Kasvatustieteellinen tiedekunta: Recent submissions

Now showing items 1-20 of 1940
  • Keskinen, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The goal of this master´s thesis is to determine what kind of concept and level of understanding third grade pupils have concerning geometry and geometry teaching.This thesis is based on the German ”Draw Me Emma” –research project. Studying the pupils´ understanding of geometry is important because geometry forms an independent area in primary school mathematics. Geometry and especially euclidic geometry improves children´s deductive thinking and visual perception, which further adds to the subjects significance. Aside from the German research project there has been very little research concerning the pupils´ concept of geometry and geometry teaching, which shows the need for further studying. The research material used in this thesis has been gathered in January 2019. 47 third graders and their two class teachers were involved in the process. The pupils were from two different third grade classes in the Helsinki metropolitan area. Each participant drew two different drawings. The material consists of 98 drawings out of which 94 were made by the pupils and four by their class teachers. The main focus of the thesis is on the drawings of the pupils. In analyzing the drawing I made use of the drawing analysis which was structurally identical to the German original study. I studied the pupils´ perceptions within the classes and comparing the classes with one another. As a part of the analysis I also studied the correlation between the pupils´ perceptions and the class teachers´ perceptions of their own pupils. The results of the thesis show that the pupils´ concept and perceptions of geometry are focused on two-dimensional plane figures and three-dimensional objects. Especially plane figures were frequent in the pupils´ drawings. The views of the pupils concerning the teaching of geometry underlined independent work. In most of the drawings the teacher had been drawn standing in front of the blackboard and the pupils at their own desks working independently on exercises.
  • Rahomäki, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The aim of this study was to investigate how 6th graders’ self-rated health, physical activity and sleep disruptions are related to schoolwork engagement. In more detail it was examined what kind of groups 6th graders can be divided into according to self-rated health, physical activity and sleep disruptions. Furthermore, it was studied if these groups are differently related to sex, sleep duration, the quality of sleep and schoolwork engagement. The aim is to gain better understanding about the factors which might have a strengthening effect on the adolescents' schoolwork engagement. The data was collected by the Mind the Gap –project in Helsinki in the spring 2013. The 6th graders (N = 761) from 33 different schools answered a questionnaire. The variables that were used for this study measured adolescents’ self-reported schoolwork engagement, health, physical activity, sleep disruptions, the quality of sleep and sleep duration. K-means cluster analysis was used to sort ado-lescents to groups by the variables of self-rated health, physical activity and sleep disruptions. When interpreting the contents of groups, an analysis of variance was used. The differences of these formed groups with sex, sleep duration, the quality of sleep and schoolwork engagement were ex-amined with the cross tabulation, analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test. The 6th graders were divided into four groups regarding experienced health, physical activity and sleep disruptions. These groups were named healthy movers, movers with sleep and health prob-lems, non-movers with sleep problems and non-movers with health problems. In the group of healthy movers adolescents was slept longer and had more schoolwork engagement than in the other groups. In the groups of healthy movers and non-movers with health problems had better qual-ity of sleep than in two groups in which sleep disruptions were experienced. The self-rated health, the physical activity and the paucity of sleep difficulties together were connected to sufficient sleep duration and schoolwork engagement.
  • Virta, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The aim of the study was to research the manifestation of compassion in the peer interaction situations of toddlers in day care center and the impact of adult involvement on the expression of children's compassion. The research is part of a research project on Constituting Cultures of Compassion in Early Childhood Education (CoCuCo). Compassion research has not been done earlier by observing children's interaction in a natural environment. This study will provide the elements for developing early childhood education environments and interaction situations for toddlers in a day care center in order to strengthen the compassionate culture. Interest in the meaning of compassion for social change has increased. The meaning and power of compassion has been studied from many perspective of sciences. In this qualitative video research the research material was the video material compiled by the CoCuCo-research team on the different interaction and action situations of children aged 1–3 years in one day care center in the metropolitan area in Finland. The research methods were the observation and analysis of the video material. In the analysis of the data, I shared the compassion situations I found with the episodes in two main categories: 1. expression of compassion in children's interaction situations and 2. the effect of adult involvement on the expression of children's compassion. After this, I analyzed the various manifestations of compassion and the various effects of adult involvement that I found within the episodes. This study showed that there were compassionate acts of interaction between toddlers in terms of comforting, sharing, helping, and anticipating. Most often, the acts of children's com-passion were appeared as physical and verbal comforting or through objects and functional sharing. Adults contributed to their day care with their involvement, mostly to promote com-passion, but sometimes to undermine compassion. The results of this study support the view that young children have a natural way of working with compassion. The influence of adults on the development of a compassionate culture is very important. Adults need to realize the importance of the moments leading to compassion and give children time enough and compassionate guides.
  • Tallgren, Carolina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    According to research, physical activity improves cognitive functioning and is associated with academic achievement. College students sit on average more than other adults and there seems to be a lack of functional learning methods, especially at university level. The purpose of this study is to examine how students experience learning while cycling on a stationary bike during a course in neuroscience. The aim is to examine the students’ experiences, both positive and negative. Their experiences are further examined through an age-related perspective. Learning is explored through the following pre-chosen themes: memory, motivation, attention, concentration and arousal with included theories. Classroom environments can also have an impact on learning. Therefore, environmental factors in the classroom, and how students perceived these factors as having an influence on their learning, are outlined. The study was conducted as a qualitative case study. The data was collected during the fall of 2018 and the sample consisted of nine university students. The participants were interviewed with a semi-structured interview design. The participants were divided into three age groups: group 1 (21, 23 & 25- year olds), group 2 (31, 33 & 37-year olds) and group 3 (51, 52 & 56-year olds). The data was analysed using a theory-based content analysis. The results demonstrate an overall successful and positive learning experience. Motivation, attention, concentration, memory and arousal were experienced a bit differently by the participants. The best learning was experienced by group three while there was more variation in groups one and two. Cycling was experienced as improving learning for most students. Surprisingly, one student lacked motivation regarding the course material, but experienced an improvement in learning during cycling, while another student perceived the course material as interesting, but had trouble concentrating in class. The results in this study supplement previous research and show that learning is mostly experienced as successful during in-class cycling. The results could be used to reduce students’ sedentary time and for academic achievement.
  • Kuronen, Aino (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a digital learning environment on the self-efficacy of early childhood educators. Earlier research shows that early childhood educators face challenges as science educators. In addition, earlier research shows that early-stage educators are cautious about digital learning environments. The aim of this thesis is to find out what kind of circumstances weaken and strengthen the self-efficacy experiences of early childhood educators when using the Supralaakso learning environment. Finding out the experiences of self-efficacy of early educators will provide information on how we can support early educators’ self-efficacy as science educators in the world, reflected in digitalism and technological development. Methods. The study was conducted as a qualitative case study involving three early educators. Interviewees' experiences of getting to know the Supralaakso learning environment and how to use it in the 3-6-year-old group were discussed using a semi-structured theme interview method. Interviews were conducted as individual interviews. The interview transcripts were analyzed by means of narrative analysis, building on the experiences of early educators. Plot summaries and role characters of the self-efficacy story were formed. In the analysis of experiences, Bandura's graph describing the emergence of self-efficacy experiences was used. By comparing, categorizing and typing the themes of the plot summaries and self-efficacy characters, it was possible to construct an image of what reinforced and weakened self-efficacy experiences. Results and conclusions. The two interviewees felt that the use of the learning environment was mainly a positive thing, but one did not decide to use the application with their group. My research suggests that seeing children’s active role in inquiry, making science education approachable, and carefully considering pedagogical choices can empower self-efficacy experiences. Particularly providing the support for conceptual learning of children and their freedom of choice regarding the experiments in the application could be identified as factors that weaken self-efficacy. The stories, the pre-designed study package and the first impression of the features of the application also appeared to be reinforcing factors, but in one educator these partially also weakened self-efficacy. As a conclusion of the study, it can be concluded that the experiences of self-efficacy can be supported by a digital learning environment, when the application enables inquiry-based activities and play by children, and if it can create a simple and approachable image of science education.
  • Sinivirta, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Due to the new curriculum for basic education home economics as a school subject is expanded to lower grades and can now be taught in grades 1-6. Therefore, the home economics is now in one with the other artistic and practical subjects a school subject that can be studied through the basic education. The curriculum does not define the objectives and content of the home economics separately for lower grades. Yet the age and the level of development of the pupils has to be taken account of. The aim of this study was to examine the contents of instruction in home economics in grades 1-6. In addition, this research aims to review the contuum of home economics through basic education. The study has been based around two themes: the contents of instruction and future plans of the subject. The questions that the thesis seeks to address are 1. What kind of contents of instruction is implemented in grades 1-6? 2. What is the future outlook for home economics in grades 1-6? This was a qualitative study. The research data was ready-made. The research material in this study was a part of an internet-based questionnaire. The scope of the questionnaire was all schools in mainland Finland where grades 1-6 were taught. Material consisted of the open answers in the questionnaire. The data of this study was analyzed with content analysis. The results show, that the contents of instruction in home economics in grades 1-6 is well in line with the curriculum and the subject objectives. The results imply that interdisciplinary learning modules, the interrelationship between the practice and theory and the out-of-school learning environments are peculiar to home economics in grades 1–6. According to this study the majority of schools do not intend to increase nor develop lower grades home economics education during the next few years. However, the home economics instruction seems to remain the same and it will be taught in these schools in the grades 1-6 still in the future. The biggest obstacles for not increase or develop home economics in the lower grades were the lack of resources.
  • Tonteri, Erik (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The purpose of this study is to examine, what kind of feedback the teacher gives to his/her students during drama lesson. The study also examines, what kind of effects the feedback given by the teacher has for the atmosphere in classroom. The latest researches point out that teachers don’t provide enough specific feedback for their students. Instead, the feedback is often inaccurate. The hypothesis of this study is also, that teachers don’t provide enough specific feedback for their students, as the previous studies show. The earlier literature presented in this study addresses formative assessment and the feedback that formative assessment requires. The literature of this study is also based on the significance of teacher’s interaction skills on his/her ways to give feedback, the significance of feedback for the school achievement of the students, and the feedback in drama education. The data of this study consists of eight video recorded drama lessons. There were four observed teachers, who have graduated with drama education as their secondary subject. Two drama lessons per teacher were observed. The feedbacks occurred from the data were marked on chart, where the feedbacks were divided in themes. The research method of the study is qualitative content analysis, because the feedback was examined as everyday phenomena. 63% of the feedback that was given by the teacher was directed to the behaviour of the student. 28% of the feedback was inaccurate glorification, and the amount of specific feedback was only 8%. Whereas the amount of inaccurate negative feedback was 1%, when rounded up. There was only one marked inaccurate negative feedback. When the results were compared to the quality of classroom’s atmosphere, the study found out that the teachers, who give positive feedback the most, have also higher quality in their classroom’s interaction atmosphere. In addition, the teacher who gave specific feedback the most, had the highest quality of interaction atmosphere in his/her classroom.
  • Tuovinen, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the social engagement scale among students at Finnish comprehensive schools. Another aim was to examine the interaction effect of social engagement and introversion on self-esteem, schoolwork engagement and burnout. The purpose of this was to understand how introverts with higher social engagement perform in terms of their self-esteem, schoolwork engagement and burnout in comparison to introverts with lower social engagement. The theory of this study focused on social engagement, which has been suggested the fourth dimension of school engagement. Social interactions help students’ learning, and enhance critical thinking and problem solving. Introversion was selected for this study as introverts are usually stereotypically seen as unsocial and unwilling to work with other people. The data for this study were collected through questionnaires of the Mind the Gap Research Group of the University of Helsinki in 2013–2016. Sample size was 862 students. The analytical methods were confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and hierarchical multiple regression. The results indicated that a two-factor model best fit the social engagement scale. These two dimensions were named the social engagement approach and social engagement avoidance. When examining self-esteem, the interactions between the social engagement approach and introversion were significant. This suggests that introverts with high social engagement have higher self-esteem than introverts with low social engagement. Interaction terms for the social engagement approach and social engagement in terms of schoolwork engagement and burnout were not found.
  • Koskelainen, Karita (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Meat-eating has a significant impact on the environment. Also, there is notable evidence for the negative impacts that meat-eating has on health. Therefore it has been recommended that people reduce the amount of meat in their diet due to ecological and health reasons. In addition, the production of meat is ethically questionable due to the treatment of the animals. This study explores the ways in which families with children have reduced their meat-eating and how the reduction of meat has changed the families’ eating habits. Furthermore, this study investigates the mother’s role in the preparation of food: earlier studies have shown that the mother’s role in serving and preparing food for the family is significant. This study is focusing on families with children, where meat-eating has been reduced. The data was collected between February and March in 2019. The method of the study was an online survey with structured multiple choice questions as well as open questions. 180 people answered the survey, 98 percent of which were women. I analysed the data by doing a content analysis on the answers. The results show that when a family starts reducing their meat-eating, not all family members reduce their meat-eating in the same way. The eating habits of the families became more plant-based and many families made different foods after reducing their meat-eating than before they had reduced their meat-eating. The mother’s role in serving and preparing the food is still significant, as shown in earlier studies. The results also show that the respondents feel the need to explain their choice to reduce their meat-eating. The study also strengthens the connection between meat and milk and the meat industry, since consumers who reduce milk also tend to reduce meat, and vice versa. The results of the study also show that the person most opposed to reducing meat-eating in the family is the father, not the children. When reviewing the results, it has to be taken into consideration that women were over represented in the study, which might affect the results.
  • Luhtala, Julia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objectives. Understanding programming is considered an important part of technological literacy. Computational or algorithmic thinking is regarded as a fundamental skill for everyone. These are some of the reasons why programming became part of the curriculum in autumn 2016. This also increased the need for further education in programming. The purpose of this thesis is to analyse and interpret how the continuing education affects the programming teaching of class teachers. In addition, I also examine how the class teachers themselves think they will carry out programming teaching before continuing education course, after it and in the future. Methods. The material consisted of questionnaire replies from 101 class teachers on how to teach programming. All the subjects had completed at least one programming related continuing education course. The subjects were selected out of a broader data set based on that all of them had responded to two different surveys, which allowed examining the change. In addition, respondents were united by the fact that everyone taught grades 3–6. The material was analysed using data based content analysis. Results and conclusions. The study revealed that class teachers carried out more programming lessons which were also more versatile after participating in the continuing education. The class teachers also reported using different learning environments, robots and cooperation with their colleagues before and after the continuing education and in the future. The positive effects of the continuing education were mentioned much more often than the negative effects by class teachers. Some of these effects the teachers reported were increased knowledge and skills, increased enthusiasm and that working felt easier. These results can be used in arguing the usefulness of continuing education. In addition, the results can be seen as a resource in developing continuing education of programming.
  • Kuvaja, Annika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The purpose of this study was to analyze the experiences that generalists in the field of general and adult education had on the development of expertise in university studies, the knowledge that matters in working life and the experiences on how these two face each other. The target group was chosen by the fact that generalist education does not prepare the student to any specific job or position in working life. The results were examined on three levels which included 1) the expertise that developed during university studies 2) the expertise that was being experienced to be too narrow and 3) the expertise that matters in working life. The study was performed as a qualitative study and the data consisted of eight semi-structured interviews. The interviews were based on specific questions and a task to point out critical incidents from the beginning of the studies to these days. The data was analyzed by creating themes and categories about the data. The created themes included three dimensions which were 1) individuality 2) scientific thinking and 3) sociality. The results showed that the expertise of educationalists consists of these three sections listed above. These results verified the ideas that the former literature also supports. According to the results the social dimension of expertise was particularly highlighted. The social networks and social skills were experienced essential in working life and in education as well. These were the categories that also were listed to be developed during the university studies. In addition to social skills, the educationalists also experienced the individual and scientific thinking skills to be an important part of their expertise. These skills include the reflection skills, self-development skills, scientific thinking skills and knowledge integration skills. The results of this study made visible the factors which belong to the expertise of educationalists. Generalists must be able to embrace multiple skills while performing in the changing environment of working life. Because of this, surveying the knowledge they have is extremely important. In terms of developing the university studies it is essential to be aware of the fact what is and what is not being learned during the studies nowadays. By making visible also the knowledge that matters in working life makes it possible to respond the requirements of the changing society and working life.
  • Kokkoniemi, Maiju (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objective of the study. Previous studies have concluded that applying collaborative learning methods in university courses, such as a small group work, enhances profound understanding of a learning issue and students’ thinking processes. In a group, students bring up new ideas and process, justify them from different perspectives, evaluate explanations and try to form a shared understanding of the theme to be studied. Questions have been found to be effective for improving students’ deep and collaborative knowledge elaboration, but the interrelationship between these two has not been investigated extensively, thus, only in the context of medical education. The objective of this study was to analyse how questions are used in a small group discussion for enhancing undergraduate students’ collaborative elaboration of knowledge in the context of biosciences. Methods. In this study, the video data collected from a small group discussion in a field course in biology were analysed. The focus of the analysis were the utterances in the group discussion of eight first-year bioscience students and their teacher. The aim of the group work and the discussion was to find out the students’ prior knowledge and elaborate ideas for defining a research problem. Theory-based content analysis was used to classify different question types and the quality of elaboration in answers that the students expressed. Finally, different question types were compared in relation to the quality of subsequent answers. Results and conclusions. In line with previous studies, the students elicited factual and declarative questions checking prior knowledge and the accuracy of their ideas. The teacher presented explanative and meaningful questions when asking the students to interpret and meta questions when encouraging other students to join a discussion. The students rarely elaborated and explained learning issues collaboratively. When answering, the students accepted different ideas without explaining or elaborating them further. When the teacher was involved in a discussion, the teacher explained and clarified issues on behalf of the students. The results emphasised the interpretation that students are used to express simple questions that do not challenge their thinking but that teachers can use explanative and meaningful questions to support students to elaborate their ideas thoroughly. The results show that applying collaborative learning methods requires that students are taught to ask meaningful questions and that pedagogical programs aiming at learning question strategies enhancing collaborative learning are developed and made available for teachers.
  • Vertanen, Viivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Aims. On account of the curriculum reform (POPS, 2014) the subject of craft has become more coherent. The reform introduces the term multi-material crafts, which however, is not precisely defined. As research data on the teaching applying multi-material crafts does not excist at large yet, this research concentrates on defining the term based on official commandments and texts addressing them. This model of multi-material crafts is composed of those texts and commandments. The degree of motivation, in turn, is studied by means of various models specialized on teachers’ and students’ motivation. This research aims to examine what multi-material craft is by experiences and how motivational it is considered. The experiences are compared to the composed models. Methods. The data of the reserch was collected via online questionnaires. There were separate ones for teachers and students. The indicators were built for the research. There were teachers participating on the research from five cities (n=13) And students from four cities (n=88). The research data was collected both in quantitative and qualitative method. The quantitative data was analysed based on standard deviation and arithmetical mean. The differencies between the urban and rural area schools were studied with U-test. The qualitative data was analysed with the analysis of the content. Results and conclusions. It was perceived in the results that the experiences of multi-material crafts were distinct between teachers and students as well as different school districts. The main differences between urban and rural area schools were in the increase of self-direction. Teachers’ experiences were more positive than the ones of students’ in nearly all of the sections. The only exceptions were combining the methods of technical and textile crafts and utilising multiple workspaces. The main feature affecting students’ motivation on multi material crafts was atmosphere. The teachers were motivated by their work but the uncertainty of the continuance of the work and the challenges caused by changes possibly diluted their motivation. On ground of the results it can be said that multi-material crafts are taking shape in the schools. The change on its behalf is affecting the motivation.
  • Petters, Melissa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    In my thesis I examine the educational discourse in the Finnish media represented by the Koulukorjaamo series which was part of the media uproar around teacher Pekka Peura in spring 2016. The research material consists of nine digital newspaper articles published by Yle News as part of the Koulukorjaamo series. My aim is to discover how and why school and education reform are constantly topical issues in the media. Previous international research has pointed to an agenda-setting function of the media in public educational discourse. Not only institutional practices but also concepts such as primary definers and authoritative voices have been argued to be responsible for the construction of educational discourses in the media. (Thomas 2006.) Educational historian Jari Salminen (2012) contends that the constant adaptability expected of education creates crisis and progress discourses that warrant school reform. Educational sociologist Hannu Simola (2002) points out that there are few studies on the discoursive nature of school reforms. Thus, the main question in my thesis is how the articles in the Koulukorjaamo series discuss pedagogical reform. Furthermore, I offer an interpretation of this discussion via the “steps of rhetorical analysis” outlined by Joan Leach (2000), i.e. the rhetorical situation, the types of persuasive discourse and the five rhetorical canons. The rhetorical analysis shows that the discourse of pedagogical reform in Koulukorjaamo is based on epideictic discourse, which praises the new, individual learning model. The articles aim to persuade the audience that this model is the best way to reform pedagogy and school. The aim is supported by forensic and liberative rhetoric, the latter of which invokes the benefit to students and persuades the audience to update their idea of ideal learning to embrace the objectives of mental well-being and learning to learn. The persuasiveness of the discourses is covert as the audience is invited to participate in a discussion that merely appears open and unbiased. Unique rhetorical features of the Koulukorjaamo articles, such as unexpected metaphors and definitions of good learning have been undiscussed in previous research on educational discourse, and thus form a fruitful starting point for further investigation.
  • Hyvönen (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The main purpose of this research was aim to find out What the experts of education export think that what is situation now in the sector of education export. There is not a lot of research about this subject so that was also the reason why I chose it. Monika Schatz has written her doctoral dissertation about “Education export as Finland’s hottest export”. In that research she says that Finland hasn’t succeed in education export because we don’t really have the product to sell. Also, Schatz thinks that there is such a big interest for our educational system because of PISA-results. The second reason for this research was the act of government. They set the goal to increase the value of Education Export. The hypothesis was that the experts think that there is a huge potential in exporting Education but there are many challenges we need to solve out before the success. The study was a qualitative one. I decided to interview six experts of education export. After interviewing I transcribed the interviews. Two of my interviewees were working in the companies, two of them were principles of schools and two of them were working in the other positions in the public sector. They all had some special information of the field of education export. The data collection method was semi-structured theme interview. I shared my analysis for four section: 1. What kind of services the experts of education think that the education export includes? 2. What kind of marketing tools the experts of education think that the education exporters are using in exporting education? 3. What is the secret behind the popularity of Finnish education? And 4. what problems we have faced in education export? The results were that the experts think that we are selling education because of the high PISA-results. The other reasons for the interest were the quality of education and the good results. The experts also thought that we have a huge potential in sector of education export. They told that the websites, the marketing events, hints from the ministry of Foreign Affairs and recommendations from the old customers are the ways to find new customers. They told the places to market education are websites, marketing events and social media. They told that the reasons behind why we haven’t succeeded yet so much are wide. According the interviews - there have been many challenges in education export. Few of the biggest ones have been probably lack of co-operation and product of Finnish education export. Part of the experts thought that it’s not possible to export education as it is – there always need to do some changes
  • Günther, Mira (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objectives. Earlier studies have shown that international education policies are increasingly spreading, and that transnational organizations such as OECD play a key role in this development. This study focuses on locating the main educational policy themes from OECD’s publications and compares them with the educational policy objectives of the government programs of the Finnish governments in the 2010s with the aim of locating the similarities between the educational policy objectives of the government programs and the main themes of the OECD's education policy. The research questions guiding the research are: 1. What are the main educational policy themes that can be identified in OECD educational publications? and 2. What are the similarities between the educational policy themes of the OECD and the educational policy objectives of the Finnish government programs for the 2010s? Methods. The research was carried out as a qualitative study. The research material was collected from the OECD educational publications and from the educational policy objectives sections of government programs of the 2010s. An analysis method used in this study was data-driven thematic content analysis. The analysis first highlighted the main educational policy themes from OECD's educational publications, and then compared these themes with the educational policy objectives of the government programs of the 2010s to identify the similarities between them and the OECD’s main educational policy themes. Results and conclusions. In response to the first research question, seven main educational policy themes themes emerged from the OECD’s publications. The main themes are competitiveness and work life, equality, educational performance, innovation, lifelong learning, educational coverage and internationality themes. In response to second research question, the main educational themes of OECD’s publications in comparison to the educational policy objectives of the government programs of the 2010 government of Finland revealed several substantive similarities between the main themes and the educational policy goals of government programs. The purpose of the results is to stimulate an education-related debate on transnational educational policy guidance.
  • Bachmann, Sanni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The purpose of this study was to look for relationships between analytical thinking skills, two selected decision-making characteristics (time preference, risk preference) and temperament. A commonly applied test to detect individual differences in analytical thinking is the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT; Frederick, 2005), which captures important characteristics of rational thinking, different from intelligence and other cognitive ability (Toplak, West, & Stanovich, 2011). If a strong correlation between the ability to analytical thinking and some other types of characteristics was found, it would help to identify individuals with good analytical decision-making skills and to clarify the phenomenon of analytical thinking. This work continued the exploration of relations between individual differences in analytical thinking, assessed as performance in CRT, and selected psychological characteristics: time preference and risk preference, where a link has been detected in previous research on university students in the U.S. In this study, time preference was assessed as performance in the Consideration of Future Consequences Test (CFC-14; Joireman, Shaffer, Balliet, & Strathman, 2012). With data gathered from Finnish university students, this study attempted to replicate the findings of the original study (Frederick, 2005), where a relationship between the CRT and risk preference was detected. The current study extended previous research by examining also the relation of analytical thinking skills and neurobiological temperament (Rawlings, Tapola & Niemivirta, 2017). The relation of time preference and temperament was also studied. The participants in the present study were 135 first-year students from the National Defence University in Finland. The students completed a self-report questionnaire via a weblink. An exploratory factor analysis was performed to test the construct validity of the models applied. The correlations between the tests were examined and by using standard regression analyses the effects of the temperament on the time preference were analysed. Contrary to expectations, no relation between the CRT score and time preference, risk preference or temperament were detected. However, interesting links between time preference and temperament were found. Therefore, future research could investigate further how neurobiological temperament sets our concerns with future and immediate consequences, that is, our farsightedness or the lack of it.
  • Räty, Cia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objectives. The goal of this thesis is to examine various positive methods in which a teacher can confront a challenging student in the classroom and redirect the student’s behaviour to fit the lessons agenda. This thesis will also aim to examine what kinds of challenging behaviour can be found from analysed drama lessons. Previous research has shown that teachers find interactions with challenging students to be often demanding. In the modern classroom teachers must be prepared to face challenging students and therefore there is a need to research teachers already working in the field to see how they confront challenging students in a positive way. Methods. The research for this thesis was done as a case-study based in video observations, where footage from the 2018 KEHU-project was utilized. The research footage contained five filmed lessons, which were taught by five various drama-specialized teachers across Finland. The teachers participating in this project taught grades one through third grade. The nature of this research was based on qualitative methods. The material was processed through content analysis and classification. Results and conclusions. Challenging behaviour was categorized into four distinct categories based off the filmed drama lessons, which were disruptive behaviour, wandering, disobedience and negative verbal or physical interaction. Challenging behaviour filmed during the lessons were often quite mild forms of challenging behaviour. Based on the results the teachers mostly conducted positive confrontations against challenging students and were able to redirect behaviour with efficient and practical methods. This thesis provided promising information in regards that teachers can redirect behaviour towards the lesson’s goals with positive interactions. Having a respective attitude towards students and striving towards dialogical interactions from the teacher appears to improve confronting the student, which has been proven in earlier research to be meaningful in regards to the students behaviour.
  • Nätkynmäki, Iida (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Objective of the study. The aim of inclusive education is to achieve equal participation of all students in general education in spite of the students’ needs. Inclusion generates heterogeneous groups of students. Differentiated instruction means responding to students’ varying needs by enabling the participation of all students. The aim of this study was to examine what kind of factors affect the implementation of inclusive physical education (PE) and the differentiation of physical education, as well as what kind of effects does inclusive PE have. Additionally, the aim was to examine what kind of concrete methods the teachers have to differentiate PE. The purpose of this study is to raise awareness of the effects of inclusive PE and teachers’ opportunities to respond to individual needs of students in PE. Methods. This study was carried out as a qualitative case study. The data was collected with a semi-structured theme interview by interviewing five teachers who teach physical education. The data was analysed with theory-guided content analysis. Results. Negative attitudes and lack of motivation, teacher’s poor skills in differentiation, the trouble of differentiation, old habits, benefits of small group instruction, lack of time, large group sizes and lack of adult resources hindered the implementation of inclusiveness and differentiation of PE. The skill to identify each student’s learning needs, teacher’s additional education, early observation of motor learning disabilities, good social relationships of the group, successful scheduling, collaboration with others and good environment and equipment for physical education eased the implementation of inclusiveness and differentiation of PE. The teachers differentiated PE by individualizing the pace of learning, providing various kinds of tasks, modifying equipment and environment, assisting the student and by different kinds of student roles and groupings. The perceived disadvantages of inclusive PE were mental insecurity, the decrease of physical activity in the class, teacher’s inability to pay attention to every student, bullying, challenges in implementing PE and teacher’s disbelief in their skills. The perceived benefits were equality in the community, right to participate, understanding differences, consideration of others, instruction that responds to individual needs, the development of teacher’s professional skills and increase of adult resources.
  • Lehtimäki, Annina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The Guides and Scouts of Finland is the biggest youth organization in Finland. Organization has its own values and ideals. The Scout Method is a way of reaching the Educational Goals of Scouting and the goal is to support children’s growth and also to notice that everyone has their own characteristics. The vision of the Guides and Scouts of Finland for years 2019-2020 is “Everyone builds a better world - Guiding and Scouting is the most influential youth movement in Finland”. The Guides and Scouts of Finland have named disabled scouts as “sisupartio-laiset”. Nowadays disabled scouts are named as scouts that has special needs, but still “sisupar-tio” is the prevalent term to describe disabled people in the Guiding and Scouting. In this study the focus is how scouts with special needs speak about their own place as scouts and how they are seeing their capabilities to be part of the Scouting. I have interviewed five scouts with special needs. I used the theme interview as a method of in-terview. In this study I use discourse analysis as a method to analyze. To analyze the speak of the interviewee about their opinions of their place and capabilities in Scouts and to use dis-course analysis I can examine the dominant discourses that are affecting to the experiences of the disabled scouts about their own place and own capabilities. As an analytical concept I am using marginality and subjectification and also I rest my notions about disability to the social model of disability. It seemed that scouts with special need took the subjectification of a “sisupartiolainen” as a self-evident and took the category “sisupartio” as a given position. I understand that this happens because it also seemed that subjectification of a “sisupartiolainen” was something that has to be adopted that it was even possible to work in the Scouts as disabled. On the other hand the scouts with special needs questioned the discourses that are related to disablement and their po-sitioning to the marginal group of the Scouts. The discursive field of Scouts in my study seemed to be enabling and limiting factor. Limiting because it seemed that scouts with special need were understood as a common group because of the naming as “sisupartio” and that limited some of the scouts possibilities to act in the Scouts. Also society´s physical boundaries and lack of re-courses seemed to be restrictive when it comes to the possibilities to be part as an equal mem-ber of the Scouts. In the study I was able to see that with the discursive field of Scouts, the scouts with special needs were able to build their own agency in their speak and in the light of this the procedures, ideals and practices of the guiding and scouting seemed to build the their agency as a constructive way. I suggested that the Guides and Scouts of Finland should draw at-tention what can be done to person when some group is named and categorized.