Browsing by Issue Date

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 774
  • Hiekkala, Anna-Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This is a qualitative study researching the current state of early childhood education. The purpose of the study was to find out what kinds of things kindergarten teachers are hoping to change regarding the distribution of work between kindergarten teachers and kindergarten´s nursemaids in day-care centers, and how kindergarten teachers wish the director would act regarding these issues. This study was part of the research project “Transition from the education to the profession and staying at work in the kindergarten teacher career” conducted by the teacher training college of the University of Helsinki. The data was collected using an electronic questionnaire and the study involved 490 kindergarten teachers from five counties in the metropolitan Helsinki area. This study focuses specifically on two open questions and total of the answers was 399. The data is analyzed through a content analysis. The theoretical background of the study is focused on the organisation of the distribution of work and leadership in day-care centers. Previous studies have shown that unclarity on the key tasks of the director in the field of early childhood education has affected confusion and excessive liberties in defining both the directors’ and the kindergarten teachers’ work descriptions. (Hujala 2005; Halttunen 2000; Nivala 1999) In addition, previous studies have shown that the growing work distribution trend in the day-care centers where everyone does everything has negatively affected the pedagogical level of staff, and kindergarten teachers have lost their position in the field of early childhood education. (Hujala 1998; Kinos 2008; Onnismaa & Kalliala 2010). The results showed that kindergarten teachers wish for a clearer definition of their tasks. They also hope better organization of work and usage of working time. Kindergarten teachers wish that directors would be involved in the distribution of work in the day-care centers. They also wish that the expertise of different professional groups would be recognized in the process. The results showed that many kindergarten teachers need the director to support the formation of a clear division of labor and its implementation in day-care centers. The results provide information on what issues the kindergarten teachers think should be payed attention to in day-care center leadership, and how they would want to change the distribution of work in day-care centers.
  • Halonen, Niina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Previous studies have confirmed that educational practices have not changed with the digitalization of society. The use of ICT in teaching is mainly low and there is an ongoing public debate regarding the Finnish students well-being. This study tried to find out is there a hypothesized gap between the technology-mediated practices of adolescents and school. The aim of this study was to investigate how and how much ICT is used for learning and what kind of technological attitudes and school well-being experiences students have. It was also examined how the use of technology, attitudes and well-being are interrelated and which factors of these phenomena can explain academic achievement, schoolwork engagement, school value, happiness and school burnout. Finally it was investigated what kind of profiles of ICT use and attitudes could be found among the participants. The study was part of the Mind the Gap - project. The data was collected by questionnaire in the 2013. The participants (n = 735) were sixth graders from Helsinki. The use of digital technology, technology attitudes and school well-being were examined by mean values and gender differences by t-test. Correlational analysis and stepwise regression analysis were carried out to find out the factors that were related to academic achievement, schoolwork engagement, school value, happiness and school burnout. Students were grouped into profiles that represented their technological attitudes and use of ICT using SPSS two-step cluster analysis. One-way ANOVA and cross-tabulations were used to examine group and gender differences. The results indicated that the technology is not used on a regular basis to support learning, even though the students felt quite high ICT enthusiasm (the use of technology was seen as a positive contribution to the schoolwork engagement). Information-orientated use was reported most common. Mechanical technology use (eg. writing) was the next most common, producing technology use (eg. projects, multimedia) came in the third. Communicative technology use (online discussion about schoolwork) was the least common. The majority of the sixth graders felt relatively high schoolwork engagement, happiness and school value. Further, students reacted positively towards the teacher's activity and the conditions of the school. ICT enthusiasm was associated with lower experience of school value, schoolwork engagemet as well as negative experiences of teacher's activities. Technology-related problem-solving predicted schoolwork engagement positively. Information-orientated use, and fear of failure using technology were repeatedly negative predictors for school well-being and positive predictors for school burnout. Four different groups (actives, slackers, passives, enthusiastics) showed clear differences in the use of technology, attitudes, school well-being and the associations between these phenomena. To conclude, teacher’s role and how the technology is used in schools appears essential. It’s important to understand students’ predispositions towards using digital technologies and support adolescents’ natural ways of utilizing ICT. Students need guidance to understand the possibilities of digital technologies as collaborative and creative learning tools. This, however, does not happen by chance. Therefore, I argue, that there is a need in basic education to build new support systems for national, municipal, school and grade levels to minimize the gap between the technology-mediated practices of adolescents and school.
  • Partanen, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims: Embodied practices among people with aphasia remain relatively little known until now. The aim of this study was to describe free conversation interaction between a seriously aphasic speaker and his wife. This study aims to explore what kinds of nonverbal elements appear during the conversation of the aphasic person, and how the nonverbal elements arise in different conversational turns. The main focus of this study is on the substitutive and the complementary gestures of the speech. Earlier studies on aphasia interaction suggest that gestures are an important resource to construct meanings in turns of an aphasic speaker. Data and methods: This is a qualitative study where conversational analysis is used as a research method. Data consists of two videotaped recordings of the couples’ free conversation at home settings. Results and conclusion: Several nonverbal elements, which had a significant influence for the conversation interaction of this couple, appeared in the data of this study. The wife interpreted aphasic person’s nonverbal elements in the conversation as meaningful elements. The wife gave time and space for the aphasic person to participate in conversation. The aphasic speaker took advantage of the gestures in order to compensate speech loss. In fact, he almost completely relied on the substitutive and complementary gestures in conversation. He used the gestures in many ways and combined gestures skillfully to his limited verbal elements. A significant result in the study was that the aphasic speaker hardly showed any signs for verbal word search before expressing nonverbal elements. He started gesturing often seamlessly just before of his typical turn initiator verbal expressions yeah yes and yeah but or simultaneously with them. Aphasic person´s expression were built fast and effortlessly despite the loss of speech. It can be said that aphasic person had adapted to his handicap caused by aphasia by taking advantage from gesturing.
  • Martio, Lotta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims: Speech and language development is delayed or proceeds atypically with children with intellectual disabilities. Speech expression is limited and a person communicates mainly by early means such as gestures and vocalizations. Interaction is heavily dependent on communication partners. Logopedic interaction studies aim to find out how interaction works when some of the participants have communication problems. Earlier study has brought much information on the communication features of people with aphasia. Communication of people with intellectual disabilities has been studied less. This study provides information on communication features of an adolescent with severe intellectual disability. Methods: The study examined the conversation between Sari and a logopedics student during speech therapy sessions. Conversation analysis (CA) was applied. CA is a qualitative method used to search regularities in naturally occurring conversations. Sari is a 14-year-old girl with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome. She has been diagnosed with severe intellectual disability with autistic features. Her communication is mainly non-verbal. The data consisted of six videotaped speech therapy sessions. The study focused on task phases of the sessions when the participants conducted a speech therapy exercise with four different tasks. For analysis, the videotaped data was transcribed in detail. Sari’s communication features and the sequential construction of conversation were described. Things that made interaction fluent or nonfluent were analysed. Results and conclusions: Repetitive structures of interaction were discovered applying CA. Therapy task sequences consisted of three-part structures, where the student first assigned a task, Sari responded and the student commented Sari’s response. Negotiation sequence was often built between the first and the second turn. Interaction was fluent when Sari’s response to the student’s turn was preferred and nonfluent when Sari’s response was not preferred. Sari communicated mostly with pointing gestures and bodily activity. Success of Sari’s communication was largely determined of how well the student was able to interpret her communication.
  • Turtiainen, Taija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Purposes. The purpose of this thesis is to find out how students experience the mentoring provided to them by the mentoring teacher. The study focused on finding out how the student-supervisor relationship, previous expectations and the realization of those expectations affected students' experiences on teaching practice. Additionally the study explores the underlying mentors roles that affect the student-supervisor relationship. Previous studies indicate that mentoring relationship and the mentors roles are defined by the goals of the practice, students' need for support and their stages of learning. Therefore this study also focused on development of the students' theory in practice and professional thinking. Methods The research material was collected from six first year teacher students on their first teaching practice. The students wrote free form essays on their experiences and then they were interviewed on mentoring provided to them during practice. The material consists of four single person interviews and a pair interview. Collection of the research data took place in April and May 2013. Theoretical content analysis was applied to analyze the data. Results and conclusions The experiences of the students were significantly connected to the feedback received from the mentoring teacher. The mentoring during practice was generally perceived as encouraging and positive, emphasizing the practical aspects of teaching. The mentoring was straightforward, focusing on instructions and advices. The students perceived the mentoring discussion more like feedback sessions. The cause of this was the lack of dialogue and interactive discussion. However, this was not the case with all the students. One of the student pairs confirmed that dialogic approach took place in their mentoring discussions. The student-mentor relationship was usually relaxed and encouraging. The mentors were perceived experienced and their advice was welcomed. Limiting the student's freedom of creative thinking and teaching as well as the lack of constructive, critical feedback resulted in negative experiences. Students respect supervisors who listen to them and show authentic interest towards them. Mentoring is perceived as fruitful when it provides enough advice, limits and freedom considering students' stages of learning.
  • Peake, Christopher (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Modern views of learning emphasise the utilisation of students’ pre-existing knowledge in teaching. Learning and information refinement occurs in social interaction, and for this reason school should also utilise more communal approaches to learning and teaching. Making use of students’ existing knowledge is important also for student interest and engagement. The aim of this study is to find out how well teachers succeed in including student initiatives into teaching. The focal point is student-teacher interaction and how its quality is likely to affect student engagement. Earlier research has highlighted the importance of a good student-teacher social relationship, but on a level that provides no details of practicalities. A purpose of this study is to provide practical examples of different kinds of student-teacher interaction, and the interactions’ effects on learning and engagement. This study is a qualitative analysis and the data is part of the data collected during the “Learning, Agency and Well-being” (2009—2014) project. The data of this study comprises of observational data collected from two upper secondary classes during 2010 and 2011. It consists of a total of 146 lessons that were concatenated into 52 episodes. From these episodes 109 interaction sequences that begun with a student initiative were included. In addition, 7 episode examples for selected for deeper scrutiny to form more detailed qualitative analyses and interpretations. Although teachers were fond of attempting to include student initiatives into teaching, only a few times was activity re-directed on the bases of the initiative. A good social relationship was found to be a significant factor for the creation of engagement fostering surroundings. Mutual trust and respect were found to be hallmarks of a good social relationship. Accepting students’ somewhat on-task initiatives was found to be the best way of improving student engagement.
  • Feldt, Sophie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Substantial research has been conducted on recruitment processes within companies, as personnel are such an important component of a company’s success. Prior research shows that the recruitment process isn’t conducted in a reliable and objective way. Since recruiters trust their intuition throughout the recruitment process, they are in danger of making unfair and biased decisions. Recruiters are therefore being critiqued for not managing the process as recommended, in regards to the objective and fair treatment of all applicants. Yet there is scarce qualitative research that examines the recruitment process from the recruiters’ point of view. Thus the aim of this study is to understand what recruiters perceive as challenging within the role, how they approach the requirement to be objective in relation to whether true objectivity is indeed realistic, and what role they give intuition in the recruitment process. This study aims to understand recruitment from the recruiters’ perspective in order to gain a better understanding of the issues involved. The research data was gathered in interviews with 16 recruiters from 9 different recruitment consultancy agencies in Helsinki and Tampere, Finland. The interviews were grouped in to themes that addressed challenges, decision-making and intuition. The transcribed interviews were analyzed inductively from a hermeneutic phenomenological scientific standpoint. The study shows that recruiters don’t regard the recruitment process as objective. Because the process is partly social, it inherently makes room for subjective interpretation. Also, recruiters believe that the information accumulated from social interaction brings added value to the recruitment process. Hence the study shows that intuition has great significance in the recruitment process, as the majority of recruiters use it regularly. Prior research on intuition shows that it can be a source of wisdom and expertise, if used correctly. The recruiters tried to carry out the recruitment process in an as objective and transparent manner as possible. By reflecting, questioning and critically reviewing their own thoughts, opinions and feelings, they aimed to avoid making decisions and judgments based on feelings. Taking the recruiters’ point of view in to account gives new insight in to the recruitment process and the issues therein.
  • Kontinen, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The changes in working life have set new kind of challenges for applicant attraction and recruiting. Therefore, organizations have started to invest more and more on the assessment and development of their attractiveness. The employment image can be considered as a key factor of this process. Previous studies have shown that the measures made especially in the early stages of the recruitment process have significant impact on employment image, corporate image, organizational attractiveness and the applicants’ intentions to apply for the positions. The aim of this study was to assess the external employer branding of the target company, Finrail Oy, in regarding the recruitment process. In addition, the applicants’ experiences of the recruitment process and the recruitment image were studied. Previous studies have indicated that this recruitment image has impact on both corporate and employment image. The need for a closer assessment of the external employer branding was recognized because of the unfamiliarity of the newly established organization. The qualitative research was implemented as part of the firm’s annual recruitment process in February 2015 and the data were collected by using questionnaire. The participants (n=627) were the candidates taking part in recruitment process in 2015. The questionnaire included open questions and eventually 174 candidates answered the question. The results were analyzed by using the coding analyzing method. The results showed that the awareness of the company had grown since the year of establishment. However, the interests of the candidates had divided to other industry segments as well. All in all, both the employment and company images can be seen very consistent. The both images were quite similar and they were based on images as modernity, trust, certainty and stability. The results also showed that candidates had received enough information during the recruitment process. Based on the results and theoretical background some conclusions and recommendations can be presented, concerning familiarity, distinctiveness and employer brand communication. Also, the importance of recruitment image should be considered as an important factor in the recruitment.
  • Kojo, Aura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Problem solving is a process in which we have to utilize our knowledge in a new way. The teacher can greatly influence how students’ mathematical problem solving process progresses. Usually teachers guide students by asking questions. There are several types of questions and ways of guiding. The purpose of this study is to find out, how teachers guide students during a mathematics problem solving lessons, what kind of questions they ask, and what kind of solutions their students get. The analysis follows the qualitative research methodology. The dataset used in this study contained videotaped fourth grade math lessons where the students solved a mathematical problem. The lessons were a part of a broader study in which the teachers had been giving problem solving lessons to the pupils during three years. The data analysis was based on a theoretical framework in which the teachers’ questions and guidance are categorized. I also studied the structure of the lessons and categorized the answers of the students according to the applied solutions strategies and the obtained results. The research reveals that teachers can guide students in different ways. It is possible that the teacher reveals too much about the problem, preventing the students from searching for their own solution strategies. This is the reason why we need more than merely problem-solving exercises - we need to study, how teachers should guide students during problem-solving lessons. According to this study, the guidance appears to affect the students’ solutions. Motivation and introduction to the problem, especially how the teachers explained the relevant concepts, seemed to influence the students’ work. There was also a connection between the teachers’ questions and their guiding-levels. The teacher asking many probing and guiding questions was guiding in an activating way, while the teacher with fewer questions guided in an inactivating way. As a conclusion, I discuss what kind of questions would help the teacher to guide in an activating way, which should be the goal according to the constructive learning theory.
  • Korpiaho, Sanni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims. This study aims to find out how career counsellors view their work in the field of career counselling training. Career counselling has been constantly changing and evolving during the past 40 years. It has changed from an education which aimed to help people with difficulties to find work to a profession aiming for new direction. Because of changes in working life, the main goals of career counselling have been redefined time after time. Career counsellors have also been forced to redefine the reasoning and the practice of their work as well as their counselling expertise and attitudes towards their students. There have been only a few studies about career counselling training from career counsellors’ points of view. This study aims at filling this gap. Research questions: 1) How do career counsellors view their work? 2) What kind of aims and practices do the counsellors have in their work? 3) How are the counsellors positioned towards their students? Methods. The data for this study was collected by semi-structured interviews during spring 2010. Six career counsellors working in vocational adult education centres in greater Helsinki were interviewed. The research material was analyzed by theory based qualitative analysis. Results and conclusions. When the counsellors spoke about their work, four main themes were found: the position and respect for the work, commitment to work, individual work practices and emotional work. The most essential aims for the counselling were to achieve a change in and a new direction for a student´s life and to encourage their self-directedness. The counselling practices were based on work experience and hands-on counselling practices, which were created together with colleagues. Different counselling theories were seen as completing elements to a hands-on counselling practice. The career counsellors had different roles towards their students, which included work as a counsellor, a pedagogue, an advisor, a representative and a guardian. An increased need for career counselling can be seen in the future. Therefore it is important that career counsellors commitment to work will be supported and opportunities to develop their skills will be ensured. Theoretical basis, aims and practices of career counselling should be analysed and further developed in the future and career counsellors should take part in this development and discussion.
  • Mäkinen, Ida (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims. The goal of the research is to open the differences between Swedish speaking and Finnish speaking kindergartengroups and their quality. The aim of the study is to find out whether there are differences in Swedish speaking and Finnish speaking kindergarten groups. Previous studies have shown that learning environments affect on the child’s motivation, the way the child commits to the task and the child’s performance. The quality of the classroom environment also affects on the child’s well-being and development. Data and methods. A quantitative study consisted of Swedish speaking kindergarten groups (N=48) and Finnish speaking kindergarten groups (N=38). The survey consisted of respondents from Finland (N=86), The analysis was done with the SPSS-software and included examination of t-tests. The results were compared between language groups. The results and discussion The learning environments were of better quality in Finnish speaking kindergartens. The arrangements of the environment had more quality in Finnish speaking kindergartens. The differences between Finnish speaking and Swedish speaking kindergartens were statistically significant (p<.03). Differences between Finnish speaking and Swedish speaking kindergartens were statistically significant (p<.00) in activity and transitions. Finnish speaking kindergartens also had better quality in classroom activities (p<.00). Finnish speaking kindergartens exceeded the Swedish speaking kindergartens in instructing the child’s behavior (p<.00). The early childhood care takers ways to plan the work was also of better quality in Finnish speaking kindergartens as opposed to Swedish speaking kindergartens. The results were statistically significant (p<.04) The need of more research is obvious, because of the lack of studies about Swedish speaking early childhood education. The results also raised some ideas for further study, for example a study about the administrative differences between Finnish speaking and Swedish speaking early childhood education.
  • Strandman, Siisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Goals. The aim of the study is to increase the knowledge of Specific Language Impairment (SLI) on 5 year old children, focusing on the symptom profile, prevalence of the symptoms and their custom to cluster together. The study is based on clinical observations and it is part of a longitudinal study. A lot of SLI research has been done, but the symptom profile remains pretty unknown. The literature explains it by the heterogeneity of the disorder and it’s tendency to convert by the development of the children. The knowledge of the profile symptom of SLI is needed especially when planning rehabilitation. Resources of the rehabilitation should be targeted properly, because SLI-children have a right to get encompassing and sterling support to adopt communication skills as good as possible. On research work the knowledge of the symptom profile can benefit research for example when qualifying the degree of the difficulty or when predicting the evolution and the possibility of rehabilitation of the disorder. Methods. This was a retrospective study and the data was collected from patient documents. The subjects were 196 children, who examined at Lastenlinna in 1998 or 1999. All the subjects were diagnosed to have SLI with diagnosis F80.1 or/and F80.2. Demographic information and information about the linguistic and comorbid symptoms were collected when subjects were 5 years old. The frequency of the symptoms were examined from the data and the symptoms were clustered with hierarchical cluster analysis. Results and conclusions. Subjects with diagnosis F80.1 had most symptoms in linguistic subclass of speech motor functions and subjects with diagnosis F80.2 in subclass of processing of language. From four possible linguistic subclasses the subjects had symptoms mostly in two or three subclasses. Subjects with diagnosis F80.2 had more symptoms both in linguistic and comorbid subclasses than subjects with diagnosis F80.1. Thirty-seven percent of the subjects had some comorbid diagnosis, of which F82, specific developmental disorder of motor functions, was the most common. 40,4 % of the subjects did not have any comorbid symptoms but when there were any, they were situated mostly in subclass of activity and attention. The symptoms were clustered into three clusters: (1) understanding, (2) speech motor functions with dysgrammatical symptoms and (3) pragmatics. The clusters of understanding and speech motor functions with dysgrammatical symptoms were small groups containing mostly of linguistic symptoms. The only comorbid symptom in the cluster of understanding was the symptom of spon-taneous. The cluster of pragmatic symptoms was a very broad cluster containing a lot of linguistic symptoms and almost all comorbid symptoms.
  • Pitkänen, Sami (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    This Master's study is to determine the Helsinki Region Environmental Services twin school program's impact in the participating schools. The program will be carry out by the Helsinki Metropolitan Area Recycling Centre Environmental School Path and its objective is primarily the reduction of waste at school, but also the students' homes. The most important means of promoting the objective of schools are created with students and teachers, environmental groups, as well as for teachers to share materials and practical support. Previous studies have shown that environmental programs can have an impact on the people involved in the activities and attitudes. Purpose of the study is to find out whether the twin school program effective way to promote environmentally-friendly activities. The research questions were: 1. How does the sponsoring school program will be shown under the school's waste management, to sustainable development, sorting and energy saving measures? 2. Does it have any impact on own and family activities or environmental attitudes. 3 How do attitudes explaining their own and family activities. 4. How can the school explain the co-operation of school environmental actions. The study defendants were eight comprehensive school involved the twin school program during the academic year 2013-2014. This study was un-equivalents of the groups completed layout with repeated measures (Non-Equivalent Groups Desing), in which the test group is participating 5-6 graders. A control group of schools operating in the environmental groups the students. Research assumption was that the twin school program effects are significantly higher in members of the schools environmental than in other students' The data were collected in the first measurement in the autumn of 2013, when respondents were 475 | 80, and the second time in the spring of 2014 respondents 416 | 61. Methods were quantitative analysis. Changes were analyzed for paired t-tests and repeated measures analysis of variance. The attitudes and behavior of the co-operation of the school contact was analyzed by regression analysis and Confirmatory factor analysis suggested created by structural equation models. The results showed that in general the significant change had occurred in the school activities of sustainable development, while their own families and sustainable development in the project change was negative. Environmental group membership was positive, but not statistically significant effect. Between boys and girls had a different response to intervention. Girls' results in decreased across the board, while the boys went up. The differences in attitudes were also significant that environmental negligence is more typical for boys. Attitudes related to the behavior of the way that care about the attitudes towards the environment to explain the increase in environmentally responsible behavior and the environment, while indifferent to the environmental measures decrease. Another interesting result is that the indifferent attitudes are more significant environmentally responsible activities explaining, albeit negative. Although the school environmental activities and the magnitude of the differences, both in schools and in which co-operation is high, the environmental action parameters to be measured are higher. Knowledge of the program a different impact on girls and boys, boys' higher environmental negligence and environmental impact of the school's co-responsible actions to help develop the twin school program teaching and planning.
  • Halme, Saara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Goals: The emphatizing-systemizing theory (E-S theory) states that emphatizing and systemizing helps us understand gender differences in normal population and the causes of autism spectrum disorders. Emphatizing is the capacity to recognize and predict other people’s emotions and thoughts and to respond appropriately. Systemizing is the drive to analyze nonagentive systems and create if-then rules in order to predict their behavior. In general, women have a stronger drive to emphatize and men have a stronger drive to systemize. Extreme male brain theory (EMB Theory) is an extension to the E-S theory. According to the EMB Theory, autism is a result of the extreme of the normal male cognitive profile. In recent years, it has been noticed that autistic traits can also be found in normal population. One might expect that the relationship between emphatizing, systemizing and autistic traits would also be found in healthy individuals. However, not much research has been done on this subject and the results have been somewhat mixed. There have also been some weaknesses in the methods used in previous research. In this paper, I examine the relationship between emphatizing, systemizing and autistic traits in normal population using a wide variety of measurements. The hypothesis is that low emphatizing and high systemizing are related to the amount of autistic traits. Method: 3084 participants took part in an online study. The study consisted of questionnaires and computerized tests. Results and Discussion: Low emphatizing and high systemizing were related to the amount of autistic traits. The negative relationship between emphatizing and autistic traits was bigger than the relationship between systemizing and autistic traits. Tests that measured emphatizing and systemizing abilities correlated only weakly to the amount of autistic traits. Low emphatizing was related to autism’s social difficulties. High systemizing was related to the interest toward numbers and patterns associated with autism. It seems that emphatizing and systemizing are linked to different parts of the autistic phenotype.
  • Lonka, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Previous studies show that personality can affect success at work. However, there have been relatively few prior studies on the relationship between success at work and certain personality traits, such as optimism and self-directedness. Current study examined the relationship between optimism, selfdirectedness and success at work in 3 to 10 years follow-up. Success at work was measured by unemployment status, income and occupational status. Women and men were analyzed separately as previous studies have reported gender differences in personality-success at work relationship. Furthermore, the results were examined after controlling the level of education. The hypothesis was that optimism and self-directedness would predict lower unemployment, higher income and higher occupational status. Participants were from the Young Finns study that began in 1980. There were in total 3596 participants aged 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 at the study baseline in 1980. In this current study 1576 participants (993 women, 583 men) were followed from 1997 to 2011 when they all were adults. Self-directedness was measured in 1997 and optimism in 2001. Unemployment and occupational status were reported in 2001, 2007 and 2011. Income was reported in 2007 and 2011. Results showed that optimism and self-directedness were associated with success at work. Low optimism predicted unemployment, especially in women. High optimism and high self-directedness predicted higher income and higher occupational status. However, the associations between selfdirectedness with income and occupational status weakened after the level of education was controlled. High optimism also predicted changes in income. When analyzing changes in income separately in women and men, the result was significant only in men. Thus it seems that optimism affects the career of an individual positively as optimists continuously find new opportunities to advance in their career and earn more money. In practice the results suggest to reflect that objective success at work might be improved by interventions that lead to improving skills in goal making and mindfulness.
  • Nurmi, Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Previous study shows that reading motivation among Finnish children and youth has diminished. Recreational reading is known to be an essential factor in literacy development. With support of the Finnish Ministry of Education and Culture, new ways of promoting reading are being developed. In Sweden, the municipalities formulate plans of reading promotion with the collaboration of various operators. In Finland, there is no similar system. There are no previous studies or reports to be found on the topic in Finland or in Sweden. This study examined the methods of reading promotion presented in the plans and their justification. The study aimed at considering whether there is something to be learned from the Swedish system in Finland. Plans of reading promotion of 17 Swedish municipalities were chosen as the data of this study. The method chosen was inductive content analysis. The actions of reading promotion described in the plans could be portrayed as efforts between four factors: the professionals, the parents, the children and the material. The professionals aim at both having an impact directly on the children, using methods that take place in children’s groups, and indirectly by informing and supporting the parents. They try to improve the achievability of the material by bringing the library close to the children and by offering reading that is suitable by its contents and suitably easy for each reader. The professionals also aim at improving their own actions and cooperation. The viewpoint of the librarians stands out in the plans. Cooperation with the educationalists does not seem to be widely used in planning, purchasing material or agreeing on the distribution of work. The methods are usually adult-centered. The methods, where the child becomes a subject instead of being an object, stood out clearly: the children were given an opportunity of either collaborating in purchasing the material and making it achievable or influencing each other by developing the library environment and by networking. Significant qualitative variation was found in the plans. This report offers ideas of reading promotion for an elementary school teacher and can be helpful in formulating plans of cooperation of school and library. Comparing the reading interest of Finnish and Swedish children and finding out the effects of planning on reading motivation would further contribute to the findings of this study. That information would make it more possible to evaluate if the Swedish system is worth introducing in Finland.
  • Virtanen, Marjo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Targets. The purpose of this Master`s Thesis is to clarify how the tasks of the early childhood education and care (ECEC) educators are shared during the first half of the day when their work is focused on a group of children. In this study, it was examined how the activities of the ECEC educators at daycare are related to the activities of the children in, among other things, basic care situations, eating and different play situations. The theoretic basis of the study consists of documents guiding the ECEC education, the child`s growth and development, the ECEC pedagogy and the communication skills of the educators. The adults, who are close to the child, must create a safe environment which supports the child`s growth and development, and where the child can grow and develop, play and learn with confidence. In the theory section, the child`s involvement and small group activities at the daycare were examined, too. Methods. The research material is based on the observation material of daycare collected from the municipalities, which were involved in the Orientation Project (Reunamo, 2014). The material was collected in spring 2010 in Uusimaa and Hämeenlinna. The total of 892 children, aged 1–7 year, from 65 different day care, ECEC or family care groups participated in this study. The observations were systematically made in spring 2010, and they were made by the kindergarten teachers who participated in the study. This study focuses on the ECEC educator, who is closest to the child during the observation period. By observing the activity of the educators we learn about their behaviour in different situations. This study represents a quantitative study of the activities of ECEC educators of daycare. Results and conclusions. This study showed that the educators are the closest to the children of age 1-3 years. As the children grow, the time of interaction with one or more children reduces. The study found that the educators very seldom play an interactive role in the children`s games. 36.5% of the educators leave the children to play by themselves or other children inside. The children received most of the attention of the adults in different teaching situations. Indoors, the play activities directed by the educators represented 2% of the daily activities. The main part of the play was directed and selected by the children by themselves, the part of the guided outdoors play was 3%.
  • Tala, Amanda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Finnish alcohol culture is in constant change and ever so popular theme in public discussion. Previous research in the area of alcohol studies is quite concise or is strongly based in the framework of public health. The purpose of this research is to examine the special features of Finnish alcohol culture. With this thesis I want to study the reasons which influence Finnish alcohol behavior; what kind of drinks people choose to drink, what are the reasons behind drinking alcohol and what kind of factors are considered when choosing an alcohol beverage. This study concentrates on researching the usage of alcohol on Friday in particular. The research data is a collection of food journals from the Literary Archives (Kansanrunousarkisto) which are collected by Finnish Literature Society (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, SKS). In the Mitä söin tänään? (What I ate today?) -collection participants had described one particular day (12.4.2013) through food, eating and all things involved in the process. The the data group (n=94) of this research consists of journals where alcohol or alcohol consumption is mentioned. The research is based on oral history studies and qualitative content analysis. The alcohol consumption was shown in the everyday of the writers as an uplifting and value adding factor. The alcoholic beverages were considered to be a vital part of good dinner or a social gathering. Alcohol was seen to make a particular situation more meaningful. The most recognizable reason for drinking was Friday itself, being the beginning of the weekend. Another very significant reason was the social context, the meaning of company is undeniable. Wine was single the most popular drink mentioned in the data, followed by beer. Other alcohol beverages gained only single mentions. The most important factor influencing the choosing process was the price. Consumer’s for example ecologic lifestyle was another often mentioned factor concerning the process.
  • Salo, Micaela (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Subjective memory complaints (SMC) are common among the elderly. People experiencing SMC have been shown to be at a greater risk of suffering cognitive decline and potentially developing dementia. Studies have shown that SMC is associated with poorer performance in e.g. perceptual reasoning -tasks and tasks of delayed memory. This Masters’ thesis aims to study the prevalence of SMC in a sample of healthy Finnish adults aged 50 to 80 years, and the association between SMC and other than directly memory related cognitive performance on the WAIS-IV -test. Based on earlier research, we hypothesized that individuals who reported SMC would perform worse on WAIS-IV perceptual reasoning subtests and verbal comprehension subtest related to memory retrieval. The data consisted of a subsample of healthy 50-80 year old adults in the Finnish WAIS-IV standardization sample. Twenty-five adults reported SMC (10.2 %). The control group consisted of 220 persons from the same sample without memory complaints. We used regression analysis to study the association between SMC and WAIS-IV indexes and profile analysis to study the association between SMC and individual subtests. The results did not support the hypothesis. People reporting SMC performed significantly better at Matrix Reasoning, a subtest belonging to the Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI). No differences in performance were found between the SMC-group and the control group in any of the verbal comprehension subtests or any other WAIS-IV subtests. This is the first study in Finland that examines SMC by using the WAIS-test. Not even in the English literature has the SMC previously been reportedly studied in such a comprehensive manner regarding other than directly memory related cognitive performance. The results indicate, that SMC reported in this study corresponds to the current definition of SMC: people experienced a decline in memory, but the study did not reveal objective cognitive impairment. The challenge for future research is further detailing the SMC neuropsychological profile regarding other than memory related cognitive performance, as well as recognising the need for longitudinal research of the middle-aged and older Finnish population.
  • Fabricius, Emma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Many young people in today’s western society have considerable problems making sustainable decisions about their studies and career, which is clearly shown in statistics about interrupted studies, change of studies, double degrees and parallel education. There are many options and it seems difficult to form a conception of what different jobs withhold and the educational background needed for them. At the same time pressure to shorten the length of studies rises in order to get students faster into working life. The aim of this study is to survey factors which affect the secondary school graduate’s decision about what to do after the upper secondary school. I want to find out if the graduates have a clear goal, and if they have a strategy to reach that goal. I also want to map out things that influence the goals and the graduate’s confidence in their own decisions. At the same time this study aims to investigate if the graduates have the resources to reach their goals, and to examine how to possibly support the students with their decisions and help them find the right study orientation or career path after the upper secondary school. The data for the quantitative study was collected via an electronic questionnaire, which was sent by e-mail to the graduates in a total of nine upper secondary schools in the capital region of Finland. The data was then analysed with the statistics programme SPSS. The survey was executed in May 2014 and had a total of 81 respondents. The results of this study show that the decision is made much directed by interest in the field of studies. The majority of the respondents will apply for a place to study directly after upper secondary school, and most of them considered it unlikely that they drop the intention to study if they do not get a place at their first try. The result also shows that the more explicit the goal of the students is, the higher is their ambition and confidence in the decision, and the less effect did new information have. Internet, student counsellors and friends seemed to provide a great share of the amount of information about education options. Yet it is clear that there is a huge need for more information about studies and work. Most of the respondents were aware of the qualifications needed to succeed with their plans, and considered themselves to have the knowledge prerequisites required.