Faculty of Arts


Recent Submissions

  • Taipale, Antti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This thesis examines how religious arguments, concepts and viewpoints were used as instruments to instruct soldiers and dehumanise enemies in the first English Civil War (1642-1646). I argue that religion had an important role in encouraging soldiers, enforcing military discipline and creating group cohesion and comradery. Furthermore, I suggest that religion was used to delegitimise the enemy and thus prepare the soldiers to fight their fellow countrymen in an efficient and bloody manner. The differences between the ways in which the King and Parliament understood religious warfare form the main argument of the thesis. The Royalist ministers and Puritan preachers had quite opposite views on the use of religion as a tool of war. Whereas the King’s clergymen underlined peaceful aspects of the Christian faith and merciful and compromising attitudes of its practitioners, the Parliamentarian chaplains thundered harsh words and black-and-white images of an eschatological battle between God and the anti-Christ, which left room for neither peace nor compromise. The Royalists took the nation’s sins on their shoulders, accepting God’s wrath and judgement and praying for the calamities to end with the passive submission of a martyr. The Puritans, by contrast, portrayed themselves as actively participating in Christ’s battles against the Devil as saints. They did not hesitate to frame the conflict in religious terms and use the martial aspects of the Protestant faith to advance their cause. I examine printed sermons and pamphlets to produce a comprehensive view on the public press and its significance in propagating these different ideas about the relationship between religion and war. The more radical, revolutionary approach of the Parliamentarian ministers and authors is evident from the beginning of the conflict, and I suggest that, even though the pinnacle of religious-martial education was reached when the New Model Army was formed in 1645, in itself it was not exceptional in its religious character compared to earlier Parliamentarian armies. The Royalist clergymen, for their part, were equally constant in combatting the sins of the King’s soldiers instead of preparing them to fight the war. Similar differences manifested in the dehumanisation of the enemy. On the one hand, the Puritan ministers stressed the judgemental, uncompromising work that they had to do in order to wash the nation’s sins away with blood. They juxtaposed the King’s men with the Catholic Irish, who had rebelled in 1641 and who had been very harshly treated both in publications and in battle. On the other hand, the Royalists were hesitant to condemn the Parliamentarians to an equal extent; they were rather trying to reclaim the Parliamentarians from their revolt back to the good graces of the King by offering mercy and pardon in exchange for repentance. The thesis re-evaluates the role of religion in the English Civil War by focusing on military preaching and publishing. In this way it contributes to the debates about the significance of religion in the political and societal landscapes of the period. Furthermore, I seek to show that religion was an important instrument of war, whose different uses by the Royalists and Parliamentarians played a part in how the conflict proceeded and culminated.
  • Kuivalainen, Ilkka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The Portrayal of Pompeian Bacchus This dissertation is a basic study in the field of ancient art and classical archaeology. It aims to define what Pompeian Bacchus was like, especially the iconography in wall paintings and in sculpture, and why he was depicted in different forms in different places. Bacchus was either an elderly bearded man, a young beardless man or a child. In order to understand the relationship between this divinity and ancient Pompeians the spreading of the Greek Dionysiac cult is analysed; how it came to Italy and what his connection to old Italic variants, especially the Roman god Liber was. The god’s name used by the Romans is also analysed. He was linked to mysteries, theatre and viticulture. The research deals mainly with Pompeii and the material in or from the town during the period of ca. three hundred years before the town was destroyed in AD 79. Of Pompeian source groups firstly the extramural temple is dealt with, secondly inscriptions, thirdly the largest group consisting of wall paintings, including those from the villas directly linked to the town. The fourth group consists of sculpture and the fifth of mosaics. Because many wall paintings have been destroyed or damaged the excavation reports and other earlier research especially done in the 19th century are of great importance. The visual material in this study consists of 174 cases. The method is firstly descriptive but widens to comparative. Parallel works are also studied elsewhere in Pompeii and in the regions that have affected it, mainly Latium, Etruria and Southern Italy (e.g. vase painting), but also some Greek temples. Roman literature and archaeological material are used in order to find reasons for the choices of name and images of Bacchus. The remarks based on this research material deal with the physical appearance, clothing, attributes and companions of Bacchus, and myths or historical events depicted and the Pompeian spaces where Bacchus was visible. Additionally the models and choice of the portrayal are analysed. In private houses Bacchus was usually portrayed in representative, more public rooms, but as a child in smaller and more private rooms. The statues were mainly in gardens. The very limited number of mosaics leans to more representative spaces. Bacchus was also depicted in public places around the town. Some portrayals of Bacchus must have had religious meaning. The viticultural context was clearly more important than than connections to theatre or mysteries. This is shown especially in paintings in lararia or façades where Bacchus was alone, or with a panther or some other divinity, and in which vine, wine or grapes represent agricultural fertility. Theatrical aspect is shown in only one central painting but some compositions of paintings show effects of theatre performances. The mystic aspect is shown by the idea of a good afterlife, and the different forms of Bacchus and the epiphany, even Ariadne may be linked to this. Based on this study one could say that Pompeian Bacchus was mainly portrayed as Greek Dionysus. The continuation of the cult shows the old Liber with his Italic counterparts. Liber was the most important name of the divinity used in Pompeii in the first century AD, though his portrayal was usually, according to Hellenistic fashions, modelled to the local needs.
  • Grufstedt, Ylva (Ungrafia, 2020)
    This thesis explores counterfactual history and game design practice, and how the two concepts relate to digital strategy games. The approach is interdisciplinary and has epistemological footing in history and game studies. The aim is to investigate developer understandings of history and game-making contexts, and their subsequent influence on representations of the past. This is a case study of two games made by Paradox Development Studio: Europa Universalis IV (2013) and Hearts of Iron IV (2016). Specific attention has been paid to the design and application of counterfactual history in order to explore how it can be studied and understood through games, as well as how developers navigate design practice with regard to historical verisimilitude. The study builds on two sets of materials. The first involves qualitative interviews with game developers and associated beta testers at Paradox Development Studio in Stockholm, Sweden. The second involves a game analysis and technical reading of the digital strategy games Europa Universalis IV and Hearts of Iron IV to highlight how developer statements relate to artefact design. The technical reading was done using the games’ files – scripted content and localisation – that were then analysed through a framework based on counterfactual history as uses of history. The results identify game-industry specific frameworks that influence how developers navigate their understanding of the past. These frameworks, in turn, influence, for example, practices related to the sourcing and omission of content, as well as the role of beta testers, whose efforts and perspectives play a significant part in the games’ design and content. Design goals such as monetization and replayability appear to, in part, frame how synergies between mechanics and counterfactual scenarios are designed. Furthermore, it is possible to discern ways in which historical culture imposes itself on the design of counterfactual scenarios in both games, mainly in the implementation of goal-setting and emergent stories. Demonstrable differences in counterfactual design appear related to historical period and themes depicted. The results also show how design legacy, genre convention and player expectations frame the design of counterfactual history and the use of history, based on the interplay of historical verisimilitude and challenging gameplay.
  • Cederberg, Sara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In this thesis, I have studied the literary debate in Sweden during the 1960’s and 1970’s from the perspective of intellectual history. These decades have proven to be of great importance to the development of almost every field of culture in the western world today, in many different ways. During this period, western students and intellectuals embraced a radical socialist worldview and the Humanities saw an explosive development of marxist philosophy and theory. The European and American youth questioned traditional morals and lifestyles, and artists revolted against traditional ways of creating art, literature and music. My aim is to analyze what effect this international cultural radicalism had on the literary debate and on literary expression in Sweden. To answer this question, I have analysed the literary debate, and formed a new understanding of what the cultural radicalism of the 1960s and 70s essentially was. Unlike previous researchers, who define the cultural radicalism as a political revolution, I view it as a response to an existential crisis. After World War II, the great narratives (meaning the ideologies and stories that define western culture) were questioned by artists and intellectuals who saw these meta narratives as the cause for the rise of the totalitarian ideologies that had destroyed so much of western civilisation during the first half of the 20th century. Instead, intellectuals advocated for a pluralistic, tolerant position based only on the objective truth that modern science could produce. The problem with this position, which denied all values that could not be scientifically proven, was that it robbed traditional culture, such as literature, of its meaning and legitimacy in society. By the early 1960s, Swedish writers and literary critics no longer felt that there was a legitimate reason for them to carry out their creative work. For a period of two decades, from the early 1960s to the early 1980s, writers and critics debated this problem and tried to find a way for literature to regain its importance in modern culture. In this endeavour, they combined ideas from three different philosophical and cultural movements: marxism, romanticism and christianity. In my thesis I have mapped out how and when these ideas entered the debate, and analyzed how they were combined to form a new worldview, which could give literature an important role in modern culture. These philosophical movements were deeply critical of modernity and secularism,which is why I have come to understand this cultural radicalism as a battle between an enlightened, scientific worldview and a romantic-holistic philosophy.
  • Kekki, Saara (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This crossdisciplinary doctoral dissertation in the field of North American Studies utilizes historical big data and dynamic network analysis to study the Japanese American community of the Heart Mountain Relocation Center during their World War II incarceration. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States incarcerated (interned) 120,000 people of Japanese descent, two thirds of whom were US citizens. Half of the incarcerated people returned to the West Coast, while the rest were dispersed across the country through the government’s resettlement program. Incarceration remains a controversial subject in the Japanese American community, and while much has been written about the era, it is an unknown topic to the general public in states that it did not directly touch. At the same time, incarceration reverberates today both in the United States and in Europe in the treatment of immigrants from Mexico or the Middle East. My objective in this study is to look at the manifestation of “loyalty,” “assimilation,” and “resistance” through networks in one of the ten incarceration camps, Heart Mountain in Wyoming. To investigate the different ways and layers of individual and community level assimilation, loyalty and resistance, I have developed a dynamic network model that reconstructs the structure, various types of networks, and their changes in the Heart Mountain Japanese American community during the war. The dynamic network model applies historical big data and network analysis, but it also draws from traditional historical sources and methods. I use diaries, government reports, and oral histories to complement the narrative and support my findings. This type of work is novel in the field of humanities and the study of past human societies, and especially my creation of multi-mode networks depicting relations between individuals and institutions, and those between institutions, instead of only individual-to-individual networks makes this a groundbreaking study. The data resulted in the construction of four multi-mode subnetworks depicting the relationships between different types of actors: administrative-political, employment, social, and geospatial. Each conveys a slightly different aspect of the community, and all layers put together as an integrated network recreates the formal Heart Mountain networks. They show division between generations (Japanese-born Issei to a large extent separated from the American-born Nisei) and genders, and that education was often the key to reaching influential positions in the community. Education was also the driving force for resettlers: those who left the camp in the early stages were either already well-educated or left to pursue college studies. It has long been understood that there was no singular incarceration experience but all too often the emphasis has been on separating only a few lines of thought. What became evident through network analysis in this study, was that depending on the context, a group of people or even an individual could be portrayed in multiple lights depending on the network and the viewpoint. This research project has demonstrated that there is enormous potential in applying dynamic network analysis to historical materials. While life at Heart Mountain cannot be reduced to nodes and edges alone, this study combined with other studies, historical narratives, diaries, and biographies enhances our understanding of this important time in American history that continues to reverberate today.
  • Lepistö, Antti (2019)
    In the 1980s and 1990s, a prominent group of neoconservative intellectuals provided an intellectual revolution in conservative thought by embracing the “common sense” of “ordinary people,” going against cultural and intellectual liberal elites and their espousal of multiculturalism and welfare statism. Traditionally, conservative intellectuals, including the neoconservatives, had been extremely nervous about popular rule, demagogy, and the dangers of a mob mentality. How, then, did conservative intellectuals who had previously associated cultural problems with the masses come to argue in the 1980s and 1990s that the culture and morality of the very same people was not the problem, but rather the solution to a crisis created by the elites? In trying to solve this puzzle, this dissertation offers an intellectual history of how prominent neoconservative thinkers—authors such as Irving Kristol, Gertrude Himmelfarb, James Q. Wilson, and Francis Fukuyama—contributed to the American culture wars and the rise of conservative populism. It argues that the neoconservatives’ new willingness to speak for the assumedly unerring American “common man”—their embrace of a populist epistemology—was a result of a serious engagement with, and reinvention of, the Scottish Enlightenment philosophy of “common sense,” “moral sense,” and “moral sentiments.” Based on their analysis of the texts of eighteenth-century Scottish moralists, such as Francis Hutcheson, David Hume, and Adam Smith, neoconservatives came to argue that ordinary people had an instinctive sense of right and wrong and that amoral or immoral elites were the problem for American culture. Exploring and reinterpreting these older ideas first generated by Scottish thinkers was a way for the neoconservatives to explain, as Irving Kristol said, “to the people why they are right, and to the intellectuals why they are wrong” in the context of cultural debates over the family, crime, race, poverty, and multiculturalism. Reinventing the Scottish intellectual tradition, neoconservative intellectuals turned it into a weapon against the supposed authority of American liberal elites, higher education, and social reformist policies. The scholarly significance of this study is then that it presents neoconservatism in a new light, not merely as a movement of foreign policy hawks and analysts of the unintended consequences of liberal social policy, but of the intellectuals who shaped the Scottish intellectual tradition—common-sense populists in a fractured post-1960s America. Methodologically, this study draws on both conceptual and intellectual history. An underlying assumption is that an analysis of the neoconservative use of such terms as moral sense, moral sentiments, and common sense helps us understand the evolution of neoconservative thought during the culture wars of the 1980s and 1990s in a way that is not achieved in more conventional play-by-play accounts of neoconservatism’s intellectual and political battles. The study views its subjects as rational agents who borrowed linguistic elements from older moral philosophy, but who did much to reinterpret and reshape, for conservative political purposes in various culture wars contexts, the moral vocabularies and ideas that derived from such Scottish Enlightenment authors as Adam Smith, David Hume, and Francis Hutcheson.
  • Rantala, Teija (Unigrafia, 2018)
    This study examines women’s aspirations within the Conservative Laestadian movement. The Conservative Laestadian movement is a religious revival movement that is part of the Lutheran Church in Finland. Women in this religious movement have recently been at the centre of both scholarly and media discourse due mostly to the movement’s negative attitude towards birth control and female priesthood. In their avoidance of contraceptive use, Laestadian women go through childbirth repeatedly, often risking their health in the process. Consequently, these women’s participation in the movement and obedience to the laws of the doctrine, especially on the issue of contraceptive use, is widely considered to be a human rights issue. In this regard, the women are oppositionally positioned depending on whether they either resist or support changes in the movement: those women who advocate changes are presented as modern and independent, on the contrast, those women who resist changes are presented as subjugated victims of the patriarchal movement. My task has been to illuminate and even complicate this binary by examining the differing aspirations of Laestadian women with regard to their identities in the Laestadian movement. As a non-Laestadian researcher with a family background in the movement, I was able to produce data with the women within this exclusive movement. The main data consist of thirteen pieces of autobiographical writing but also include collaborative pieces and data produced before, during and after memory work sessions with four women. Memory work data was produced also with members of my own family. All the data were produced between 2012 and 2016 at various locations in Finland. The task of exploring the diversity of these women’s aspirations concerning their subjectivity formation required the employment of feminist and experimental poststructuralist analysis. To provide a depiction of the women’s aspirations outside normative and victimizing inquiry, I examined them using Gilles Deleuze’s and Félix Guattari’s schizoanalysis. With schizoanalysis, I asked what kinds of formations of subjectivity the women’s aspirations produce and how they intertwine with and differ in relation to faith, motherhood and womanhood. Schizoanalysis served in analysing these processes through complex and stratified examination. It also involved understanding of the various connections the aspirations are able to produce. This approach enabled the women’s desired subjectivities to be read beyond being oppressed, but neither as ready-formed and defined parts of the religious community or as fractional or self-contradictory. Rather, the formations were understood as changing, complex and shared. With the Laestadian women’s contributions to the data and with the assistance of feminist poststructuralist theory and methods, I argue that the Laestadian women’s desired formations of subjectivity are complex in the sense that they vary in their connectedness and separation to the community, but also always function both within and beyond the given positions of a sister and a mother.
  • Murmann, Maximilian (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The present thesis investigates the syntagmatic relations of certain Finnish emotion verbs that are formed by the derivational suffix -ua/-yä (e.g. suuttua ‘get angry’, pelästyä ‘get frightened). Prototypically, the suffix expresses reflexivity, but in the case of the “inchoative” emotion verbs, it indicates a change of state on behalf of the experiencer, from a non-emotional state to an emotional state. The starting point of the investigation is a discussion of different psychological theories of emotion. The discussion shows that constructivist theories particularly emphasize the role of language and offer several links to the cognitive, usage-based model of language that constitutes the theoretical framework guiding the thesis. With regard to the usage-based model, special focus will be put on the status of argument structures and the categorization of words. Furthermore, the work draws on theoretical and methodological insights from corpus linguistics, which is concerned with the description of linguistic data on the basis of large text collections. The methodology chapter will present some of the most central corpus linguistic concepts, as well as several forms of co-occurrence analysis adapted in order to investigate the syntagmatic relations of the verbs in question. The empirical part of the study makes use of the Suomi24 corpus, which is based on the eponymous Finnish discussion forum. Prior to the analyses, the corpus was queried for the twenty most frequent inchoative emotion verbs. The results of the first analysis, where the focus has been put on argument realization (e.g. suuttua jostakin ‘get angry about something’ vs. pelästyä jotakin ‘get frightened by something’), suggests that the distribution of the different argument realization patterns only partially reflects semantic similarities among the verbs. In the second analysis, the main interest was the causes or stimuli provoking particular emotional states (e.g. suuttua kritiikistä ‘get angry about criticism’ vs. pelästyä ääntä ‘get frightened by noise’). The collexeme analysis used in this context leads to the conclusion that emotion verbs with similar semantics also co-occur with similar stimulus nouns. These semantic preferences can be related to different aspects of the stimuli, such as their ontology (e.g. rakastua ‘fall in love’ + human beings), particular topics (e.g. huolestua ‘get worried’ + health) or other semantic characteristics related to them (e.g. yllättyä ‘get surprised’ + expectations). Thus, the quantitative methods used in the present work lead to results that cannot be obtained by exclusively relying on a qualitative analysis.
  • Weigel, Anna Lena (not decided yet, 2018)
    The starting point of this study is the thesis that the Internet has not only altered the way we live, communicate, and think, but that it (along with other new media) has also breathed new life into the contemporary book market. We are in the midst of a paradigm shift in writing and reading novels, which has been triggered by medialization and digitalization processes. More and more 21st-century writers invoke new media in their literary texts and explore the limits of the novel as a medium by using intermedial and transmedial storytelling techniques. Because the media landscape and the book market are changing rapidly, new literary experiments are cropping up nearly every day. One primary goal of this study was to give a broad and extensive overview of the manifold tendencies in contemporary writings that are influenced by the Internet and new media on a thematic, structural, and transmedial level. This study therefore contributes to the ongoing debates on intermediality studies, transmedia storytelling, and genre theory, filling the gap in the area of intermedial and transmedial relations between 21st-century novels and new media. To contextualize this interdisciplinary study with regard to contemporary scholarship, I have combined text-centered with transgeneric, transmedial, and cultural-oriented approaches from literary, cultural, and media studies, and have focused on three main concepts—namely, ‘intermediality’, ‘transmedia storytelling’, and ‘genre/generic change’. In the theoretical section, I develop intermedial, transmedial, and genre-based frameworks and propose analytical catego¬ries which not only help to systematize the manifold new tendencies in contemporary writings, but also serve as useful tools for the analysis of ‘fictions of the Internet’. In this study, I use the label ‘fictions of the Internet’ in three ways: first, to describe cultural, medial, and ideological fictions and myths surrounding the Internet that masquerade as truth while actually being false; second, to refer to literary fictions that thematize and critically reflect on such fictions of the Internet age; and finally, I use the term as a generic label to subsume all the innovative 21st-century novels that deal with the Internet and new media on a thematic, structural, and trans¬medial level. By looking at seven in-depth case studies and considering 150 primary works that fall under the category of ‘fictions of the Internet’, it becomes clear that intermedial and transmedial storytelling techniques are not isolated phenomena—rather, they form an integral part of contemporary fiction. Based on the findings in the analysis chapters, ‘fictions of the Internet’ have creatively responded to the changing media landscape with regard to their content, form, materiality, technological support, and interactive and participatory features. The generic field of ‘fictions of the Internet’ is still in the process of development and could potentially change with new technological advances and with each new literary experiment. Although the designation of new genres is a difficult endeavor, I suggest new generic terms for literary innovations that are related to the Internet and new media: ‘psychological Internet thriller’, ‘Facebook novel’, ‘Internet satire’, ‘multimedia Internet novel’, ‘Internet-enhanced detective, thriller, and mystery novel’. Admittedly, all these labels are preliminary, but there are encouraging signs that they might have the potential to achieve acceptance in literary scholarship and develop into full-fledged genres in the years to come.
  • Karhu, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    In this doctoral dissertation, I provide a systematic analysis of the role of social norms in the thought of philosopher and feminist theorist, Judith Butler. More specifically, I investigate the way in which Butler theorizes the relationship between norms and violence in light of her notions of critique and resistance. The key argument of the study is that in order to understand the wide range of topics that Butler addresses in her work—such as gender normalization, the critique of violence, ethical responsiveness, and the biopolitical regulation of life—we need to pay close attention to her account of norms. Although Butler’s theorization of norms has begun to attract increasing scholarly interest, a thorough analysis of the topic has not yet been written. In order to fill this gap in previous research, my dissertation offers the first monograph-length study that explicates the problematic of norms in Butler’s thought. My study seeks to answer the following questions: What is the role of norms in Butler’s work? How does Butler conceptualize the relationship between norms, violence, and nonviolence? How should we understand critique, transformation, and resistance in the midst of norms? What are the ethical and political implications of Butler’s notion of norms? I respond to these questions by examining Butler’s theorization of norms through what I call her twofold understanding of norms. I argue that on the one hand Butler theorizes norms as mechanisms of social power that violently regulate the field of recognizable subjects, bodies, and lives, but on the other hand she conceptualizes norms in terms of the possibility of critical change and resistance. I illustrate Butler’s twofold notion of norms through four key topics, which I have organized into four main chapters. First, by examining Butler’s often-neglected feminist theoretical background in the thought of Monique Wittig, I argue that her conception of the relationship between norms and violence critically builds on Wittig’s argument that normative heterosexuality can be understood as a form of discursive violence. Second, through explicating Butler’s conception of gender normalization vis-à-vis her generally overlooked discussions of transgender embodiment and livability, I challenge recent arguments that feminists should get rid of the concept of gender. By introducing the concept of “trans livability” I highlight Butler’s work as a contribution to trans-affirmative feminist theory. Third, by challenging the general tendency to interpret Butler as a critical humanist, I demonstrate that she puts forward a critique of anthropocentrism that offers insights into problematizing the speciesist norms that uphold not only the human-animal binary but also differentiates between livable and killable nonhuman animals. Finally, by foregrounding Butler’s psychoanalytic account of grief in terms of her critique of norms, I argue that her discussion of the normative separation between grievable and ungrievable lives does not represent a turn away from politics as many critics have argued. I contend that her account of grievability must instead be understood as a theorization of resistance. Taken together, all the four chapters of my dissertation highlight Butler’s theorization of norms as a practice of feminist critique. By elucidating the relationship between norms, violence, and social change, my study emphasizes the close relationship between feminist and queer practices of political resistance and the critique of norms.
  • Caiazza, Ida (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Love Epistolography of the XVI and XVII Centuries. The Evolution of a Literary Genre This thesis examines the Libri di lettere amorose (love letter collections) printed in Italy in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries by authors and collectors who sought to offer a literary product to the public. The “Love letter books” (as they are usually known) have generally been considered as a sub-category within the “Letter books” genre, inaugurated by Aretino's Primo libro in 1538, which merged in into the “Secretary” genre in the early decades of the seventeenth century. However, this is an inadequate way of classifying the love letter collections. Unlike the Lettere familiari (letters between friends or relatives) and Lettere di negozi (official letters), the love letter collections are characterised by a communicative intent which implies a relationship between sender and recipient entirely different to that of friendly or official correspondence. Moreover, they reference the tradition of erotic literature and reveal themselves to be open to the development of narrative impulses. The aim of this study is to provide an accurate classification of these works, which should be defined as an autonomous development of the sixteenth-century discourse on love. Together they form part of a broader pattern made up of the diverse guises assumed by the European epistolary love novel. The works that make up this corpus (identified according to specific literary criteria outlined within this study) are described in an attempt to identify their specificity. Their relationship with literary tradition is examined, and the possible presence of narrative tendencies identified. This study seeks to trace the evolution of the genre and map out the corpus according to chronological-typological “categories”. In doing so, it provides an exhaustive and up-to-date inventory of the love letter collections. The picture that emerges is of a varied whole, united by a clearly identifiable common core. The unique characteristic of the works is their very structure, consisting of letters exchanged between lovers, which renders the reader a participant in their love affair as it unfolds, like a diary in several voices. Finally, despite their stylistic variety, certain topoi found in previous and subsequent love epistolary works are almost always present in these collections, highlighting the deeply-rooted literary awareness at play in the exchange of letters between lovers.
  • Kangaskoski, Matti (Unigrafia, 2017)
    This study concentrates on reading digital poetry. Reading entails the act of reading, strategies of analysis, and the means of understanding. Specifically, this study constructs a model of reading and interpreting poetry in digital form by close analysis of three complex case studies. Broadly, this study concerns the aesthetic means and meanings of poetry in the contemporary moment, where new and old media are in visible negotiation with each other. In digital poetry artistic expression, digital media, technology and cultural practices clash and combine to produce new poetic forms. With new forms of poetry come new challenges to reading, analysis, and interpretation. Digital poetry presents new material, literary, technical, and rhetorical strategies and techniques that offer novel possibilities – and restrictions – for reading. Thus, my broad question is: How do we read digital poetry? This broad question is broken down to a subset of research questions. These deal with the material medium, readerly action, and the processes of the poem, which are all to be seen as constituent of its effects and meanings. In answering these questions, I construct a new model for reading digital poetry. The model is distilled from my close readings of the case studies. The readings are literary, cultural, media-historical and media-specific. The background methodology for the investigation comes from the notion of close reading (sensu Culler 2010; Simanowski 2011; Pressman 2014). My reading model consists of three main elements: interface, interaction, and interpretation. I further divide the interface into elements of data (e.g. text, music, images), processes (e.g. temporal control, text generation), and medium (as material and conceptual). Interaction consists of logic, performance, and effect, which designate the mode of engagement with the work, the joint performance of the poem and the reader, and the effects these produce. Interpretation includes the articulation of effects and meanings. Whereas the effects are created in interaction with the work, articulating them is seen as part of interpretation. Interpretation includes the articulation of the meanings and connections the poem invites. In other words, the poem’s interface guides the concrete act of reading, interaction guides the reader’s mode of engagement with the interface, and interpretation guides the means of understanding what is read. The case studies renegotiate the interrelated and overlapping arenas of print and digital poetry, old and new media, and traditional and digital literary criticism. The first includes Cia Rinne’s zaroum (2001), archives zaroum (2008; with Christian Yde Frostholm) and notes for soloists (2009). The second is Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries’ Dakota (2002). And the third is Stephanie Strickland’s “V-project”, which includes two print books (V:WaveSon.nets /Losing L’Una 2002; V: WaveTercets /Losing L’Una 2014) two web applications (V:Vniverse Shockwave application 2002 with Cynthia Lawson-Jaramillo; Errand Upon Which We Came 2001; with M. D. Coverley), and an iPad application (Vniverse 2014; with Ian Hatcher). The emphasis in the case studies is on examining strategies of reading and interpretation as well as producing new readings and interpretations of the poetry in question. I investigate the interdependence of traditional print-based and emerging digital strategies of reading poetry, and combine print-based scholarly approaches with digital-based scholarship.
  • Immanen, Mikko (Unigrafia, 2017)
    As prominent figures in continental philosophy, both Martin Heidegger and the Frankfurt School critical theorists Theodor W. Adorno, Max Horkheimer, and Herbert Marcuse have all been studied extensively. However, there has been little interest in a comparative approach toward these giants of twentieth-century European thought. This is understandable considering that during their lifetimes the relationship between Heidegger and the neo-Marxist Frankfurt School thinkers was mostly hostile or ignorant. Heidegger never commented on the critical theorists in his published works, and after World War II the German Jewish critical theorists attacked Heidegger’s refusal to apologize for his Nazi politics as symptomatic of the wider German incapacity to come to terms with the past. While this antagonistic image reigns widely today, recent years have seen attempts to disclose unexpected parallels in Heidegger’s and Frankfurt School’s post-war concerns about “oblivion of being” and “dialectic of enlightenment” and in their emphasis on aesthetic experience as an antidote to the one-dimensionality of the modern technological mindset. Although inspired by these philosophical openings, this thesis focuses on the overlooked Weimar period, and, using the methods of intellectual history, shows that during their philosophically formative years in 1927–1933 – also the period between the publication of Heidegger’s magnum opus, "Being and Time," and his Nazi turn – Adorno, Horkheimer, and Marcuse saw Heidegger’s promise of philosophical concreteness as a serious, if flawed, effort to make philosophy relevant to life again. Rather than claiming that Heidegger influenced the critical theorists in a positive way, as Marx and Freud for instance did, the thesis argues that the critical theorists saw Heidegger’s existentialism as the most provocative challenge and competitor to their nascent materialist diagnoses of the discontents and prospects of European modernity. Demonstrating Heidegger’s surprising presence in the works of the twentieth century’s most important leftist social theorists, the thesis not only offers a groundbreaking historical reconstruction of the Frankfurt School’s unacknowledged early confrontation with their later arch-enemy, but also contributes to our understanding of Heidegger’s major impact on twentieth-century philosophy, an impact hitherto reconstructed by studies on his influence on key French, American, and Jewish thinkers.
  • Koivusalo, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    This study examines honor and honorable emotional expressions in the nineteenth-century American South. I argue that honor was a behavior that facilitated emotional expression in three ways: recognizing acceptable emotions; navigating in society by expressing acceptable emotions; and identifying and achieving life goals. This can be seen in the life and political career of James Chesnut, Jr. (1815–1885), a prominent southern statesman. This study also approaches southern society more broadly. First, I suggest that rather than an unequivocal or static code, the prevailing idea of honor was shaped by multiple individual interpretations of honor. Individuals had to constantly recalibrate their notion of honor to coincide with other peoples’ notions of honor. Second, I propose that honor was a tool for identifying and expressing appropriate emotions. I have used James Chesnut as a case study because his life choices and actions can be read as responses to the requirements of southern honor and prevailing emotional guidelines. I use specific examples of the use of honor as a guideline. I discuss how parents inculcated a sense of honor in their sons, inducing young men to develop an understanding of honor and to recognize honorable emotional expression. Later, as adults, men had to acknowledge the requirements of honor in every life choice and action. I propose that honor helped Southerners formulate and express emotions: instead of displaying the raw emotions of the private sphere, one was expected to demonstrate their noble counterparts, the emotions of the public sphere. I also suggest that the unstable nature of honor was most obvious in times of crisis, such as during the Civil War and Reconstruction. Then, the role of honor and the importance of honor-related emotional expression intensified. Because of major changes in society, however, individual goals changed and the necessity to forcefully alter the understanding of honor arose. This work is a conceptual study: it examines the features of honor in a specific context, the nineteenth-century American South. It is, nonetheless, also a study on the history of emotions, exploring southern emotionologies or emotion repertoires. Textual analysis is, therefore, especially important for this study which examines how emotional expression was formulated into words.
  • McKeough, Andreas (Työväen historian ja perinteen tutkimuksen seura, 2017)
    A War Reprocessed Through Writing. A Study on the Narrative Processing of Experience in First-person Narratives on the Finnish Civil War In my doctoral dissertation I have studied archived writings – memoirs, diaries and an autobiography – depicting the Finnish Civil War fought in the winter and spring of 1918. The war, fought between the socialistic “Reds”, mostly of working-class background, and the politically bourgeoisie “Whites“, led to over 36,000 casualties and is still regarded as one of the most traumatic periods in the history of the nation. The Whites won the war and gained control of its official historical presentation and commemoration. My research focuses on first-person narration of the war in texts written between 1918 and 1937, in a time period from the Civil War to the years just before the Second World War. The data of the study consists of texts by 6 “White” and 6 “Red” narrators. I have analyzed each text thoroughly and then utilized a comparative view-point. My main analytical focus is threefold. Firstly I have looked at the ideosyncrasies of each text: their themes, style and intentions of narration, and key experiences. Then I have analyzed the “socio-cultural structuring” of the texts; the ways and means in which the narrators refer to social and cultural, often ideological knowledge and depict it in their texts when describing and interpreting their personal experiences, as well as the Civil War in general. Thirdly I have compared the texts to gain insight into the narrative processing of personal, hard-to-grasp, even traumatic experiences of the war, and the structuring of narrated experience. To do so, I have categorized the texts according to the narrative strategies the narrators employ, examined the qualities of narrated experience, analyzed the effect of the distance to the narrated events, and looked at the social and cultural contexts of narration. Finally, on the basis of my three-fold analysis, I have elicited the narratorsʼ modes of perceiving the Civil War and the ideological knowledge affecting these personal, yet culture-linked perceptions. I established that both the narrative processing of experience and the ideological comprehension which the narrators convey with their texts are determined mainly by two factors: the key experiences of the war and the cultural background of the narrators. Furthermore, the intentions of narration are closely linked to the genre of writing, collective historical interpretations of the war, and the social and political contexts of narration. The victorious Whites wrote prolifically of the war shortly after it, to shape and fortify their ideological interpretations and unity. This became the culturally hegemonic “master narrative“ of the Civil War. The Reds, who lost the war and had to pay dearly for their loss, write both to process their traumatic experiences and to contest this aforementioned master narrative.
  • Selin, Sinikka (Nuorisotutkimusverkosto/Nuorisotutkimusseura, 2017)
    Young people s educational decisions and entrance into the labour market are constantly topical issues, perhaps partly because one can only guess what the future labour market will be like. Educational and occupational decisions have wide and far-reaching consequences in an individual s life. These decisions are influenced by the social structure, but at the same time they shape social development. The study at hand deals with Finnish young people s educational and occupational aspirations in the rapidly changing society of the 1950s and 1960s. The study analyses and demonstrates how gender, family background and educational history influenced what the young people perceived as possible, desirable and/or likely to happen in their lives. The sample group for the study consisted of 15 17-year-olds who were finishing mandatory schooling in the capital of Finland, Helsinki. The main source material comprised vocational guidance counselling forms that the young people had completed. Documents for 1,350 young people were sampled from three periods (1950, 1960 and 1968 1971). The data were analysed with descriptive statistics to form a general view of the phenomenon. To explain the observations more deeply, smaller groups and individuals were analysed. In Helsinki, the diverse economic structure and ample schooling options at the time offered many alternatives. The young people s opportunities and willingness to seize upon them were, however, constrained by many factors. The selective school system divided the pupils into two cohorts when the children were 10 years old. The family s social class was strongly related to this division. The mostly middle-class young people in theoretically oriented secondary schools had wider education and employment options to choose from than the young people in more practically oriented elementary schools. The family s economic, cultural and social capital outlined and channelled the young people s perceptions of education and working life as well as their attitudes towards the different options available to them. Further, their plans strictly adhered to a gendered division of trades. The environment in which the young people were considering their future was being revolutionised by many changes: the transformation of economic and occupational structures, rapidly developing technology, a rising standard of living, an increasing emphasis on occupational skills, improvements in social security, and married women becoming more and more frequently employed. The significance and demand for formal education increased substantially in the 1950s and 1960s, and both secondary school and occupational education became more popular. Work was central to young people s aspirations in the early 1950s, but during the next two decades it gave way to education. Vocational guidance counselling went through a change as well, and here the young people s own opinions gained more importance. As part of the slowly emerging individualisation, young people functioned more as independent actors instead of being entirely dependent on the family. The rapid and forceful societal change expanded the scope of the young people s educational and occupational aspirations both qualitatively and quantitatively. At the same time, it increased young people s uncertainty regarding the future. Keywords: vocational guidance counselling, young people, education, choice of a career, aspiration, Helsinki, 1950s, 1960s, societal change, selective school system, social class, gender
  • Kemppi, Hanna (Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistys, 2017)
    This dissertation examines the complex and sensitive issue of shaping a Finnish style for Orthodox church architecture in Finland in the interwar period 1918 1939. It is argued in the dissertation that the phenomenon of effacing the Russianness of Orthodox church architecture of Finland proceeded in two stages and, in its entirety, was more complex than previously assumed. Firstly, the dissertation explores the growing anti-Russian atmosphere during and shortly after the Civil War of 1918 and measures taken against unwanted Orthodox cultural heritage in Finland. In particular, the garrison churches of the Russian Imperial Army were explicated as disfiguring objects representing foreign influence in Finnish national culture that had to be cleaned away by eliminating them from the landscape. Secondly, the plans and realisation of creating a Karelian-Finnish style for Orthodox church architecture in the 1920s and 1930s are investigated, revealing designs commissioned from architect Veikko Kyander by the Orthodox Church of Finland. The research reconstructs the Orthodox church architecture of the period with the mapping of 21 churches and chapels built in Finland in the interwar years. The core actors in demarcating the Finnish style included not only church authorities but also antiquarian and state authorities. The analysis of the plans and realisation of the churches and chapels shows the significance of negative choice and the great impact of the building authorities in creating suitable de-Russified designs. It appears that the Finnish style was based on the eclecticism of contemporary Finnish architecture. The analysis of the new ascetic chapel interiors of the Border Karelia region reveals in concrete terms the poor financial situation of the congregations, but it also seems to imply a new uncluttered way of organising the interior. On the other hand, the interiors were based on ecclesiastical artefacts of Russian origin. There was thus a significant dichotomy between the foreign interior and the Finnish national exterior. It seems that also the first example of a new vernacular Karelian-style wooden chapel (1937) was planned by the state building authorities, despite the fact that it was based on a direct traditional vernacular Karelian model. Moreover, it seems that the discourse on the Byzantine roots of the Orthodox heritage in Finland already emerged in the 1930s although it has been prominent after the Second World War. In addition, it is pointed out in the dissertation that despite the dominance of the Finnish discourse it seems that in isolated cases the Orthodox church architecture of the 1930s reflected the influence of Russia Abroad.
  • Tarkka-Robinson, Laura (2017)
    Abstract This thesis examines the construction of national characters during the Enlightenment period. The aim of the thesis is to show how eighteenth-century writers employed the notion of nations as characters in intercultural exchanges, for the benefit of their own particular nation and of themselves. Focusing on the transnational career of the Hanoverian scholar Rudolf Erich Raspe (1736-1794), the author argues that while late eighteenth-century Enlightenment culture promoted material progress and emphasised the importance of disseminating knowledge, it also nurtured national particularism, because progress was often represented with the help of national characters. Following Raspe s career through the period from the Seven Years War to the French Revolution and from the German Electorate of Hanover to the extremities of the United Kingdom, the study examines nationally-oriented argumentation in both learned discourses and the world of improvement and industry. It combines a biographical focus with methods from contextual intellectual history and textual analysis to demonstrate that the language of nations could serve the specific purposes of individual writers, but, as a complex web of historically intertwined references, it could not be kept entirely in control. On the whole, the study considers the eighteenth-century construction of national characters as cultural transfer, because this practice always defined cultures interactively and relative to each other. The various debates surrounding Raspe s career reveal how it was possible for him to use the language of nations to his advantage, and how he also faced difficulties due to stereotypes inherent to such language. Drawing on both private correspondence and printed material relating to the transnational context of the Anglo-Hanoverian personal union, the dissertation not only recognises the significance of the national rhetoric in eighteenth-century writing, but also seeks to illuminate the specific circumstances in which it was used.
  • Katto, Jonna (2017)
    This study is about the shifting landscape perceptions and senses of socio-spatial belonging in the life narratives of female ex-combatants in the northwestern province of Niassa. Between 1964 and 1974 thousands of young people in the rural areas of northern Mozambique were mobilized by the guerrilla army FRELIMO to fight against Portuguese colonial rule. Hundreds of girls and young women also became engaged as guerrilla fighters in FRELIMO s political-military campaign for national independence. My study explores the relationship between FRELIMO nationalism and the female bodies that it sought to represent and mobilize. It is based on twelve months of multi-sited fieldwork among Ciyaawo-speaking communities in northern Niassa between 2012 and 2014. My main research material consists of life history interviews with thirty-four female ex-combatants. Bringing feminist scholarship on nationalism and spatial theorizing in conversation, this study problematizes the concept of space often reproduced in feminist scholarship on nationalism. I argue that this notion of space builds on an understanding of a dichotomous relationship between space/time and male/female. Moreover, space conceptualized as feminine is defined as stasis and in binary opposition to masculine time and history. While these notions often implicitly shape the histories of gendered nationalism that we write, they seldom receive explicit analytical attention. This is the analytical task to which my research has sought to contribute. In my analysis of the female ex-combatants sense of socio-spatial belonging, I have worked on a concept of lived landscape . It draws from Doreen Massey s theorization of space-time, the notion of the lived gendered body in feminist phenomenology, and Henri Lefebvre s spatial triad. I suggest that as a concept, lived landscape allows us to look beyond teleological narratives of liberation (/ oppression ), and explore the women s life trajectories as non-linear spatial histories. Lived landscape , moreover, allows us to interrogate the in-between , that is, the ways that discourse and materiality intersect, the personal and national intertwine, and body and landscape shape each other. It is in this in-betweenness that I also locate and conceptualize belonging. Belonging is not a subjective experience but is shaped and negotiated in a multiscalar, reciprocal relationship between body and world. As my analysis shows, aesthetic sensibility (which following Arnold Berleant denotes sensory engagement) is deeply intertwined with the ex-combatants experiences of socio-spatial attachment/detachment. It influences the way belonging is negotiated at different scales (e.g. nation, province, village, family, and globe). In the female ex-combatants narratives, the national often intertwines with the personal in a violent relationship, evoking what I call the haptics of the bush. Still, the Mozambique that emerges from the ex-combatants narratives is not a homogenous, unified landscape; it is perceived as consisting of multiple and unequal landscapes that are valued according to different scales of beauty. Apart from enriching our understanding of the gendered history of the liberation struggle in Mozambique and informing discussions in feminist theory on gender and nationalism, this interdisciplinary research contributes to the study of the body and sensory experiences in war memories/histories and the political field, moreover, to the study of African landscape histories.
  • Säämänen, Juuso (Maanpuolustuskorkeakoulu, 2017)
    From the Threat of a Large-scale Landing to Repelling a Strategic Strike The Development of Finland s Naval Defence from the Continuation War to the 1960 s This research explains how Finland s ability to repel landing operations developed from the end of the Continuation War to 1966 when the Defence Forces adopted the territorial defence doctrine. The development of this ability is examined on the basis of war experiences, threat estimates, operational plans, procurement plans and the changes that took place in Finnish naval and coastal warfare tactics. The research method is the traditional method in history research: the research problem has been solved qualitatively by analyzing and comparing the chosen sources. The sources are mostly primary sources, the most important being the Defence Forces Archives stored in the National Archives and articles in military publications. The development of the Finnish Navy s ability to repel landing operations happened in three stages during 1944 - 1966. The end of the 1940 s was a time of uncertainty and unestablished planning principles. The early 1950 s was a period of adjustment. Long-term development began in the mid 1950 s. The work was done by General Staff Officers or naval and coastal artillery officers who had worked in command positions. They wrote memorandums, articles and research which later developed into development programs, field manuals and operational plans. The principles of how to develop the ability to repel landing operations began to take form at the beginning of the 1950 s as the decision to adopt a new peacetime organization had been made. The decision to merge the coastal forces with the Army temporarily interrupted the development of coastal warfare tactics and organizations. Also, a strong naval defence was no longer considered necessary since an attack by western countries - the prevailing threat scenario since the end of the 1940 s - had become a theoretical possibility by the beginning of the 1950 s. Long-term work to develop the ability to repel landing operations began in the middle of the 1950 s. It was mostly based on up-to-date operational plans as well as the development of operational art and tactics. Materiel procurement was considered secondary since it did not enable defensive warfare against a numerically superior enemy. In addition, the quite modest procurement budget of the Defence Forces forced to focus the effort on operational art. Despite the poor starting point, by the mid 1960 s the Defence Forces was able to conduct coordinated repelling operations. All the services were capable of joint action both in the planning and practical phase of operations.

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