Humanistinen tiedekunta


Recent Submissions

  • Kemppi, Hanna (Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistys, 2017)
    This dissertation examines the complex and sensitive issue of shaping a Finnish style for Orthodox church architecture in Finland in the interwar period 1918 1939. It is argued in the dissertation that the phenomenon of effacing the Russianness of Orthodox church architecture of Finland proceeded in two stages and, in its entirety, was more complex than previously assumed. Firstly, the dissertation explores the growing anti-Russian atmosphere during and shortly after the Civil War of 1918 and measures taken against unwanted Orthodox cultural heritage in Finland. In particular, the garrison churches of the Russian Imperial Army were explicated as disfiguring objects representing foreign influence in Finnish national culture that had to be cleaned away by eliminating them from the landscape. Secondly, the plans and realisation of creating a Karelian-Finnish style for Orthodox church architecture in the 1920s and 1930s are investigated, revealing designs commissioned from architect Veikko Kyander by the Orthodox Church of Finland. The research reconstructs the Orthodox church architecture of the period with the mapping of 21 churches and chapels built in Finland in the interwar years. The core actors in demarcating the Finnish style included not only church authorities but also antiquarian and state authorities. The analysis of the plans and realisation of the churches and chapels shows the significance of negative choice and the great impact of the building authorities in creating suitable de-Russified designs. It appears that the Finnish style was based on the eclecticism of contemporary Finnish architecture. The analysis of the new ascetic chapel interiors of the Border Karelia region reveals in concrete terms the poor financial situation of the congregations, but it also seems to imply a new uncluttered way of organising the interior. On the other hand, the interiors were based on ecclesiastical artefacts of Russian origin. There was thus a significant dichotomy between the foreign interior and the Finnish national exterior. It seems that also the first example of a new vernacular Karelian-style wooden chapel (1937) was planned by the state building authorities, despite the fact that it was based on a direct traditional vernacular Karelian model. Moreover, it seems that the discourse on the Byzantine roots of the Orthodox heritage in Finland already emerged in the 1930s although it has been prominent after the Second World War. In addition, it is pointed out in the dissertation that despite the dominance of the Finnish discourse it seems that in isolated cases the Orthodox church architecture of the 1930s reflected the influence of Russia Abroad.
  • Tarkka-Robinson, Laura (2017)
    Abstract This thesis examines the construction of national characters during the Enlightenment period. The aim of the thesis is to show how eighteenth-century writers employed the notion of nations as characters in intercultural exchanges, for the benefit of their own particular nation and of themselves. Focusing on the transnational career of the Hanoverian scholar Rudolf Erich Raspe (1736-1794), the author argues that while late eighteenth-century Enlightenment culture promoted material progress and emphasised the importance of disseminating knowledge, it also nurtured national particularism, because progress was often represented with the help of national characters. Following Raspe s career through the period from the Seven Years War to the French Revolution and from the German Electorate of Hanover to the extremities of the United Kingdom, the study examines nationally-oriented argumentation in both learned discourses and the world of improvement and industry. It combines a biographical focus with methods from contextual intellectual history and textual analysis to demonstrate that the language of nations could serve the specific purposes of individual writers, but, as a complex web of historically intertwined references, it could not be kept entirely in control. On the whole, the study considers the eighteenth-century construction of national characters as cultural transfer, because this practice always defined cultures interactively and relative to each other. The various debates surrounding Raspe s career reveal how it was possible for him to use the language of nations to his advantage, and how he also faced difficulties due to stereotypes inherent to such language. Drawing on both private correspondence and printed material relating to the transnational context of the Anglo-Hanoverian personal union, the dissertation not only recognises the significance of the national rhetoric in eighteenth-century writing, but also seeks to illuminate the specific circumstances in which it was used.
  • Katto, Jonna (2017)
    This study is about the shifting landscape perceptions and senses of socio-spatial belonging in the life narratives of female ex-combatants in the northwestern province of Niassa. Between 1964 and 1974 thousands of young people in the rural areas of northern Mozambique were mobilized by the guerrilla army FRELIMO to fight against Portuguese colonial rule. Hundreds of girls and young women also became engaged as guerrilla fighters in FRELIMO s political-military campaign for national independence. My study explores the relationship between FRELIMO nationalism and the female bodies that it sought to represent and mobilize. It is based on twelve months of multi-sited fieldwork among Ciyaawo-speaking communities in northern Niassa between 2012 and 2014. My main research material consists of life history interviews with thirty-four female ex-combatants. Bringing feminist scholarship on nationalism and spatial theorizing in conversation, this study problematizes the concept of space often reproduced in feminist scholarship on nationalism. I argue that this notion of space builds on an understanding of a dichotomous relationship between space/time and male/female. Moreover, space conceptualized as feminine is defined as stasis and in binary opposition to masculine time and history. While these notions often implicitly shape the histories of gendered nationalism that we write, they seldom receive explicit analytical attention. This is the analytical task to which my research has sought to contribute. In my analysis of the female ex-combatants sense of socio-spatial belonging, I have worked on a concept of lived landscape . It draws from Doreen Massey s theorization of space-time, the notion of the lived gendered body in feminist phenomenology, and Henri Lefebvre s spatial triad. I suggest that as a concept, lived landscape allows us to look beyond teleological narratives of liberation (/ oppression ), and explore the women s life trajectories as non-linear spatial histories. Lived landscape , moreover, allows us to interrogate the in-between , that is, the ways that discourse and materiality intersect, the personal and national intertwine, and body and landscape shape each other. It is in this in-betweenness that I also locate and conceptualize belonging. Belonging is not a subjective experience but is shaped and negotiated in a multiscalar, reciprocal relationship between body and world. As my analysis shows, aesthetic sensibility (which following Arnold Berleant denotes sensory engagement) is deeply intertwined with the ex-combatants experiences of socio-spatial attachment/detachment. It influences the way belonging is negotiated at different scales (e.g. nation, province, village, family, and globe). In the female ex-combatants narratives, the national often intertwines with the personal in a violent relationship, evoking what I call the haptics of the bush. Still, the Mozambique that emerges from the ex-combatants narratives is not a homogenous, unified landscape; it is perceived as consisting of multiple and unequal landscapes that are valued according to different scales of beauty. Apart from enriching our understanding of the gendered history of the liberation struggle in Mozambique and informing discussions in feminist theory on gender and nationalism, this interdisciplinary research contributes to the study of the body and sensory experiences in war memories/histories and the political field, moreover, to the study of African landscape histories.
  • Säämänen, Juuso (Maanpuolustuskorkeakoulu, 2017)
    From the Threat of a Large-scale Landing to Repelling a Strategic Strike The Development of Finland s Naval Defence from the Continuation War to the 1960 s This research explains how Finland s ability to repel landing operations developed from the end of the Continuation War to 1966 when the Defence Forces adopted the territorial defence doctrine. The development of this ability is examined on the basis of war experiences, threat estimates, operational plans, procurement plans and the changes that took place in Finnish naval and coastal warfare tactics. The research method is the traditional method in history research: the research problem has been solved qualitatively by analyzing and comparing the chosen sources. The sources are mostly primary sources, the most important being the Defence Forces Archives stored in the National Archives and articles in military publications. The development of the Finnish Navy s ability to repel landing operations happened in three stages during 1944 - 1966. The end of the 1940 s was a time of uncertainty and unestablished planning principles. The early 1950 s was a period of adjustment. Long-term development began in the mid 1950 s. The work was done by General Staff Officers or naval and coastal artillery officers who had worked in command positions. They wrote memorandums, articles and research which later developed into development programs, field manuals and operational plans. The principles of how to develop the ability to repel landing operations began to take form at the beginning of the 1950 s as the decision to adopt a new peacetime organization had been made. The decision to merge the coastal forces with the Army temporarily interrupted the development of coastal warfare tactics and organizations. Also, a strong naval defence was no longer considered necessary since an attack by western countries - the prevailing threat scenario since the end of the 1940 s - had become a theoretical possibility by the beginning of the 1950 s. Long-term work to develop the ability to repel landing operations began in the middle of the 1950 s. It was mostly based on up-to-date operational plans as well as the development of operational art and tactics. Materiel procurement was considered secondary since it did not enable defensive warfare against a numerically superior enemy. In addition, the quite modest procurement budget of the Defence Forces forced to focus the effort on operational art. Despite the poor starting point, by the mid 1960 s the Defence Forces was able to conduct coordinated repelling operations. All the services were capable of joint action both in the planning and practical phase of operations.
  • Viljanen, Elina (Acta Semiotica Fennica, 2017)
    The critic, composer, and musicologist Boris Asafiev (1884 - 1949) played a central role in the development of Soviet conceptions of music. Next to his critical analyses on Russian nineteenth century musical tradition, Asafiev became the literary voice of his generation of musicians, such as Prokofiev and Stravinsky. Elected to the Soviet Academy of Sciences in 1943 in and as the head of the Soviet Composers Union in 1947, Asafiev s literary works of the 1940s came to be considered influential Stalin era classics. However, these writings built upon his modernist theory of music, which he developed over the course of the 1920s. Asafiev s theoretical output has still an influential position in the contemporary Russian musical thought. This is the first English language analytical monograph to examine Asafiev s literary output (1916 - 1930) and the development of his theory of Intonation (1947). His works are explored against the backdrop of Russian cultural history, and within the European intellectual historical context. The author demonstrates how Asafiev became an established Soviet cultural theoretician of music, a celebrated but also a persecuted Soviet musicologist. More broadly, the book The Problem of the Modern and Tradition explores how the Russian Silver Age philosophical interpretation of music was transferred to the Soviet era and what kind of new ideas and practices were generated through this process. The thesis characterizes the methodology of early Soviet cultural nationalism from an individualized perspective of the Russian cultural revolution and revolutionary culture of the 1920s. The author addresses the previously contested question of Asafiev s relationship with Soviet politics by tracing a many-sided cultural process in his output, something that can be branded in retrospect as a Sovietization process of Silver Age aesthetics. She argues that in Asafiev s writings this process appears not as a mere political process but a complex interplay of aesthetics, politics, scientific postulates, and cultural mission. Participating in the early Soviet modernization project of Russian culture, Asafiev modernizes the Russian music tradition by bringing it under the critical lens of modern European scientific theories. Meanwhile his theoretical development appears also as a linguistic process. He rewrites his ideas in different forms in order to present them in varying contexts. This was done not only to mask his philosophical views before the political authorities, but it was also part of his theoretical search for founding a new cultural theory of music that would answer the most urgent social challenges of the new Soviet society.
  • Vanhanen, Tero Eljas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    Extreme fiction is literature that aims to shock audiences through transgression. Shock value implies two conflicting tendencies: to disturb and repel while simultaneously sparking our fascination and drawing us closer. Extreme fiction increasingly common as censorship has waned embraces this contradiction through shocking representation of sadistic violence and sexual transgression. Extreme fiction is defined by its affective qualities: it aims to shock, disturb, and disgust and expects readers to enjoy these responses. This study analyzes the affective qualities of transgression and shock value and maps out the affective narrative strategies typical of extreme fiction. The study takes a cross-disciplinary approach to extreme fiction and emotional response to fiction, combining cognitive aesthetics, philosophy of mind, and affect theory with narratological analysis of infamous works of extreme fiction. As the phenomenon gained large audiences in the last few decades of the twentieth century, the study focuses on five particularly influential novels from that era: Cormac McCarthy s Blood Meridian (1985), Bret Easton Ellis s American Psycho (1991), Dennis Cooper s Frisk (1991), Samuel R. Delany s The Mad Man (1994), and Poppy Z. Brite s Exquisite Corpse (1996). In order to approach extreme fiction, the study develops new methodological approaches to analyze emotional response to fiction and delineates the phenomenon of extreme fiction historically and theoretically. Finally, through careful analysis of how influential works of extreme fiction induce shock value, the study formulates the shock tactics and extreme strategies that intertwine the conflicting responses of repulsion and attraction that characterize extreme fiction.
  • Minard, Nathanaelle (Finska Vetenskaps-Societeten, 2016)
    The construction of Russian representations of Finland and their functions in the polite culture of early-nineteenth-century Russia is the subject of the present dissertation. Based on travellers written accounts, the study examines in particular the interaction between travellers perceptions of Finland and the imperial context. Applying postcolonial theory, and in particular Edward Said s findings with regard to the role and place of culture in the construction of empires, I propose a new approach to Russian perceptions of Finland during a period that has too often been described as simply Romantic without any further characterisation. As a survey of the history of ideas based on literary sources, my work borrows elements from classical literary analysis, but focuses more strongly on the attitudes of a social group − the Russian nobility − and on the values of these representations. The first part of the dissertation explores the construction of a formal framework enabling the appreciation of Finland s terrain in Russia during the late-eighteenth and early-nineteenth centuries. The practices of Russian tourists and the discourse they elaborated on Finland were in many ways typical of the Romantic shift in the Grand Tour at the beginning of the nineteenth century: through a change of focus from classical canons to the individual impressions of the narrator, European sentimental literature and pastoral aesthetics constructed a grammar through which to approach and describe the Finnish wilderness. Part 2 examines how Russians travelled in Finland, and notably the dominance during the first half of the nineteenth century of what sociologist John Urry defined as the tourist gaze . Given the focus on scenic pleasure in the travelling experiences of Russians, their descriptions constructed Finland as an infinite collection of visual delights but also as a desolate territory in terms of culture. The travelogues thus left little space for the representation of Finnish elites who, when they appeared at all, were endowed with the same pastoral virtues of simplicity, fraternal spirit and honesty as the talonpoika (peasant, in Finnish). Part 3 presents how Russian travel literature constructed Finland as an ideal colony of an ideal empire. The idyllic image of Finns as agrarian people, essentially loyal to the Monarch who had given them a fatherland, showed the imperial project and the country s annexation in a favourable light. Although apparently less antagonistic than the images developed about the Caucasus and Poland during the same period, the pastoral descriptions of Finland similarly contributed to establishing Russia s cultural superiority and political domination over a primitive and underdeveloped borderland.
  • Pulkkinen, Mari (Mari Pulkkinen, 2016)
    Loss through death is a core experience in human life, for humanity necessitates the acceptance of mortality. In the field of cultural studies, contemporary Finnish grief is an unfamiliar subject as a theoretical as well as empirical phenomenon. I approach loss as a holistic experience of a unique individual. It is deeply subjective but also inherently shared. I pursue this by developing an analytical tool: a conceptual and theoretical perspective on grief which manifests itself in the dimensions of emotions and cognition, deeds and actions, as well as words and grammar. By this I refer to the emotional-cognitive, ritual-conative and linguistic-conceptual nature of grief. Moreover, the experience of loss cannot be understood without also paying attention to its contexts: the life course and the cultural-societal frame of death culture. The data consist of letters written by 159 grieving Finns of different ages and backgrounds. In order to collect the data, advertisements were placed in the print media and on the Internet in 2003 2005. The goal of the analysis is to understand the losses that Finns living the 21st century have experienced over the course of their lives. My approach is deliberately critical. Mourning is still, in the spirit of modernity, often seen as an individual psychological process grief work the stages of which remain largely unchanged regardless of varying circumstances. Its perceived aims are recovery and coping. When understood as an experience, loss claims its place in the human life course the same way as other life events do: as inherently meaningful and permanent. Read closely, in terms of emotions and cognition, grief appears hidden and hard to reach. Emotions are manifold and ambiguous. They should not be approached based on designation only. The grieving also feel as sense of grief in their bodies, cry in private, and experience incomprehensibility beyond the psychological definition of shock. In the light of deeds and action, grief gains the attributes of performance, and in that sense is work indeed. The traditional rituals as well as grief s bureaucracy and everyday obligations are all vigorously performed and dealt with. This separates action from its ritual meaning. From the point of view of words and grammar, grief is silent and wordless. Wordlessness is selective and chosen but also subjective: the experience escapes expression. The human life course is the arena of progressive time where both the grieving and grief have their own uncontrollable time. Neither the experience nor the ties cease to exist. In the changing death culture the ability of others to express their condolences and sympathize is often seen as inadequate. This applies also to encounters with professionals who are expected to be humane. The medication of the grieving bespeaks the desire to control. The varied perceptions of the hereafter often utilize Christian imagery and suggest that the dead watch over the living. They are created out of need, and are based on the hope of something existing beyond the end. Despite its communality, the death culture of the past cannot always be seen as a more gentle background for the experience of loss; it is sometimes even the opposite. This brings to mind the distinct nature of grief, which is not contingent on the era lived in.
  • Robinson, Richard (Nord Print, 2016)
    This thesis is a social and cultural history of the drinking cultures that co-existed in Brighton, the biggest seaside resort in England, between 1880 and 1939. Its case study approach uses a distinct spatial setting to examine a plethora of perspectives on alcohol consumption, ones which extend well beyond the traditional foci of the public house and the temperance movement. Indeed, rather than seeing the licensed house as exclusively representative of the town s public drinking, it takes it as merely the most obvious form, before going on to consider tourist consumption, drunkenness, advertising and licensed clubs. These analyses are based on a close reading of both regulatory sources like licensing registers, police records and magistrates minutes and an array of regional publications, including newspapers, tourist guides and entertainment weeklies. Aside from expanding the scope of drink history, this study also offers an alternative history of the seaside resort, situating alcohol s paradoxical roles at the heart of its identity. Since Brighton attracted both high society and lowly day-trippers, it demonstrates this paradox well: it accepted alcohol s role in refined leisure experiences while simultaneously trying to quell the intoxicated excesses of the excursionist mass. However, one of the main findings of this thesis is that Brighton s eclectic mix of classes and relatively condensed tourist landscape ultimately resulted in more homogeneous drinking cultures than in other types of towns, particularly in the interwar period. The other significant finding of this study concerns drink history more directly. The period from 1880 to the end of the First World War is commonly seen as the most turbulent in the history of alcohol in England, and has been set in stark contrast to the more sober and more middle-class drinking climate of the interwar years. However, this study challenges the extent to which this mollified atmosphere was founded on more refined conduct, showing that transgressive drinking activities did not entirely die away. On the contrary, because drink was now an acceptable leisure option rather than a potential threat to the very fabric of society, disreputable drinking cultures whether those of working-class tourists or middle-class women were viewed in a more permissive light.
  • Katajamäki, Sakari (ntamo, 2016)
    Kukunor. Dream and the tradition of nonsense literature in Lauri Viitaʼs long poem This study examines Lauri Viita s (1916 1965) long poem Kukunor. Satu ihmislapsille [‛Koko Nor. A fairy tale for human children ] (1949) and its dream features from the perspective of the European tradition of literary nonsense. Here nonsense literature is defined as language-centred and play- or game-like literature, which balances meaning or a multiplicity of meaning with an absence of meaning. Usually, nonsense literature is topsy-turvy and self-reflective and it frequently represents emotions that are at odds with current events. In addition to earlier research on nonsense literature, the present study uses the three most canonical European nonsense writers Edward Lear, Lewis Carroll and Christian Morgenstern as the corpus for defining and analysing this literary genre. This study analyses the kind of relations Kukunorʼs dream features (i.e., structures and themes connected with dreaming) have with its nonsensical features. It examines Viitaʼs long poem from several structural and thematic perspectives. Most of the essential structural phenomena analysed in this survey include topsy-turvydom, palimpsest structures, and autocentricity. Other topics of analysis include epistemological matters and the instability of the subject or its identity. The main linguistic research themes of this study focus on anomalies regarding referentiality and arbitrariness, the concreteness of language and literature, and linguistic generation. The epithet dream has seen repeated use in the context of nonsense literature, and many surveys have dealt with the relations between dreaming and nonsense, though not in depth. Thus, this study is both an analysis of Viitaʼs long poem and a survey of the interrelation between dreams and nonsensicality in the European canon of literary nonsense. The present study argues that many confusing or incoherent features in Kukunor embody many structures of dreams and nonsense literature. The survey of these intertwining structural, stylistic and thematic characteristics helps to perceive Viitaʼs long poem and the relations between its parts in new ways. Contrary to the view of Elizabeth Sewellʼs eminent book The Field of Nonsense (1952), the key features of the nonsense genre correspond in various ways with many characteristics of dreaming. In Kukunor, Lauri Viita masters both the structural features of dreaming and the poetics of nonsense literature. Kukunor is exceptional among Viita s literary works, but analysing it offers new perspectives for understanding Viita s entire oeuvre.
  • Fränti-Pitkäranta, Marttiina (2016)
    Abstract This doctoral dissertation in metrological terminology is entitled Mittayksiköistä, maa-alojen mitoista ja arkkitehtonisista mittasuhteista antiikin Roomassa (On units of measurement, measures of land area and architectural dimensions in ancient Rome) and is included in the field of ancient languages and cultures within the Doctoral Programme for History and Cultural Heritage. This dissertation is based on Latin-language primary sources, i.e., texts that concern the ancient unit of the foot, measurements and names of land area, architectural symmetry relationships and metrological and terminological material related to the design of the Italic atrium-style house. The dissertation also discussis several Greek-language terms for units of measurement as well as words for land area and boundary markers in different languages. A significant part focuses on Vitruvius s concept of scaenographia, which was used by ancient architects and visual artists and was a precedent of what is today called perspective drawing. Because I will also explore these themes as an architect, my method and approach can be described as a combination of the linguistic, the mathematical and the visual.The dissertation includes 47 Latin-language citations drawn from critical editions of the following 12 authors: Varro, Vitruvius, Pliny, Columella, Frontinus, Balbus, Pseudo-Balbus, Festus, Boethius, Isidore, Pseudo-Boethius and Gerbert. I have translated into Finnish these previously untranslated citations, explained their content and meaning and, in some cases, described terminological continuums as part of the cultural heritage. Persons relevant to the topic in the classical and later periods include the following: Adelbold, Agatharchus, Alberti, Anaxagoras, Apuleius, Archimedes, Archytas, Augustine, Augustus, Barbaro, Vincent of Beauvois, Bede, Poggio Bracciolini, Bramante, Brunelleschi, Caesar, Calcidius, Cato, Cerceau, Cesariano, Cetius Faventinus, Chrysippus, Cicero, Circe, Claudius, Clodius Pulcher, Dante, Democritus, Diophantus, Dürer, Eratosthenes, Euclid, Fannius Synistor, Fibonacci, Piero della Francesca, Fulvius Nobilius, Gaius, Galen, Gellius, Geminus, Fra Giocondo, Hadrian, Heron, Hyginus, Justinian, Leonardo da Vinci, Lorenzetti, Marcus Lucretius, Lucretius Fronto, Martial, Masaccio, Nero, Nicomachus, Novius, Octavia, Odysseus, Luca Pacioli, Plato, Polybius, Polykleitos, Priscus, Proclus, Pseudo-Hyginus, Pseudo-Nipsus, Pythagoras, Quintilian, Romulus, Seneca, Septimius Severus, Siculus Flaccus, Solinus, Solon, Strabo, Sulpicius Rufus, Suetonius, Symmachus, Theodora, Trajan and the author of the fragments of Varro.The research literature includes not only primary sources, but also publications in the fields of archaelogy and architecture, the visual arts, metrology and terminology in several languages (English, Finnish, French, German, Italian, Latin, Spanish and Swedish). Morover, the dissertation comprises 40 research images used to illustrade my writing. Of them, 27 include scenographic and geometric vistas I have reconstructed from Roman and Campanian architectural wall paintings. Three of the images feature my drawings related to Vitruvius s instructions for the dimensions of an Italic atrium house. In ten of the images, I explore the dimensions of the atrium and its adjoinining rooms based on Vitruvius s instructions. The images are based on my plan drawing of Marcus Lucretius s atrium house in Pompeii.
  • Ylivuori, Soile (2015)
    My doctoral dissertation examines the complex relationship of gender construction and politeness in eighteenth-century England. It contributes to a vibrant field of historical research, examining politeness as an intellectual and cultural construct that was used to create individual and group identity. The study combines intellectual and cultural-historical methods with poststructuralist gender studies; through this interdisciplinary methodology, my goal is to introduce a novel approach to the historical research of politeness traditionally reluctant to utilise theoretical apparatuses as an aid of analysis and to suggest that such methods provide fruitful new readings of politeness and its intersection with gender, thus opening up new areas of research. The dissertation is divided into two parts. In the first part, I analyse politeness as a disciplinary practice that produced polite femininity defined in terms of softness, gracefulness, and modesty by regulating the movements and appearances of individuals bodies. This analysis is based on a wide selection of printed source material, such as conduct books, periodicals, sermons, and novels. My main argument is that the female body had a central role in the construction of normative polite femininity, both on a discursive and an individual level. Women of the social elite were urged to internalise a gendered polite identity by exercising and disciplining their bodies to meet the norms of polite femininity deemed natural despite the fact that within the heterogeneous politeness discourse, there was no consensus on what these natural norms exactly were. Moreover, I want to suggest that the ambiguous position of the body as both the means through which an identity is produced and worked on, as well as the allegedly truthful and unerring indicator of an individual s level of polite ideality created a fundamental conflict within the culture of politeness, forcing women into hypocritical positions in practice while simultaneously advocating honesty as the essential emblem of femininity. However, seeing politeness solely as a disciplinary regime provides a one-sided understanding of politeness, since it ignores individual subjectivity. Therefore, the second part of my dissertation examines the journals and letters of four eighteenth-century elite women Catherine Talbot, Mary Delany, Elizabeth Montagu, and Fanny Burney and looks at how these women dealt with the discursive ideals and demands imposed upon them. I argue that individuals had a complex relationship with discursive ideality, and that politeness was not solely a disciplinary regime that lorded over women s behaviour and identity. The profound heterogeneity of the culture of politeness gave, in itself, individuals some freedom of movement within it. More importantly, individuals engaged in specific strategies, or techniques of the self, in order to gain freedom from and within the restrictive norms of polite femininity. These strategies can be seen as clever utilisations of some of the central aspects of politeness with a subversive intent. They concentrate on challenging and redefining the naturalised formulations regarding authenticity, identity, femininity, and politeness, and include such practices as self-discipline, multiplicity of identity, play between exterior and interior, and hypocrisy.
  • Klein, Ottilie ([according to German regulations a publication prior to the public examination is not permitted], 2015)
    The doctoral thesis investigates the cultural function of dramatic narratives of female murder. For this purpose, the study offers textual analyses of plays that feature female murder as a central event. Paying close attention to each play s plot, form, and dramaturgy, the study seeks to attach meaning to the dramatic function of women s homicidal action. The survey of women who kill in modern American drama that is at the heart of the study covers a seventy-year span (1910s - 1980s) that allows a mapping out of continuities and transitions in dramatizations of female murder. Given the politically charged nature of the figure of the female murderer, the study argues that there are two types of narratives of female murder in modern American drama (and beyond): one that uses women s homicidal action as a mechanism to create disorder at the level of plot to ultimately contain women s lethal threat by re-establishing order and thereby reinforcing dominant ideology, so-called narratives of containment; and one that exploits the ideologically disruptive potential of the female murderer to comment on social ills or to dismantle ideological contradictions, so-called lethal performances. The study concludes that the cultural function of narratives of female murder is intricately connected with the cultural and historical moment from which they emerge and the type of narrative they respond to.
  • Viholainen, Aila (Viholainen, Aila, 2015)
    My dissertation research concentrates on medieval Western Christian pictorial material presented in religious contexts. The common perspective of the different articles included in my research is make to believe/faire croire : the ways in which pictorial materials in medieval times persuaded, enticed and instructed viewers. My study is characterized by a rhetorical approach that focuses especially on the visuality of medieval images and its analysis. I participate in the study of the past. I see the past that I study as an alien entity located in its own historical context. I am looking for answers from a vantage point that feels strange from the position of the contemporary re-searcher. Questions that arise from consideration of this reveal a gap between the researcher s understanding of today and how things were under-stood in medieval times, a gap which motivates this research. In the first two articles of my work, the medieval world of imagery is perceived as a phenomenon on an abstract level. Here I study and evaluate discussions and studies that have been done in medieval times and subsequently: conceptually, theoretically and methodologically. In the latter two articles, the abstract phenomenon becomes concrete and the focus of analysis is actual pictorial material selected from the medieval world of imagery found in the Holy Cross Church of Hattula. In these articles, the mermaid motif functions as an object of analysis. Imagining is an important practice in the context of medieval art and religion, and it is presented in my work as a supporting theme. First, imagination has operated in the background of my study as a guiding frame of interpretation, as the researcher s own resource. In this case, as Markku Hyrkkänen describes it, imagination can be thought of as an imagining of possible contexts. Second, imagination has worked as a concrete conceptual tool: as Benedict Anderson's imagined communities and later as Barbara Newman's imaginative theology. Third, it is also a medieval concept (imaginatio), the primary task of which was to determine truth. Thus, imagination was a multi-leveled and many-faceted cognitive skill. I locate my research, as well as international studies that I use for dialogue, in a broader humanistic tradition and the research trends of the last decades. Used as the starting point are critical evaluations of previous studies in art history, the study of visual culture and medieval art history over the last decades. I also connect my work to the latest Finnish studies on medieval pictorial material, as well as to the latest research discussions in my own field of religious studies. These findings are definitively presented in the compilation.
  • Gustafsson, Sofia (Finska Vetenskaps-Societeten, 2015)
    In 1748, the Swedish Crown began construction of the fortress Sveaborg outside Helsinki. This was an expensive military investment, but where did the money invested actually end up? Traditionally historians have claimed that the burghers of Helsinki benefitted economically from the construction. However, studies of early-modern Western European fortress construction sites show that local communities did not necessarily benefit directly; the money could just as easily have gone to large entrepreneurs from the central areas. The aim of this study is to identify which geographical areas and social groups sold the construction materials needed to build Sveaborg during the first period of construction in 1748-1756. It also discusses the institutional constraints, whether formal or informal, that limited the suppliers actions and choices. The main source material is the accounts of the Fortification Fund in Helsinki. However, to identify the sellers, we combined this material with local civil and private sources. The accounts rarely provided enough information for identification, and the key-question involved determining where to search for local and private sources. Alfred Weber s theory of location of economic activities claims that the optimal location for production depends on labour and transportation costs. The logistics of Sveaborg were water-based, so the search focused on coastal regions either near the fortress or with unique natural resources. With regard to the institutions, we used the theories of Douglass C. North. The laws of the period limited trade to certain groups in the cities, but equally important were the restrictions on suitable conduct for different estates. However, institutions constantly change, and according to Sten Carlsson, the traditional social system in 18th-century Sweden was already in decline. The results suggest that different economic zones specialising in certain products emerged around the fortress. Suppliers benefitting from Sveaborg could be found not only in the city of Helsinki, but also in the surrounding countryside. Other Finnish cities supplying the fortress include Porvoo, Turku and Loviisa. In Sweden, the main areas involved were Stockholm and Gotland. In contrast to the traditional view, one could definitely not claim that the burghers of Helsinki alone profited from the construction. Although formal constraints should have restricted the participation of other social groups, the informal constraints were obviously more permissive. Unlike in Western Europe, where the states tended to use large entrepreneurs from the central areas, the Swedish Crown used small entrepreneurs from the periphery. The money invested in Sveaborg was spread over large areas and many hands, including peasants, merchants, and noblemen.