Browsing by Title

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 897
  • Kirjanen, Svetlana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The hypnotic phenomena have long been debated. In scientific research, disagreements on the conceptual and methodological approach have led to controversial results and interpretations which heat up the debate. Additionally, hypnotic suggestibility is often measured only behaviourally, subjects are studied in masses and the role of individual responders is largely neglected. One way to reach beyond mere behaviour to the level of experience without losing the individual variability is by combining posthypnotic suggestions, self-reports, psychophysiological measurement techniques and a case study approach. The present study examined the effects of suggested changes in the visual colour perception of simple geometric shapes in the posthypnotic and the simulation condition as measured by self-reports, reaction times, error rates and event-related potentials (ERPs). The case study approach was chosen and the focus was set on two highly suggestible hypnotic responders. The comparative data for simulation were also obtained from a set of control subjects. Results indicated differences in processing between the posthypnotic and simulation condition seen in the behavioural performance and to a lesser extent in the posterior N2 and P3 peaks of the ERP waves. Evident dissimilarities were found also among highly suggestible hypnotic responders. These results support the occurrence of inimitable hypnotic modulations in some individuals and point out the need to examine hypnotic responders on a more individual basis.
  • Sandberg, Erja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    The purpose of this study was to find out what kind of status siblings have in a family in which one child has ADHD. In the background, there was a doubt regarding sibling equality in a family in which one child needs substantially more parental time and attention. In Finland, no similar studies have been made. The study used Brofenbrenner s ecological systems theory. The study involved five families with elementary school age children with ADHD. The families had a total of fifteen children. The parents and the siblings of these families were interviewed. The study was divided into four themes: (1) everyday family life, (2) feelings, (3) family roles and interpersonal skills of the family members, and (4) the importance of siblings in an ADHD child's life. The interviews were analyzed by content analysis. The research problems were: 1) How do parents and siblings perceive sibling status in their family? and 2) What is the significance of siblings in the life of a child with ADHD as assessed by the parents and the siblings themselves? Parents felt that the most significant factors as regards the status of siblings were the way the siblings take responsibly for the family s daily life, the siblings own understanding of their family, family transparency, taking the siblings into consideration and dealing with their feelings in everyday life. A tight feeling of cohesion was a factor in empowering the family. Parents considered ADHD medication an important element of their family. The meaning of the siblings for an ADHD child's life was very significant. --------- The siblings described their families as positive and lively. They had got used to the qualities and characteristics of the child with the diagnosis. They did not perceive the ADHD child as being a different child in their family. The siblings recognized their parents fatigue and thought that the parents did not have enough time for them. However, they did not feel that the parents treated them unequally. The siblings reported that they looked after the ADHD child to some degree, but they thought that this was part of family life. The siblings described cooperation as strength of their family. As compared to international studies, converging factors concerning sibling position, sibling relationships and the ideal family functioning came up in the interviews in this study. Siblings mental problems, which this investigation did not reveal, were an exception. Consistent with previous studies, parents assumptions about sibling relationships were more positive than the siblings descriptions. According to the study, an ADHD child's family relationships were a challenge, but with appropriate internal measures the position of siblings in a family can be good.
  • Söderholm, Tiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aphasia is often a chronic impairment. Regaining the premorbid language function is rare. Anomia is the most common residual disorder once the aphasia has stabilized. Earlier studies indicate that transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS, repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation) together with intensive speech therapy improves the outcome of the language rehabilitation. The aim of the current study was to find out what kinds of quantitative and qualitative changes occur in the participants’ ability to name noun and verb pictures that were shown during the rTMS/sham-rTMS protocol. All of the participants received two weeks of either rTMS or sham-rTMS treatment and after a one-week break another two weeks of either rTMS or sham- rTMS treatment together with intensive group speech therapy (ILAT, Intensive Language Action Therapy). This is a multiple case study with six participants that have chronic expressive aphasia. The first two groups of a larger study were selected into this study. Group 1 (n=3) received 1Hz- rTMS therapy and group 2 (n=3) received sham-rTMS. rTMS was given to the right hemisphere on the pars triangularis area. Every participant named the same amount of action and object pictures during the rTMS/sham-rTMS treatment. Namings were analysed with a rating system derived for the current study. Each participant received intensive group speech therapy in the latter two-week part of the intervention. Language testing was conducted before, during and three months after the intervention. The naming abilities in all participants seemed to improve in both noun and verb series during the rTMS/sham-rTMS treatment and language tests. Results of the follow-up testing suggest that the positive results are long lasting. The results of this study are promising, even though the amount of participants is too small to draw further conclusions. This study brings positive evidence and reason for further research on the effectiveness of aphasia therapy.
  • Herva, Eszter (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Aims The first aim of the research was to analyze conflictsituations in the comprehensive school. In the process of the analyzing I focused into conflicts in the multiprofessional teamwork. The second aim belongs to the multiprofessional teamwork: descript the building process of the multiprofessional teamwork and the special teachers attitude in the prosess of development a multiprofessional teamwork. Methods The material of the research is a document written by special teachers. In the analyzing the material I used qualitative methods. Results and conclusions I found four groups of conflictsituations in the material: conflicts in own professionalism, in the multiprofessional teamwork, in the contact with the pupils and in the contact with the pupils family. Group of conflictsituations in the multiprofessional teamwork was the biggest group. The multiprofessional teamwork is built in three steps: step before multiprofessional teamwork, meeting the members of the team and adaptation to the team. Before the multiprofessional teamwork special teachers reflect the own role and the members responsibility in the teamwork, the own development as a member of the team and the own opinions about other members and about members way to do the teamwork. In this step special teachers want to develop the own skills of communication, and the teamwork. In the step of meeting the other members of the team special teachers reflect the other members opinion and way to work in the team and the differences between the own and the others opinion and way to work. The special teachers reflect too how much they want to do teamwork now and in the future. In the step of adaptation to the team special teachers reflect the goals of teamwork, the ways to work in the team, the polarization of the commitment and the responsibility in the teamwork. The special teacers opinions about the teamwork and the teammembers are getting better in the process of the building the teamwork from the step before teamwork to the step adaptation to the teamwork. But first, the special teachers opinion is getting worse in the step of meeting the members. Special teachers wants a lot to develop the teamwork in all steps of building the multiprofessional teamwork, and it is getting better in all steps. My conclusion in this research is that it is possible to develop the attitude in the multiprofessional teamwork by talking about the goals, the values and the ways to work in the team, by getting know each other and by focusing to the facts in our teamwork.
  • Värtö, Saara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Aims. The aim of my research was to study those teachers who have not undergone any teacher education and their thinking about teacher’s work. This phenomenon was chosen as the research subject because it has been studied very little compared to the research on regular teachers in Finnish schools. My research task was to study the thoughts on and experiences of working as a teacher and formal qualifications of teachers without teacher education. Moreover, the aim was to outline the teaching career of these teachers as well as their thoughts on and experiences of teacher education and professional development. Methods. The research was conducted through literature and through the narratives of six people who either are working or have been working as teachers without any teacher education. Three of these people worked as teachers without any teacher education at the time of the research whereas the other three had applied and been accepted into teacher education after having already worked as teachers. One of the latter had also already graduated with a certificate of education. This was a qualitative study and the data was gathered by doing theme interviews and analysed by using inductive qualitative analysis. Results and conclusions. Many similarities were found in the narratives of the interviewees and a more detailed examination of the themes revealed some outliers. The ways the interviewees had ended up working as teachers were very similar but their plans for the future differed. The thoughts on and experiences of working as a teacher were quite similar whereas formal qualifications elicited contradictory thoughts among the interviewees. Teacher education also divided their opinions. The interviewees who had undergone teacher education evaluated the effectiveness of the education in a similar manner. Nearly all the interviewees also criticised teacher education widely. The interviewees felt they had progressed in different areas during their career, even though most of them had not actively sought personal or professional development. Overall, the research elucidated a phenomenon that had been studied very little beforehand. It also revealed some important themes in education policy, which merit further study.
  • Åberg, Jaana-Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Goals. This master's thesis research was aiming at discovering from interaction between the employee and supervisor, the kind of information that will increase the use of protective equipment (PPE) and improve safety in the construction site. The study examined the meanings that the supervisors associate with PPE, as well as situations in which a manager should point out the employee to use protective equipment. Methods. This qualitative research belongs to socio-cultural communication research tradition. This speech communication study was carried out from the perspective of ethnography of communication. The study included five semi-structured interviews, 8 video recordings from construction sites, an online discussion, observation notes from 16 different construction work situations, as well as 10 journal articles, including photographs. The method of analysis was the cultural discourse analysis (CUDA). It was used to study how managers produce meanings re-lated to the use of protective equipment in interaction. The concept of relational work was used to study the interaction between the supervisor and the employee from the supervisor's point of view. Results and conclusions. The study showed that employee s objections to the use of protective equipment carry a strong cultural message. The study also showed two different cultural ways of speech, getting involved and taking notice . The main differences were with the meanings related to the use of protective equipment and the interaction with employees. Getting involved : managers linked the PPE with a lot of different meanings, many of which were negative. For example, PPE prevented working or the use of PPE was considered unmanly. They perceived that reminding about the use of PPE was negatively marked, impolite and inappropriate. Taking notice managers related the PPE with professionalism and safety. They also perceived that reminding about the use of PPE was unmarked or positively marked, polite and appropriate. The results can be utilized in helping the interaction between the manager and the employee associated with the PPE.
  • Karlsson, Kati (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of the mentors of adult practical nurse students. The focus was on “how the mentors experience the process of on-the-job learning” and “how the mentors can support student’s professional growth during the on-the-job learning period”. The data of this study consist of 12 semi-structured interviews of mentors of adult practical nurse students. The interviews were first tape recorded and then transcribed verbatim. Mentors described mentoring of students’ as a process, that consist of elements such as mentor’s own perceptions of her role as a mentor, adult learner´s attitude towards learning, support of professional growth and the meaning of environment and support. The mentoring was seen as a process. Mentoring of an adult student was seen as a challenge but also as a chance because the adult learners do have plenty of experiences. Mentors pointed out various factors that have an effect on success of mentoring. Such factors were: mentors experience of their own role, students’ attitude towards learning and guidance, supporting professional growth and importance of working environment as well co-operation with educational institution. Mentors experience of being an expert of their own work was important as well to be able to adjust guidance in benefit of a student’s individual needs and goals. Adult learners were expected to take an active role of their own learning and to take benefit of their own experiences. Mentors did feel that they were responsible for students’ professional growth. Working environment end co-operation with educational institution had important role in successful guidance. Mentors opinion was that guidance during the work-place learning should be mainly emphasized on mentor and workplace. Co-operation with educational institution was considered important but mentors also felt that they are best experts of their own work. Mentors hoped and expected support, resources and respect to their mentoring. .
  • Fager, Tuomas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The meaning of this research is to describe how growth mindset and fixed mindset are connected to unemployed adult learners’ agency and how these mindsets occur in their narrations. The research problem and question layout in this research are based on Carol Dwecks theory of growth and fixed mindset and on Albert Banduras theory on self-efficacy. In these theories of growth and fixed mindset seem to affect learners actions in different life sectors. Earlier research findings have shown that growth mindset affect on the state of performance and develop in turn one´s fixed mindset seem to lead to fail. Aim of this research was to find how either one mindset behind the action would occur in learners’ narrations. Research was carried out qualitatively. The material was gathered using individual interview and was analyzed using content analysis. Ten interviewees that studied in a Liberal education institution where participated. Age distribution of the examinees varied between 33 and 58. Findings indicated that mindsets occurred when students described their agency. The following phenomenon’s were found in analysis on growth mindset: self-developing, effort adoring and self-efficacy. Instead fear of failure, lack of self-efficacy and lack of effort were significant in narrations of fixed mindset. Self-efficacy and growth mindset occurred together. Mindsets were bound by the situation in different contexts and occurrences. Self-efficacy and growth mindset appeared often together.
  • Niinikuru, Riikka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    The early detection of hearing deficits is important to a child's development. However, examining small children with behavioural methods is often difficult. Research with ERPs (event-related potentials), recorded with EEG (electroencephalography), does not require attention or action from the child. Especially in children's ERP research, it is essential that the duration of a recording session is not too long. A new, faster optimum paradigm has been developed to record MMN (mismatch negativity), where ERPs to several sound features can be recorded in one recording session. This substantially shortens the time required for the experiment. So far, the new paradigm has been used in adult and school-aged children research. This study examines if MMN, LDN (late discriminative negativity) and P3a components can be recorded in two-year-olds with the new paradigm. The standard stimulus (p=0.50) was an 80 dB harmonic tone consisting of three harmonic frequencies (500 Hz, 1000 Hz and 1500 Hz) with a duration of 200 ms. The loudness deviants (p=0.067) were at a level of +6 dB or -6 dB compared to the standards. The frequency deviants (p=0.112) had a fundamental frequency of 550 or 454.4 Hz (small deviation), 625 or 400 Hz (medium deviation) or 750 or 333.3 Hz (large deviation). The duration deviants (p=0.112) had a duration of 175 ms (small deviation), 150 ms (medium deviation) or 100 ms (large deviation). The direction deviants (p=0.067) were presented from the left or right loudspeaker only. The gap deviant (p=0.067) included a 5-ms silent gap in the middle of the sound. Altogether 17 children participated in the experiment, of whom the data of 12 children was used in the analysis. ERP components were observed for all deviant types. The MMN was significant for duration and gap deviants. The LDN was significant for the large duration deviant and all other deviant types. No significant P3a was observed. These results indicate that the optimum paradigm can be used with two-year-olds. With this paradigm, data on several sound features can be recorded in a shorter time than with the previous paradigms used in ERP research.
  • Tanskanen, Katri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    People have had supernatural beliefs through the ages. Explanation for supernatural beliefs is sought in the thinking styles. Studies in this area have systematically reported that intuitive thinking style is positively related to supernatural beliefs, while findings about connections between analytical thinking and supernatural beliefs are more controversial. From standpoint of dual-process theory analytical and intuitive thinking consist several dimensions. Moreover, thinking styles have been conceptualized and assessed different ways in different studies. These might be the explanations for controversial results. Research questions were: How are thinking styles related to supernatural beliefs? Are components of analytical thinking related to supernatural beliefs in the same way? How are these components related to each other? What is the role of participant`s sex and age in moderating the association between thinking styles and supernatural beliefs? Participants (n=3084) were recruited via internet discussion forums and electronic students mailing lists. Recruitment message provided a link to the online questionnaire. Thinking style was measured using CRT-, REIm- and AOT -scales. Religious and paranormal beliefs were assessed by questionnaires. This study replicated previous results in order that analytical thinking was inversely related, and intuitive thinking positively related to supernatural beliefs. When all the other sub dimensions of different thinking styles were controlled, it appeared that only actively open-minded thinking and intuitive thinking (when assessed by self-report questionnaire) showed unique effects on supernatural beliefs. Regarding sub dimensions of analytical thinking and their mutual connections, only need for cognition and ability to reflect were related to each other moderately. Ability to reflect and actively open-minded thinking, as well as need for cognition and actively open-minded thinking were connected to each other only quite weakly. Results showed that subject`s sex and/or age moderated partially connections between thinking styles and supernatural beliefs: With men need for cognition was more strongly connected to paranormal beliefs, than with women. In case of actively open-minded thinking the situation was opposite. In cognitive reflection there was no such sex-differences. Respondent`s sex and age moderated the association between actively open minded-thinking and paranormal beliefs. This connection didn’t occur anymore with men in elder age group but with women it existed. Connection between intuitive thinking and paranormal beliefs was also moderated by subject`s sex and age. With men intuitive thinking was more strongly associated to religious beliefs, than with women. The current study contributes new information concerning the moderating role of subject`s sex and/or age in the association between thinking styles and supernatural beliefs.
  • Parviainen, Miia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Purpose of the study. The purpose of this study was to describe 6th graders as media con-sumers, especially what comes to news media. By interviewing 6th graders the target was to find out what kind of news early-teens follow and whether they make any comparisons be-tween news sources when selecting and reading the news. Furthermore, the purpose was to find out from the interviewees what kind of support the school has provided in developing their media literacy and how critical media literacy show in their behaviour as media con-sumers. Earlier studies on this subject have indicated that children and youth as ”digi natives” are experienced and skilful media consumers. Lot of knowledge is shared between friends and media skills are developed for a large part outside school life. At the same time there ex-ists concern on the dangers of media and on how children are able to interpret the media. From beginning of next year the new national curriculum emphasizes media literacy as part of multi literacy. The target of this study is to get more information needed for the develop-ment of the media education. Methods. The study was performed by interviewing 6th graders in November 2014 in a capi-tal area school. Nine interviewees were selected from a communication orientated class with consent from their parents. Interviews were conducted following a semi-structured interview plan in the form of pair and group interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, grouped and compiled to conclusions. Findings and conclusions. The findings suggest that 6th graders follow news follow the news infrequently and comparisons between different news sources are made almost solely to secure the validity of the information. Media skills are learnt from friends, whilst at the same time an early-teen is still strongly influenced by the family. The students deemed media education at school insufficient and ”old fashioned”. Schools should connect the taught subjects to real life and give students a chance to find solutions to problems together with classmates. Consequently critical reading skills are in everyday use and not just a blurry concept, which one does not know how to take; with thought, with anger or with a straight face.
  • Hamberg, Jarkko (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The relationship between personality and driving is a widely studied topic. These studies have emphasized the role of single personality traits, especially novelty seeking. This is a narrow view of personality. In this study, beside novelty seeking, I studied the impact of Cloninger’s psychobiological theory and Gray’s BIS-BAS theory on driving. Contextual mediated model was used which suggests that personality has influence on risky driving via self-assessed driving skills. Self-assessed driving skills can be divided to perceptual-motor skills and safety skills. This study was based on four previously collected samples. Personality was assessed using Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R), Zuckerman’s Brief Sensation Seeking scale (BSSS) and Carver and White’s BIS-BAS questionnaire. Driving behaviour was assessed using Driver Behaviour questionnaire (DBQ) and self-assessed driving skill using Driver Skill Inventory (DSI). Participants were also asked about their annual mileage, accidents and traffic violations. As previous research suggests, self-assessed perceptual-motor skills predicted risky driving and safety skills predicted safe driving. SEM models suggested that character traits of psychobiological theory predicted less violations via self-assessed driving skills in students’ sample. Temperament traits did not predict risky driving besides harm avoidance. These effects were present for both genders when annual mileage was controlled. In a sample of conscripts, high activation of behavioural activation system and sensation seeking predicted high perceptual-motor skills and low safety skills. The results show that low character traits predicted risky driving. Risky drivers evaluated themselves high on perceptual-motor skills but low on safety skills. It seems to be possible that personality and self-assessed driving skills can be used to identify sub-groups of drivers that differ from the concerning risky driving.
  • Ainamo-McDonald, María (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Due to technological evolution, our work-culture has become more expert-focused and fast-paced. Work’s fast pace and abstract assignments can lead to situations where workers can’t evaluate whether their own actions are meeting the expectations. Therefore, the feedback from the other people becomes more important. Feedback enables well-being at the workplace and personal development and therefore can be associated with the work community’s- and, finally, the society’s operability. The feedback communication at the workplace has been somewhat studied, but also has been criticized for still being one-sided, postpositivist and carried out by the same format. The aim of this study is primarily to produce new, qualitative information about the feedback communication between superiors and their subordinates primarily for the scientific community and secondly for Yleisradio. The first research goal was to describe how subordinates define feedback. The second goal was to understand and describe those perceptions and experiences that subordinates have of their superior’s feedback. This thesis was a qualitative case study, and it was carried out for public broadcasting company, Yleisradio. The study was conducted using qualitative methods. The data was collected by interviewing nine (9) employees working in Yleisradio. A semi-structured theme interview was used as a research method and the data was analyzed using thematic analysis method. The interviewees’ age ranged from 25 to over 60 years and had been working at Yleisradio from four to over 40 years. Some of the interviewees were manual workers and some were working as content providers. According to the results the employees had many ways of describing feedback. Nine (9) main concepts that employees used to describe feedback were found: 1) All communication, 2) verbal feedback, 3) nonverbal feedback, 4) information sharing, 5) workplace atmosphere, 6) trust and getting work tasks, 7) self evaluation, 8) rewards and 9) silence “i.e. lack of feedback”. The interviewees had multiple experiences from their superior’s feedback. According to the interviewees, positive feedback was rewarding, increased work motivation and the work community’s positive atmosphere. On the other hand, the positive feedback alone is not yet enough and negative feedback is needed as well in order to advance at work. According to the interviewees negative feedback could be divided into constructive and destructive feedback. Constructive feedback was seen as legitimate and work related and didn’t get personal. Constructive feedback was created in a dialog and solutions were co-created. Destructive feedback was inappropriate, got too personal and the receiver of the feedback was not listened to. Destructive feedback was also tenuous, no solutions were created and there were no possibilities to improve one’s performance or work. Feedback was also experienced as destructive when the person giving feedback was not considered wise or up to date on the situation at hand. The results and conclusions of this study were mostly similar with the previous feedback research. On the other hand the interviewees of this study were describing feedback in more versatile ways than had been described in earlier studies. For example, information sharing has not been part of the concept of feedback in most of the studies. In this thesis the concept of feedback has been extended to be more diverse. Although it must be noted that the data of this study was relatively small and therefore no generalizations can be made based on this study. More research is needed to be conducted on the matter to be able to generalize this study’s results to apply to supervisor-subordinate feedback communication in work communities in general.
  • Venesjärvi, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The objective of this study is to examine employees perceptions of participation in performance appraisal discussions, and to determine the factors that are related to it. Participation in performance appraisal discussions is perceived to influence numerous work-related phenomenona, such as employees job satisfaction, commitment and productivity. Regardless of the possible positive impacts, the attitudes towards performance appraisal discussions are often negative or indifferent. The purpose of this study is to build knowledge that the target organization may utilize in developing their performance appraisal discussions. The study was conducted using quantitative methods. The data was collected through a questionnaire that could be filled on the Internet. The research was carried out in a large Finnish manufacturing company. The invitation to participate in the study was sent via e-mail to 467 people working in the same unit of the organization. 172 (N=172) employees responded to the survey. The data was analyzed using PAWS 18 program. According to the results, the employees found that they had participated fairly well in their performance appraisal discussions. The employees also found that they had participated well enough. The perceived effectiveness of the communication and the quality of the leader-member relationship were found to be linked to empolyees participation in the performance appraisal discussion. Moreover, the leader-member relationship, the perceived effectiveness of the communication, and participation were perceived to be linked to the satisfaction towards the performance appraisal discussion. According to the results, participation is less significant than the leader-member relationship or communication effectiveness in explaining satisfaction towards the performance appraisal discussions. Based on the results, the employees appreciate an open, equal discussion and the feeling of being heard more than the opportunity to affect different decisions. It is possible, that to improve the attitudes towards performance appraisal discussions, attention must be paid to leader-member relationships and communication. The results of this study describe the perceptions of employees on performance appraisal discussions, participation and leader-member exchange relationships within the target organization. The results can be utilized in developing performance appraisal discussions in the goal organization or other similar organizations.
  • Sipiläinen, Mari (University of Helsinki, 2015)
    The aim of this study was to explore visual representations of the countryside made by children aged 9–10 years and living in urban and rural environments. The study investigates the children’s images of the countryside: its natural and built environment, the people living there, its location in the children’s opinion and the potential things to do there. In this study I also try to explain from where these images of the countryside have originated. In addition to this, the study explores the influence of the children’s living area to their image of rural environments. Previous studies show that among adults the image of rural environments is usually positive. The image consists of a clean environment, peace and nature. Rural landscape is often thought to be either an agricultural or a cottage landscape. There are also idyllic images of the countryside where children are playing outside in the nature. There are no previous studies to be found on representations of rural environments concerning children from 9 to 10 years. The results of this study were based on 61 drawings and questionnaires collected from 3rd to 4th grade pupils during one lesson at their school in the spring of 2015. Out of these 61, there were 27 pupils living in rural area and 34 pupils living in urban area. This research is qualitative and executed with visual methods. The pupils were asked to draw a picture of the countryside and answer a semi-structured questionnaire. The drawings were then analysed by the visual content analysis and the questionnaires with the content analysis. Based on the results of this research, it was found that most of the representations of rural environments, regardless of the place of living of the drawer, described a summer day at the farm. Mostly there was a house, some animals, a field, the sun and a tree in the picture. The atmosphere of the countryside seemed to be considered positive because of the smiling people, the sun in the sky and the calm events drawn in the picture. The built environment of the countryside consisted of houses and animal shelters whereas the natural environment consisted of animals, trees and fields. Animals and people were understood to be the residents of the rural environments. The activities in the countryside were considered to take place outside and were related to animals or agriculture. Most of the pupils living in the city did not know or could not tell where the countryside is situated. Some of the pupils living in the rural environment did not perceive themselves living in the countryside. The images of the rural environments were mostly based on the personal experiences which 80 per cent of the pupils had and on the knowledge they have learned from the relatives. The personal experience of the countryside as a living environment was shown in detailed drawings portraying everyday actions in the pictures.
  • Salonen, Tuomas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The different dimensions of moral education reflect the ideals of the pedagogical thinking and the dominant ideology of a certain age. Religious studies and secular ethics have a special role in the moral education of schools. Especially secular ethics has been considered to be very closely related to the overall goals of the curriculum. Anthropological research has demonstrated that moral choices are made in reference to culturally determined moral frameworks. The purpose of this study is to investigate what kind of moral model the secular ethics textbooks transmit to pupils. The hypothesis is that, despite its commitment to an individualist and constructivist pedagogy, which in moral education translates into a promise of an individual moral philosophy for each student, the school can’t avoid transmitting a certain moral model to its pupils. The research data came from the four textbooks of the Miina and Ville series, published by The Ministry of Education. The method of the study was content analysis. The textbooks of secular ethics present a very precise model about what they consider to be an ideal human being. According to the textbooks, the ideal human being is socially and interactionally competent, has a realistic self-image and aspires to be aware of his strengths and weaknesses, and works to develop himself in relation to his strengths and weaknesses through a process of constant self-reflection. He has internalized the scientific worldview and can form his own moral views, but at the same time he has also internalized different moral principles derived from humanistic ethics and human rights, and from Finnish cultural habits and rules. The textbooks present pupils with a clearly defined model of a good student, a cooperative team player and an active citizen of a democratic society. They are expected to follow the rules and expectations of authorities and institutions. They are being persuaded into this by representing it as their own advantage, but at the end they are not given a choice, because a well-functioning society requires conformity and, according to the textbooks, a democratic society has the right to demand obedience.
  • Hirvenlahti, Karoliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    The purpose of this study was to discover primary teachers conceptions about singing and vocal control education and student assessment. The study was aimed to find out what kind of a role and status singing and vocal control education has in general and in relation to music education. In addition, the study examines what the teachers consider singing and vocal control education and what kind of teaching methods they used in their teaching. Furthermore, the study explores to the teachers experiences with the teaching of singing and vocal control education. Finally, the study aims to map the student assessment methods teachers used and the challenges and opportunities these methods brings with them. The data were collected trough an Internet questionnaire. The study involved 31 primary school teachers from 15 different schools in Espoo, all of which had their own class. 87 % of the examinees were 30 years or older and 77 % had worked as a teacher for at least 6 years. 14 examinees did not teach music during the research and five of the examinees did not have any kind of music related hobbies. The research was a qualitative survey. The analysis was theory-driven content analysis. The study revealed, that half of the teachers would increase the amount of time spent on the teaching of singing and vocal control, and the other half would retain the present situation. In the teachers opinions, the singing and vocal control education should begin in early childhood or primary education, at latest in the 3. Class. Only half of the teachers were able to explain how the singing and vocal control education was taken into account in their school s policy. The teachers mentioned 17 contents of singing and vocal control education, and teacher-led methods of teaching. Singing and vocal control education also appears in the native language lessons and in everyday school life. The teachers taught music because of their own enthusiasm and specialization on music education, and because of the principal s order. Half of the teachers felt that they had not received enough training to teach singing and vocal control. Methods for assessment of singing have been replaced by students personal singing tests and observation. The student assessment is a challenge because of the large numbers of students in the groups. Teachers wish to receive a coherent student assessment criteria.
  • Olkkonen, Hanna-Leena (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Finnish elementary school has been the solid foundation for Finnish education for decades. While the elementary school’s name has stayed the same it has still been in a continuous process of change. Our elementary school is a time-related institution that changes and evolves together with the curriculum, teachers and pupils, and the prevailing culture. The environment and the people living in it are always interacting with each other and together they create a social or relational space. The school building and its surroundings are a special social space. The relation between people and the school makes the building a school and turns the people into teachers and pupils. Despite the fact that the school is an important social institution that has been created especially for children and their learning, there have been few studies about school from the children’s perspective. This study aims to find out what is the social space of school like for pupils. How do the pupils display physical or social space in their photographs and texts? How does power divide between teachers and pupils? What kinds of feelings do the pupils attach to the photographs and texts they produced? The study involved seven sixth-grade pupils. They photographed their own school days for four consecutive days. After each photograph the pupils filled out a questionnaire in which they reported things regarding the photograph such as who was in charge at the time and how did the pupil feel at the moment. The study consisted of 122 photographs and texts related to the photographs. The material was analysed with the Collier & Collier visual content analysis. The study showed that the pupils photographed the school’s physical rather than social space. Most pupils took photographs of different teaching aids such as text books on their desks. Social space was displayed in photographs taken during recesses when the pupils were playing with their friends. The pupils took very few photographs of the teachers. The most common answer to the questionnaire’s question about who is in charge was ”the teacher” though in many cases said question was left unanswered. This means that the pupils did not really pay attention to the teachers’ use of power. The most common feelings of pupils during school hours were joy and tiredness.
  • Pham thi, Hoang Anh (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Many researchers suggested that home-school collaboration has a positive impact on immigrant children’s integration into new country. In this thesis conceptions and experiences of collaboration with immigrant parents were studied from classroom teacher’s perspective following the Epstein’s theory of educational responsibility. Epstein’s framework of six types of involvement was used to define the quality of home-school partnership and the school’s role in home-school collaboration. Eight first and second grade classroom teachers were interviewed based on the hypothesis that the parents and teachers collaborate most closely at that stage of children’s education. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and the results were analysed using phenomenography method. The results indicate that the teachers see home-school collaboration as a target-oriented partnership based on equality, that relies on interaction with the parents, and that is coordinated by the teacher. The teachers understood that they educate a child beside parents but emphasized different educational responsibilities of school and parents. Their main expectations towards immigrant parents was support for both the child and the teacher and openness towards Finnish culture, while the main challenges were language barrier, religion, differences in cultural values and fear of Finnish culture. The teachers engaged in diverse types of home-school collaboration, but there were very few targeted directly at the immigrant parents.
  • Kangas-Lumme, Jertta (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    There is very little research on the effects of memory illnesses such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) on the linguistic performance of congenitally deaf sign language users. With spoken language users the effects of AD are often first found in semantics and pragmatics. Deteriorated naming skills are often an early symptom of AD. As the disease progresses the linguistic skills are widely affected and communicating becomes difficult. When studying sign language users results have shown that people with AD have corresponding difficulties of comprehending and producing signed language as spoken language users with Dementia have with spoken language. The aim of this research was to study how two Finnish Sign Language (FSL) users with AD perform in object and action naming tests. The participants were evaluated with the Boston Naming Test (BNT) and the Action Naming Test (ANT) in two consecutive years. Of each performance, the researcher recorded the total score, the number of immediate answers, the time the participant spent on the task and how the answers were given. An analysis of naming errors was made. As a result it was noted that both object and action naming skills of the participants deteriorated as Dementia progressed. Action naming skill were less affected than object naming skill. The participants made more errors and gave less immediate responses in the BNT than in the ANT. Both the signed responses and the method of answering varied with the FSL users with a memory illness: the answers were given either in varying signs, by speaking only or by both speaking and signing simultaneously, or with signs created spontaneously in test situation. Most of the errors were Other errors, especially “I don’t know” –answers in both tests. As a result of this study it is clear that there is a need for assessment tests which have been translated into sign language, since the existing naming tests are not necessarily suitable for testing signed language users without a culturally-sensitive translation. This study is the first longitudinal study in Finland focusing on evaluating Finnish Sign Language users with Dementia and the changes in their linguistic skills. It is also one of the first studies internationally on the linguistic changes of sign language users with a memory illness.