Kasvatustieteellinen tiedekunta: Recent submissions

Now showing items 1-20 of 2692
  • Nuutinen, Anna Maaria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2008)
    Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli selvittää, miten SCIS ohjelman mukaan opiskelleet viidesluokkalaiset osaavat opetussuunnitelman perusteiden mukaisia luokkatasonsa biologian peruskäsitteitä. Lisäksi selvitettiin sukupuolen ja luontoharrastuneisuuden sekä äidinkielen ja biologian todistusarvosanojen yhteyttä osaamiseen. Tutkimusaineisto koottiin keväällä 2005 espoolaisessa peruskoulussa. Tutkimukseen osallistui koulun yhden viidennen luokan kaikki 21 oppilasta, joista tyttöjä oli yhdeksän ja poikia 12. Oppilaiden osaamista arvioitiin kolmeosaisella testillä. Ensimmäinen tehtävä mittasi eliö- käsitteen hallintaa: luokittelua ja perustelua, toinen tehtävä ravintoketju- käsitteen hallintaa ja kolmas tehtävä mittasi tuottaja-, kuluttaja- ja hajottaja- käsitteiden hallintaa. Tutkimusten aineistolle suoritettiin tilastollinen analyysi ja päättely. Tulosten mukaan oppilaiden käsitykset eliöiden luokittelusta osoittautuivat hallituksi. Vaikeuksia tuotti ainoastaan koivun luokitteleminen eliöksi. Tulosten perusteella viidesluokkalaiset oppilaat osasivat erottaa elolliseen ja elottomaan luontoon liittyvät asiat ja luokitella ne. Oppilaat perustelivat eliöiden kuulumisen eliöihin joko eliöalan tai eliön ominaisuuksien mukaan, mutta eivät molempien mukaan. Oppilaat osasivat täydentää yksinkertaisen ravintoketjun. Valtaosa oppilaista osasi luokitella elolliseen ja elottomaan luontoon kuuluvia tekijöitä tuottajiin, kuluttajiin ja hajottajiin. Auringon ja kärpässienen luokittelu ei onnistunut kolmasosalta oppijoista; lähes kaikki oppilaat luokittelivat kastemadon virheellisesti hajottajiin. Tytöt menestyivät vain hiukan paremmin testissä kuin pojat. Ero ei ollut tilastollisesti merkitsevä. Äidinkielen ja biologian arvosanoilla ei ollut yhteyttä testissä menestymiseen eikä myöskään luontoharrastuneisuudella. Tämän tutkimuksen tulosten mukaan SCIS ohjelma soveltuu hyvin yhdeksi vaihtoehdoksi luonnontieteiden peruskäsitteiden opettamiseen peruskoulun alakoulun oppilaille.
  • Salo, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2013)
    Communication between airline pilots and cabin crew plays an important role in aviation safety. However, little research has been conducted in the area of pilot-cabin crew communication and relationship. The aim of this study was to identify and name competing discourses in pilot-cabin crew relationship and to describe how these discourses compete with one another. Theory of relational dialectics (Baxter JA Montgomery 1996; Baxter 2011) was used as the theoretical framework. Eight members of cabin crew and six pilots were intervieved. Members of cabin crew were interviewed in pairs. Two of the pilots were interviewed individually and four in pairs. The interviews were analyzed using contrapuntal analysis. Contrapuntal analysis aims to identify competing discourses and their interplay. Six competing discourses were identified in pilot-cabin crew communication and relationship. They were predictability-novelty, one crew-two crews and ideal-real. The predictability-novelty struggle became apparent in the discursive struggle of different work positions being occupied with different crew memebers and in the discursive struggle of official and unofficial communication during the flight. The discourses of one crew and two separate crews were played against one another in the discursive struggles of equality-hierarcy and efficiency-politeness. The discursive struggle of ideal-real constitutes a scene on which the other discourses compete. One coherent and egalitarian crew, where each crew member communicates openly and predictably according to the rules and regulations attached to his/her position was presented as ideal. This ideal is often, but not always, accomplished.
  • Salo, Johanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The aim of this research is to study what kind of conceptions class teachers have about elementary school's festival traditions and especially Christian based festival traditions. This is a fairly topical issue at the moment. Over the last decades the Finnish society has come more plural and that has highlight the questions what festivals should school celebrate. In the centre of this discuss are Christian based festivals and festival tradition. The subject hasn't been researched much. So this study strives to answer this need of research. I approach the subject from the perspective of the pedagogics and the cultural heritage education. My research problems are: 1. What kind of conceptions have class teacher about the elementary school's festival traditions? 2. Which overtones is relation with these conceptions? 3. What kind of conceptions have class teachers about the reasons of school festivals? The nature of this study was quantitative and qualitative survey research. All together 245 class teachers of elementary schools from Satakunta (n=118) and Helsinki (n=127) took part in survey which was gathered in the fall of 2012. I chose these two areas because of their difference in population, culture and environment. By gathering large sample from two different areas I tried to conservative extrapolate these responses to all class teachers. The material was analysed by statistical analysis methods as means and factor analysis and by using qualitative research basic ideas: categorising and formulating types. According to the results of this study the teachers perceived Christian based festival tradition as part of the cultural education of the school. Teachers also thought that the school festivals were great opportunity to get to know Finnish culture tradition. The culture tradition of other cultures was also seen very important part of the school festival. Teachers' experience was that pupil's religious diversity didn't make school festival tradition significantly problematic although it has impact to the staging of the school festivals. Teachers saw that most of the meanings of the festivals were engaged to the purpose of the festival and in to the celebration of the festival. Teachers from Satakunta felt school festivals a bit more important than teachers from Helsinki. However altogether teachers' conceptions were positive against the school festival traditions. It seems that based on this study celebration of the school festival isn't that problematic thing that public conversation sometimes implies. The school festival tradition definitely needs more research. One viewpoint for the future study could be which issues teachers estimate to include in the Finnish culture heritage, which transmitting is the one assignment of the school.
  • Kotiranta, Pauliina (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Aims The aim of the Vesisankarit project is to encourage children in practicing their water skills around the year. The project offers materials to teachers and parents and provides them with tools in teaching water skills to children. In this master's thesis I investigate, firstly, how schools carry out Vesisankarit events and how the participants experience them. Secondly, I study what forms of symbolic capital the participants mobilize in the event. My third focus point is interviews conducted with the participants about their thoughts concerning their swimming and water rescue skills. The theoretical framework of the study is based on childhood research, the concept of functionality of children and Pierre Bourdieu's different forms of symbolic capital. As this thesis is the first study of the Vesisankarit project, my aim is also to generate general idea of the project in order to encourage teachers and parents, for example, to carry out their own projects of similar kind. Methods The data is collected from five different Vesisankarit events carried out in the Helsinki metropolitan area. The data was gathered using ethnographical methods. I participated and observed each event. I also interviewed pupils in small groups after the events. I carried out 14 interviews in total and participants consisted of 20 boys and 26 girls of age 8-12 years old. Results and conclusions To successfully carry out a Vesisankarit event it requires an operational culture from the school that supports functionality. Also the organizer has to be motivated over the subject. To carry out the event requires a lot of team work among all the organizers and pupils. Most of the participants got positive experiences out of the event. They generally thought that the skills taught and learned at the event were important skills to master in the future. The most popular tasks were the ones where pupils got chance to operate actively with others. Different forms of capital used by participants were mainly capitals learned from prior experiences and through hobbies. Most of the pupils who took part in the interview told that they have been going swimming with their parents or grandparents. The swimming lessons given by schools were criticized for being too formal. Swimming was experienced by the participants as a social event a moment to have fun with your friends and family.
  • Vidgren, Noora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Tämä tutkielma käsittelee lukiolaisten informaalia englannin oppimista ja sen yhteyttä englannin oppimiseen koulussa. Tutkielmani tarkoituksena on selvittää, kuinka suuren osan englannin oppimisestaan lukiolaiset arvioivat tapahtuvan koulun ulkopuolella, missä tilanteissa he oppivat englantia koulun ulkopuolella ja mikä yhteys koulun ulkopuolisella oppimisella on koulussa tapahtuvaan oppimiseen. Tutkielman teoreettisessa osassa tarkastelen englannin kielen asemaa Suomessa ennen ja nyt sekä englantia maailmankielenä. Tämän lisäksi käsittelen englannin kielen informaalia oppimista. Tutkielman empiirinen osa esittelee kvantitatiivisen tutkimuksen, joka tutkii lukiolaisten informaalin englannin oppimisen määrää ja laatua sekä sen yhteyttä englannin oppimiseen koulussa. Tutkimusmetodina toimii kyselylomake. Tutkimukseen osallistui yhteensä 240 lukiolaista pääkaupunkiseudulta. Kerätty aineisto analysoitiin SPSS-tilasto-ohjelman avulla. Tutkimukseen osallistuneista lukiolaisista neljännes kertoo oppivansa englantia suurimmaksi osaksi tai ainoastaan koulussa, lähes puolet yhtä paljon koulun ulkopuolella kuin koulussa, ja reilu viidennes suurimmaksi osaksi tai kokonaan koulun ulkopuolella. Yleisimmät oppimistilanteet koulun ulkopuolella ovat television ja elokuvien katselu, internet ja musiikin kuuntelu, ja informaalin oppimisen katsotaan vaikuttavan etenkin sanastotaitoihin. Sen perusteella, kuinka suuri osuus informaalilla oppimisella on oppijoiden englannin oppimisessa, tutkimukseen osallistuneet lukiolaiset voidaan jakaa institutionaalisiin oppijoihin, universaaleihin oppijoihin ja informaaleihin oppijoihin. Sukupuoli on merkittävä tekijä englannin informaalissa oppimisessa, sillä 80 prosenttia informaaleihin oppijoihin kuuluvista oppijoista on poikia. Englannin informaalin oppimisen ja arvosanojen välillä löytyy tilastollisesti merkittävä korrelaatio: informaaleilla oppijoilla on muita korkeammat arvosanat. Tämän lisäksi englannin informaalin oppimisen ja perinteisen koulutyöskentelyn välillä löytyy tilastollisesti merkittävä negatiivinen korrelaatio: informaalit oppijat käyttävät vähemmän aikaa läksyjen tekemiseen ja kokeisiin lukemiseen kuin institutionaaliset ja universaalit oppijat. Kolmanneksi englannin informaalin oppimisen ja englannin oppimisen vaikeustason välillä löytyy tilastollisesti merkittävä korrelaatio: informaalit oppijat kokevat englannin oppimisen helpommaksi kuin institutionaaliset ja universaalit oppijat. Tutkimustulokset osoittavat, että informaalit oppijat ovat luokkahuoneissa etulyöntiasemassa. He saavuttavat vähemmällä vaivalla korkeampia arvosanoja kuin institutionaaliset ja universaalit oppijat.
  • Asmala, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This research focuses on the children's clothing of the 1950's. Especially this research has its focus on the meanings of children's clothes. Children's clothes had not been researched widely before, and there was no research of Finnish children's clothes from the 1950's. The decade was remarkable in the lives of families and children, there was some big changes in society, which had a direct effect on both families and children. Costume research has proven that people use clothes to communicate to one another. This is why it is interesting to research how we can see the changed position of the children in her clothes. I studied 12 clothes from Satakunnan Museo's collections. My aim was to choose clothes that would represent as good as possible the children's fashion of the 1950's. I chose not to research underwear, pyjamas, or accessories like shoes or hats. I created an analyse for this research, where I utilized semiotics, artefacts studies and earlier costume research. Children's position could be seen in many ways in her clothes. Urbanization, school systems generalization, could be seen as formality in the clothes. Also the conservative perspective on families and gender could be seen as differences in the clothes of boys and girls. As medicine and psychology as well as behavioural sciences, developed their theories, started the emphasizing of outdoor activities and playing for children's health. These matters could be seen as loose clothes and material choices. On the other hand no elastic materials were used in the clothes of matter, even though the guide books of raising children up, did recommend elastic materials. This research indicated that the society's and adult's aspects on children, could be seen in her clothes in the 1950's.
  • Julku, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives: The purpose of this master's thesis is to study the everyday life of homes, based on the articles published in Helsingin Sanomat. The articles were published in 2005-2015. The focus for the research was the "Kodin arki" article collection (Janhunen-Abruquah [ed.] 2009. It was decided to analyse the articles in Helsingin Sanomat (HS) because it is the widest newspaper by its circulation in Finland and the articles were also available as digital material. The theoretical part of this thesis is focused on everyday life, on the changes of it within society and on the research done on the subject. The research questions are the following: 1. In which style is the everyday life of homes written about? 2. Which themes of everyday life are brought up in the articles? 3. Which common factors can be found from the themes brought up from the writings of the everyday life at home? The study consisted of 33 articles from Helsingin Sanomat and were intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the image created by one media representative regarding the everyday life. By analysing an overview of the individual articles, a more reliable description of the media style becomes visible and the result may also differ from the type of image the random may form. Methodology: The methodology used in this research is of qualitative and descriptive. The method used in analysing the data is content analysis. Since the content of the articles always represents a wide range of perspectives and the different connections between various matters, it is important to remember that in this type of research these matters are described as accurately as possible and interpreted in a variety of ways. People's experiences of the data vary and consequently the causes and consequences are of diverse nature. In contrast to qualitative research which does not aim at statistical generalizations but instead aims at describing phenomena or events, in understanding a particular activity or in giving a theoretical interpretation of a phenomenon. Results and conclusions: Home and everyday life are much analysed subjects in the media, including the press. HS writings also deal with these topics from many different perspectives. Everyone has one's own experiences and opinions on the topic in question. The topics which HS and other media chooses to write on modifies the opinions of the citizens, raising certain issues and topics which are being discussed in different contexts in the society. The everyday life at homes is reflected in HS articles as a busy and effective activity or as a continuous struggle on everyday basis, such as social or interpersonal relationships. The readers are told of everyday experiences which are familiar to many working adults. Eleven articles were discovered out of the data and four of them were summed up. These were as follows: skills, the endurance, the actions and the environment. These themes appeared in all articles with a slightly different emphasis on the type of writing and could be seen as aggregating factors in the context of everyday life in HS.
  • Parikka, Jarno (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    It can be challenging to combine studies and purposive sports training for a young athlete. However, education facilitates the transition to working life after the sporting career. The objective of this study is to explain the experiences of Finnish top level football players who combine a sporting career and simultaneous studies. In order to be able to research combining top level sport and studies at different levels of school, the development of a footballer to the highest level, should also be understood. For the purpose of the study, seven Finnish football players who have had successful football careers and who also have had varied study experiences, were interviewed. The data was collected using focused interviews. The phenomenographic method of analysis was used in order to analyze the collected data. The results of this study support the early engagement theory. Successful football players started their football career at a young age. They have always participated in high volumes of organized football training as well as participated extensively in non-organized or social football as well as personal football training throughout their career. The top level players were always very motivated with regards to their football training. They also received encouragement and pressure-free support from their families. There is no need for special arrangements when combining sports and studying in elementary school. However, football players who attended sports schools while in elementary school enjoyed having more sports in their curriculum. The sport high schools were excellent institutions for combining upper secondary education and studying in Finland. Purposive sports training and studies can be combined in normal high school as well, if school staff members have the desire to support young athletes. On the contrary, purposive sports training was difficult to combine with studies in the higher education institutions for football players. However, with high motivation as regards to studies, studying alongside a top level football career was possible. Athletes need support for combining a sports career and studies, especially after completing studies at the upper secondary level. The development of sport academies is important, so as to enable an increasing number of athletes to achieve success in fields of sport as well as studies in the future.
  • Järvinen, Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Aims. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of students' achievement goal orientations on their perceptions of error climate in the mathematics classroom. Achievement goal orientations refer to relatively stable tendencies to favor certain goals and outcomes in achievement-related situations. Five orientations were included in this study: Mastery-intrinsic refers to a focus on learning, mastery-extrinsic to striving for absolute success, performance-approach to the aim of relative success, performance-avoidance to a focus on avoiding mistakes, and work-avoidance to the aim of minimizing effort. Previous studies suggest that achievement goal orientations affect the way students perceive and evaluate their learning environment, as well as how they respond to errors. Different combinations of orientations (i.e., achievement goal orientation profiles) have also been linked to distinct outcomes. This work examines the role students' achievement goal orientation profiles have in their perceptions of error climate, that is, practices and discourses related to dealing with errors in their classroom. This holds importance for educational research and practice, as error climate has been linked to the adaptivity of students' reactions to their mistakes. Methods. 169 students (aged 13–14) from four secondary schools completed an electronic questionnaire during their school day about their achievement goal orientations and perceptions of error climate in the mathematics classroom. Five distinct achievement goal orientation profiles were identified using SPSS TwoStep cluster analysis: mastery-oriented, success-oriented, indifferent, performance-and-avoidance oriented, and avoidance-oriented. The mean differences between the groups in perceptions of error climate were analyzed using ANOVA. Results and conclusions. As expected, the mastery- and success-oriented students perceived the error climate more positively in comparison to both performance-and-avoidance- and avoidance-oriented students. Indifferent students did not differ significantly from other groups. These findings highlight the significance of students' motivational mindsets on their perceptions of the learning environment and practices related to error climate. These differences should be recognized and taken into account when designing instructional practices, in order to ensure a safe and non-judgmental environment, where students with different goals and needs can learn from their mistakes.
  • Ipunen, Tuula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The purpose of my previous research (minor laudatur thesis, year 2005) was to clarify how the comprehensive school and the Steiner school approach the special education pupil as well as to examine what sorts of similarities and differences there are between the Steiner education and special education. Through my thesis I also attempt to examine how the ideologies/intellectual worlds and teachings of the Steiner school and the comprehensive school could be combined and brought closer to one another as well as how the best parts of both schools could be combined in order to take advantage of them in both schools. The research was implemented as a review of literature. At the beginning of my research the ideology and development of inclusion, integration and inclusive upbringing are examined as the basis for the next chapter, in which the concept of man is examined from the viewpoint of special education. I discuss the idea of man on the basis of four central principles. These principles are human dignity, integrity, the right of self-determination and participation in life and society. The fourth chapter provides a detailed introduction to the concept of man from the viewpoint of the Steiner education. First the points of departure and bases of value of the Steiner education are discussed, and then on the basis of these the idea of man and man's different aspects of being in the Steiner education are discussed, as well as the development rhythms and the seven year stages of the child. I examine the differences between these two educations by comparing their ideas of man. The Steiner education is based on Steiner's educational views and the concept of man, upon which these views are based. The concept of man guides the raising and education of the child and is thus also strongly connected to how the special education pupil is approached in the Steiner school. I consider the fourth chapter to be of particular importance for the reader because it is there that I discuss the concept of man of Steiner education as well as the development rhythms of the child, among other things. Without becoming acquainted with the concept of man of Steiner education it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to understand methods used in approaching the special education pupil, such as temperament training and form drawing. The concept of man of special education also creates the basis for how a pupil requiring special support is approached in the comprehensive school. The fifth chapter discusses methods used in approaching a pupil requiring special support in the Steiner school. The sixth chapter discusses methods used in approaching a pupil requiring special support in the comprehensive school. At the end of this research I attempt, on the basis of the comparison between these two educations, to disclose the similarities and differences of them in approaching the special education pupil. I complemented my minor laudatur thesis by taking in account the 3-phased support model.
  • Peuhkuri, Ulla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The focus in recent research related to household work has been the allocation of time. The results suggest that the overall time spent in household chores has dropped especially amongst the youth and that the work is shared unevenly between genders. Household cleaning is generally regarded as the least pleasant chore despite its necessity in a functional household. Reducing the burden of routine household work has been attempted through rationalization with varying degrees of success. Inspired by this, the major goal of this study is to find out whether understanding the motivation of individuals will provide means for developing more effective methods of rationalization. The focus in this study is the cleaning motivation of young people and, in particular, measuring the motivation through Job Characteristics Model. The research gives insight what factors explain the changes in the cleaning motivation amongst the youth. The motivation is quantified using the so-called motivation potential score. The research data was gathered through a questionnaire based on Job Diagnostic Survey. The answers (N=140) were collected mainly through two Finnish Facebook groups (HC-partiolaiset and Kopeda) although the questionnaire was open to anyone with the correct hyperlink. The answers were analyzed using SPSS statistical analysis software using explorative factor analysis and regression analysis. The results suggest that Job Characteristic Model may work for describing the motivation of household cleaning. The measured mean motivation potential score of the youth was 50.5 with minimum and maximum values 17.5 and 109.6, respectively. Out of the measured factors, only the cleaning frequency clearly explains the changes in the motivation potential score. The results cannot be generalized to the population level due to a small sample size and missing repeated study. More research is required in order to adapt the used models to household cleaning motivation.
  • Kujansuu, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Christmas is celebrated as the biggest calendar festival in Finland. With its permanent traditions it is in contrast to the quickly changing society. The Christmas meal is one of the most important symbols of Christmas and the idea of it is based on experiences of past Christmases and the food that has been eaten. The purpose of this study is to find out the position and meaning of Christmas and especially the Christmas meal as part of Finnish identity and tradition. The aim of this study is to understand the reasons that lead to the repetition of the same Christmas traditions every year and the reasons that make the traditions change. From the point of view of household and society, the theme is of interest given that stability and traditions are often in contradiction with the values of modern society which values dynamism and quick change. For this study twelve people were interviewed. (Six over 85-year old and six 18-20-year.) The idea of interviewing representatives of two generations was to get perspective to the social change and on the other hand the stability and meaning of traditions. The interviews were carried out in Helsinki, Naantali and Turku. The recorded material was transcribed and analyzed in two stages. First, material relevant to the research questions was derived from interviews. Second, interviews were coded and categorized using the theoretical frame of reference of the study. The study shows that celebrating Christmas is a way to express ones own individual and national identity. The rituals and symbols of Christmas are mainly learned in childhood and are repeated in current Christmases. Christmas and the Christmas meal is seen as a part of ones community's heritage and as a part of being accepted as a member of the community. The differences in the understanding of the significance of the Christmas meal between two generations were small. The elderly were a little bit more against change in it than the younger interviewees, who saw change as a realistic and positive development. Nevertheless, the young were insecure about making big changes in their Christmas meals, especially if it meant leaving something out from it. Based on the results of this study, Christmas meal traditions are one way for a person to experience continuity and the feeling of security that comes with it.
  • Laitala, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Attention is an essential part of learning and academical performance. At the moment attention is being assessed mainly by subjective evaluations. Attention Concentration Test pursues to measure attention objectively on the basis of Inhibition Theory. The aim of this thesis was to examine the connection between success in Attention Concentration test and success in visuospatial working memory task. Previous studies imply that functions of attention and working memory are tightly connected. In this thesis, visuospatial working memory test worked as a reference meter to attention. The thesis is a part of a broader Helsinki University Centre for Educational Assessments study which examined ACT-tests usability and ability to identify pupils with significant attentional problems. The thesis studied also genders, mother tongue and receiving intensified and special supports connections with attention and working memory. In addition, the thesis researched what factors predict success in Attention Concentration Test. The study was attended by 159 third grade pupils from four different schools located in Helsinki region. The data was collected between November 2016 and January 2017 at the schools. The tests were completed by computer over one session. The data was analysed by quantitative methods examining correlations and using One-Way Analysis of Variance and Mann-Whitney tests on purpose of finding distinctions between different groups. Furthermore, it was endeavored to create a model that would explain success in Attention Concentration Test using Regression Analysis. Examining the whole material only a weak connection was found between success in Attention Concentration test and success in visuospatial working memory task. Examining the data by gender a medium connection was found with boys. With girls, a connection wasn't found. Girls were more accurate than boys in Attention Concentration Test, but boys were faster than girls in working memory task. Non-Finnish-speaking boys and students receiving intensified and special support succeeded more poorly than other students in both tests. Due to small correlations, a model explaining success in Attention Concentration Test could not be formed.
  • Saarinen, Anne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives. The aim of this research was to find out how teachers can support children's linguistic awareness during the pre-school year. This research orientates to contents of instruction and teaching methods related to linguistic awareness. The research also partly handles differentiation of linguistic awareness in preschool education. In addition, this research aims to find an answer to the question how the learning environment can help the development of linguistic awareness. The learning environment of preschool education stands in this research for pedagogical practices related to instruction as well as environments, learning tools and materials used in instruction. Methods. The research is qualitative and it is based on my own bachelor's thesis (Saarinen. 2015). The research data consisted of interviews of teachers responsible for preschool education as well as their answers on structured questionnaires. The results of the research were analysed by categorisation of the matters found in the research data related to supporting linguistic awareness. The frame analysis of linguistic awareness consisted of phonological, morphological, syntactic and pragmatic awareness. In addition, the data related to learning environment has been analysed as a separate topic. Results and conclusions. The results of this research showed that linguistic awareness can be supported in different ways. On the other hand, the teachers implemented many in beforehand considered exercises of linguistic awareness but everyday situations also brought good development possibilities for linguistic awareness. The teachers payed attention to the pupil's experiment world and the instruction was partly based on pupils' experiences. The teachers preferred functional and playful learning methods. All areas of linguistic awareness were considered almost daily. The teaching of phonological awareness was emphasized in instruction in some degree. Many learning environments of which own classroom was the preferred teaching place, were used in preschool education. In addition, the learning environment was expanded to interiors of the school or kindergarten. The vicinity was also experienced as an essential environment supporting learning.
  • Niemelä, Oona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Craft workshops and workshop events have become more common in our society. Functionality, Do It Yourself mentality is being made use of in many ways. The goal of this study was to examine different kinds of open workshops and to look at workshops from different angles. There were three points of views observed: Participants, instructors/organisers and customers. The objective was also to study what makes a good workshop and what goes in to planning one and to see how creative learning shows in workshops and how it can be supported. The study's research method was research interview. Collection of data was done in two different methods and analysed by Grounded theory. In the first phase of the study data was collected with an internet questionnaire. The questionnaire had common questions and questions where one can give their own view. The questionary was open to the public for one month from which 59 answers where gathered. In the second phase of the study data was collected with half structured theme interviews. People for the interviews were gathered through the questionnaire and through direct contact. The interviews were held four times and 6 people were interviewed in total. Different views were attempted to include in the theme interviews also. Interviewed were, one participant, one producer, one museum lecturer, two culture producers and a director of an art house. The internet questionnaires answers were analysed statistically and the open questions and interviews by content analysis. Different angles of the data where compared through Grounded theory. The saturation point between both data sets was looked at. The study concludes, that workshops are functional and their interaction is ongoing in real time. Workshops are being held from many different points of views and they can have different goals at their base. A good workshop is possible when goals are known and thought out with care. Development of creativity is possible in workshops and can be woken up when the facility, materials, atmosphere and of course instructions are supporting creativity. Craft workshops can work also as a means of learning and give its participants sensations of success and social interactions. These can advance the wellbeing of a participant in many ways
  • Haapanen, Iina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives. This study examines the way Finnish handcraft blogs approach handcrafting. By exploring handcraft blogs, one can find out how handcrafting is approached in them and how the phenomenon of craft is transmitted through them. It is important to become aware of the ways in which handcrafting is approached, as these ways build and shape our common reality actively. Handcraft blogs are an important part of the Finnish craft culture and they help build handcraft-related phenomena and promote the spread of various ideas and ways of thinking. This study examines what kind of handcrafting discourses could be interpreted in the writings and comments of Finnish craft blogs and what those discourses could tell about the broader representation of handcrafting and being a maker. Methods. The blogs chosen for this study were four popular Finnish craft blogs. The data consisted of a total of 32 blog entries published in October 2016 and their related comments. The data were analysed inductively with discourse analysis. Results and conclusions. Four dominant handcrafting discourses were interpreted from the data. The discourses were related to dreaming, community, success and being a maker. The discourses appeared in the data as their own entities, but overlap and shared attributes could also be found. In the data, handcrafting was approached by discussing completed and unfinished products or processes along with dreaming about doing, especially in the pursuit of finished craft products and the sense of succeeding in something. Based on the set of discourses, handcrafting is a communal activity through which crafters can encounter others and communicate. Handcrafting was approached by both positive and negative ways, but the main thought was the importance of handcrafting and the positive things and experiences that can be achieved with it. Based on the data, the mere fact of dreaming and planning is a significant activity. The discourse-based image of a handcrafter, who has to cope with different expectations and pressures, is complicated and conflicting.
  • Zukale, Pirjo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Objectives. The underlying and starting point of this thesis is the idea of the importance, appreciation and self-esteem of girls. The study's research task is to make the girls' perception of themselves visible in the contexts of the school, Icehearts afternoon activities and art projects. The focus is on girls' own selves, but also on the girls' perception of themselves as girls, what is it like to be a girl in everyday social communities. The theoretical background of the study deals with peer relationships, gender and peer relationships, self, self-esteem, art-based working methods in research and in work with children and young people. The study also includes girls and girls' history, as well as gender roles, especially in school. Methods. Six fifth-grade girls from the Icehearts girls' team, founded in Vantaa, participated in the study. The study went together with the art project with the girls. The research material was collected through observations, survey forms and group interviews. The written material has been interpreted as narratives. Some of the answers are also shown in the graphs, and the results of the group interviews in the form of a mind map. Results and Conclusions. Narrative research does not aim at objective or generalizable knowledge, but it aims to produce local, subjective and personal information. Girls' evaluations of themselves are presented separately for each girl in their own chapters. Based on girls' replies, friends and Icehearts appeared to be important to them. The way the contexts of this research, school, Icehearts and art project, effect on the girls' selfs cannot be precisely specified. According to studies, the self is still changing during adolescence. This can be seen also in this study: selfs turned out to be variable and contextual.Girls' perceptions of themselves as girls are put together in mind maps. The girls in this study made a clear distinction between girls' and boys' behavior, "being". The traditional roles of a boy and a girl were present at least on one level. Being a girl was, however, seen very positively. The girls didn't think being a girl would cause limitations in their future lives.
  • Vanhanen, Vilma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Aims. Touching is an essential part of human life and well-being: touch is a way of communicating in human interaction, and touching has positive influence on growth and development of a child. Thus, touching should also be a part of school life in interaction between a teacher and a student. On the other hand, many studies discuss concerns that teachers have regarding touching students. In this study, the aim was to discuss primary school teachers' attitudes towards touching as a pedagogical tool: is it allowed to touch children, do teachers want to touch in the first place, in what kind of situations do teachers touch, and how is touching discussed in schools. The purpose of this study is to enhance understanding of touching in schools. Methods. The research data was gathered by interviewing six class room teachers, and I applied theme interview in the interview. This study was a qualitative study, and I applied phenomenography study's analysis model in the analysis. Phenomenography is based on different kinds of ways of understanding the same phenomenon: therefore I observed primary school teachers' different views about touching in school. Results and conclusions. Primary school teachers associated six different meanings with touching: touching as natural and common thing; as a tool for calming and guiding; as caring; as a worry; as an object of avoiding; and as restricting. The factors that influence teacher's decision to touch are the norms of society and community, context of the situation in which touching occurs, teacher's own touching history, characteristics regarding a student, instructions or pedagogical freedom, and conscious decision making or spontaneous action. As a summary for these results, there was formed five different roles for teachers as touchers: teacher as an educator, as a communicator, as a restrictor, as an avoider, and as a victim. Even though the results cannot be generalized to apply every primary school teacher, the results imply possible ways of comprehending touching as a pedagogical tool.
  • Siippola, Emmi-Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Aim. Bullying has been a common topic of discussion lately, with especially school bullying appearing a lot in the media. The purpose of this thesis is to present a teacher's perspective on school bullying. The goal was to examine different methods to identify or intervene in bullying and to study teachers' perceptions of their preparedness and need of support for intervening in bullying. Methods. Qualitative research methods were used in this thesis. Six different teachers were interviewed around the Helsinki area. The semi-structured personal interviews were conducted in May 2017. The contents were analyzed using theory-driven content analysis methods. Results and conclusions. According to the results, the interviewees' definition of bullying was research-based. They had identified many types of bullying, indirect and verbal bullying being more common than direct or physical. In many cases, bullying came to light when clear signs in the victim could be identified or via a direct confession. Classroom-level methods were found to be more effective than school-level and they were also used more often. Different anti-bullying campaigns like KiVa School were found effective. Teachers usually found their preparedness for intervening in bullying good, although restrictive factors were also present. Especially, when the bullying also continued outside school, intervention was found to be difficult. The interviewees felt additional training and collegial support were useful when dealing with bullying cases. Based on the results teachers are prepared to combat bullying and knowledgeable about different intervention methods. Still teachers need support and don't want to left alone dealing with difficult cases.
  • Hietala, Jenny (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Goals. The purpose of the study was to find out how ethically sensitive teachers, teacher students and financial people themselves are evaluating and whether there are differences between these groups in ethical sensitivity. The study also investigated whether differences between the sexes exist in ethical sensitivity. The theoretical background of this study is the theory of four components of ethical activity, of which ethical sensitivity is studied in this work. After Darcia Narvaez's (2001) operative concept of ethical sensitivity in seven different areas, Kirsi Tirri and Petri Nokelainen (2007, 2011) have developed a meter of ethical sensitivity in their own research. Methods. The survey was carried out as a quantitative survey and the relevant material from bank employees was collected by e-form in August 2015 from a banking group operating in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area. There were 183 respondents, of whom 77.6% were women (N = 142) and men 22.4% (N = 41). Reference material from the teachers was obtained from the University of Helsinki research group (Kuusisto Elina, Tirri Kirsi). The total number of respondents was 864, of which 60.4% (N = 522) were teachers and 39.6% (N = 342) teacher students, women 77.2% (N = 667) and men 22.8% (197). The material was collected in 2011. All students were at the beginning of their studies at the material collection stage and studied at the University of Helsinki. Subsequently, the material was combined with the SPSS statistics program. The ethical sensitivity scale questionnaire consisted of 28 claims, which were answered in the 5-step Likert scale. Seven sum variables were formed, each of which was counted as Cronbach alpha. Only the sum of single sum variables alpha (ESSQ_1 α = .544) was below the recommended>. 060. Subsequent intergroup averages were examined by variance analysis and differences between genders by t-test. Results and conclusions. Teachers received the highest average of seven in four areas, with the results being statistically significant as well. Bank employees received the highest averages in two areas, although the results were not statistically significant. The students got the highest average in only one area. In this study, however, the best ethical sensitivity variable was gender, with women having a higher average in six of the seven areas.