Käyttäytymistieteellinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Sinisalo, Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Aims. This study focuses on dishwashing in Finnish households in the 2010s: more spesifically by reviewing individual meanings, tidiness habits associated with dishwashing and environmentally sustainable practices. The research problem statement was defined based on a multi-disciplinary literature review. Hallman’s perception of housework as a human interaction and a historic review of rationalization of Finnish dishwashing guided the structuring of research questions. Dishwashing related tidiness habits were sought to contextualize from the study data using Aalto’s perception of tidiness. The aim of the study was to collect information on dishwashing activities in participating households, define importance of dishwashing as housework and to note dishwashing related tidiness habits brought up by the participants. Previous studies indicate that dishwashing is considered as an important daily housework that has been relieved through rationalization of dishwashing and introduction of machinery, however, the standard of hygiene has increased. Methodology.All participating households were located in Uusimaa region. Data was obtained by thematic interviews which were carried out at participants’ home. Interviews were transcribed for classification into themes and types. Adult members of each household were interviewed. In total eight households with varying number of members were interviewed. In total 14 people were interviewed. Results and conclusions. High level of dishwashing hygiene was observed at each household: dishwashing proved to be an important daily activity and its outcome is not to be compromised. Participants using a dishwasher mainly used the dishwasher and piled up some dishes in the sink waiting for washing. Participants who are routined manual washers washed the dishes manually and as soon as possible after use. Tidiness was the main driving force in ecological choices: water saving and the use of environmentally friendly washing liquids. Dishwasher was perceived to ease and speed up washing. In conclusion it can be said that dishwashing is considered being an important daily activity which is sought to be carried out smoothly using good equipment. Based on the results a new research problem statement could be designed focusing on water and energy consumption of dishwashing in households.
  • Stenroos, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Objective: Substance use has been seen as a way to cope with stress and to influence internal states. Because stressful life events have been considered as a risk-factor for depression, the connection between stressful life events and depression offer an interesting framework to investigate the effects of self-medication. This study examined how stressful life events, alcohol usage and smoking effect depression, and if substance use moderates the relationship between stressful life events and depression. Methods: This research is part of an older Finnish Twin Cohort study and data from the 2011 follow-up questionnaire study was used. Additionally data from questionnaire studies conducted in 1981 and 1975 was used to control for educational achievement. Depression was assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) questionnaire. Alcohol consumption was assessed by used grams per month and smoking was measured by smoking status, based on a detailed smoking history. Stressful life events were measured by 12 questions designed to gather information on a wide range of experiences. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were used to account for clustered twin pairs. In addition twins were compared with pairwise t-tests. Results and conclusions: Stressful life events, smoking and greater alcohol usage predicted depression. Genetic and familial-environmental background did not entirely explain the observed associations, but evidence suggests causality. Especially dependent life events, in which the person has had a substantial contribution, seemed to be related to depression. The amount of used alcohol or smoking did not reduce the relationship between stressful life events and depression. If tobacco and alcohol are used as self-medication, they do not seem to have the wanted effects, at least not in the long run.
  • Vihavainen, Aija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Aims. The new National Core Curriculum for primary education 2014 will highlight gender equality even more than the previous curriculum. Gender equality is taken into consideration through the concept of gender sensitivity. It means, for example, that the teacher recognizes her/his own ideas concerning gender and gender diversity and s/he is able to solve practises that lead to gendering. The goal in this thesis is to describe class teachers’ ideas concerning gender and how they further promote gender equality in their teaching. In addition, I am interested in the differences teachers see between boys and girls in their classrooms. Methods. This is a qualitative study, which is based on four interviews of class teachers. The interviews were half structured, which meant that every interview was revolving around the same subject matter but in an order that fitted for each separate interview. One of the participants did not have a teacher qualification but this person had still worked as a class teacher for over 10 years. Two of the teachers were in the beginning of their careers and the third teacher had a longer career. The data was analyzed using content analysis, in which the data was first divided into smaller units and then grouped into different topics. Results and conclusions. The participants defined gender basically from a perspective that emphasized duality: men and women. Two of the teachers mentioned gender minorities. The realization of gender equality in schools divided opinions. Teachers had not thought or thought only a little of their own teaching from the gendered perspective. According to the teachers, gender equality is generally being applied through mixed-groups, equality and by handing out the same exercises to pupils. Three teachers felt that boys do not behave as good as girls at school. According to the results, it seems that teachers need more information concerning gender diversity and practices to promote gender equality. Without this information, it is very hard for a teacher to teach according to the new National Core Curriculum for primary education, which puts emphasis on gender sensitivity.
  • Kuokkanen, Päivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Number sense lays the foundation for learning math, and it enables understanding numbers, learning mathematical concepts and skills and development of the strategies needed in solving mathematical problems. The different sections of number sense are the key contents to learn in the 1st grade according to the Core curriculum for basic education (2014). According to previous studies it is vital that child is guided to focus on numerosity. It has also been studied that the majority of Finnish teachers follow the instructions of a teacher’s book when teaching math, which gives a clear message that it is important to analyse teacher’s books. Mathematical conception should be diverse and create understanding of number sense by using concrete materials, pictures, speech and symbols and connecting math to the context of a child’s everyday life. The goal of this thesis is to study how number sense is taught in three 1st grade math textbook series and to analyse how the conception happens in the teacher’s books. As the data of this study I used 1st grade teacher’s books meant for teaching mathematics called Open Kymppi 1, Tuhattaituri 1 and Opettajan tienviitta that is based on the Varga–Neményi method. All of these series cover the first school year. I studied the books for the whole school year and analysed the data with qualitative content analysis according to categories based on the theoretical framework of the study. I also made a comparison of the different textbook series. The various sections of number sense were taught in all of the teacher’s books, but in slightly differing ways and with different emphasis. Counting skills were practised a lot in the teacher’s books. Tuhattaituri and Opettajan tienviitta also emphasized learning the decompositions of numbers 1–10. Tienviitta was different from the other books: it trains the focusing on numbers more and the learning of number sense starts of without using numerals. Ordinal numbers were not taught in Open Kymppi. All books deemed concrete and active ways of learning the concept as important. Tuhattaituri and Opettajan tienviitta include plenty of active and playful exercises and conceptualization with concrete material representations. Open Kymppi did not reach to other books level on this.
  • Manninen, Elisa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Aims. The aim of this study was to examine the students’ experiences of accessibility at the Faculty of Behavioural sciences, University of Helsinki. According to previous research, students face different barriers to study during their studies. These barriers have an effect on the students’ ability to study. Based on the principles of accessibility, the study environment should be available to everyone both on a physical, physiological and social level. Not a single concrete barrier nor an attitude should set any insurmountable obstacles for the students. The ideology of inclusion has spread from the comprehensive schools to higher education to promote equality. According to the ideology, every student is accepted as an equal member of the university community regardless of his or her special needs. One of the views that has influenced the ideology of inclusion is the social model of disability. According to this view, disability is based on social arrangements and therefore it can be influenced, diminished or even removed. This study produced information about the types of barriers of study the students have experienced and in which ways they have tried to overcome these barriers. In addition to that, this study examined the means the students need additionally to overcome the barriers. Methods. 47 students of the Faculty of Behavioural Sciences at the University of Helsinki took part in this study. The data was collected with an internet-based questionnaire. The data was then analyzed by qualitative content analysis. Two different levels of analysis were created from the data. The first analysis level consisted of all 47 respondents. The second analysis level included those 14 respondents, who have a learning difficulty, a sickness or any other state that has an effect on their ability to study. The data was analyzed on both levels of analysis according to all three research questions. Results and conclusions. This study displayed that students experience a wide range of different barriers to study. On the first analysis level the barriers centered around the study environment, especially on the administrative frames of studying. On the second analysis level the barriers focused on the area of personal life, especially on the difficulties in learning and studying, and also distress and fatigue. Based on the results, the students possessed some means to use in overcoming the barriers to study, but they were also often forced to manage by themselves. The students required a wide range of means to overcome the barriers. The most vital means were support, guidance and informing, and changes to the concrete teaching arrangements.
  • Karvonen, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Research of emotional atmosphere and aspects affecting it is important, because emotional atmosphere affects students’ learning and well-being. In this thesis the emotional atmosphere is treated as a whole that comprises both the students’ and the teacher’s affects and their interactions in the classroom. The aim of the thesis is to increase understanding of the emotional atmosphere in mathematics lessons. The main focus is to determine how emotional atmosphere changes from 3rd grade to 5th grade. Furthermore I’m trying to determine which factors could explain the change in emotional atmosphere in a class where it had shifted towards positive, and in a class where it had shifted towards negative. The data consisted of a total of 260 drawings about mathematics lessons drawn by 3rd and 5th graders. The pupils were from eight different mathematics classes in five different prima-ry schools in the Helsinki metropolitan area. To analyze the drawings I used drawing analy-sis. I examined the emotional atmosphere in mathematics lessons from 3rd and 5th grade on a general level. As part of this analysis I examined the students’ affects concerning their feel-ings towards studying mathematics, their beliefs on the difficulty of the subject and their atti-tude towards the subject. Teachers’ affects were studied from the perspective of the drawer. On this basis I determined the teachers’ emotional states and whether their speech had neg-ative or positive characteristics. Furthermore I examined the drawings from two mathematic classes that had undergone the greatest positive or negative changes in their emotional at-mosphere to determine what could explain this shift. As a summary it can be concluded that the emotional atmosphere in mathematics lessons was mainly positive even though the emotional atmosphere was more negative in 5th grade than 3rd grade. Furthermore there were also great differences between classes both in 3rd grade and 5th grade. Aspects that could explain the positive change in emotional atmosphere were open interaction, culture of helping and meaningful experience of mathematics. As-pects that could explain the negative change were negativity of interactions, problematic so-cial relations, differences in mathematic skills of pupils and boredom.
  • Ripatti, Tinka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Objectives.This study is part of a research project, Taikava. The purpose of the study is to examine how the pedagogy of teaching art can support the collaboration and inclusion of children between the ages of 3–5 years. The aim was to find out how the children are taken into account as individuals. It was also examined how the children's interaction can be supported. In addition, the aim was to find out the interaction situations in which the pedagogy of teaching art is used in kindergarten. It was also studied what kind of changes about the collaboration of the children appeared when the pedagogy of art was used in kindergarten. Methods. This study was conducted as a qualitative research. The material was collected by observing and interviewing. The observation happened in day-care centres in Vantaa. The aim was to observe the interaction between children and adults. In addition, four kindergarten teachers and four art pedagogues were interviewed to this study. The material was analyzed by using material-based analysis. Results and conclusions. The participants felt that children’s needs and their co-operation can be supported by using the pedagogy of teaching art. They felt that the presence of an adult, a child-oriented perspective and a positive and supportive atmosphere was important when try to increase children's collaboration. They also valued the fact that adults increase children’s participation and encourage them to work together. Art education was carried out as a planned or spontaneous activity in small-group sessions and the everyday interaction in other situations. The first year of Taikava brought some positive changes when it comes to children’s collaboration and inclusion. Children's social skills, team spirit and the sense of belonging among others increased. Also the inclusion between children developed. Children made new friends. In addition, the bullying was decreased. It was felt that art became part of the everyday life.
  • Alanen, Kristiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Goals: The goals of the newly reformed national core curriculum of pre-primary education 2014 are broad based competence refers to the total of knowledge, skills, values, attitudes, capacity and will. The main point of pre-primary education is to have fun while learning and for the child to participate. One of the main goals of broad-based competence is to improve children`s knowledge- and communication skills. Digital learning games are used as one way of practicing broad- based competence. In this study, it was examined, what kind of digital math learning games are used during pre-primary education and that do they correspond the pre-primary education curriculum of mathematical contents. To addition to this, it was also figures out what kind of experiences the teachers have of using digital education games in pre-primary education and how does the use of these digital games benefit the basic of pre-primary education curriculum and the goals of broad-based competence. Methods: The data of the research consist of digital math learning games, as well as of four interview given by pre-primary teacher. The data of the study was collected by theme interviews and the content of these interview were analysed by using theory guiding content analysis. For the research of learning games, I chose eight different mathematic digital games, which teachers had used in preschool groups in the spring of 2015. I analysed the digital learning games by using theory based content analysis. The results and conclusions: The use of digital learning games as teaching material supports the improvement of mathematical skills along with many other skills. According to teachers, digital games brought happiness and functionality to pre-primary education as well as good practice to children´s developing social skills. Learning games supported children´s self-esteem, when they got positive feedback of their learning experience. The digital learning games were seen as motivating and as a way to bring more chances to ability grouping and interaction. According to teachers, the challenges in using learning games were to chosen the proper game for the situation and to guarantee the quality of the game. By using the digital learning games, you can support the goals and curriculum of pre-primary education and board-based competence, in many ways.
  • Lehtomäki, Emma; Helsingin yliopisto; Käyttäytymistieteellinen tiedekunta; Käyttäytymistieteiden laitos (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The aim of this study is to examine the communication ethics of lobbying from the perspective of lobbyists. Lobbying is a constantly growing phenomenon but has not been paid much attention to in speech communication. Most of the previous studies on lobbying have emphasized the perspective of politicians or other “recipients” of lobbying. Lobbying can be defined as professional and interpersonal persuasive communication that aims to influence the opinions or attitudes of others. Usually the main objective of lobbying is to affect the political decision making process. Lobbying involves communication in different types of contexts and relations. Interpersonal communication that aims to influence or persuade others should always be examined with ethical sensitivity. As there are no formal rules or code of ethics in Finland for lobbying, the ethics of the profession rely essentially on lobbyists themselves. Lobbying is an important part of democracy and therefore it is important to address the issue of communication ethics in lobbying. The focus of this study is on understanding the different ethical dimensions of the communication in lobbying. The data of this research was collected by interviewing nine lobbyists. In the interviews the informants described their experiences of professional lobbying. Two main themes were found in these descriptions: the relationships and ethical values guiding the communication. These main themes were divided into six other ethical dimensions of lobbying: 1) disclosure and transparency, 2) honesty, 3) credibility, 4) agreeing with the core message, 5) personal relationships and 6) mutual responsibility. The results indicate that the diversity of lobbying communication makes it possible to view the ethics of lobbying from multiple perspectives. The results had very much in common with the previous literature on ethical communication but also pointed out the demand for further research. It was concluded that the values guiding ethical lobbying, such as disclosure and transparency, were considered as commonly shared values. The data also suggests that ethical lobbying is based on the idea of communication as a dialogue.
  • Heikkinen, Meeri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Family's and school's educational responsibilities are being discussed in the public media. Studies show that there is no consensus on what educational role the parents and school teachers should have. Especially parents are being judged by their lack of participation in child-rearing. In this sosiological study education is considered as a social and political phenomenon in the framework of social constructionism. The purpose of this study was to describe, analyze and interpret Teacher Magazine's discourses of family's and school's educational responsibilities. The discursive processes in which the power relationships between parents and schools are constructed were examined. In addition, attention was paid to the education politics that can be traced behind these discourses. The research material consisted of 30 articles between the years 2013–2015 from Teacher Magazine which is a professional journal for teachers in Finland. The research material was gathered from the archive service of the internet site of the Teacher Magazine. The analysis was carried out using qualitative methods such as critical discourse analysis and power analysis. The results of this study shows the variation of discourses in Teacher Magazine's articles concerning family's and school's educational responsibilities. Discourses that present teaching as the main responsibility of schools, produce familist interpretations of the question of responsibility, object the idea of parents been patronized by the society and emphasize the shared responsibility of all adults and the holistic care of children were found from the research material. These discourses produce conflicting image of the educational role of the parents and the teachers. Based on the power analysis, three hegemonic discourses were identified. Two of these hegemonic discourses are the ones that present teaching as the main responsibility of schools and produce familist interpretations of the question of responsibility. The bourgeois politics of education were traced behind these two discourses that produce the hierarchical relationship between family and school. The politics of a welfare society was traced behind the third hegemonic discourse that emphasizes the shared responsibility of all adults and by doing that produces more equal power relationship between family and school.
  • Aalto, Valpuri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The aim of the thesis is to describe and understand how job applicants try to control their impression management during a video job interview. Video job interview is rather a new phenomenon which has not yet been studied in the field of speech communication, and there is hardly any previous studies. Another central theme in this thesis is impression management which has been studied in disciplines such as economics and psychology. The thesis concentrates on how job applicants prepare for impression management and what kinds of assertive tactics they use during a video job interview. Also, nonverbal communication during assertive tactics is studied. The data consisted of eight (8) semi-structured interviews and observations of interviewees’ video data. All the interviewees had participated in a video job interview in 2015. The data was analyzed using grounded theory and deductive content analysis. The first method was used in the analysis of preparation for impression management and the latter in the analysis of assertive tactics. According to the results, job applicants’ preparation for impression management consisted of message planning and orientation. Taking notes and rehearsing were emphasized in message planning. Different emotions were central in orientation. The interviewees used five different assertive tactics during the video job interviews. The tactics were 1) enhancement 2) self-promotion 3) fit-with-organization 4) personal stories and 5) overcoming obstacles. The most used tactic was enhancement. The interviewees maintained eye contact to webcam and smiled a little during assertive tactics. Based on this research, impression management is seen as a process which starts already when the job applicant starts to prepare for the video job interview. Unlike previous research, interviewees did not use self-promotion tactic very much. Video job interview seems to resemble more of a public speaking than an interview. Further research could be conducted for examining on how culture or gender affects the use of impression management tactics in a video job interview.
  • Nordström, Tuija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Introduction. The purpose of this research was to describe and understand third grade pupils learn in field education by inquiry-based learning. Field work and outdoor learning are an essential part of environmental education and inquiry-based learning is just typical for the natural sciences. This thesis based on open inquiry-based learning 5E- operations model. The part of this 5E-models are engage, explore, explain, elaborate and evaluate. I was participate in Helsinki university department of teacher education Lumo centre organizer Luma messenger operation. Lumo centre of the University of Helsinki has been supporting inspiring high-quality formal and non-formal education in natural sciences and maths. The participants, five third degree pupils were followed up under their working in field work in seashore. Methodology. The data of the study had been collected by videotaping the pupils during the field work on the seashore in April 2015. Some day after that field work I did stimulated recall interview. The research is qualitative by nature and can be characterized as a qualitative design-based research. The case study centers on five pupils learning during field education. The data was analysed using content analysis. Results and conclusions. The main result of the study is that during the field education pupils were motivated and they do research. Teachers support for pupils varied during this inquiry based learning. Pupils work enthusiastic during field work with others and with teachers. Pupils particularly discuss from topic and they observe, do measurement and enter/write on the research results. During the field work pupils were guided structured research form. There was found all characteristics from 5E- operations model from pupils field work besides assesment. During stimulated recall –interview pupils also assessment their own action and their group action in seashore.
  • Ilari, Lahtela (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This research examines the depictions and discourses concerning Finnish education in Brazilian print and web journalism between 2009 and 2015. In the field of comparative education researchers have traditionally mostly worked with government sources and official documents. This research has sought to use and develop tools of analysis that could be applied to written media sources as well. There were three main research questions. 1) How has Finnish education been depicted in Brazilian journalism? 2) Which internal and external factors could explain the attraction towards Finnish education? 3) How have the discourses on Finnish education been utilized in the media? The research material (n136) consisted of news stories and articles published by the website of the Brazilian Ministry of Education, newspaper Jornal do Brasil, weekly news magazine Veja and news portal Terra. The data was analysed qualitatively using different models of analysis developed by Jeremy Rappley, David Phillips and Kimberly Ochs. Selected parts of the material were also analysed in more detail using concepts derived from New rhetorics. The study indicated that the models developed by Rappleye, Phillips and Ochs can to a large degree also be applied to journalistic analysis. However, at least in Brazilian context, one should also take into account the impact of exchange programmes and various educational events with news value. Most importantly, the effect of PISA studies and other international surveys and rankings should also be acknowledged. The attraction towards Finnish education seems to depend, to a large extent, on internal forces of dissatisfaction and economic competition. When applied rhetorically “Finnish education” appeared as a flexible concept with the generic meaning of good/quality education. Due to its undetermined nature “Finnish education” could be used in the media in various, often contradictory ways. For example, both the proponents and opponents of meritocratic policy goals and ideals could refer to Finnish education in positive ways.
  • Mäkelä, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Aims. The aim of this research was to examine which things in the study ability house model (Kurri, 2006) influenced the Behavioural Sciences students’ study progress. The students’ experiences of problems in studying, prolongation of studies and things that advanced their studies were the subjects of this research. The study ability house model, which is based on the concept of study ability and consists of four floors that are in constant interaction with each other, was used as the frame for analysis. Previous researches have emphasized student-based reasons for study problems and working in particular has been seen as a significant cause for delayed studies. The goal of this study was to collect the experiences of a large respondent group and compare the results with their study progression speed. The students’ study ability was meant to be surveyed according to the responses. Methods. This research was a questionnaire study. Responses amounted to the number of 86 and they were analysed using classical content analysis utilizing quantification, thematising and content breakdown. The study ability house model was used as the frame of analysis. The Microsoft Office 2013 Excel-program and the SPSS-software were used to help the analysis. The methods supported the aims of the research. Results and conclusions. The research showed that the reasons for the examinees’ prolonged studies and the things that advanced their studies were largely parallel to the previous researches. These reasons divided rather evenly to the study ability house model’s floors. The most significant factors that prolonged studies were working alongside studies, poor student counselling and personal reasons. Good motivation, studies’ meaningfulness, working alongside studies, good team spirit in university, making friends in university and the support received from them were experienced as the most important aspects that advanced studies.
  • Glebov, Egor (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Earlier studies have shown that during school transition, the needs of children change and the meaning of peer increases. Transition from elementary school level to secondary school is an im-portant time for young people. Both parents and teachers have trouble in meeting the changing needs of children both inside and outside school context. Changes can be seen in decreased school engagement, increased school burn-out and decreased self-rated health. Physical exercise during spare-time decreases and also quitting hobbies is common. The aim of this study was to find out how much and in what degree 6th and 7th graders in Hel-sinki are physically active during their spare-time. The research also indicates whether sport is their main interest and how do they rate their health status. The study also examined how physical exer-cise during spare-time, interest towards sports and self-rated health interrelate and explain the stu-dents’ school engagement and burn-out. Moreover the aim of this study was to find out, what kind of changes the students experienced during the transition from elementary to secondary school, and are the changes related or explained by the students’ interest towards sports, spare-time physi-cal activity or self-rated health. This study is a part of the Mind the Gap - project (2013–2017, no. 265528) funded by the Finnish Academy. The data for this study were collected by questionnaire in two parts; the first time from 6th graders during spring of 2013 and the second time when they moved to 7th grade in fall of 2013. The correlation analysis and paired samples t-test were used to investigate changes in school engagement and burn-out, amount of physical exercise during spare time, self rated health and the form of involvement in hobbies. The participants were divided into groups based on differ-ences in physical activity during spare time, self rated heath and interest toward sports. The differ-ences in physical activity and self-rated health were studied with one-way ANOVA and the interest toward sports with t-test. The changes in physical activity and self-rated health were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA. The results showed that the 6th graders who rated their health as good exercised more during spare time, were more engaged and felt less burned out in school than the other participants. In 7th grade the self-rated health did not explain engagement in school. The physical activity of 6th graders did not explain school engagement or burn out of students. In 7th grade the students who exercised more felt more engaged and less burned out in school. In 6th grade the students who were interest-ed in sports felt more burned out in school than others. In 7th grade the interest in sports did not show any affect on burn out in school. During transition from 6th to 7th grade, school engagement and spare time physical activity decreased, informal hobby participation increased and formal par-ticipation in hobbies decreased nearly significantly (p=.054). Self-rated health and burn-out in school did not change. The research showed that participants, who did not change their habits in physical activity, felt the least decrease in school engagement. The students who did not change their interest towards sports, felt the least changes. According to this study, changing interest to-wards sport and physical activity has a negative effect on school transition. Adult should converse with adolescent about the attitude towards sports and physical activity during spare-time, in order for adolescent to be conscious of their part of decision-making and reasons to do so.