Browsing Kasvatustieteellinen tiedekunta by Title

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  • Ervasti, Marianna (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The purpose of the study was to research class teachers' perspectives on mathematical difficulties, identification of difficulties and how teachers justify support that they use. Earlier research has shown that about half of the pupils, who have mathematical difficulties, don't get at all or enough remedial education or part-time special education. In other words there is need to explain, why pupils don't get the support that they need. The theoretical framework of the study consists of definition of mathematical difficulties from cognitive, affective and environmental perspectives. Additionally I have dealt with identification and assessment of mathematical difficulties at a general level and also at the school context. Research data consist of five theme interviews, which were made to class teachers in metropolitan area in Finland. Class teachers were from three different schools and everyone had at least four years' experience in teaching. Theme interviews were made in December 2014. Research was qualitative case study. Transcribed interviews were analyzed by using content analysis. Research result was that class teachers' definition of mathematical difficulties was focused on cognitive weaknesses. The other result was that teachers used widely observation and somewhat exams in identifying mathematical difficulties. Cooperation in identification didn't stand out compared to observation and exams. The challenge in identification for example was, that teachers felt like they couldn't identify difficulties early enough or they didn't had the knowledge to assess, what causes mathematical difficulties. It seemed that the teacher's action was the main component in identifying difficulties. Third result was that some teachers primarily supported pupils in the classroom than offered them remedial education or part-time special education. Also the schools resources were a challenge for the remedial support or part-time special education. However it seemed that pupils were getting support even if they didn't get support as a remedial support or as a part-time special education. The results of the study raise a concern over, what kind of mathematical difficulties are noticed and supported in schools. Perhaps schools should notice better also the affective part of the mathematical difficulties and also emphasize cooperation in identification of difficulties and in planning the support.
  • Kurola, Hannaleena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    According to the National Curriculum for Basic Education experiental and embodied learning and also using different senses give more positive experiences in school and strenghten motivation (POPS 2014, p. 30). Art education in school still doesn’t include dance as a school subject, even though dance as a form of embodied learning would fulfil the aims of the Curriculum. Anttila (2013, p. 52) says that the problem in school is that the conception of dance is usually narrow and teachers don’t have the knowledge of the possibilities of dance. Also the educational value of dance has been underestimated (Anttila 2009, p. 85). Previous studies have proved that dance has positive effects in school, but teaching dance in school is pretty much dependent on teachers’ know-how or separately arranged and funded projects. The focus of this study is on the co-operation between dance teachers and teachers in basic education. The aim of the study is to figure out how dance can be tought in line with the aims of the Curriculum, what kind of positive effects dance has in school and how teacher and dance teacher can benefit from their co-operation. The co-operation is also put into perspective of Engeström’s (2004) designs of interaction. The data of this study was gathered by interviewing dance teachers and school teachers who participated in Osaava Ope project. Before the interviews the teachers, excluding one teacher, were observed for one lesson (2x45min). Three dance teachers, two primary school teachers and one secondary school physical education teacher were interviewed for this study. The interviews were transcribed. This study is a qualitative case study and the research material was analyzed with a theory-based content analysis. Especially in primary school, dance was quite easily combined with the aims of the Curriculum. The theme of the dance lessons was also studied in other subjects in the class room, so basically dance was one learning method and one way to study the theme in question. In secondary school dance lessons were just separate lessons because all the subjects are tought separately by different teachers. The experiences from the projects were clearly more negative in secondary school than in primary school. Both dance teachers and teachers thought that dance has positive effects in school. Supporting different kind of learners, new learning methods, inspiring students and using creativity were considered as positive effects. The study found that both dance teachers and teachers in school felt the co-operation as rewarding and productive. Engeström’s communication design described the co-operation best.
  • Luukka, Maiju (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study examines consumers' perceptions of the factors and meanings behind clothing consumption and approaches consumers' perceptions of the concept of reasonable consumption. There are many ecological, ethical and economic perspectives behind clothing consumption. Earlier studies show that leisure time, pin-money and social media in particular have changed consumer behaviors. The research material was collected through focused interviews. A total of five interviewees (3 women and 2 men) were selected at random sampling. The interviewees' background variables included only gender and age, which was limited to 25-30 years. The themes of the focused interviews emerged from the frame of reference. The themes formed were: meanings, material, media, fashion and moderate consumption.The data was analyzed by means of theory-based content analysis. The analysis was divided into three phases: reduction, clustering and creation of theoretical concepts. The original expressions taken from the empirical data were condensed into reduced expressions, subspecies, and generic concepts as the analysis progressed. At the end of the analysis, the generic concepts were linked to previously formed themes which, according to theory-based content analysis, formed the theoretical concepts of the research. As a result of the study, the most important factors influencing the consumption of clothing were the expectations of the subjects about the clothing and the influence of culture created by the media and the fashion. The subjects created expectations for the clothing based on the material, price and manufacturer, which guided the consumption. The subjects experienced media and fashion as creative images that guide the purchase of clothing. General public speech and reflection on ethical and ecological aspects also guided the choices of the subjects. They also saw clothing as a social construct, with consumption driven by respect for the situation and the dress code required by the situation. The meanings in clothing consumption were related to the characteristics of the clothing, its appreciation for the clothing and its sociality. For the subjects, the meanings of the garment was in necessity, instrumentality, and passion. Moderate consumption was structured in the subjects' reflection between need and desire. Appreciation for the garment, the real need for the garment, and the systematic direction of the garment led to moderate consumption. Respondents also felt that external factors such as economic constraints and the surrounding climate influenced moderate consumption.
  • Värtö, Saara (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Aims. The aim of my research was to study those teachers who have not undergone any teacher education and their thinking about teacher's work. This phenomenon was chosen as the research subject because it has been studied very little compared to the research on regular teachers in Finnish schools. My research task was to study the thoughts on and experiences of working as a teacher and formal qualifications of teachers without teacher education. Moreover, the aim was to outline the teaching career of these teachers as well as their thoughts on and experiences of teacher education and professional development. Methods. The research was conducted through literature and through the narratives of six people who either are working or have been working as teachers without any teacher education. Three of these people worked as teachers without any teacher education at the time of the research whereas the other three had applied and been accepted into teacher education after having already worked as teachers. One of the latter had also already graduated with a certificate of education. This was a qualitative study and the data was gathered by doing theme interviews and analysed by using inductive qualitative analysis. Results and conclusions. Many similarities were found in the narratives of the interviewees and a more detailed examination of the themes revealed some outliers. The ways the interviewees had ended up working as teachers were very similar but their plans for the future differed. The thoughts on and experiences of working as a teacher were quite similar whereas formal qualifications elicited contradictory thoughts among the interviewees. Teacher education also divided their opinions. The interviewees who had undergone teacher education evaluated the effectiveness of the education in a similar manner. Nearly all the interviewees also criticised teacher education widely. The interviewees felt they had progressed in different areas during their career, even though most of them had not actively sought personal or professional development. Overall, the research elucidated a phenomenon that had been studied very little beforehand. It also revealed some important themes in education policy, which merit further study.
  • Herva, Eszter (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Aims The first aim of the research was to analyze conflictsituations in the comprehensive school. In the process of the analyzing I focused into conflicts in the multiprofessional teamwork. The second aim belongs to the multiprofessional teamwork: descript the building process of the multiprofessional teamwork and the special teachers attitude in the prosess of development a multiprofessional teamwork. Methods The material of the research is a document written by special teachers. In the analyzing the material I used qualitative methods. Results and conclusions I found four groups of conflict situations in the material: conflicts in own professionalism, in the multi-professional teamwork, in the contact with the pupils and in the contact with the pupils family. Group of conflict situations in the multi-professional teamwork was the biggest group. The multi-professional teamwork is built in three steps: step before multi-professional teamwork, meeting the members of the team and adaptation to the team. Before the multi-professional teamwork special teachers reflect the own role and the members responsibility in the teamwork, the own development as a member of the team and the own opinions about other members and about members way to do the teamwork. In this step special teachers want to develop the own skills of communication, and the teamwork. In the step of meeting the other members of the team special teachers reflect the other members opinion and way to work in the team and the differences between the own and the others opinion and way to work. The special teachers reflect too how much they want to do teamwork now and in the future. In the step of adaptation to the team special teachers reflect the goals of teamwork, the ways to work in the team, the polarization of the commitment and the responsibility in the teamwork. The special teachers opinions about the teamwork and the team members are getting better in the process of the building the teamwork from the step before teamwork to the step adaptation to the teamwork. But first, the special teachers opinion is getting worse in the step of meeting the members. Special teachers wants a lot to develop the teamwork in all steps of building the multi-professional teamwork, and it is getting better in all steps. My conclusion in this research is that it is possible to develop the attitude in the multi-professional teamwork by talking about the goals, the values and the ways to work in the team, by getting know each other and by focusing to the facts in our teamwork.
  • Raiskio, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of this study was to examine the L2 learner identity of upper secondary school 1st year students. The starting point of the study was to get an overall picture of how students describe themselves as L2 learners and what meanings they give to their experiences related to language learning. In addition, the factors that guide students' language learning were investigated. The material was collected as students' essays on the topic “I as a foreign language learner”. In total, there were 41 essays in the research material. The content was analyzed by means of a narrative approach. The theoretical background is both a sociocultural view of learning and an ecological concept of language learning, which focuses on learners' identities and motives. According to the research results, students were able to honestly and openly analyze the features related to their own language learner identity and also to identify their own learning strategies and the factors that affect their study and learning. Motivation and maintaining motivation became the most important factors influencing learning and studying, as also previous studies have shown. Motivation was especially influenced by the grades and received feedback, finding the language learning situations and opportunities meaningful and interesting, the support and help available in problem situations, and the experience of being considered as an individual even in a large group. Self-efficacy beliefs were also important factors in learning. Most students also had clear insights into how their own learning could be improved and made more effective, but these ideas were not used in their own work. There could be a wide range of problems in studying in several areas of language learning, and students ’ability to use the right kind of strategies seemed deficient. Through the essays, it became clear that a negative image of oneself as a learner is created very easily and same person’s L2 learner identity can vary greatly between different languages. The study found that many students need strong and ongoing support and assistance in building their own language learner identity so that, for example, a possible cycle of negativity could be broken early. Equally, those who are successful in their studies need encouragement and guidance. It is good for the teacher to be aware of the different language learner identities of the students and also to try to influence these identities constructively.
  • Kara, Katariina (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The main subject of this Master Thesis is to study the importance created by the expat parents towards schools which operate abroad and serve Finnish language studies for expat children. This research is strongly theory based, where parenthood, Finnish-expats and the dimensions of Finnish-schools operating abroad is studied. The main goal has been to understand the meaning of Finnish-schools abroad to expat-families. There is only limited amount of previous studies concerning Finnish-schools abroad, so there has been a clear research gap. The topic was investigated by electronic surveys, where parents could freely tell about their experiences and feelings about the Finnish-schools abroad, under the guidance of the researcher. This research is qualitative in nature and the research method has been hermeneutic. Data was collected from 11 parents, whose children study at Amsterdam's Finnish School during the spring 2016. On top of that, researcher has been present in Amsterdam's Finnish School in order to understand the topic better. The results from the study are in with the research questions. Parents felt that the importance of Finnish School is mainly social, for both themselves and for the children. Finnish School was seen as a social environment, from which it was possible to find Finnish-speaking friends and also to communicate in Finnish. Cultural and linguistic education was also part of the results but it was seen less important than the social-aspect. It was also found that parents do a lot of voluntary work for Finnish School and everyone wanted to participate to these activities. It can be seen from the results that the importance of Finnish School to parents is very high. Through the Finnish School the Finnish-culture and language could be maintained through the whole family and the school also provided peer support. These were also aspects, which help Finnish-expats to maintain their mother-tongue and to cherish their cultural identity, within both children and adults. Finally, it could be concluded that investing to Finnish Schools and maintaining those schools is very important part of supporting the Finnish expats.
  • Kivinen, Minna (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Goals. The goal of the study was to determine how foodstuffs were advertised in Pirkka magazines during the years 1954-1964. The theoretical framework of the study was that the choice between different foods is a socially and culturally determined phenomenon that can be influenced by nutrition education and advertisement. History of eating in Finland and the nutrition challenges faced during the set time period were also examined in the study. This is to help describe the social and cultural environment as related to food in the examination period. The period was set to approximately ten years after the food rationing ended. Methods. The materials in the study were advertisements in Pirkka magazines that were published between the years 1954-1964. Advertisements were collected from microfilms and from original copies. A total of 510 advertisements of foodstuffs from every other year were chosen as a representation of the total material base. The contents of the advertisements were categorized according to a predetermined set of variables as per the advertisements' references to the product group, persons appearing in the advertisements, and the claims to nutritional qualities and other attributes. The results acquired through the categorization were analyzed through the means of content analysis. Results and conclusions. The advertisements focused on advertising consumer grade stimulants, and processed or new foodstuffs. Common fresh products were not represented in the material. The most advertised products were coffee, wheat flour, oatmeal, margarine, and butter. The advertisement of food stuffs was not directly related to the amount of food-stuffs consumed. Foodstuffs were advertised especially by emphasizing the perceptible quality and healthiness of the product. The healthiness of the product was argued to be associated to its vitamin content. The persons appearing in the advertisement were mostly women and children who were to appeal to the viewers' emotions and to set the target audience. Contemporary nutritional challenges and nutrition discourse were also reflected in the advertisements as nutrition science's period of vitaminology and the rivalry of butter and margarine were observable in them.
  • Hietanen, Lea (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Aims. The main objective of this research was to find out what kind of factors are related to agency of young people in parental home context. This research explored assets from householdings perspective in everyday living. Continuous changes in the internal everyday householding and external operational environments challenges agency of young people. Young people also facing the chancing and growing expectations and demands. The research motive from the household teacher's perspective was to find out what kind of viewpoints can be found from everyday householding that can be use for recognizing and strengthening the relationship between the agency of young people and householding. Theoretical viewpoints for this research were attaches to dynamics of family members home been and work, the modalities of agency and positive psychology research. Research questions were: 1. Which agency building factors are resulting from home constructing activity? 2. What kind of tensions and conclusions can be found from householding activities? 3. What the young person has learned in householding classes and how this is present in householding activities? Methods. The research was carried out as a qualitative research. Research material was gathered from stories received by email. The material consisted of written stories about young people's participation in everyday living. These stories were written by parents who have or have had upper comprehensive school aged children living in their home. Ten stories were received. Results and conclusions. Relationship between object and subject of home constructing activity were seen as building factors for agency. Tensions and strenghts between young and parent were seen to be resolution from young peoples participation in home. Tensions and conclusions were themed by (1) changes in home operation model, (2) parents attitude and role, (3) youngs attitude and role and (4) things guiding individuality and object. External communities, specially youngs relationships with peers and household teaching were seen to support young agency in home. Teaching the meanings to every day living aroust from the research material. Parents described this as discussion and interaction with the young and it was seen as important factor for building agency.
  • Kervinen, Annina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives. The aim of this study is to describe, analyze and interpret teachers' perceptions of co-teaching and how to support positive education, the reasons for their co-teaching, what positive teaching means to them in regard to using positive education in their teaching, and the positive presentation of positive co-education. Methods. A total of 8 primary school teachers participated in this study in the fall of 2017. The teachers were interviewed by semi-structured theme interviewing and the research material was analyzed in accordance with qualitative content-based content analysis. Results and Conclusions. The study highlighted three main themes, which are the charm of co-teaching, the importance of positive education, and to describe positive education from the perspective of co-education. The teaching methods used in co-teaching were the well-being of the teacher, the collegial models in everyday life, and the learning situations and characteristics of everyday life. Positive education was seen to be very significant, especially as a classroom teacher, for the development of work prosperity and self-education, as well as for the students' perceptions and learning. The conditions for co-operation in positive education were manifested through a specific culture of operation and interaction. The benefits of joint teaching in positive education increased with collegial support, use of time as well as planning and assessment and lastly through the social and emotional integration of the students and the interaction between the student and the teacher.
  • Koskinen, Sini (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of this study is to explore factors that affect novice teachers' well-being and thereby gain increased understanding for teachers' situation in Finland. The purpose of this study is to examine how novice teachers experience their first year of teaching and well-being, which factors affect novice teachers' well-being, how novice teachers perceive mentoring, what can lead to teacher resignation and how it can be prevented. In this qualitative study I have used phenomenographic analysis. In this analysis the focus is on description and understanding of experiences. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews and there were six respondents in total. The respondents were all novice teachers. Three of the respondents work as primary school teachers and the other three respondents have left the teaching profession. The interviews were arranged in September-November 2014. The findings show that the transition from student teacher to newly qualified teacher is a period filled with confusion, insecurity and excitement. Many of the respondents felt unprepared for the working life. All the respondents highlighted the importance of support during the first year of teaching. All the respondents felt mentally energetic and were emotionally invested in work, even though they all described the first year of teaching as an exhausting and tiring period of their lives. The findings also indicate that there are several factors that affect the well-being of a novice teacher. The respondents felt that it was challenging to find themselves, their working methods and routines. They also noticed having too high demands placed on themselves. The working environment is mentioned as one of the most important factors that influence teachers' well-being. The results also show that there are huge differences in how new teachers are being introduced to the school environment in Finland. All of the respondents felt that they were welcomed to their schools, but only three of the respondents received an own mentor. Respondents explained that they mostly needed help and guidance with different practical things. They also think that a supporting work climate is the most fundamental thing that promotes teachers' well-being. The findings of the study show that there are several factors that influence teacher resignation, for example a desire for greater challenges and more opportunities for career development. The teaching profession can be frantic, stressful and the workload can become overwhelming. Many respondents also think that teachers are underpaid and overworked. Respondents think that more effective mentoring methods could prevent teachers from leaving their profession. It is important to keep on developing new methods that support novice teachers during their first year of teaching.
  • Wasström-Måsabacka, Linn (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Studies about wellbeing on the workplace have shown that engagement, motivation and social capital affects and have significance for work satisfaction. The aim of the present study is to analyze the engagement on a bilingual (fi, swe) workplace, and to further explore the aspects that can be associated with it. The specific questions are how engaged, how internally motivated and how high the workers social capital is and also whether the intrinsic motivation and the social capital predict the engagement. The research questions are analyzed regarding to the sociodemographic variables: age, gender and educational level and other background variables: work experience, department, department language and position. Central theories in the present study are Self determination theory by R. Ryan and E. Deci and Herzberg's two-factor theory. The study was analyzed statistically and data was collected through an electronic survey in spring 2016. The survey consisted of questions from the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), Basic Psychological Needs Scale (BPNS), a Finnish measurement about the social capital and also some self formed questions based on the theories about social capital. The respondents also answered questions about their background and where given a chance to express their engagement. A total of 252 workers (33 %) answered the survey. The Software program IBM SPSS Statistics 22 was used for the analysis of the respondent's answers. The results of this study show that the employees experienced a high engagement, a high intrinsic motivation and a high social capital. Significant correlations and differences were found e.g. a higher engagement and a higher intrinsic motivation was experienced by the Finnish speaking workers. The age correlated positively and significantly with the experience of engagement and intrinsic motivation. In addition, the supervisors experienced a higher social capital. Furthermore the intrinsic motivation and the department language predicted the engagement. A correlation between the social capital and engagement was found, but the social capital didn't predict the engagement. The results were mostly in line with previous research on the field.
  • Breitenstein, Selma (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    This Master's thesis is part of a project on marginalisation in school. The main focus of this study is to review how eighth-graders, reflect on and challenge structures of gender, gender roles, sexuality and heteronormativity in school. Although the school as an institution should be safe, inclusive and equal, structures that are problematic exist. The thesis used a feminist poststructuralist approach and gender was an important theme. The theoretical framework of the thesis described gender, sex and sexuality through both a societal perspective and a school perspective. The material for the study was collected from 2013 to 2014. The sample in this thesis consisted of 11 individual interviews and 4 group interviews with students in the eighth grade in a school in the capital area in Finland. The method of analysis was qualitative content analysis. How students challenge gender roles, heteronormativity and sexuality is something that there is not much research about. Hence, it was central to analyse what kind of structures exist in the school. It emerged that the students have to put up with stereotypical gender roles, threats of violence, appearance requirements, offensive name-calling, and a pressure to select a suitable hobby. Boys behave violently towards girls to a greater extent than the other way around. The results also indicate that the school is a very unsafe place for students with a non-heterosexual orientation. In school there is in general very little discussion about heteronormativity and sexuality. There were students in school who challenged the norms. There was a group of girls that explicitly challenged the structures. They questioned girl- and boy colours, and that educational materials, practices and environments in the school were heteronormative and gender-divided. Although there has been a change from previous research in that students are challenging structures, results indicate that gender roles and heteronormative structures still exist in school, which is problematic. Overall the thesis demonstrates that it is very hard to be a student in the eighth grade today. Bullying and excluding structures in school are common. The schools should actively review their own practices. Students who challenge the structures give hope to that despite everything, small changes in the everyday life in school are possible.
  • Lehtonen, Sofia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Aim. The aim of this Thesis was to find out what kind of needs for well-being the working-age Finns have and how they experience work-engagement. The Research problem was that even though the well-being need have been proved to be universal it is motivated to study the connection between well-being and work-engagement out of a subjective perspective on needs. The Classical Well-being model the Subjective Well-being Theory, SWB and Self-Determination Theory, SDT were used as the Theoretical Reference frame of this Thesis. Methods. The study was conducted in a qualitative manner. Eight people took part in this study and were interviewed. The respondents were interviewed and filled in a questionnaire regarding their background information. The interviews were conducted using a half-structured theme interview. The data was coded with the Atlas.ti programme and analyzed with the theory bound content analysis method. Results. The results confirmed that the pursuit of well-being is a value of great meaning to the respondents in this study. The results showed that well-being according to the respondents consists mainly of the satisfaction of basic needs like nurture and rest - but also of satisfying the higher level needs like self-fulfillment. Part of the basic needs were seen even as important as the higher-level needs hence, diet and working out were given a lot of attention. Work engagement was mostly affected by how one sees oneself or how other people see oneself. The results even showed that most of the working-aged people have experienced exhaustion or burnout at some point of their lives.
  • Finch, Susanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The study examined a bilingual child's agency in the context of a bilingual school. Previous research has shown that supporting a pupil's agency improves his or her motivation and engagement towards school and hence also enhances learning results. The traditional roles of teacher and pupil can be changed by encouraging pupils to agency. Bilingualism is a pervasive phenomenon in the world and affects the Finnish school worlds as well. The need for language proficiency and the demands for bilingual education increase perpetually. The study sees language as a base for human action and that it is used as a tool in the expressions of agency. The study strived to find out how children express agency and how they use their mother tongues if they have two mother tongues instead of just one. The goal of the study is to examine how the agency of an English?Finnish-bilingual child is expressed through verbal communication in a classroom. The study also strived to investigate what kinds of tasks the two mother tongues are used for in interaction. The case study centers on one 11-year-old American Finnish focus student who speaks English and Finnish as her mother tongues. The data of the study were collected by videotaping in a fifth grade of a bilingual school. In addition, a semistructured interview was used to interview the focus student and her mother in order to find out what kind of language choices the child makes and how was the development of the child's bilingualism and two mother tongues supported. The data consisted of approximately 8 hours of video material. Agency and language were examined from the viewpoint of the sociocultural framework. The results were interpreted using qualitative discourse analysis. The main result of the study is that the focus student's agency was expressed in verbal communication in a classroom through three different ways: through expertise, providing humor, and playing with institutional roles. Another finding was that agency was created partly through language. The focus student used her two mother tongues consistently for different tasks, of which communicating with family, friends, and teachers was the most significant one.
  • Viinikainen, Pauliina (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The purpose of this thesis is to study, how sixth graders in a normal school describe their student teachers. The aim is also to find out if the representations made by the pupils are similar to the representations of teacher's profession and a good teacher that are prevalent in our society. The research approach of this study was qualitative. The qualitative survey data with open questions was collected in the winter 2013 from 6 graders who studied in a normal school. 73 pupils participated in the study. The survey data were analysed applying principles of qualitative content analysis. Five categories emerged from the data describing good student teachers. These categories were: personality, pedagogical relationship, didactical relationship, industrial peace and other qualities. The pupils' representation of the personality of a good student teacher consisted of friendliness, kindness and humorous. A good student teacher had a good style as well as a personal handwriting or a way of speaking. Representation of the pedagogical relationship of a good student teacher included treating the pupils according to their age, treating them equally, respect them and help them when needed. A good student teacher didn't yell or rage and didn't complain unnecessarily. The didactical relationship representation consisted of creating a relaxed and fun atmosphere as well as keeping the classes interesting. During class a good student teacher knew how to take it easy and explained everything clearly. With his/hers own action a good student teacher could make dull topics interesting. He/she used diverse methods like using drama or group assignments. Industrial peace was seen as a quiet class where a little noise was allowed. Keeping the peace in classroom was an important skill to have as a student teacher. It was not done by yelling but having a relaxed and positive way of doing this. The pupils' representation of the other qualities that a good student teacher had were being young, giving candy and not smelling. In regard of the earlier studies there seems to be similarities with the representations of the pupils of a good student teacher and the representations of teacher's profession and a good teacher that are prevalent in our society.
  • Kuoppala, Johanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Objectives. The aim of this study was to examine class teachers' opinions and experiences of teaching health education in primary school level. The main purpose was to explore what kind of significant experiences do teachers have of teaching health education, in which kinds of situations do they teach contents of health education, and do they appreciate health education as a school subject in primary school. The health of children and youth has gotten worse during the last decades. It provides food for thought about the importance of coherent health education even for young kids. Methods. The study involved six class teachers, men and women, aged between 26 and 55. They worked as class teachers in the metropolitan area or in the North of Finland. They all had taken university degree of education in a Finnish university. Three of them worked as teachers for second graders, three of them taught pupils at 5th or 6th grade. Research material was collected by interviewing the teachers with structured theme-interview in April-May 2016. After interviews the recordings was transcribed and analyzed using the methods of content analysis. Results and conclusions. The results show that the class teachers give health education mainly without consciously considering that as health education. For the most part, the interviewees didn't consider the contents as a health education except for when they taught contents of puberty and sexuality at grades five and six. Overall, health education as a school subject is experienced challenging because of its common essence. The conclusions are that teachers teach health education according to their own values of health and when the topics come up in the daily life. The teachers aren't conscious enough about the contents of curriculum of health education and aren't that sure about the role of health education as a school subject in primary school level.
  • Kurenlahti, Emma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The promotion of care and compassion has been regarded as primary goals of education in order to achieve a more sustainable world. For this reason, compassion—inseparably related to both moral and values—should be studied in the context of practical education. The aim of this thesis is to analyze compassion as an empirically observable phenomenon that manifests as emancipatory action targeted against violence and oppression. The data, consisting of video re-cording of a nature school field trip among 10-11 year olds, is approached in the theoretical frameworks of sustainability- and environmental education as well as that of compassion re-search. By theoretically conceptualizing acts of emancipatory compassion, the focus of this study is on the analysis of moral construction. The hypothesis is that these acts are embodied in order to negotiate and criticize the institutional limits of compassion and the emerging circle of concern. As a conclusion, the meaning of compassion is discussed in the context of educating for holistic sustainability. The theoretical conceptualization of emancipatory compassion is based on both empirical observations and theoretical studies concerning compassion, constructional violence, and emancipatory action. Qualitative methodology in the general framework of social constructionism and approaches of grounded theory are utilized in order to analyze the video-ethnographic data using methods of critical discourse analysis and interaction analysis. In the data, there were several occurrences of acts of emancipatory compassion. The phenomenon manifested as exceeding the limitations between human and non-human life, and served to construct the institutional circle of concern in relation to other forms of life. Acts of emancipatory compassion were also used to express several factors relating to the construction of morality; some of these interpreted as acts of oppression in themselves. In relation to normative attempts to define the meaning of both violence and oppression, the teachers embodied moral authority over the students. It is concluded that education promoting holistic sustainability should acknowledge the essential meaning of compassion in the context of education in order to allow the questioning of established moral norms, encourage negotiating the limits of the circle of concern, and to recognize implicit manifestations of violence and oppression. It is also stated, that by identifying the inherently violent nature of the human condition, it is possible to overcome the boundaries constructed by perceiving particular agents as either violent or non-violent—inhibiting inclusive promotion of compassion towards subjects interpreted as being in the wrong.
  • Turkki, Leena (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Objectives. The aim of this study is to analyze pupil agency and pupil initiatives in the formal context of school. Based on previous studies, the traditional school is claimed to offer limited possibilities for student agency and initiatives, even though current research and national curriculum highlight the active role of pupils. The purpose of the study is to find out what kind of initiatives pupils express during interaction in their peer groups and with the teacher, how the teacher can support the agency of pupils, and what kind of challenges the fulfillment of pupils' agency faces in the school's formal activity. Methods. This study is an ethnographic case study. The research site was a combined 5th and 6th grade class in a small comprehensive school in Southern Finland. The data was collected by videotaping and observing the class working on a Good Life Project during four school days, and also interviewing the teacher of the class. The data on pupil initiatives in peer group was collected in a Desert Island exercise of c. 3 hours. A thematic interview of the teacher was carried out at the end of the data collection period. The material was analyzed by utilizing interaction analysis and narrative approach. Two analyzers were used as a way to improve the reliability of the results. Results and conclusions. The results show that in their peer group pupils generate constructive initiatives, supportive initiatives and deconstructive initiatives in many different ways. Deconstructive initiatives could also advance activity. Pupils generated initiatives more diversely with their peers than with the teacher. In interaction with the teacher, pupils' initiatives were mostly answers to teacher's questions or questions about the task. The teacher could support the pupils' agency by using self-evaluations, giving positive feedback to pupils, using humour and creating positive interaction. The teacher was aware of the tension between agency and control in the school institution. However, the data shows that pupils in this study did not express initiatives equally. Expressing initiatives was gendered in a way that in the Desert Island exercise boys were more active than girls. There was a tense relationship between pupils' activity and passivity, and in this study this contradiction was observed as a dialectical dimension of agency.
  • Koski, Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The purpose of this thesis was to examine with the help of one case factors which make possible the fact that the pupil ended up designing the school massacre and to threaten with it and also what factors prevented him from carrying out his intentions. The idea of the study was created by itself when I was working as a teacher in the centre of events. The case woke me to look for the answers and manuals to the difficult and demanding situation. At the same time, it led to analyse the structures of the school and my own and my values as a teacher also more deeply. Case under examination in this thesis has been teased and suffered from the loneliness during his whole comprehensive school time. The missing of the sense of belonging caused in him anguish, depression and the lack of the motivation. Because the case of the study was examined from two directions, from a teacher's position and from the case examined, I have taken as my one background theory an ecological system theory. I hope that this theory gives a frame to examine the case from wider point of view. The thesis is the case study in which I interviewed the person under examination repeatedly and furthermore, again about five years after he threated with school massacre. In addition to this, the material consists of my observations written by me when teaching him when the events happened. The analysis of the material was carried out with a Grounded Theory approach, reading narratives again and again. I mirrored my own observations to the story of interviewee building the story about them where the experience of the interviewee and my own observation as a teacher who has taught him combine. The study sharpened considerably towards the end, including theory background. The lack of sense of belonging and the loneliness interviewee felt caused him a serious depression and lack of the motivation. The indifference of the adults of the school and fact that the one did not become heard caused anger because of an unjust treatment and lack of confidence towards the adults. All this together leads to hopelessness and rage. For this kind of a young, the big and changing multi-professional expert groups can cause bigger lack of confidence than before towards the school. It would be important to be heard in the school community and feel sense of belonging there to both the teacher and the pupil. The study brought out also the how vulnerable young like this is when moving along from the comprehensive school. The study brought out also the how vulnerable young like this is when moving along from the comprehensive school. The study wakes to think about the new procedures and structures with school bullying and loneliness and for the support of the transitional stage when moving along from the comprehensive school