuista: neljää miestä ja seitsemää naista. Haastattelut toteutettiin teemahaastatteluna. Aineisto on analysoitu sisällön analyysillä ja se on teoriasidonnainen eli analyysiyksiköt on poimittu aineistoista, mutta niitä on ohjaa teoria. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Monelle vastaajalle kaksikielisyys oli enemmänkin identiteettikysymys kuin kielikysymys. Vastaajista vain neljä koki identifioituvansa yhteen kansallisuuteen. Kuusi vastaajaa koki kuuluvansa molempiin kansallisuuksiin: toimintapuolelta suomalaiseksi ja tunne- sekä ajattelupuolelta venäläiseksi. Ajattelun kieli määräytyi enemmin tilanteiden (puhutun kielen ja aiheen) mukaan, kuin kansallisen identiteetin kautta. Asenteet vaikuttivat kaksikielisyyteen kahdella tavalla: Suomessa monet vastaajista olivat joutuneet salailemaan kaksikielisyyttään negatiivisen asennoitumisen kautta. Venäjänkielisessä maassa kielitaito on yksi olennaisimpia identiteetin määrittäviä tekijöitä. Monet vastaajista kokivat, etteivät saa olla venäläisiä heikon kielitaidon takia, vaikka identiteetiltään kokivatkin näin. Tilannesidonnaisuus oli suurin tekijä kielen valintaan. Kaksikieliset usein ulkoistivat kielenvalinnan keskustelukumppanilleen. Näin ollen he pääsivät puhumaan suomea, joka valtaosalle oli helpompi tai venäjää ja näin myös ylläpitämään ja kehittämään sitä.
  • Koirikivi, Iivo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Empathy is the human capacity to understand and feel for the other human in distress. The capacity to understand the others emotions and the capacity to feel for the other are separate, dissociable processes, called cognitive empathy and affective empathy, latter of which is the focus of this study. A review of the current methods of assessing affective empathic arousal revealed that there is currently a dearth of available ecologically valid ways to test empathic reactions. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop a new way to measure affective empathy called Pictorial Empathy Test (PET), and assess the reliability and validity of this new test. Pictorial Empathy Test (PET) consists of 7 pictures of people in distress. Subjects were asked to rate their emotional arousal in a five-point scale. It was hypothesized that seven pictures all showed variance in one latent trait, affective empathy. The fit of one-latent-factor model was assessed using structural equation modeling. PET s validity was assessed with tests of other theoretically related and unrelated concepts, such as self-reported empathy, social intelligence, intuitive thinking and gender role orientation. Correlations between PET scores and other scales were assessed to determine the validity of PET. Also, relationships between PET scores, participants sex and gender role orientation were analyzed using mediation analysis. PET was shown to be a reliable and valid measure of affective empathy. One-latent-factor model was shown to be a good fit to the data. Relationships between PET scores and other related concepts were all in the hypothesized direction. Mediation analysis showed that although gender role mediates much of the effect of participants sex on the final PET scores, there was still a significant unique portion on the sex directly to the PET scores. The strengths and weaknesses of the present study are discussed. PET is recommended as a free and easy-to-use tool in further research concerning affective empathy.
  • Syrjänen, Sakari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Objectives of the study: Multidiscipline knowledge is needed in evaluation of person s functional capacity in work: physical and psychosocial factors must be considered. Generic models and tools are needed to provide common practices to evaluate work-ability (or demands of the work) and to understand the relevance of multifaceted factors underneath. Reflective processing of one s own knowledge and intuitions is seen to improve a person s ability to understand the relevance of unfamiliar information and to achieve a higher cognitive congruence in a multi-professional group. That can be achieved through group-learning practices. In a current research effect of IMBA- methods training is studied. It is assumed that training will increase the cognitive congruence between professionals evaluating work-ability. Methods: Three training groups were arranged in 2005. 51 professionals of vocational rehabilitation participated (43 women and 8 men). They evaluated both the functional capacities of a person and the demands of work before and after their IMBA-training. Evaluations were done on the basis of written case-information. The data of these evaluation tasks is data of this study. Both independent samples and repeated measures settings was used. The effect of training is analyzed as a measure of absolute agreement indexes (ICC and rrg) Results and conclusions: The results agreed with the hypothesis: After IMBA training the level of absolute agreement was higher in evaluating both the demands of work and the functional capacities of a person. Differences between training groups, features of the task or familiarity of the material didn t seem to influence the effect. Agreement got higher in evaluating physical and psychosocial factors of workability. The effect was very systematic. The evaluations were more congruent after training even though the effect was not strong enough to reach statistical significance with these samples. What was surprising was that demands of work were systematically evaluated lower after training as the functional capacities of persons were evaluated the same or a little higher after the training. Interesting question is: Do the professionals overestimate the demands of the work in general when making evaluations based on their intuitive thinking? If that s the case, the customers of vocational rehabilitation are seen as more disabled compared to demands the work than they are in real. The possibility of a systematic error like this in evaluating workability must be studied more in the future.
  • Rantanen, Mirjami (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Tavoitteet. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää, millä tavoin verkko-opetus voi tukea oppimista kotitaloudessa. Tutkimuksen kohteena on Etäkoulu Kulkurin järjestämä kotitalouden etäopetus itäsuomalaisessa Kolin koulussa syksyllä 2013. Teoreettinen viitekehys muodostuu perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman, kotitalouden ydintaitojen ja verkko-opetuksen aikaisemmalle tutkimukselle. Tutkimuksen pääkysymykset ovat: 1. Miten verkko-opetus voi aktivoida oppimiseen? 2. Miten verkko-opetus voi tukea vuorovaikutus- ja yhteistyötaitojen, käytännön työtaitojen sekä tiedonhankinta- ja käsittelytaitojen kehitystä? Menetelmät. Aineisto kerättiin yksilöhaastatteluina stimulated recall -menetelmää hyödyntäen. Aineiston tuottivat viisi Kolin koulun seitsemäsluokkalaista sekä kolme opetuksen asiantuntijaa. Tutkimusaineisto analysoitiin laadullisen sisällönanalyysin keinoin. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Haastateltavien mukaan verkko-opetuksessa oppimiseen aktivoivia elementtejä ovat osallistaminen ja yhteistoiminnallisuus, vuorovaikutuksellisuus sekä kokemus opetuksen jatkuvuudesta. Toisaalta oppimista vaikeuttivat tekniset ongelmat ja haasteet oppimisalustan käytössä sekä ohjauksen puute. Tulokset osoittavat, että verkko-opetus on mahdollista toteuttaa sosiokonstruktivismista käsin perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman tavoitteet huomioiden. Verkon välineet voivat myös toimia tukena taidon oppimi-sessa. Kotitalouden ydintaitojen harjoittelu yksinomaan verkossa ei kuitenkaan täytä kotitalousopetukselle asetettuja tavoitteita. Verkko voidaankin nähdä yhtenä olennaisena kotitalouden tulevaisuuden oppimisympäristönä.
  • Rikabi-Sukkari, Leila (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Suomen perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman perusteita uudistetaan parhaillaan Opetushallituksessa. Uudet opetussuunnitelman perusteet tulevat käyttöön elokuussa 2016. Opetussuunnitelmassa määritellään opetuksen ja kasvatuksen arvopohja, tavoitteet sekä keskeiset opetettavat sisällöt. Opetussuunnitelma on vahvasti arvosidonnainen asiakirja, joka heijastaa ympäröivän yhteiskunnan arvoja, tapoja ja perinteitä. Uudistuksen kannalta on siis keskeistä ymmärtää yhteiskunnassa vallitsevaa arvomaailmaa ja yhteiskunnallisia muutoksia. Perusteluonnos on ollut ensimmäistä kertaa valmisteluvaiheessa vapaasti kommentoitavana Opetushallituksen www-sivuilla. Tarkastelen tutkimuksessani uuden opetussuunnitelman luonnokseen liittyvää palautekeskustelua: mitkä asiat koetaan tärkeiksi opetussuunnitelman ja koulutuksen kannalta nyt ja tulevaisuudessa? Tutkimukseni aineisto koostui 963 kommentista, jotka annettiin Opetushallituksen www-sivuilla koskien uuden perusopetuksen opetussuunnitelman yleisten linjausten luonnosta. Avoin kommentointi toteutettiin 17 päivän ajan marras- joulukuussa 2012. Laadullinen aineistolähtöinen analyysi toteutettiin teemoitellen Atlas.ti -ohjelman avulla. Aineistosta löydetyt teemat käsittelivät monipuolisesti suomalaista koulua ja sen sivistystehtävää sekä kommentoijien omia arvostuksia. Päätuloksiksi nousivat 1) yhdenvertaisuus ja tasa-arvo; 2) autenttisten oppimisympäristöjen käyttö ja yhteistyö koulun ulkopuolisten tahojen kanssa; 3) suomalaisen kulttuuriperinnön ja uskonnon opetuksen asema sekä 4) kestävä kehitys ja maailmankansalaisuus. Tutkimuksen tulokset kuvastavat niitä teemoja ja arvoja, joita pidetään juuri nyt tärkeinä tulevaisuuden sekä suomalaisen koulun ja yhteiskunnan kehittämisen kannalta.