Browsing by Issue Date

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 723
  • Nurmi, Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Previous study shows that reading motivation among Finnish children and youth has diminished. Recreational reading is known to be an essential factor in literacy development. With support of the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture, new ways of promoting reading are being developed. In Sweden, the municipalities formulate plans of reading promotion with the collaboration of various operators. In Finland, there is no similar system. There are no previous studies or reports to be found on the topic in Finland or in Sweden. This study examined the methods of reading promotion presented in the plans and their justification. The study aimed at considering whether there is something to be learned from the Swedish system in Finland. Plans of reading promotion of 17 Swedish municipalities were chosen as the data of this study. The method chosen was inductive content analysis. The actions of reading promotion described in the plans could be portrayed as efforts between four factors: the professionals, the parents, the children and the material. The professionals aim at both having an impact directly on the children, using methods that take place in children’s groups, and indirectly by informing and supporting the parents. They try to improve the achievability of the material by bringing the library close to the children and by offering reading that is suitable by its contents and suitably easy for each reader. The professionals also aim at improving their own actions and cooperation. The viewpoint of the librarians stands out in the plans. Cooperation with the educationalists does not seem to be widely used in planning, purchasing material or agreeing on the distribution of work. The methods are usually adult-centered. The methods, where the child becomes a subject instead of being an object, stood out clearly: the children were given an opportunity of either collaborating in purchasing the material and making it achievable or influencing each other by developing the library environment and by networking. Significant qualitative variation was found in the plans. This report offers ideas of reading promotion for an elementary school teacher and can be helpful in formulating plans of cooperation of school and library. Comparing the reading interest of Finnish and Swedish children and finding out the effects of planning on reading motivation would further contribute to the findings of this study. That information would make it more possible to evaluate if the Swedish system is worth introducing in Finland.
  • Kaartinen, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of this study is to describe, analyse and interpret teacher’s perceptions on temperament and effects of temperament on student evaluations. There’s hardly any research done in Finland on how class teacher’s receive temperament and how it effects evaluations. The subject is important to further research since each student will be evaluated throughout their school years. There were two research questions: 1. What is the teacher’s level of knowledge on tempera-ment? 2. How does temperament effect on students evaluation? Research methodology: Answers to research questions were searched by interviewing six (6) classteachers and by analyzing their answers through Grounded theory and through content analysis. Results and conclusions: Teachers had not really received any education on temperament during their studies. Part of the teachers had searched information on temperament outside of their studies. However teachers had some kind of perception on temperament (inherent way to function and to react in different situations) and the different features of temperament (activity level, shyness etc.). Temperament seems to have effect on student evaluations relating to learning, working and behavior even that according to the Perusopetuksen Opetussuunnitelman perusteet 2014 (Foundation teaching Learning Plan) students temperament should not have effect on evaluation. On the other hand in the same document teacher´s are obligated to evaluate working methods and behavior as a part of subject grade. Therefore teachers have contradictory instructions on how evaluations should be performed.
  • Myyrinmaa, Kristiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of the study. A need to involve customers in decision making, planning, implementation and evaluating quality regarding their services has been identified in health care since 1990s’. According to ecological theories, communication should be rehabilitated by impacting both the communication disabled person and his/her communication partners and environments. For communication interventions, ICF classification offers a framework that emphasizes individual’s functioning and participation. In speech therapy, community –based rehabilita-tion has become a common working method beside and even ahead direct ways of working with a customer. Community –based approach means collaborating with communication partners to enable development of communication. Parents have taken part in their children’s speech therapy, but up until the beginning of the millennium their perceptions about the received services had not been explored. The effectiveness of speech therapy can be studied from different perspectives with qualitative and quantitative measures. The aim of this study was to explore parental views and experiences of the impact of the speech therapy their child has received on daily communication and interaction. Method. Data was collected by a questionnaire. Questionnaire was sent to those parents of medical and therapy clinic Contextia’s speech therapy customers, whose child had received speech therapy for at least six months. 25 respondents filled in the questionnaire. Data was analyzed by using key statistic figures and cross tabulation plus qualitatively classifying the an-swers of open questions. Results and conclusions. The impact of the received speech therapy was considered significant relative to development of child’s communication skills and parents were satisfied with the guidance received. The role of spontaneous development was viewed minor and the role of therapy major. Cros-tabulation did not reveal dependency between the perceived impact and potential explanatory variables, since the perceived impact was large and variation was minor. Practicing linguistic skills was considered the most significant content area of speech therapy. Practicing with computer or mobile applications was considered least efficient relative to daily communication. Utilizing their use in practicing has also been guided least to parents and kindergarten/school personnel. Respondents perceived kindergarten’s/school’s role more signifi-cant than family’s role in supporting rehabilitation. The result challenges professionals and de-cision makers to consider how to ensure families’ commitment and support to the goals and the implementation of therapy.
  • Holstein, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of this master's thesis is to examine how representatives of employers describe young employees and their approach to work life. In this thesis I will examine young people using the concept of generation when young employees can be called "Generation Y". Because of demographic changes old employees will retire all the time and young employees are entering to the world of work life. Some researchers are expecting that young employees will change the work life practices because their expectations towards the working life differ from older generations. There is a lot of literature about generation Y but less scientific studies. According to the scientific studies young employees, so called generation Y, are not as different from other generations as it’s often implied. According to the studies the differences in approaches to work life between different age groups are based on age and generation affect. The age effect is bigger compared to the generation effect. The generation effect can be observed in the point that family and leisure valuation has increased among young employees. Young employees are also more efforts willing compared to older generations. The research data is formed of 8 interviews. The persons who I interviewed are representatives of employers and they work in Human Resources in different fields. I have collected my data using theme interviews and qualitative attitude research. I have analyzed my results using qualitative content analysis. According to my results the informants describe that young employees are shortsighted, self-confident, ambitious, they have new work standards, and they are individually different. According to the informants, young employees’ approach to work life is positive and they are motivated by the work content, the atmosphere of organization, employment framework, tangible benefits of work and increased employability.
  • Myllymäki, Outi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Objectives. Previous research has pointed out various predictors of school achievement. Along with cognitive capacity, school achievement is associated with female gender, beneficial socioeconomic status, school temperament and school motivation. The aim of this study is to bring together various findings of previous research of qualities influencing school achievement, and to find out whether school motivation is connected with school grades after controlling for pupil’s gender and self-rated temperament. It is important to thoroughly understand school motivation, because among other things it has also been associated with effective use of learning strategies. Through vaster understanding of school motivation it is possible to find ways to motivate pupils in risk of social exclusion. Methods. This research is based on a vast Finnish SITRA school study. This study uses a subsample of 3 040 pupils between ages 13 and 19 from 64 different schools forming a geographically representative sample of Finnish speaking ninth graders. Pupils provided self-rated answers for temperament surveys DOTS-R and TABC-R as well as to school motivation survey created for the use of the SITRA project. Their latest grade point average was also self-reported. The data was analyzed using linear regression analysis. Results and conclusions. As the main result, school motivation explained 38 % of the variation of school grades, when the pupil’s gender and self-rated temperament were controlled. Girls got better school grades than boys. However in regards to school motivation, there was no difference between the genders. There were differences between temperament traits between boys and girls, however ideal school temperament traits were divided to both genders evenly. All school temperament traits were correlated with school motivation. The strongest positive connection was found with persistence and the strongest negative connection with impulsivity. There may be a common factor, school environment for example, explaining the strong correlation between school temperament and school motivation. All results are in line with previous evidence.
  • Koski, Kiira (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the home economics teachers’ work and occupational well-being. The visible part of the teacher’s work is the activity in the classroom, in addition to which the work includes a number of other pro-active and ex post tasks. One of the dominant elements of the teaching is the planning, which focuses on the tasks in more detail. Along with the planning, research wanted to emphasize teacher’s own experience of work as the experiences have a strong linkage to perceived well-being. The well-being of teacher is therefore important because it is reflected in students' well-being at school. Teachers' well-being has been affected particularly by the psychological aspects of the work that are based on factors related to both teacher and working conditions. The analysis of the research included characteristics of qualitative and quantitative research methods. The target group consisted of home economics teachers from comprehensive schools from all over Finland that have been teaching in the academic year of 2014-2015. The obtained data included 67 answers of which 58 also submitted open reports. Open reports were used to study teachers’ experiences of work whereas other questions were used to analyse the amount of teaching and planning. The reports formed narrative features to the research and they were analysed with categorical and thematic analysis. Thematic approach produced six themes describing different work characteristics and well-being. Quantitative analysis was used to describe the amount of time used in teaching and planning of the teachers with different backgrounds. The study revealed that the increase in teaching hours resulted in the decrease of time used in planning per one lesson. According to the research data older teachers used relatively more time in planning than the younger teachers. Teachers having more work experience used less time in planning whereas teachers with permanent employment used relatively more time in planning than teachers with temporary employment. Home economics teachers’ occupational well-being was burdened by challenging students, the amount of work, sense of hurry and the lack of breaks. Instead, teachers’ well-being was improved by proper intrinsic motivation originating from students and general job satisfaction.
  • Linna, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This study describes experiences of four talented women artistic gymnasts in their progress towards expertice. The background to this study was current research and theories of the development of sport talent. Talent in sports is a multidimensional concept. Present studies show that the following characteristics affect the development of talent: mental resources, physical strength and love for and commitment to the sport and training. In addition, countless hours of practice and favorable environmental factors, as well as a touch of luck, are needed. Francoys Gagné’s differentiated model of giftedness and talent is used as the research frame of reference. This study is a qualitative case study, and the material was collected by autobiographical narrative research approach. Narrative involves human thoughts and experiences about their lives and how they build their identity. The narrative is way of knowing, and narrativity is generally associated with the constructivist view of knowing. As a researcher I choose this narrative research approach because in this way I can tell my interviewees’ story, “a story of elite gymnasts”, in a rather truthful way. I interviewed four Finnish elite gymnasts, and I asked them to tell me their gymnastics biographies. One of the four interwees is still actively competing on the international level. The other three gymnasts have already finished their active careers as athletes. As key factors in the development of elite athletes were defined active exercise background of childhood, family support and encouragement, as well as financial aid provided by the parents, the right coach and the right team, and the experiences of success in competitions. Gymnastics had brought a lot positive content to the lives of the interviewees. The interviewees felt that sports have contributed to the development of their personality, increasing their selfconfidence, perseverance and courage. The life of a young to athlete is very scheduled, and it is guided by studies and exercises, as well as set targets. As negative matters in a top athlete’s life were mentioned injuries and challenges in reconciling social relations, school and training.
  • Bauer, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of this study was to examine 6th graders’ self-esteem and find out what kind of factors in the school environment are interrelated with it. This study examined interrelation between self-esteem and gender, learning difficulties, school value, school satisfaction, teacher’s behavior, being bullied and participating in bullying. These different variables were chosen based on previous studies about self-esteem. The aim is to gain better understanding of the different factors that influence students’ self-esteem in the school environment and therefore provide help for teachers battling with issues regarding self-esteem enhancement. The data was collected in the spring of 2013 as part of the Mind the Gap -project. Participants (n=735) were 6th grades from 33 different schools. Three different groups according to self-esteem were formed: weak, mediocre, and strong self-esteem in relation to other respondents. Relations between self-esteem and other variables were examined by Pearson’s product-moment coefficient and Independent-Samples T test was used to examine differences between genders. Finally two-way ANOVAs were conducted to investigate self-esteem and gender differences regarding the different variables. According to the results 6th graders evaluated their self-esteem as relatively good. Boys reported better self-esteem than girls. However the boys also experienced more learning difficulties and took part in bullying more than girls. Girls’ reported their school value, on the other hand, higher than boys’. There were no differences between genders in school satisfaction, experiencing teacher’s behavior nor being bullied. The effect of self-esteem was clearly higher than the effect of gender on all the variables. Also an interaction effect of self-esteem and gender was found regarding being bullied. In the mediocre self-esteem group boys experienced more bullying than girls. The boys of the mediocre self-esteem group also participated in bullying the most.
  • Lonka, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Previous studies show that personality can affect success at work. However, there have been relatively few prior studies on the relationship between success at work and certain personality traits, such as optimism and self-directedness. Current study examined the relationship between optimism, selfdirectedness and success at work in 3 to 10 years follow-up. Success at work was measured by unemployment status, income and occupational status. Women and men were analyzed separately as previous studies have reported gender differences in personality-success at work relationship. Furthermore, the results were examined after controlling the level of education. The hypothesis was that optimism and self-directedness would predict lower unemployment, higher income and higher occupational status. Participants were from the Young Finns study that began in 1980. There were in total 3596 participants aged 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 at the study baseline in 1980. In this current study 1576 participants (993 women, 583 men) were followed from 1997 to 2011 when they all were adults. Self-directedness was measured in 1997 and optimism in 2001. Unemployment and occupational status were reported in 2001, 2007 and 2011. Income was reported in 2007 and 2011. Results showed that optimism and self-directedness were associated with success at work. Low optimism predicted unemployment, especially in women. High optimism and high self-directedness predicted higher income and higher occupational status. However, the associations between selfdirectedness with income and occupational status weakened after the level of education was controlled. High optimism also predicted changes in income. When analyzing changes in income separately in women and men, the result was significant only in men. Thus it seems that optimism affects the career of an individual positively as optimists continuously find new opportunities to advance in their career and earn more money. In practice the results suggest to reflect that objective success at work might be improved by interventions that lead to improving skills in goal making and mindfulness.
  • Laine-Ronkainen, Annika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims. Lunch in educations institutions has a big role in daily nutrition and health maintenance as it could be the only warm meal of the day. The purpose of this study, which has been made in co-operation with UniCafe restaurants, is to describe which factors have the most influence on students choices of restaurant and food, the corresponding selection criteria and how the lunch selection could be improved. The knowledge based on this study can help the restaurants to allocate more suitable lunch selections between campuses and customer types. The theoretical background is based on two food choice models Shepherd & Sparks (1994) and Furst ym. (1996). In this study, food choice is treated as a step-by-step process, starting from choosing the restaurant until the whole meal is on the tray. Methods. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews involving 37 university students from three different campuses (Kumpula, Meilahti and Ruskeasuo). Participants´ age ranged between 20−32 years. In addition another data set which was collected through UniCafe customer satisfaction inquiry at the end of 2014 has been used. All gathered data was analyzed by using content analysis. Results and conclusions. Student restaurants were favored because of affordable prices and location nearby the campus. More than a third of the students checked the menu in ad-vance and started the food choice process already before the arrival to the restaurant. The appearance of food, taste and price were the most important benchmarks of the food choice. Also well-being had been an important factor on food choice. For example by having a coffee after the lunch many students tried to better cope and focus during the day. Dessert has been seen as a kind of reward meal for example after completing an exam. Also the level of hunger and amount of physical activity had an influence on food choice.Half of the participants told that sometimes lunch companion influence their food choices. Students in Meilahti and Ruskeasuo preferred fish dishes whereas in Kumpula they paid attention to meal prices. These were the most significant differences between the campuses. While studying the possible improvements of lunch selection its showed that in general stu-dent were satisfied with the offered selection. The biggest areas of improvement were sea-soning, variation of selection and focusing on protein content, especially in vegetarian meals.As a result of this study six different customer profiles had been identified: ecological selectors, selectors that want to get filled, price-conscious selectors, selectors focused on well-being and demanding customers. These identified profiles can help the restaurants to allocate more suitable lunch selections between campuses and customer types.
  • Alén, Hannu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Action video games have been found to improve many cognitive skills. Most established findings are related to faster information processing speed and improved attentional capabilities. Many of the same cognitive processes are better on elite athletes of interceptive sports compared to non-elites. This study aimed to find some preliminary evidence whether the improvements in cognitive processes gained from action video gaming might be beneficial in ball sports. This was done by comparing the performance of action video game players and nonaction-video players on an anticipation of coincidence test. Anticipation of coincidence is a laboratory test, where the task is to anticipate when a moving object arrives at a certain point and to coincide a button press with it. Performance on the task is thought to depend on information processing speed and attentional capabilities. When the speeds and possible speed changes are similar to those encountered in real ball sports, elite athletes of these sports are generally more accurate in the task compared to non-elites. Elite athletes differ from non-elites in their gaze patterns as well. For example, athletes fixate to the target quicker and their quiet eye, meaning the last fixation or tracking gaze before a motor action on a specific target lasting at least 100 ms, is longer. Thus, it was studied whether action video gamers fare better on the anticipation of coincidence task in different constant speeds and in deceleration conditions, and whether their gaze patterns are different compared to non-gamers. 10 action video game players and 9 nonaction-video game players participated in the experiment. The results show that action video game players are more accurate in the task in most constant speed conditions and in a deceleration condition with slow speeds. There was some variation in gaze patters, including that action video gamers had quiet eye more often in fast speeds. The results suggest that action video game players can program more accurate motor responses based on the speed of the target and reprogram wrong motor actions better than nonaction-video game players. In addition action video game players are better able to track fast moving targets. As these skills are important in ball sports, this possible linkage between action video games and ball sports performance should be studied further.
  • Feldt, Sophie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Substantial research has been conducted on recruitment processes within companies, as personnel are such an important component of a company’s success. Prior research shows that the recruitment process isn’t conducted in a reliable and objective way. Since recruiters trust their intuition throughout the recruitment process, they are in danger of making unfair and biased decisions. Recruiters are therefore being critiqued for not managing the process as recommended, in regards to the objective and fair treatment of all applicants. Yet there is scarce qualitative research that examines the recruitment process from the recruiters’ point of view. Thus the aim of this study is to understand what recruiters perceive as challenging within the role, how they approach the requirement to be objective in relation to whether true objectivity is indeed realistic, and what role they give intuition in the recruitment process. This study aims to understand recruitment from the recruiters’ perspective in order to gain a better understanding of the issues involved. The research data was gathered in interviews with 16 recruiters from 9 different recruitment consultancy agencies in Helsinki and Tampere, Finland. The interviews were grouped in to themes that addressed challenges, decision-making and intuition. The transcribed interviews were analyzed inductively from a hermeneutic phenomenological scientific standpoint. The study shows that recruiters don’t regard the recruitment process as objective. Because the process is partly social, it inherently makes room for subjective interpretation. Also, recruiters believe that the information accumulated from social interaction brings added value to the recruitment process. Hence the study shows that intuition has great significance in the recruitment process, as the majority of recruiters use it regularly. Prior research on intuition shows that it can be a source of wisdom and expertise, if used correctly. The recruiters tried to carry out the recruitment process in an as objective and transparent manner as possible. By reflecting, questioning and critically reviewing their own thoughts, opinions and feelings, they aimed to avoid making decisions and judgments based on feelings. Taking the recruiters’ point of view in to account gives new insight in to the recruitment process and the issues therein.
  • Nuortimo, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims. Understanding of emotional processing is important for the research of mental states. A better understanding of the visual system would facilitate understanding the functioning of the entire brain. Emotions are processed in a complex neural network. The aim of the present Master's thesis is to explore the effective connectivity of the occipital face areas (OFAs) and fusiform face areas (FFAs) during the processing of visual stimuli eliciting negative emotion. Methods. The subjects (n = 16) were young adult male students. Negative and neutral emotion were elicited using visual stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired using an MRI scanner. The fMRI data were preprocessed and analyzed using SPM8 software. In order to proceed to the psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analyses, imaging sessions were concatenated and entered into the analyses as one single session. Subject-level model comprised the following regressors: negative emotion, neutral emotion, baseline and a binary regressor for each functional session to model session effects. An effects of interest F-contrast and a negative emotion t-contrast were defined. Spherical volumes of interest (VOIs) were computed for each subject for the left and the right occipital face area (OFA) and for the left and the right fusiform face area (FFA). The PPI variables were computed for each statistically significant VOI. A standard PPI model was defined. Each of the 4 VOIs was used as source region for all other VOIs. A group-level whole brain analysis was done for each PPI source VOI. Group-level VOI analyses were conducted for all PPI source VOIs. Results and conclusions. In the whole brain analyses statistically significant group-level PPIs were found in the following brain regions: left cuneus, right middle occipital gyrus, right and left inferior occipital gyrus, left lingual gyrus, and the left culmen. VOI analyses demonstrated the strong connectivity in the network consisting of the right OFA and left and right FFAs. Negative emotional content enhances effective connectivity in the bilateral OFA-FFA network.
  • Virtanen, Marjo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Targets. The purpose of this Master`s Thesis is to clarify how the tasks of the early childhood education and care (ECEC) educators are shared during the first half of the day when their work is focused on a group of children. In this study, it was examined how the activities of the ECEC educators at daycare are related to the activities of the children in, among other things, basic care situations, eating and different play situations. The theoretic basis of the study consists of documents guiding the ECEC education, the child`s growth and development, the ECEC pedagogy and the communication skills of the educators. The adults, who are close to the child, must create a safe environment which supports the child`s growth and development, and where the child can grow and develop, play and learn with confidence. In the theory section, the child`s involvement and small group activities at the daycare were examined, too. Methods. The research material is based on the observation material of daycare collected from the municipalities, which were involved in the Orientation Project (Reunamo, 2014). The material was collected in spring 2010 in Uusimaa and Hämeenlinna. The total of 892 children, aged 1–7 year, from 65 different day care, ECEC or family care groups participated in this study. The observations were systematically made in spring 2010, and they were made by the kindergarten teachers who participated in the study. This study focuses on the ECEC educator, who is closest to the child during the observation period. By observing the activity of the educators we learn about their behaviour in different situations. This study represents a quantitative study of the activities of ECEC educators of daycare. Results and conclusions. This study showed that the educators are the closest to the children of age 1-3 years. As the children grow, the time of interaction with one or more children reduces. The study found that the educators very seldom play an interactive role in the children`s games. 36.5% of the educators leave the children to play by themselves or other children inside. The children received most of the attention of the adults in different teaching situations. Indoors, the play activities directed by the educators represented 2% of the daily activities. The main part of the play was directed and selected by the children by themselves, the part of the guided outdoors play was 3%.
  • Siikaniemi, Kerttuli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The objective of this study was to interpret the phenomenon of modern craftsmanship by studying its dimensions As we live in a modern, technologically charged culture many seek for anchor points and meaningful content for life. For many those can be found in the world of craft. The word “craft” bears numerous meanings, maybe as many as there are interpreters, and one of the aims of this study is to find the one that is valid in this precise time and culture. Grounded theory -method was used as a means to collect and to analyse data. Mainly publicly available data, such as magazines, craft research, blogs and books was used as a ground for the analysis. Also the visual dimension of the data was analysed. Grounded theory is evolved by coding data, seeking categories and making comparative analysis of them. In this study the objective was not to create a theory but a model or an interpretation. The dimensions of modern craftsmanship based on data-analysis are responsibility, experience, making, skills and visuality. All of the dimensions are connected to the idea of a better life, of building yourself a good life. It can be seen as the core of the ideology of today’s craftsmanship. By making yourself one can take control of the future of the entire globe. The choices one makes, when buying and consuming clothes and other things are not only for themselves, but also for the greater ecological good. The responsible choice also concerns valuing used time and its quality. Responsibility of own life is important. Making by hand represents empowerment and meaningful fulfilment of a busy life. Experiences come through making and especially through making together. By succeeding, learning, sharing and focusing hobbyists experience doing craft as doing well. As a rising economical aspect of craft, experience economy offers craftsmen and crafters new ways and opportunities to experience craft. Referencing to craftsmanship both verbally and visually indicates skills, quality and value. Several separate but equal levels of craft culture can be derived from the data-analysis. Modern craftsmanship and especially the modern craft ideology is one of them.
  • Pirinen, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Due to savings the traditional services provided by the welfare state have been weakened. These savings have adversely affected particularly the disadvantaged people, and part of the risk of social exclusion has increased. The third sector or non-governmental organisations, in this study Icehearts, will work to prevent exclusion starting from the pre-school stage. The theoretical background in this study is constructed from the concepts of change in welfare state, non governmental organisations, inter professional collaboration and identity. Organisation’s educator-coaches coach teams, with the principle that everybody can play. Educators work as part of the inter professional collaboration, which is in boys and their families’ life. Educators work at boys’ school; organise afternoon activities, exercises in chosen sport, they are part of the multi-professional network in formal discussions and meetings including social, psychiatric, outpatient clinic and student welfare. Educators’ work-identity or inter professional collaboration has not been studied before, similar studies has been done among social- and care work professionals. This thesis has studied the work of educators and identity as part of a multi-professional network. How educator-coaches’ work-identity is constructed in their talk. How the interprofessional collaboration is described in their talk. Educators work mainly in the school district, both physically and mentally. Interesting is how this context was brought up in educators’ speech. The study material was collected by theme interviews in November 2014 by interviewing six Iceheart’s educator-trainer. They had worked 4-14 years in the organisation. The data was analysed with qualitative content-analysis. Experiences of working as a member of the interprofessional group differed depending from the context. Typical for educators seemed to be their tendency to adapt and use the language other professionals use. The underlying factors behind professional identity were the personal characteristics, Icehearts as organisation and other educators’ support, personal values and the desire to help. Agency as part of the professional identity emerged as an opportunity to work with their own personality and their own way. There are no detailed instructions or only one right way to work as an educator and this was seen as an opportunity. It would be interesting and meaningful to study the effect of the organisation and educators from state point of view, what is the organisation’s role in preventing exclusion. The multi professional co-operation could be studied with a change laboratory method in order to improve collaboration to benefit boys and families in large.
  • Huhtala, Ea (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Objectives. Exposure to maternal stress during pregnancy has been associated with a variety of adverse outcomes in the offspring, ranging from restrictions on fetal growth to long-term psychological impairments. Growing evidence suggests that prenatal maternal stress may also play a role in the onset of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, results from previous studies have not been uniform and methodological shortcomings may have impacted the findings. The aim of this study is to examine whether exposure to prenatal maternal stress is associated with higher levels of ADHD symptoms in the children, and whether the associations are timing-specific and independent of postnatal maternal and paternal stress. Methods. The current study sample consisted of 2,304 mother-child dyads participating in the PREDO project who were recruited from maternity clinics at 12 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks of gestation. The women filled out a reliable and valid stress self-report questionnaire, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), every two weeks throughout pregnancy, a total of 14 times. Child ADHD symptoms were reported by the mothers at child age of 1–5 years with the Conners’ 10-item scale, concurrently with a repeated assessment of maternal stress. Paternal stress was evaluated with the PSS at child age of six months. The associations between prenatal stress and child ADHD symptoms were analyzed statistically using multiple linear regression, controlling for multiple sociodemographic and perinatal confounders and for postnatal levels of maternal and paternal stress. Results and conclusions. Prenatal maternal stress was associated with significantly higher levels of ADHD symptoms in the offspring. Mid- to late-pregnancy stress had the strongest associations with child ADHD symptoms, while early-pregnancy stress showed a slightly weaker, yet significant, effect. The associations between prenatal stress and child ADHD symptoms were partially mediated by postnatal maternal stress. Nevertheless, even after controlling for postnatal maternal stress, the independent effects of prenatal stress remained significant. Adjusting for postnatal paternal stress had no impact on the effect sizes. The sex of the child moderated the association between first trimester prenatal stress and child ADHD symptoms, so that prenatal stress during the first trimester independently predicted higher levels of ADHD symptoms among boys, whereas, among girls, no significant associations were found for early-pregnancy stress after postnatal maternal stress was accounted for. Overall, the current findings are in line with the fetal programming hypothesis and highlight the importance of prenatal environmental factors in the etiology of childhood ADHD.
  • Suomela, Jenni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Nettle (Urtica dioica) has been used as a textile fiber among other bast fibres. Its culturohistorical significance is not clear, due to lack of studies focusing on nettle fiber. Main reason for that is the similarity of nettle fiber with all other bast fibers in their microscopic structures. The identification may have been inadequate. Main purpose for this Master’s Thesis was to find those structural features that makes nettle fiber distinguishable from other bast fibers and to find the methods to study these features. I chose flax and hemp to be the reference fibers, because they are the two other bast fibers growing in Finland that can be used in textiles. My Thesis is divided into three parts. In the first theoretical section I study nettle as a textile fiber, and identification methods and physical structures of bast fibers in general. In the research section I introduced the methods suitable for identifying bast fibers from each other, and explained the structural differences between nettle, flax and hemp. The methods I used in this study are longitudinal observation, cross sections, Herzog’s test with polarized light microscopy and SEM. From these results I created an Identification Manual for Nettle Fiber. It is a practical manual for archeologists, conservators and all textile researchers to use. From the photographic material I précised referential photo collection of physical structures of bast fibers. The manual and the photo collection are found as appendixes at the end of the study. In the final section of my research, I piloted the manual to a small sampling of textiles from the Finno-Ugric and Historical collections of The National Museum of Finland which were suspected to be made from nettle fibre. My conclusions in this study is that it is possible to identify nettle from other bast fibers. I was able to identify the materials of the textile sampling with the methods I had chosen. 16 from 25 samples that I studied were nettle. This partly disproves former results. My study points out that it is important to re-identify materials in ethnographic museum textiles to find out and discuss further the culturohistorical significance of the nettle fiber.
  • Kytölä, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Tiivistelmä/Referat – Abstract Objectives. This master’s thesis aims to examine motivation, personality and career decision making. The theory is based on Ryan and Deci´s (2002) Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and Goldberg´s Big Five theory. The theory also includes the concept of career decision making. In SDT, motivation is divided into three parts; intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, as well as amotivation. The central idea of the theory is a continuum between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, instead of juxtaposing them. The Big Five theory includes the idea of Big Five Personality traits; extraversion, neuroticism, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness. The theory emphasizes the connection between motivation, personality and career decision making. Nevertheless, there is a lack of specific evidence and previous studies to support these connections. Thus further investigation is required. Development of the motivation and personality indicators came to be a significant part of the research. These indicators are used to examine the quality of teacher student’s motivation, personality and career decision making, as well as the correlation between motivation and personality. Methods. The study is a quantitative study. The data was collected via electronic questionnaire and send to a group of teacher students in the University of Helsinki during fall 2014. The questionnaire contains a motivation scale, personality scale and claims related to career decision making. 120 students answered the questionnaire. The questionnaires were analyzed by using SPSS-program. The analysis methods used include factor analysis, test that compare means, t-tests, analysis of variance and correlations. Results and conclusions The study shows that the motivation and personality scales need further developing, since the scales don’t function as presumed. The highest mean of motivation was found in a part of extrinsic motivation named “regulation through identification”. This was followed by intrinsic motivation variables which indicate that the teacher students are mostly intrinsically motivated. Student teacher’s personality traits are split evenly among all traits mentioned. Nevertheless, agreeableness has the highest mean and neutoticism the lowest. Based on the study the teacher students are thoughtful, social, dutiful and systematic. There was only a weak linear correlation between motivation and personality. The certainty of teacher student’s career decision making is high.
  • Lappi, Reetta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of this study was to investigate which goal orientation has effects on the school’s 8th - 9th grade students’ feelings of autonomy. This was studied in all 8th - 9th grade students’. Previous studies have shown that motivation is a complicated process. It is affected by students’ goals, expectations, intrinsic motivation, and experience of autonomy and assessments of ones abilities, self-esteem and fear of failure. Motivation was explained by goal orientation theory and self-determination theory. The data was collected using quantitative methods. All study subjects were eight and ninth graders (N202) in one Finnish middle school. Data was collected in Autumn 2010 of all the school’s eight and night graders by paper questionnaire. Data from the questionnaires was put in to IBM SPSS Statistics 21 software, which was used for analysis. Factor analysis, correlation matrix and regression analysis were used for research method. Main results of this study were that differently goal oriented students experience autonomy in learning differently. Student who have positive attitudes towards school tend to experience more autonomy in learning than student who have more negative attitudes towards school. Mastery orientation predicts student’s experiences of teachers help and experiences of autonomy the best. Performance orientation, performance approach and performance avoidance goal correlated positively with of teachers help and experiences of autonomy. Work-avoidance goal correlated negatively with experiences of teachers help.