Browsing Kasvatustieteellinen tiedekunta by Publication Year

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  • Liekola, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Targets. The purpose of this study is to investigate the joy of learning as a phenomenon. The joy of learning is relevant in the process of learning, because in the joy of learning, the child can exceed the limits of his own competence and it ́s also child ́s innate way to learn. The research question is to examine, how children express the joy of learning in the learning process. There ́s little research made of the joy of learning in the context of early childhood education, so it is important to broaden the knowledge of the children ́s joy of learning and increase the understanding of the phenomenon. The theoretical framework of this study is sociocultural approach to learning and shared joy. Methods. The research method was qualitative case study and the research data was gathered in the “The Joy of Learning Multiliteracy” -research. The research data, which consists of video recordings from the early science inquiries, was collected in three preschool groups in Finnish day care. This research is based on data from video observations. The analysis was conducted by data-driven content analysis with Atlas.ti-software. Results and conclusions. As a result, the joy of learning appears in verbal and functional ways, like different voices, speech and bodily movements. There were clearly more verbal expressions than functional expressions. The joy of learning was highlighted when the children were seeking interaction with other adults and peers and thus sharing the experience of the joy of learning. The phases of the joy of learning were short-lived and passing, and they were very diverse in nature. The most moments of the joy of learning were seen when the children were practicing inquiries independently either alone or in pairs. The situation required the emphasized role of adults to create the optimal learning environment. The results offer teachers information on how to recognize the joy of learning. The outcomes of the study also increase the significance of the joy of learning as the basis for learning and well-being. When the joy of learning is visible, it is possible to create new methods to reinforce the joy in early childhood education pedagogy.
  • Rönkkö, Ella (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Education arranged by activity areas is a form of teaching meant for those students, who cannot fulfill basic education syllabus even if the syllabus is adjusted. There are five activity areas: communication skills, social skills, motor skills, cognitive skills and day-to-day skills. These activity areas have stayed the same for over 30 years, even though education arranged by activity areas curriculum has otherwise been reduced. Education arranged by activity areas is highly individualized and only applied to a marginal group of students. The aim of this study is to find out, how a typical day in education arranged by activity areas is structured. The material of this research was interviews of 96 special education teachers across Finland. The interviews were carried out in 2018-2020. This thesis used a qualitative research approach and qualitative content analysis was used for the analysis. The results show that school days are typically built around five basic pillars. These basic pillars are morning circle, recess, school meal, rest and ending circle. The contents of these basic pillars varied. It was also found that teachers had different orientations in their teaching. There were five different orientations: subject orientation, activity areas orientation, shared orientation, creative orientation and treatment orientation. These orientations represent which types of contents the teachers emphasized in their narration. In addition, the results showed that there were two types of exceptions that disturbed the daily structure: regular and irregular exceptions. Based on the results, it can be concluded that education arranged by activity areas curriculum gives teachers much autonomy to plan and execute teaching their class. In education arranged by activity areas a significant portion of the day is spend carrying out day-to-day tasks, which affects the realities of teaching and its planning. The teachers may be in danger of seclusion, if the arranged by activity areas curriculum and teacher education do not provide teachers with enough support to design their teaching.
  • Pasanen, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The aim of this study was to examine what sort of challenges and other matters special class teachers notice in studies of youth in foster care, and how they can support these youth. The number of children and youth in foster care has increased for a long period of time (Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, 2020). Comparing to their peers, youth in foster care have lower academic achievement and they struggle more with psychosocial problems (Berlin et al., 2011). These problems have an effect on these youth also later in their life (Brännström et al., 2017). Consequently, it is important to examine what kind of issues these youth struggle with and how special class teachers can meet these issues. The study is qualitative case study and was conducted by interviewing five special class teachers from two special schools in Finland. The interviews were thematic. Qualitive content analysis was used as a method of data analysis. Special class teachers mentioned a great amount of issues that are related to studies of foster youth. Firstly, the teachers brought up problems in multiprofessional cooperation. They mentioned differing practices, distrust, lack of cooperation and insufficient flow of information between professionals. Special class teachers also brought up the challenges these youth have faced in their past; for instance inadequate upbringing. The teachers supported foster youth by collaboration, consistent and individual support and discussion, for instance. They also supported youth by showing that they care and by setting boundaries. Despite the challenges, the special class teachers mentioned positive matters as well, especially when comparing foster youth to other children involved in the child welfare system. For instance, as stated by the special class teachers, youth in foster care received a lot of support from child caring institution. In addition, child caring institutions helped teachers with network cooperation.
  • Papatheocharous, Sofia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Common methods of social integration research are questionnaires and interviews. Pupils’ social integration has not been studied much through observation of drama lessons. Previous literature shows that social participation is a key aspect when studying the occurrence of social integration. The aim of this study is to investigate whether drama lessons can possibly support the occurrence of pupils’ social integration. The research questions were (1) what kind of pupils’ participation occur in the videotaped data and to what degree, and (2) in what ways could the videotaped drama lessons provide opportunities to promote pupils’ social integration. This thesis is part of the KEHU program ( The archived data used in this study was five videotaped drama lessons of three teachers, and it was conducted for the purposes of the Challenge of empty space -program of University of Helsinki in the year 2014. The research method was secondary analysis based on observation of videotaped data and the research design was based on elements of exploratory content analysis (data-driven and theory-driven) and data quantification. The analysis provided information about pupils’ participation type and degree. Pupils’ participation can be defined as non-participative, partially participative, and fully participative. Pupils’ social participation was defined through partial and full participation, and the analysis shows that pupils participate socially almost half of the time of each drama lesson. The drama lessons provide opportunities of promoting pupils’ social integration through activities that require pupils to play and work together, and by combining activities that require mandatory and voluntary pupil participation. Further research is needed to study pupils’ personal perspective of social integration occurrence in drama lessons.
  • Torpo, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims. The purpose of this thesis was to examine what kind of achievement goal orientation groups can be found in the context of non-formal, job-related online learning, and how the discovered groups differ from each other in perceived costs of online learning and in assessment of work organization’s supportive learning culture. The study’s context offered a unique application to the goal orientation profile research, as the examined type of learning was non-formal learning, or more specifically, non-formal online learning related to work. This study contributes to building an understanding of motivational processes among people in working life and presents practical implications for the development of online learning practices and materials so that those would be more encouraging and supportive to a wider audience of learners. Methods. The research data was collected by an online questionnaire during January and February 2021. Altogether, 170 individuals from Europe and North America, working in different roles and fields, participated in the study. The participants were classified into goal orientation groups by utilizing a person-oriented approach and Two-Step cluster analysis. To examine in-between group differences, analyses of variance (ANOVA) were performed. Results and Conclusions. Four distinct goal orientation profiles were identified: learning-oriented, success-oriented, performance-avoidance-oriented, and avoidance-oriented. Learning-oriented differed from the other groups in perceived costs, as they assessed the online learning costs to be significantly lower. In organizational learning culture, avoidance-oriented evaluated their work organization to have a less supportive learning culture than the rest of the groups. After further examination of the study results, it was found that performance and avoidance goals seem to be connected to higher perceived online learning cost, while mastery goals seem to be related to an assessment of a more supportive organizational learning culture. Based on these findings, this study also presents practical implications in the latter part of the paper. All in all, the results indicate that understanding and knowledge of different motivational patterns is crucial for the development and expansion of non-formal, job-related online education.
  • Lehtinen, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The aim of this study was to examine what kinds of achievement goal orientation profiles can be identified among sixth grade students and how students with different kinds of motivational profiles differ with growth and fixed mindset. In addition, the aim was to find out whether girls and boys differed in achievement goal orientations, mindsets and placement in achievement goal orientation groups. This study adopted a person-centred approach, which enables the investigation of multiple goals simultaneously. It’s important to identify and support students who are motivated in different ways. The study hypothesized that students with different motivational profiles may also favor different ways to think related to learning and intelligence. Previous studies have shown that teaching of the growth mindset in schools can be seen as a pedagogical approach that is belivieved to have an impact on students motivation and school performance. The data used in this study was part of Mind the Gap research project. The participants (N = 761) were sixth grade students from 32 schools in Helsinki. Participants were divided into groups by using K-means cluster analysis. Group differences in mindsets and gender differences in mindsets and achievement goal orientations were examined by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Placement in achievement goal orientation groups were examined with Chi square-test. Four different achievement goal orientation profiles were identified and the groups were labelled as performance-oriented, mastery-oriented, indifferent and avoidance-oriented. The most students favour growth mindset more than fixed mindset. Some small differences between groups could be identified in mindsets. Performance-oriented group prefer more fixed mindsets and mastery-oriented was emphasized more growth mindset. Avoidance-oriented prefer less growth mindset than other groups. Small differences in achievement goal orientations were found between girls and boys, but no differences were found in mindsets. There were more girls than boys in mastery-oriented group. Otherwise girls and boys were evenly placed in achievement goal orientation groups. Based on the results, it can be assumed, that mindsets are related to motivational differences. Favoring a growth mindset in teaching could have beneficial effect on motivation and learning.
  • Dromberg, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This study examines how psychoculture which means the psychologization of everyday life, is constructed in news coverage concerning adult ADHD. It is interesting to look at psychoculture in the context of adult ADHD, because adult`s problems with attention and hyperactivity only began to be categorized as psychiatric disorder in 1994. This despite the fact that the real underlying causes of the phenomenon have not yet been proved by clinical methods. The topicality of this study is also reflected in the fact that ADHD has gained a lot of media attention in recent decades, which has been seen to be associated with a significant increase in ADHD diagnoses. In this study, adults ADHD and psychoculture are seen as socially constructed phenomena. Since the research material is constructed by news and attached to media, it is natural to approach the phenomenon with discourse analytical view. This means, that the use of language is considered to play a key role in constructing social reality. In this study, rhetoric analysis was chosen as the method of analysis. The aim of this analysis method is to study the construction of reality through the use and argumentation of linguistic rhetorical means. The study showed that news coverage related to adult ADHD manifested psychoculture by reproducing the mechanic of therapeutic authority through rhetoric argumentation and excluding certain aspects of the phenomenon of ADHD from the coverage. In line with the idea of therapeutic authority, individual`s problems in various areas of life, such as everyday life and working life were problematized. Based on analysis mainly neuro-psychological explanations, and medical or therapeutic solution, such as psychiatric drugs or peer support for ADHD was provided. The analysis showed that the challenges and problems of people’s everyday lives were seen as individual-driven, and solving these problems was seen as the responsibility of the individual. A process reflecting the psychologization in which problems of everyday life are transformed into psychological problems, which eventually become medical-scientific problems for example through the use of psychiatric language, was found in the news.
  • Enberg, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Purpose. There has been a rapid technological development in our society. New inventions have made many jobs easier, but in return there is a demand for educated personnel. This in turn puts higher demands on peoples literacy. In the Pisa surveys the Finnish pupils have shown a high level of reading literacy, but unfortunately the trend has been negative and the number of pupils with low levels of literacy have increased. This development can be observed especially among boys. In Pisa 2018 20% of the boys were weak readers with a literacy not sufficient for further studies. The same survey found a decline in attitudes towards reading and 63% of the boys replied that they read only if they have to. The goal of this thesis is to investigate if the same patterns can be found among pupils in a primary school. The study examines how often the pupils read for enjoyment on their spare time and what motivates their reading behaviour. Furthermore, the study will examine whether there are differences between boys and girls or between pupils at different grades. Methods. The study was conducted in the autumn of 2020 in a Finnish primary school. The data was collected with a survey. The pupils took part in the study during schooltime. The sample consisted of all the pupils from grades 3 to 6 in the investigated school (N=236). The study received 157 responses of which 156 were accepted and analysed. The material was analysed with the statistical program SPSS. Results and conclusions. The results of the study showed big differences in pupils reading behaviour already in the primary school. 79% of the pupils read regularly on their spare time, but 21% read more sporadically or not at all. The result also showed that the girls read more often on their spear time than the boys do. The pupils showed a strong self-efficacy and a positive attitude toward reading There was a tendency for a decline in intrinsic motivation and attitude among older pupils. In this study the reading behaviour could be explained by gender, intrinsic motivation, attitude, and the perception that you read only if you have to.
  • Rautakorpi, Milla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims. The aim of this thesis was to examine and describe from the perspective of the lifespan model of motivation how Finnish late adolescents navigate the post-high school transition, that is, how they channel, choose, and compensate career goals. The theorydriven, exploratory hypotheses assumed that the current situation in education or employment is associated with the career goal content (H1); the underlying meaning behind the career goal is associated with the career goals young people prioritise (H2); current situation in education or employment is associated with the change in career goals (H3); changes in career goals are associated with the importance of the career goal (H4). The results confirmed hypotheses H1, H2, and H3. Methods. The data were collected in 2019 using an intensive longitudinal setting. The weekly questionnaire was sent to sixty young Finns for thirty-nine consecutive weeks. At the start of the study, participants were 18 or 19 years of age. The qualitative data were analysed by means of content analysis and aggregated into key domains and core themes. The associations between categorical variables were examined using crosstabulation and χ2 test of independence. The associations between variables were also displayed graphically. Results and conclusions. Our findings were in line with previous literature revealing that the participants’ situation in education or employment was associated with the career goals they engage with. Studying was associated with prioritising goals concerning education, for example, high school graduation or university admission. In turn, working predicted goals concerning work or finances. Finnish late adolescents value higher education, and that was reflected in the results, as the career goals concerning university admission were prioritised among participants in almost every group. In general, our results reflected what are the expectations of the Finnish young people, but also what they expect of themselves. Based on the results, it seems that students state different reasons for career goal change than those who were working or neither working nor studying.
  • Björkman, Markus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives. This article-based master’s thesis analyzes the different manifestations of autonomy that appear in Tove Jansson’s children’s book Comet in Moominland (1946). The objective is to describe and construe understanding of the expressions of different manifestations of autonomy by combining different perceptions of autonomy, inter alia appreciation of the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, Isaiah Berlin, and Veli-Matti Värri. Methods. The research was carried out as a qualitative analyzes. Aim was to reveal the essence of autonomy in the book by using the phenomenological-hermeneutical approach. The phenomenological-hermeneutics approach is understood in the study as an interpretation of the art of understanding. The study contributes an interpretation of the manifesting autonomy in the book. Results and conclusions. This thesis has provided a deeper insight into the manifestation of autonomy in the Moomin philosophies. This study has found that generally, it is possible to grow to a moral subject in the Moominvalley, it can be seen as the growth and responsibility of the Moomintroll for itself and its environment. The strengths of the Moomintroll and the entire Moomin world are empathy and openness, acceptance of others, which also have the potential to take responsibility for the current state of the world. The publication channel which has been chosen for the article: Reflections of autonomy, analyzing the revealing perspectives of autonomy in Tove Jansson´s Children book Comet in Moominland (1946) is Barnboken: Journal of Children's Literature Research. Article matches the focus of Barnboken ideally; article is a new approach to Tove Jansson’s children´s literature and educational philosophy, optimistically an innovative and creative interpretation of manifested autonomy.
  • Sorvoja, Liisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This thesis focuses on social categories that are constructed from the social value of higher education in the Finnish mass media. The aim of the thesis is to analyze how the hierarchy of education level produces citizenship and social hierarchies. Previous research has shown that the subject is seen in Finnish education policies as a rational agent who makes free choices and self-invests in education. This thesis analyzes power and inequality existing in the discourse of learning and higher education possibilities. I approached the research task using feminist research methodology and the post-structural idea of language and knowledge. Admission to higher education is the context of the study. The data consists of opinion pieces about higher education reforms and the admission process in the spring of 2020. The opinion pieces were published in Helsingin Sanomat. I analyzed the data with a discursive-deconstructive reading and identified affective shades and unequal categories. I focused on the subjectivity of a higher education applicant and tried to find power that operates in discourses. According to the analysis, there is produced a self-responsible subjectivity in the data who struggles to survive in education and in the society. The self-responsible subjectivity is constructed in the contradiction between a dream discourse and demands of employability. In this study, one of the goals is to contextualize knowledge and affects so it is not necessary to look my results out of their historical context. Anyway, the results make possible to understand value choices in the Finnish education policies and social debate. This study argues that the discourse of education possibilities strengths the concept of the ideal citizen who survives because of its own merit. The discourse complicates to recognize social inequality. What is more, highlighting the social value of higher education produces the hierarchy of education paths and categories based on education level.
  • Niinistö, Sari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objective of the study. The objective of the study was to research students learning experiences in mindfulness. I studied the experiences of students in the Faculty of Medicine about learning and the structuring of learning in the context of the mindfulness skills course. My perspective was intrapersonal and individual. There is little research data on the learning process of mindfulness because the mainstream of the study has concentrated on the clinical purposes of use and effects of mindfulness skills. I studied learning experiences using three questions: How do students describe conscious orientation of attention and selfaccepting perception (learning mindfulness)? How do students describe the effects / consequences of learning mindfulness for themselves? What meanings do students give to mindfulness learning? Methods. The research material was collected as part of the mindfulness and well-being course 2020. Participants in the Faculty of Medicine course practiced mindfulness skills during the course and returned learning diaries and a learning reports as part of the course. Among those who issued research permits, seven students (N = 7) were randomly selected in proportion to the population in the field of medicine and two students in psychology. The analysis of the learning diaries and the report was carried out with the help of theory-guided content analysis. The analysis identifies the impact of previous theoretical knowledge and research. Results and conclusions. Students described the objects, body, emotions, and thinking of directing attention on a general level. An accepting attitude towards self and practice was the most prominent attitude in the trainings of mindfulness skills although neutral, negative, judgmental, and ambivalent attitudes were seen. Students had very varied experiences of the effects and consequences of learning mindfulness. The effects were concrete changes in the operation or the control of the feelings and thinking. The effects of the learning process showed mindfulness as balancing experiences and a stress reliever. Insights and the development of self-confidence emerged, but anxiety and prejudice were also seen. Mindfulness was perceived as a meaningful stress management tool, a professional tool, an enabler of a conscious lifestyle and self-education. The progress of learning as a process was reflected in the results
  • Kanerva, Tuuli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Foodwork has changed and responsibility of foodwork is starting to be more equally shared in households. Attitude towards foodwork depends, among other things, on situation and to whom one is cooking for. Convenience foods are used to simplify foodwork in households. Outsourcing foodwork to restaurants is also more and more common and take-away meals have become very popular. Technology and application innovations enable ready meals to be delivered to our doorstep. The aim of this study is to explain the use of and reasons to use home delivery services. Theoretical background of the study is based on the research of home economics and domestic work. Research of eating out and eating environments is also used in the study. This study was conducted as a quantitative study. The data was collected with survey questionnaire that was compiled based on theoretical literature. The survey was distributed via Internet in February 2021. Of 148 received responses 145 were accepted for the analyses. Analysis was conducted with IMB SPSS 26. Crosstabulation, Kruskal-Wallis, PCA and oneway-ANOVA were used as methods of analysis. Time saving, minimizing the amount of work and indulgence were the main reasons to use home delivery services for ready meals. Three groups that had different attitudes towards foodwork and home delivery services were found from the data. The groups were named 1. enjoying foodwork, 2. staying home and 3. valuation of ease. Female gender, high education and age (28–34 years) defined the first group. Size of household (at least two members), children and high education defined group two. Low education, 20 000–39 999 annual income and size of household (three or more members) defined group three the least. Among all respondents, home delivery services were used most by men and age group 28–34. The results of the study cannot be generalized to population and it would be important to study these themes further and in larger context since home delivery services are permanent part of the contemporary life.
  • Kalske, Kreetta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims. In my thesis I analyze rhetoric of columns by Tommi Kinnunen for the online service. My aim is to understand how they link to the Finnish educational discourse. I am particularly interested in how they produce educational discourse linked to the discourse model of education reforms formulated by education sociologist Simola (2002b). I am also interested in how texts are linked to the teacher position in discourse presented by Suoranta (2008) and Salminen (2012). Methods. The data consists of five columns written by Tommi Kinnunen for online service. Every text relates somehow on organizing basic education. To observe different reader constructions, I have used a narrative reader theory by James Phelan (1996). Results and conclusions. Analysis produces two different rhetoric aspects: emotion rhetoric and expertise rhetoric. The latter consists of features of political rhetoric and the former with epideictic nature. Emotion rhetoric seeks to persuade reader and that is produced mostly in anecdotes. Then again expertise rhetoric has more of an influential purpose. Argumentation in that leans on information from official and unofficial sources. Then again, different constructs of an implicit reader according to Phelan's (1996) model do not seem to vary by rhetorical aspect in a straightforward manner. In other words, it can not be stated that emotional rhetoric would always be directed to a construction of a general public and expertise rhetoric to a construction of expert. Thus, variation of rhetoric used between implicit reader constructions seems to produce educational discourse in which teacher has a buffer role between the actual classroom work and reform discourse. This observation is in line with that presented by Simola (2002b) and Salminen (2012) though it would need more in depth research to make any generalizations from it.
  • Heimo, Meeri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims: The aim of this research is to describe home economics teacher students’ experiences on teaching quality at home economics teaching degree programme at the University of Helsinki. Little research has been conducted on the matter of the experiences of teaching quality and previous research on this subject has mostly been quantitative, not qualitative. This research bases on research about pedagogy in higher education, teaching quality and student satisfaction. Research on those subjects highlight the context in which teaching is given at the University of Helsinki for that it is important to understand the subject and its context that is under quality assurance. Methods: The research data consists of ten semi-structured theme interviews that were collected from home economics teacher students at the University of Helsinki. The interviews were insider interviews due to the fact that both the interviewer and the interviewees belong to the same insider group. The interviews were analysed by using inductive qualitative content analysis. Based on the analysis, eight themes were identified and divided into two themes, factors related to the teacher and factors related to the teaching. Results and conclusions: The results indicate that good quality teaching according to the experiences of home economics teacher students consists of teaching that is student oriented, academic, diverse, up-to-date, and combines theory, practice and teaching. In good quality teaching the teacher must be competent and excited about the subject they are teaching. The results indicate that eight different factors affect the experiences on the quality of teaching. The students that were interviewed had various experiences on the quality of teaching and majority of the students were mostly satisfied on the quality of teaching. On the experiences on quality of teaching teacher’s pedagogic skills and practises together with the didactic and pedagogic choices were emphasized. The results of this research increase the understanding of students’ experiences on the quality of teaching and the results of this study can be used when developing teaching.
  • Strodel-Paananen, Larissa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The objective of this research was to find out how parents view daycare centers’ capabilities to recognize and support children with sensory processing disorders. When there are challenges in sensory processing, they are caused by the central nervous system. In the disorder, the brain is not able to parse, analyze, or unify information received from the senses. When the brain isn’t able to process information correctly, the human body won’t function correctly. This makes learning more difficult, as well as tolerating normal daily life and stressful situations. The challenges of sensory processing disorders have mainly been researched from the perspective of occupational therapy. There is hardly any research from educational science or special education’s point of view. This research is based on Jane Ayer’s sensory integration theory and modern research that supports it. This topic was approached from the parents’ perspective. This research was done by using qualitative methods. The data was gathered with a questionnaire and the subjects were chosen through snowball sampling. In total there were 47 subjects. The research was analyzed with the help of content analysis and narrative analysis. According to the findings of the research, daycare centers have low abilities to face children with sensory processing disorders. Understanding the challenges these children experience varied, according to the parents. The parents had experienced stigmatizing, blaming, and belittling of the issues from the daycare centers. In some cases, even the children had been blamed. According to the findings of the research, the symptoms of sensory processing disorders are diverse. Further, the problems of learning and behavior associated with the disorders are severe. One of the biggest difficulties in a daycare environment was that is extremely straining. Allowing the children to have a calm space was viewed as important. According to the research, a lack of information is the main reason why identifying sensory processing disorders is so difficult. Supporting children with these disorders in daycares is insufficient for the same reason. Therapy was seen as a tremendous help and a great asset for the whole family. There is a huge demand for further education and training.
  • Tiitinen, Anna-Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This research focuses on 4th–6th graders pupils from southern Finland and their own opinions on their own happiness, factors that would increase their happiness and does global happiness explain school-related happiness. Research was executed with #uuttakoulua-project. Happiness has been wondered through the ages and people has tried to find answers to achieve happiness. Western thoughts on happiness roots in ancient Greek and to Christian views of happiness. According to positive psychology happiness has been risen to be one of the scientifical research subject, even though it has been research quite little in Finland. Positive psychology has reached also school world where meaning of happiness has also been researched. One of the researchers in Finland is Lotta Uusitalo-Malmivaara who’s research has shown that pupils are generally happy. For example, success in school and positive relationships has been proved to be key factors that increase happiness. 543 pupils took part on this study of which 47,1% were boys, 49,0% were girls and 3,9% were other genders. Study was made as survey where questions were related to pupil’s well-being, school satisfaction and character strengths. For my own study I chose three questions about happiness which were: “How do you usually feel?”, “What have you been thinking about school?” and “My happiness would increase”. My research questions are: 1. How happy 4th–6th graders from southern Finland feel themselves? 2. What factors 4th–6th graders define to increase their happiness? and 3. Does global happiness explain school-related happiness? First two questions were analyzed by means and standard deviation. Third research question was analyzed by regression analyze. Global happiness explains 28,4% of school-related happiness was the most important outcome of this study. Pupils who took park to this study felt themselves generally happy. Intervene to climate change, improvement of animal rights and fulfilment of equality had the highest means within the answers as a factor to increase one’s happiness. As a conclusion if one is happy globally is one most likely happy also in school. Results cannot be generalized to whole population but gives an idea of how participants view their own happiness and the factors that could increase it.
  • Honkanen, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Aims. The purpose of this study was to picture e-learning in higher education during a global pandemic from the students’ point of view. The study focuses on how higher education students experienced e-learning, either meaningful or unmeaningful. The theoretical framework consists of previous studies concerning e-learning and meaningful learning. The theoretical background also contains a view of personality differences from the perspective of studying. The research questions are as follows; 1. How higher education students have experienced e-learning during pandemic? 2. Which factors have helped to experience the e-learning be meaningful? Methods. The research data has been gathered in individual interviews which took place at the autumn of 2020. Most of the interviews were conducted in zoom. The individual interviews were semi-structured theme interviews. Ten higher education students participated in the study, they were all between 21 and 25 years old and their institutions located all over Finland. The data of this research was analysed with qualitative methods using the databased content analysis. Results and conclusions. From the interviewee’s point of view e-learning was experienced as either meaningful or unmeaningful, depending on the individual preferences. Issues with technology, the lack of instructions and support were mostly experienced as declining the feeling of meaningfulness. Simultaneously longing for social interaction was connected with the personality differences. Of the features of personality orientation, mainly the introverts experienced e-learning to be more meaningful than extroverts. On the other hand, the experience of e-learning was also attached to individual’s attitude towards it. The findings give support to the idea that e-learning can be experienced in a meaningful way. However, it should pay attention to individual learning preferences.
  • Heikkinen, Tanja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Food waste is a global phenomenon that affects many different areas, such as the economy and the environment. Households cause the most food waste in the whole food chain, and if we want to influence and reduce household’s food waste, it is very necessary to study it. A lot of research on household food waste has been done lately. According to activity theory, action always has a target or a goal that actor wants to achieve and actions are always determined by tools. In this study, I investigate what kind of activity the households are doing when trying to avoid food waste. I utilize activity theory and operating system that based on it. I investigate the causes of household food waste, means of reducing and how the operating system appears in the activities of household food waste planning. This study accomplished as a qualitative research. Target group was the people who are interested in reducing food waste. Material for this study was collected using a questionnaire interview with structured and open questions. The questionnaire was sent to the target group through the Facebook food waste group and 89 responses were collected in a short time. The material was analyzed using content analysis. The results of the causes of food waste and the means of reducing it were corresponding with previous research findings. Also in this study peoples own actions, as well as the influence of others contributed to food waste. Proper tools are important when reducing food waste. Proper tools were felt to be necessary, but those availability was mentioned sometimes difficult to get. Also learning and development was seen important when reducing food waste. Experimentalism and courage to try new were also mentioned as important. Many households had also developed their reduction in food waste beyond on their own households, and as well as to the food garbage.
  • Krouvi, Jaana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Inventining and innovation pedagogy renew the content and pedagogy of education. New pedagogy changes teaching and challenges both students and teachers with open assignments. Schools have experimented with the invention pedagogy, which challenges students to develop thinking skills and encourages creativity and inventing New tools (Maker-case) and pedagogy have been experimented in 16 schools and preschools in the Helsinki metropolitan area. Teachers from various grades have participated in training provided by Growing Mind and Innoplay research projects. The present study examines with electronic questionnaire teachers’ (n=12) experiences of invention pedagogy, the use of materials in the Maker-case and changes in the ways of teaching. The analysis of the questionnaire directed the interview phase. The theme interviews (n=5) focused on the pedagogy and tools, their developmental needs, and suitability for teaching. The interview specified observations about the new pedagogy and understanding of the impacts, opportunities and weaknesses of teaching. The questionnaire revealed that the materials of the Maker-case and the pedagogy benefited those teachers for whom technology-based materials were new and who were eager to experiment with them in practice. Teachers' motivation to develop pedagogy and school practices clearly increased their willingness to experiment, and the development work was seen beneficial for the school, for students, and for teachers’ own competence. The materials in the Maker-case inspired all respondents, and most of them felt that the materials allowed them to practice technology-based invention pedagogy and encouraged them to use the pedagogy in their classrooms. The content analysis of the interview data showed that the new pedagogy is used to change one's own teaching to meet the objectives of the curriculum and to modernize teaching. The challenges were related to the lack of own skills and pedagogical support, and to the ability to apply the pedagogy to suit one's own group. According to the teachers, the tools in the Maker -case can be used to change teaching and to practice 21stcentury skills. Maker tools and invention pedagogy had a positive effect on the quality of learning. Open-ended challenges of invention pedagogy develop creativity and thinking skills and make learning more individual and effective.