Käyttäytymistieteellinen tiedekunta


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  • Vazquez Harkivi Os Vazquez Garza, Mily (2015)
    Objectives. Communication is a basic human activity, and one that is also crucial for business. For those communicating with international audiences, lack of knowledge regarding how people communicate across cultures might create misunderstandings and in the worst case, conflicts. The research purpose of this thesis was to identify cultural discourses about nature and the environment that would illustrate deeply held values and beliefs about nature. The theoretical approach utilised in the thesis was Cultural Discourse Theory. This approach originates from the Ethnography of Communication tradition and contemplates not only the linguistic aspects of discourse, but also the context in which discourse is produced, utilised and maintained. Previous research has shown that communication is cultural and that both culture and communication can influence the way nature is constructed. The research question is aimed to identify beliefs and values about nature, personhood, and relationships hold by seven Finnish professionals of the environment working in the forest company UPM. Methods. The research material was collected through seven semi-structured interviews conducted in Finnish language and translated to English. The interviews were recorded digitally and lasted approximately one hour. To ensure confidentiality, the participants were given aliases and their real names were not disclosed publicly. The research participants reviewed the excerpts of text in the original language (vernacular Finnish) and also reviewed the translations to English language. The material was displayed in both Finnish and English language and analysed applying the Cultural Discourse Analysis (CuDA) method. The CuDa method proposed five analytical tools through which the research data could be analysed: dwelling, relations, feelings, action and identity. In this thesis the data was examined in light of the tools or themes of dwelling, relations, identity, and in some cases that of action. Results and conclusions. The research results indicate that three main discourses are present in the discourse of environmental professionals about nature. For the participants nature was a place to relax and calm down, to be with themselves and to maintain a sense of continuity. The values related to these discourses were peace, privacy, autonomy, identity, spirituality, and continuity as a way to preserve what is valued. The main value hold by the participants is that of continuation or sustainability. Further research could build upon the notion of sustainability as a cultural discourse. Research related to other business areas could be useful to understand how a deeply held value about nature like sustainability is common across businesses/industries. Avainsana(t): Keywords: nature environmental communication place cultural communication sustainability cultural discourse analysis forest industry.
  • Seuri, Salla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Introduction. Although e-­learning is a widely discussed and studied topic both in Finland and internationally, the use of e-­learning materials in Finnish and literature has not been researched before. The objective of this study was to gather information about teachers experiences of using e-­learning materials in teaching Finnish in lower secondary school. The research questions were: 1) What e-­learning materials do teachers of Finnish and literature use? 2) What are the characteristics of good quality material and what problems appear in using e-­learning materials? Methodology. An online survey was used to map teachers experiences and opinions, and a total of 71 recipients took the survey in February 2015. Quantitative analysis was employed to organise the respondents into groups according to their use of e-­learning materials, and subsequently qualitative analysis of the respondents answers to the open‑ended questions was used to shed light on the initial results. Previous research on the evaluation of e‑learning material was harnessed when formulating the survey and analysing the results. Results and conclusions. The study clearly shows that there is a great need for e-­learning materials of both better quality and a greater variety. The majority of the respondents viewed the possibilities of e-­learning materials positively, but presently they found the variety of the material inadequate. Furthermore, some of the respondents viewed their own capabilities in the use of ICT lacking, and they were more likely than others to either not use e‑learning material or limit their use mainly to the material provided with the textbook they were using. This highlights the need for developing materials that address both the needs of teachers just learning to use ICT and those advanced in using it. Besides, the majority of the material used by all the respondents to the survey comprised of mechanical exercises, and therefore there is a need to develop a wider variety of materials. The searchability and accessibility of material should be solved; many teachers believed quality material does exist, but is not easily found with search engines. Lastly, the study of the use of e-­learning materials and ICT in general in teaching Finnish and literature should be continued, and the best practices of its application in the classroom should be mapped.
  • Jalonen, Linda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Aims. Attachment has been linked to children’s psychiatric symptoms. However, only a few studies have focused on parental attachment towards the child. Most studies have focused on parent’s general attachment representations, which do not address the parental subjective attachment to their child. The aim of this study is to examine whether parental subjective attachment towards the child is associated with child’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms and total problems. We also examine whether maternal or paternal depression, child temperament or gender affect the aforementioned associations. Methods. This study is a part of Prediction and Prevention of Pre-eclampsia (PREDO) – study. The size of the current study sample was 2021 mothers and 1273 fathers and their children. Maternal and paternal attachment were assessed with the Maternal/Paternal Postnatal Attachment Scale (MPAS/PPAS) – self report questionnaire when the child was six months old. Child’s internalizing, externalizing and total problems were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist 1½-5 (CBCL1½-5) – questionnaire when the child was 1.5 to 5 years old. The associations were investigated using linear regression analysis, controlling for maternal or paternal attachment and several sociodemographic factors related to the child and parents. Results and conclusions. Results indicated that secure maternal and paternal attachment was associated with less internalizing, externalizing and total problems in children. Parental depression and child’s temperamental traits mediated the association of parental attachment and child’s psychiatric symptoms. Maternal attachment was also independently associated with child’s psychiatric symptoms. An interaction effect was found between maternal attachment and child’s negative emotionality in relation to child’s total problems: insecure maternal attachment and child’s high negative emotionality were associated with more total problems in childhood. These results provide evidence that both parents’ subjective attachment is related to child’s psychiatric symptoms, and also highlight the significance of child’s temperament in the development of psychiatric symptoms.
  • Hassinen, Katriina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Depersonalization refers to the experience of alienation from oneself. It is a common symptom, although not so widely studied in adolescents suffering from mental health problems. Depersonalization is a dissociative symptom, of which a main characteristic is loss of coherence on mental functions. However, compared to more severe forms of dissociation, depersonalization is relatively common also in nonclinical populations. The present study takes a closer look at the comorbid symptoms of adolescents experiencing depersonalization. Is there a connection between depersonalization and psychiatric diagnosis categories, severity of depression or anxiety symptoms, or symptoms associated with risk for psychosis? Based on previous studies, it is expected that mood and anxiety disorders and the severity of depressive symptoms as well as suspiciousness and perceptual abnormalities of the psychosis risk symptoms will be positively correlated with depersonalization. This study is part of the Helsinki Prodromal Study by the National Institute for Health and Welfare. The subjects (N=152) were new patients aged 15-18 in psychiatric treatment with various kinds of mental health problems. They were selected for further assessment after initial screening. Depersonalization was assessed with the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ) depersonalization factor (Therman et al. 2014). The Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV, Clinical Version (SCID-CV) and medical records were used for the diagnostic assessment. Depressive symptom severity was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory and the Beck Hopelessness Scale and severity of anxiety with the Beck Anxiety Inventory. The severity of psychosis risk symptoms was assessed with the Structured Interview of Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS). Mood disorders were associated with depersonalization as hypothesized. A similar association was not detected for anxiety disorders, though depersonalization was modestly positively correlated with the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms. All of the positive SIPS-symptoms, especially delusional ideas were correlated with the severity of depersonalization. This was the case also with bizarre thinking, focus and attention problems, decreased experience of emotions and self, dysphoric mood and impaired tolerance to stress. These findings indicate that there are differences in the severity of depersonalization depending on the type of comorbid symptoms. For clinical applicability of the results, further study using more detailed definitions of depersonalization is needed.
  • Louhivuori, Nelli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Objectives. The academic relevance of this study is to increase knowledge of the factors that improve the quality of drama education. The study uses Instructional Learning Formats (hereinafter referred to as ILF) as the starting point. The first research question examines what kinds of ILF’s were employed in the analysed drama lessons. The Second research question aims to find out if those ILF’s are linked to group creativity during drama. The third and final research question scrutinizes the suitability of The Classroom Assessment Scoring System™ (CLASS) observation instrument to analyse drama lessons. Methods. This study is a qualitative case study. The main focus of the research were the different ILF’s employed in first to third grade drama lessons. The research material consisted of eight taped drama lessons held by specialized drama teachers. The material was analysed by using the CLASS observation instrument focusing on the use of ILF’s during drama classes and does their use generate group creativity. The main factors that were examined were the influence of teacher’s behaviour and the methods used by the teacher on student’s staying interested and committed to teaching activities. Conlusions. The examined lessons received mid and high range scores (4-6, scale being 1-7). Central factors to engaging students and increasing group creativity were the teacher’s personal involvement, presence, facilitating student’s engagement, clarity of learning objectives and creating an understanding and open-minded atmosphere in class. The best drama methods to support group creativity are those that utilize work in small groups. Especially consensual planning in small groups improves the possibility for students to participate, present their own ideas and to strive to find creative solutions together to hypothetical problems presented during drama.
  • Jussila, Susanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The aim of this study was to examine how temperamental sensitivities and self-worth contingency predict achievement goal orientations. In this study, BIS and BAS were used for measuring temperamental sensitivities. BIS/BAS theorization refers to individual’s dispositional sensitivity to reward and non-reward and punishment and non-punishment. Contingency of self-worth reflects the domains in which success or failure leads to increases or decreases in self-esteem. In this study, self-worth contingency on academic competence was measured. Achievement goal orientations refers to individuals’ generalized tendencies’ to aim and favor for certain goals and end results in achievement situation. In this study, the purpose was gain more information about the possible factors that influence individuals’ goal choices in achievement situations.In this study, there were 506 participants (434 females and 72 males) and three different scales were used for measuring BIS/BAS, contingency of self-worth and achievement goal orientations. Sensitivity for BAS was divided into three subscales: BAS Novelty seeking, BAS Social Reward,and BAS Positive expressiveness. After preliminary analysis, a series of hierarchical analysis were run for examining the effects of BIS/BAS on achievement goal orientations in the first step, and the additional prediction of contingency of self-worth the second step. As expected, BIS/BAS sensitivities were related to achievement goal orientations. Mastery intrinsic orientation was predicted by BAS Novelty seeking, performance-approach orientation was predicted by BIS and avoidance orientation was predicted by BAS Social Reward. Contingency of self-worth was found to significantly increase the explained share of BIS/BAS relations on achievement goal orientations. Contingency of self-worth also had a direct effect on all achievement goal orientations, except for performance-avoidance orientation. Results point out, that dispositional differences are of importance, when considering individual differences in achievement-related motivation. As a practical implication, the results suggest that the learning culture should be failure permissive and encourage learning for learning’s sake.
  • Tikkanen, Juhani (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Objectives. The aim of this case study is to find out whether negative climate appears in pri-mary school drama lessons. Previous research has shown that climate has a huge impact on schooling. A positive climate in school gives pupils a better opportunity to learn and provides pupils with more opportunities to be creative. Drama and creativity are strongly linked together because in drama, pupils work in creative way. A negative climate in turn reduces pupils’ chances to learn and to be creative. Therefore, studying negative climate in drama lessons is of importance. In this study, I compared negative climate in drama lessons given by graduated classroom teachers’ with those given by student teachers. I measured negative climate with The Classroom Assessment Scoring System™ (CLASS). During the study I also evaluated how the CLASS-scoring system worked in measuring the negative climate of the drama les-sons. Methods. My study was a qualitative case study and the method was video analysis. I analyzed eight drama lessons with another student, Pauliina Kivi. The lessons were videotaped during the autumn of 2013 and the spring of 2014. Kivi used the same videotapes as material for her study. The leve of the pupils in the videos varied from pre-school to third-grade. Four of the teachers in the videos were graduated classroom teachers who all had some kind of qualification for teaching drama. Other four were student teachers who had studied drama education as their minor subject. The videos were analyzed by using the CLASS-scoring system. A negative climate score was given to every exercise of every lesson. Results and conclusions. The results showed that negative climate took place in the observed lessons but the scores were low. One exception aside, the lessons of the teacher students received higher scores in negative climate than the lessons of the graduated teachers. However, none of the scores reached even the middle of the CLASS scale of negative climate. Therefore, according to this study, drama lessons do not have a negative climate in general. CLASS-scoring system turned out to be suitable for observing the negative climate in drama lessons. CLASS-scoring system can also be applied to evaluate how teacher or students create negative climate.
  • Keto, Veronika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Gender is usually seen as a binary system which is divided into men and women. It is de-fined socially and within a society, it can be seen especially in the ways we dress ourselves. We connect through clothes to the gender we feel as our own and the differences between genders are essentials in how we dress. Drag is a form of theater which was born in the gay community. It consists of forming an illusion of a gender other than one’s own. Camp is es-sential to drag. It is a style which is formed of contradictions, exaggeration, theatricality and irony. Drag queens represent and make parody of stereotypical feminine behavior and the way women dress. The goal of the study is to investigate the way drag queens dress and how their dress is re-lated to gender. How does femininity appear in the way drag queens dress? How do drag queens play with gender stereotypes and how it can be seen in the way they dress? The data of the study consisted of nine photographs of drag queens. I collected the photo-graphs from the Instagram accounts of the drag queens. I analyzed the data with an aesthet-ic-semiotic model that was based on the aesthetic analysis model by Marilyn DeLong (1998). The model had three stages, which were 1) the observation of the pictures as wholes, 2) the separation of the wholes into visual parts and 3) the interpretation of the wholes. Drag queens based their appearance on typical feminine features which were often exaggerated. Their appearance was also contradictory and ironic. Drag queens used the stereotypical image of women in the way they dress but their characters were not based only on that. They use femininity as a tool for self-expression. Outfits that are assembled with care are based on creating an illusion in which drag queens use recognizable feminine elements.
  • Omwami, Anniliina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    The main goal of this study was to find out how sources of inspiration and sketching occur in fashion designers’ design process and what kind of an affect they have on the process. Earlier studies (e.g. Eckert ja Stacey, 2003; Mete, 2006) have shown that sources of inspiration can be anything between material and immaterial. Sources of inspiration have also proven to have different roles in design process: e.g. they expand idea space and help to keep the design in its context (e.g.Eckert et. al., 2000; Laamanen & Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, 2014). Earlier studies have also shown that sketching is an important part of designing. Sketching also provides a vital tool for designers’ ideation. Based on earlier studies two main questions were formulated: 1. How do sources of inspirations occur in fashion designers design process and how designers interpret and transforms them into new ideas? 2. How does sketching occur in fashion designers design process and how does it support and improve ideation? The method used in this study was the thinking aloud protocol. Three fashion designers were asked to design a spring jacket for women thinking everything aloud during their ideation. The designers were provided with 10 photographs as sources of inspiration which they could voluntarily use during their ideation process. The design experiment was also recorded on video and few of the designers’ sketches were photographed. Material from the experiment transformed into litterate. After that material was analyzed using methods of qualitative content analysis. This study was observed to support earlier studies. Sources of inspiration and sketching were detected to be an important part of designers’ ideation. The designers adapted elements from the provided sources of inspiration in their ideas. They were also proven to have abilities to use pictures as fabric materials. Sketching played an important role e.g. in adapting elements from the sources of inspiration into new ideas. It was also used as a tool to evaluate the aesthetic and functional features as well as the details of the designers’ ideas. Sketches were also proven to be one of the sources of inspiration for the designers’ ideation.
  • Virtanen, Niia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Body consciousness research is a multidisciplinary field including various conceptualizations of its subject. Usually research frames are based on comparisons between bodily experts, such as dancers, or psychiatric groups with bodily aberrations (e.g. eating disorders) and control participants. Methods of body consciousness research include behavioural and self-report measures as well as brain imaging. Some methods have been used to study bodily experts, but not psychiatric groups, and vice versa. In this study, dancers, amateur and professional athletes, and control participants were studied using four behavioural methods (aperture task, endpoint matching, rubber hand illusion, posture copying) and two self-report measures PBCS (Private Body Consciousness Scale of the Body Consciousness Questionnaire) and BAQ (Body Awareness Questionnaire). Because many methods of studying body consciousness focus on the use of hands, a new method called posture copying, involving the whole body, was developed in this study. Dancers succeeded better than controls in the aperture task, and better than athletes and controls in the posture copying task. In the posture copying task, group differences were present in copying all other body parts but hands. Both dancers and athletes scored higher in the BAQ than controls. There was an almost significant difference between athletes and controls in the endpoint matching task. No group differences were found in the rubber hand illusion or PBCS. The results were considered as proof that dancing has a special connection with body consciousness, but that some aspects of body consciousness are similar in dancers and athletes. Methods measuring the same quality of body consciousness produced contradictory evidence, which questions their validity. This study offers useful knowledge for the future of body consciousness research, with regards to choice of participants, methodology, and study design, as well as treatment plans of clinical groups with disorders in their body consciousness (e.g. eating disorders).
  • Venäläinen, Sirje (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Background and aims. The most common and persistent symptom of aphasia is word retrieval deficit, anomia. There is evidence of selective verb retrieval problems amongst non-fluent aphasic speakers. Training verbs in sentence context increases verb naming accuracy in naming tests and enhances verb usage and the use of well-formed syntactic structures in connected speech. Especially intensive interventions in which training takes place in communicative contexts may be beneficial. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a sentence-level verb intervention affects verb naming and the structures and vocabulary of the connected speech of Finnish non-fluent aphasic speakers. Methods. Two speakers with chronic Broca's aphasia participated in this study. Markku, a 35-year-old man, and Annikki, a 72-year-old woman, had both become aphasic due to a single stroke in the left hemisphere. The intervention programme lasted 6–7 weeks and consisted of 15 training sessions of 90 minutes (a total of 22,5 hours). In six different speech production tasks the participants were trained to place obligatory and optional sentence elements around a verb. The target was to promote verb usage in narratives. The effects of the intervention were evaluated by examining verb naming accuracy and speed in a naming test, by calculating the mean length of utterances and the proportion of empty speech in connected speech, and analysing the syntax and the vocabulary of narratives. Results. Markku’s aphasia quotient (WAB) increased by 20 points after the intervention as his speech became more fluent and informative. There were no changes in Annikki’s aphasia quotient. The intervention had no effect on verb naming in a verb naming test. Both participants produced longer narratives after the intervention, but at the same time the proportion of empty speech increased in Annikki's speech. The mean lengths of utterances didn't change after the intervention. The proportion of utterances including a finite verb increased slightly in Markku's narratives. Simultaneously, the proportion of clauses with an incomplete verb phrase or no verb phrase decreased slightly. The intervention had no effect on syntactic structures in Annikki's case. The number of different verbs increased in both participants' picture description narratives, although the change was much smaller in Annikki's case. There was some evidence in Markku's case that the intervention had a small effect on the vocabulary of personal narratives and descriptions of event sequences. Discussion. The results of this study provide preliminary support for the usefulness of sentence-level verb interventions in aphasia rehabilitation in Finland. The results indicate that this intervention can have a positive effect on the number of different verbs and the number of finite verbs used in non-fluent narratives. However, the response to the intervention seems to be highly individual. The next step would be to examine the efficacy of the intervention method in a larger scale study. The intervention could be modified by increasing the intensity of training and increasing the amount of training without picture support. The intervention method is applicable in the clinical world. In addition, an aphasic speaker and their significant other can train at home using the intervention tasks, so that possible intervention results could be better maintained after the intervention is withdrawn.
  • Pennanen, Annika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Aim. The Verbal Fluency task is one of the naming tasks and it is generally used in clinical neuropsychology and logopedics to investigate for example word retrieval strategies and cognitive flexibility. Previous studies have shown that fluency skills increase strongly as the child grows. So far little is known about the quantitative fluency skills in children under six years of age. The aim of this study is to examine how Finnish-speaking healthy and typically developed children perform a semantic verbal fluency task. The task was divided into six different semantic categories. The aim of the study is to find out whether there is a difference between the performance of 3-year-old, 4-year-old and 5-year-old children, and whether gender has an effect on performance. In addition, the children’s performance of the fluency task is compared to their performance in Boston Naming Test and Rapid Automatized Naming Test of pictures and colours to find out whether there is any congruence between the fluency task and the naming tests. Methods. The data was gathered in three different day-care centers in Helsinki from 30 children ages 3 to 5. The children were tested at the day-care centers and their performance was recorded with a dictation machine. Testing was divided into two sections of which the first included the naming tests and the second all the fluency categories. The data was analysed using mainly statistical methods. Results. The results show that age has a significant impact on fluency skills. The largest amounts of correct words were produced by the 5-year-old and the smallest amounts by the 3-year-old children. The older children also made fewer errors than the younger children. All children produced more nouns than verbs. The gender had no impact on the performance in the semantic fluency task, the Boston Naming Test or the Rapid Automatized Naming Test. The results also show some connections between fluency task and naming tests.
  • Vuori, Ella (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Study aims: The impact of stuttering on an individual’s life is obvious. Although quite a lot of studies have focused on the observable factors of stuttering, the features that occur under the surface have received less attention. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects that stuttering has on the quality of life of adults who stutter. In addition this study aimed to explore the connections between demographic and stuttering related factors and quality of life. Methods: This study was carried out as a survey via Helsinki University’s web questionnaire. The participants were recruited from the Association of the Finnish Stutterers. Participation was requested from adult stutterers and a total of 40 stutterers participated in the survey. The IBM SPSS Statistics 22 program was used for quantitative analysis of the data. Means, standard deviations, frequencies and percentages were computed from the multiple-choice questions. The relationships between background information and quality of life were examined using the Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test and the Spearman correlation. The qualitative analysis was based on the classification of recurring themes in the answers for the open-ended questions. Results and conclusions: Stuttering seemed to be in some kind of a relationship with all the aspects of life such as the quality and quantity of communication, social life, mental health, education and work life. The effects varied between individuals both in volume and in direction. The severity of stuttering, the age at formal diagnosis of stuttering and many demographic factors such as age, marital status and educational level were connected to how the participants thought stuttering had affected their quality of life. However gender did not seem to affect their views of their quality of life. The findings of this study increase the knowledge about stuttering’s diversity and its wide-ranging consequences. These results can be applied in developing the clinical practice of stuttering therapy.
  • Virjamo, Veera (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Objectives: Intensive language action therapy (ILAT/CILT) has been found to be effective in the treatment of aphasia, even in the chronic state of aphasia. It is based on three principles emphasising several components of therapy: massed practise, functional communicative contexts, and restriction to verbal output only. ILAT is typically practiced in group settings, but in this investigation it was performed on a single-participant design. Studies have shown that verbs and nouns can be separately impaired in aphasia, partly because of the concreteness effect: nouns are more imageable than verbs. The concreteness effect also explains that certain types of verbs are easier to produce than others (concrete versus more abstract verbs). The objective of this study was to measure the increase of concrete and more abstract verb production after the ILAT-intervention. In addition, there has been discussion about functional communication outcomes of aphasia therapy. Therefore, this study also takes into account the measurement of aphasic speaker's everyday communication using self-evaluation (Communicative Activity Log, CAL). Method: The participant of this study was a non-fluent speaker with Broca's aphasia. The quality and the amount of communication was measured two times before the treatment phase and two times after it. The treatment phase included intervention approximately four times per week for six weeks about 1,5 hours each time (30 hours in total). The changes in measured communication were evaluated with statistical tests for effect size. The functional communication was assessed with Communicative Activity Log (CAL). Results and conclusions: The results showed improvement in the production of concrete verbs. The production of abstract verbs did not increase significantly. Functional-communication measure did not demonstrate increase in communication amount and quality right after the therapy, but in the follow-up it did increase. Intensive language action method was found to be an effective treatment also as an individual therapy.
  • Määttä, Tuomas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Purposes. The purpose of this study is to construct a picture of experienced Finnish b-boys’ viewpoints on learning in breakdance culture. The theoretical framework for this study is constructivist learning theory which is used to form understandable claims for questions such as how to describe the learning framework in breakdance culture and what are the fundamentals in learning from individual and social perspective. Methods. The study was executed as a qualitative research and the used methodological philosophy was phenomenography. The research material was collected by using half structured interviews. The interviewees had at least 15 active years experience in breakdance culture. There were five interviewees in this study, though the interviews were plentiful. The analysis is based on content analysis. Conclusins. Learning in breakdance culture is a process inside the culture structures (pseudonym, rituals, movement and style, tradition). Creative and constructivist activity combined with meaningful belonging to the culture was the fundamentals in learning. There were several perceptions of teaching and a teacher. Traditionally breakdancers saw teaching as a sosioconstructivist process, where every person in the community acted as a teacher and a learner. Since the dance schools has become a notable learning enviroment, there were also a clear teacher role. B-boys and b-girls evaluated learning as a given or recieved respect from other people.