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  • Ojanperä, Riitta (Valtion taidemuseo / Kuvataiteen keskusarkisto, 2010)
    The doctoral dissertation Critic Einari J. Vehmas and Modern Art deals with one of the central figures of the Finnish art scene and his work as an art critic, art museum curator and cultural critic. The main body of research material consists of the writings of Einari J. Vehmas (1902 1980) from 1937 to the late 1960s. Vehmas wrote art reviews for magazines, and from the year 1945 he was a regular art critic for one of the major newspapers in Finland. Vehmas was heavily inclined towards French literature and visual arts. Marcel Proust and Charles Baudelaire influenced his views on the nature of art from the late 1920s onwards. Vehmas is commonly regarded as the most influential art critic of post-war Finland. His writings have been referred to and cited in numerous research papers on Finnish 20th-century art. A lesser known aspect of his work is his position as the deputy director of the Ateneum Art Museum, the Finnish national gallery. Through his art museum work, his opinions also shaped the canon of modern art considered particularly Finnish following the second world war. The main emphasis of the dissertation is on studying Vehmas s writings, but it also illustrates the diversity of his involvement in Finnish cultural life through biographical documents. The long chronological span of the dissertation emphasises how certain central themes accumulate in Vehmas s writings. The aim of the dissertation is also to show how strongly certain philosophical and theoretical concepts from the early 20th century, specifically Wassily Kandinsky s principle of inner necessity and Henri Bergson s epistemology highlighting intuition and instinct, continued to influence the Finnish art discourse even in the early 1960s, in part thanks to the writings of Vehmas. Throughout his production, Vehmas contemplated the state and future of modern art and humanity. Vehmas used a colourful, vitalistic rhetoric to emphasise the role of modern art as a building block of culture and humanity. At the same time, however, he was a cultural pessimist whose art views became infused with anxiety, a sense of loss, and a desire to turn his back on the world.
  • Katajamäki, Sakari (ntamo, 2016)
    Kukunor. Dream and the tradition of nonsense literature in Lauri Viitaʼs long poem This study examines Lauri Viita s (1916 1965) long poem Kukunor. Satu ihmislapsille [‛Koko Nor. A fairy tale for human children ] (1949) and its dream features from the perspective of the European tradition of literary nonsense. Here nonsense literature is defined as language-centred and play- or game-like literature, which balances meaning or a multiplicity of meaning with an absence of meaning. Usually, nonsense literature is topsy-turvy and self-reflective and it frequently represents emotions that are at odds with current events. In addition to earlier research on nonsense literature, the present study uses the three most canonical European nonsense writers Edward Lear, Lewis Carroll and Christian Morgenstern as the corpus for defining and analysing this literary genre. This study analyses the kind of relations Kukunorʼs dream features (i.e., structures and themes connected with dreaming) have with its nonsensical features. It examines Viitaʼs long poem from several structural and thematic perspectives. Most of the essential structural phenomena analysed in this survey include topsy-turvydom, palimpsest structures, and autocentricity. Other topics of analysis include epistemological matters and the instability of the subject or its identity. The main linguistic research themes of this study focus on anomalies regarding referentiality and arbitrariness, the concreteness of language and literature, and linguistic generation. The epithet dream has seen repeated use in the context of nonsense literature, and many surveys have dealt with the relations between dreaming and nonsense, though not in depth. Thus, this study is both an analysis of Viitaʼs long poem and a survey of the interrelation between dreams and nonsensicality in the European canon of literary nonsense. The present study argues that many confusing or incoherent features in Kukunor embody many structures of dreams and nonsense literature. The survey of these intertwining structural, stylistic and thematic characteristics helps to perceive Viitaʼs long poem and the relations between its parts in new ways. Contrary to the view of Elizabeth Sewellʼs eminent book The Field of Nonsense (1952), the key features of the nonsense genre correspond in various ways with many characteristics of dreaming. In Kukunor, Lauri Viita masters both the structural features of dreaming and the poetics of nonsense literature. Kukunor is exceptional among Viita s literary works, but analysing it offers new perspectives for understanding Viita s entire oeuvre.
  • Koski, Kaarina (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2011)
    Powers of Death. Church-väki in the Finnish Folk Belief Tradition Folk belief tradition can be defined as a communication system in which the truth value of traditional motifs is judged by their usefulness and applicability. According to the Finnish belief tradition, a substance of power called väki resides in sacred elements and in entities which vitally affect human life. Väki is both ritually avoided and harnessed for beneficial or malevolent purposes. The powers of church and death merge in church-väki, which, in beliefs and narratives, emerges when the boundary between the living and the dead is crossed or violated. In rural societies where the relationship to the dying and the deceased was close, the church-väki tradition was relevant and productive. This study is based on approximately 2700 units of archived material from thel late 19th and early 20th centuries narratives, rite descriptions, and linguistic data. It explicates the concept of church-väki, presents the background of the tradition, and analyses narratives, their meanings, and their role in early modern world view. It also explores how the concept was used when constructing social boundaries and handling otherness in the early modern Finland. The theoretic emphasis is on conceptual and genre analysis, narrativity, as well as the multiple meanings and uses of folklore motifs. Descriptions of church-väki vary from it being an invisible force to a crowd of beings and decomposing corpses. The author defines church-väki as a fuzzy concept with three prototypical cores and several names, most of which are polysemous. Polysemous words connect church-väki with for example ghosts and devils, unkempt people, and vermin, constructing a loose paradigm of supernatural and social otherness. Folklore genres of the studied narratives range from stories of personal experience to fabulates. The taleworlds and their content range from realistic (near) to extraordinary (distant). The distance between the taleworld and reality has concrete (local and temporal), narrative, and normative aspects. Distant taleworlds often follow an ontology different than in real life, although the narratives may be carefully linked to reality. Instead of being fictive, they show what would be expected outside the socially constructed everyday order. Methods of narratology are applied to coherent legends, which locate dramatic events in distant taleworlds. Linguistic genres, based on structure, function here as narrative registers of folklore genres.
  • Heikkilä, Elina (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2006)
    The study focuses on picture captions: their grammar and interplay with photographs and their position as semi-independent elements of the news stories. The research was conducted in the framework of critical discourse analysis, social semiotic visual theory and fennistic syntactical research. The data consist of 441 press photographs, 1,815 captions and a number of news items from Finnish dailies. The generic structure potential of the caption includes the caption headline, the caption proper, i.e. the verbalization of the picture content, and the frame. In the data, 41 per cent of the captions have a headline, and 44 per cent contain a caption proper. Characteristic of the caption proper is omission of the finite verb and the use of the present tense, both of which have decreased in Finnish papers during the 20th century. The caption proper is typically a main clause, and both subordinate clauses and participal phrases occur mostly in the frame. While comparing caption variants attached to the same pictures, the processes and their participants proved to be identified considerably identically, following the news agency captions. Instead, the reader?s interpretations of a picture could be directed by framing it in different ways. For example, the caption may focus on the only person depicted, deal with a whole group, or give an abstract account of the situation. The caption is a paratext, a typographically marked, semi-independent element of a news story. Between the headline and the caption, four semantic relations have been identified. The caption may be a paraphrase of the headline, or a close-up illustrating an abstract headline with a concrete example. If the name of the person depicted is their only common factor, the relation between the caption and the headline is additive. A specifying caption will give more details than the headline. The caption may complete, repeat, or summarize the body copy. Naturally, most captions completing the story verbalize the content of the picture. As the caption is often based on the story, it may even repeat the body copy verbatim. The summarizing function is probably becoming increasingly important, as most Finnish newspapers have abandoned the use of a separate standfirst.
  • Tossavainen, Mari (Suomen Tiedeseura, 2012)
    Sculptor's Work: Emil Wikström and the Infrastructure of Sculpture 1890-1920 This doctoral dissertation examines a sculptor´s work in the context of the formation of art infrastructures, collaborations, and the practice and profession of sculpture. In this study, Emil Wikström (1864-1942) is a major exemplary case through which to understand the practice and profession of sculpture in Finland. Wikström is especially famous for his monuments, and he has had a reputation as a 'dominant master' in the Finnish sculpture at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Earlier, he has mainly been regarded as a favourite artist of the Finnish-minded circles. However, this study shows that, in addition to a national obligation, he also felt a strong professional duty to develop Finnish art life and the professional status of sculptors. This study opens new perspectives on Finnish sculpture by showing, for instance, that Wikström was an early advocate of copyright legislation. Theoretically and methodologically, this study is connected with the current discussion in the field of art history, and it builds principally on an institutional and art sociological approach. The research is based on primary sources, including sculptors' professional correspondence and the documents of statue committees. Wikström entered the difficult and undervalued profession of sculpture in the end of 19th century. The foundations of the Finnish sculpture institution were laid in the years 1890-1920, and sculptors' professional identity and efforts began to emerge in many ways. Their work was being transformed, for instance, by contracts, art education, art foundries, new associations and publicity. This study also underlines the fact that, as stated by Wikström, sculpture is connected with place. Wikström played a decisive part in forming the image of the sculptor's profession and building up the infrastructures of sculpture in Finland. Keywords: Emil Wikström, Finnish sculptors, sculpture, art infrastructures, professional identity, monuments, late 19th century, early 20th century
  • Rausmaa, Heikki (2013)
    My doctoral thesis will investigate political relations between Finland and Estonia between the spring of 1988 and August 1991 when Estonia became independent. I will focus on Finland s policy towards Estonia, which manifested itself in white papers concerning Estonia s independence process and in governmental co-operation. I will also pay attention to the attitude of the Finnish parliament and those of Finnish political parties with Estonia. I will also explore Estonia s political aims with regard to Finland and the degree to which they were realized. The research is based on archival sources, interviews, materials of the leading organs of the political parties, and research literature. I have applied the classical scientific methods used in historical research: comparing sources, paying attention to the special characteristics of the data, and tapping my general knowledge about the context. From the summer of 1988 until early February 1990, aiming to benefit from Gorbachev s reform policy, Estonia tried to increase its national autonomy within the Soviet Union. From then on, Estonia s only goal was to bring the Soviet occupation to an end and restore the country s independence, which led to constant conflict with Moscow. Estonia sought support and help from Finland in building its new state and tried to put the question of Estonian independence onto the international agenda. Finland s foreign policy sought to support Gorbachev and maintain close relations with Moscow. On the other hand, supporting Estonia was considered to be a moral duty and public opinion put pressure on the Finnish government to help Estonia. Starting from the spring of 1989, the Finnish government supported Estonia by giving educational, professional, and material help. This aid was not well publicized, in an attempt to prevent it from receiving undue political significance. President Koivisto constantly warned Estonia not to proceed too quickly as this, it was felt, might damage Gorbachev s position both within the CPSU and the USSR. However, at the same time, Finland was providing considerable help to Estonia in the process of building up its own state. Most of Finland s political parties acted in the same way as the government of Finland: they didn t give any public support for Estonian independence but supported it in the form of practical co-operation. The only exceptions were the Greens and the Left Alliance who made their support for Estonia evident in public statements. The help provided by Finnish political parties was important especially in terms of passing on the international contacts. Finland was consciously conducting its foreign policy on two different levels: simultaneously supporting both Gorbachev and Estonia even though these two actors were pursuing diametrically opposed goals. This contradiction in Finland s policy was concealed and did not damage relations between Finland and the Soviet Union because Finland limited its support to Estonia and presented it as non-political cultural co-operation. The assistance given by Finland was of considerable help to Estonia in building up its own state institutions and gaining its independence. Therefore the common perception that Finland didn t support Estonia s independence doesn t correspond with political reality. On a practical level, Finland provided more help to Estonia than any other country.
  • Arffman, Johanna (Romaanisten kielten laitos, 2007)
    Coordination and juxtaposed sentences The object of this study is the examination of the relations between juxtaposed clauses in contemporary French. The matter in question is sentences which are composed of several clauses adjoined without a conjunction or other connector, as in: Je détournai les yeux, mon c ur se mit à battre. The aim of the study is to determine, which quality is the relation in these sentences and, on the other hand, what is the part of the coordination there. Furthermore, what is this relation of coordination, which, according to some grammars, manifests through a conjunction of coordination, but which, according to some others is marked in juxtaposed sentences through different features. The study is based on a corpus of written French from literary and journalistic text sources. Syntactic, semantic and textual properties in the clauses are discussed. The analysis points to differences so, it has been noted, in each case, if one of the clauses is affirmative and the other negative and if in the second clause, the subject has not been repeated. Also, an analysis has been made on the ground of the tense, mode, phrase structure type, and thematic structure, taking into account, in each case, if the clauses are identical or different. Punctuation has been one of the properties considered. The final aim has been to eliminate gradually, based on the partition of properties, subordinate sentences, so that only the hard core of coordinate sentences remains. In this way, the coordination could be defined similarly as the phoneme is defined as a group of distinctive features. The quantitative analyses have led to the conclusion that the sentences which, from a semantic point of view, are interpreted as coordinating, contain the least of these differences, while the sentences which can be considered as subordinating present the most of these differences. The conditions of coordination are, in that sense, hierarchical, so that the syntactic constraints have to make room for semantic, textual and cognitive factors. It is interesting to notice that everyone has the ability to produce correct coordinating structures and recognize incorrect coordinating structures. This can be explained by the human ability to categorize which has been widely researched in the semantic of prototype. The study suggests that coordination and subordination could be considered as prototypical cognitive categories based on different linguistic and pragmatic features.
  • Sairio, Anni (Gummerus Kirjapaino Oy, 2009)
    This study deals with language change and variation in the correspondence of the eighteenth-century Bluestocking circle, a social network which provided learned men and women with an informal environment for the pursuit of scholarly entertainment. Elizabeth Montagu (1718 1800), a notable social hostess and a Shakespearean scholar, was one of their key figures. The study presents the reconstruction of Elizabeth Montagu s social networks from her youth to her later years with a special focus on the Bluestocking circle, and linguistic research on private correspondence between Montagu and her Bluestocking friends and family members between the years 1738 1778. The epistolary language use is investigated using the methods and frameworks of corpus linguistics, historical sociolinguistics, and social network analysis. The approach is diachronic and concerns real-time language change. The research is based on a selection of manuscript letters which I have edited and compiled into an electronic corpus (Bluestocking Corpus). I have also devised a network strength scale in order to quantify the strength of network ties and to compare the results of the linguistic research with the network analysis. The studies range from the reconstruction and analysis of Elizabeth Montagu s most prominent social networks to the analysis of changing morphosyntactic features and spelling variation in Montagu s and her network members correspondence. The linguistic studies look at the use of the progressive construction, preposition stranding and pied piping, and spelling variation in terms of preterite and past participle endings in the regular paradigm (-ed, - d, -d, - t, -t) and full / contracted spellings of auxiliary verbs. The results are analysed in terms of social network membership, sociolinguistic variables of the correspondents, and, when relevant, aspects of eighteenth-century linguistic prescriptivism. The studies showed a slight diachronic increase in the use of the progressive, a significant decrease of the stigmatised preposition stranding and increase of pied piping, and relatively informal but socially controlled epistolary spelling. Certain significant changes in Elizabeth Montagu s language use over the years could be attributed to her increasingly prominent social standing and the changes in her social networks, and the strength of ties correlated strongly with the use of the progressive in the Bluestocking Corpus. Gender, social rank, and register in terms of kinship/friendship had a significant influence in language use, and an effect of prescriptivism could also be detected. Elizabeth Montagu s network ties resulted in language variation in terms of network membership, her own position in a given network, and the social factors that controlled eighteenth-century interaction. When all the network ties are strong, linguistic variation seems to be essentially linked to the social variables of the informants.
  • Henriksson, Laura (Suomen Musiikkitieteellinen Seura, 2015)
    Summary Vocal humour and critique in the couplet recordings by J. Alfred Tanner, Matti Jurva, Reino Helismaa, Juha Vainio and Veikko Lavi The aim of this study is to research the lyrics and singing styles of five Finnish couplet singers who are connected to the Finnish schlager tradition. The material-oriented study is performed by analyzing altogether 160 couplet recordings sung by J. Alfred Tanner, Matti Jurva, Reino Helismaa, Juha Vainio, and Veikko Lavi. The study examines the singers humoristic and critical approaches to the lyrics and investigates how the attitudes are performed orally by the singers. The aim of the study is to analyze the singing styles of the songs together with the content of the songs lyrics. The history of the couplet and the previous studies of the subject are reviewed in the beginning of the first part of the work, which also contains the methodological background of the work, which is divided into cultural models and attitudes and to textual and musical conventions. The methodological section introduces a viewpoint which takes into account the couplet songs musical and textual practices alongside with the general cultural views such as attitudes advocating the culture of contestation and hegemonic masculinity. A detailed analysis of Juha Vainio s couplet song Käyn ahon laitaa demonstrates in practice how the couplet recordings can be analyzed. In the articles the couplets themes are examined by using scientific concepts and by analysing couplet recordings. In the first article couplets and their critical attitudes towards persons in power are examined by using the term of carnivalism. The second article deals with self-irony of the couplets characters which is investigated by using the concept of incongruity and the relief theory previously used in humour studies. The subject of the third article is female characters in the couplet songs. The subjects of the fourth article are masculinity and its vocal interpretation in the songs. The theoretical framework of the study is based on the Judith Butler s concept of performativity and Zygmunt Bauman s categories of the postmodern pilgrim and its followers. Keywords: Couplet, humour, carnivalism, culture of contestation, performativity
  • Rossi, Riikka (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2007)
    Le naturalisme finlandais. Une conception entropique du quotidien. Finnish Naturalism. An Entropic Conception of Everyday Life. Nineteenth century naturalism was a strikingly international literary movement. After emerging in France in the 1870s, it spread all over Europe including young, small nations with a relatively recent literary tradition, such as Finland. This thesis surveys the role and influence of French naturalism on the Finnish literature of the 1880s and 1890s. On the basis of a selection of works of six Finnish authors (Juhani Aho, Minna Canth, Kauppis-Heikki, Teuvo Pakkala, Ina Lange and Karl August Tavaststjerna), the study establishes a view of the main features of Finnish naturalism in comparison with that of French authors, such as Zola, Maupassant and Flaubert. The study s methodological framework is genre theory: even though naturalist writers insisted on a transparent description of reality, naturalist texts are firmly rooted in general generic categories with definable relations and constants on which European novels impose variations. By means of two key concepts, entropy and everyday life , this thesis establishes the parameters of the naturalist genre. At the heart of the naturalist novel is a movement in the direction of disintegration and confusion, from order to disorder, from illusion to disillusion. This entropic vision is merged into the representation of everyday life, focusing on socially mediocre characters and discovering their miseries in all their banality and daily grayness. By using Mikhail Bakhtin s idea of literary genres as a means of understanding experience, this thesis suggests that everyday life is an ideological core of naturalist literature that determines not only its thematic but also generic distinctions: with relation to other genres, such as to Balzac s realism, naturalism appears primarily to be a banalization of everyday life. In idyllic genres, everyday life can be represented by means of sublimation, but a naturalist novel establishes a distressing, negative everyday life and thus strives to take a critical view of the modern society. Beside the central themes, the study surveys the generic blends in naturalism. The thesis analyzes how the coalition of naturalism and the melodramatic mode in the work of Minna Canth serves naturalisms ambition to discover the unconscious instincts underlying daily realities, and how the symbolic mode in the work of Juhani Aho duplicates the semantic level of the apparently insignificant, everyday naturalist details. The study compares the naturalist novel to the ideological novel (roman à these) and surveys the central dilemma of naturalism, the confrontation between the optimistic belief in social reform and the pessimistic theory of determinism. The thesis proposes that the naturalist novel s contribution to social reform lies in its shock effect. By means of representing the unpleasant truth the entropy of everyday life it aims to scandalize the reader and make him aware of the harsh realities that might apply also to him.
  • Kraenker, Sabine (Publications romanes de l'Université de Helsinki, 2014)
    The study examines unpublished writings and literary works which belong mostly either to novelistic or autobiographical genre. The study is divided into three parts: after the introduction, a Preamble presents the theoretical framework used in the study. The other two parts deal with break-up narratives, and, to a lesser extent, with Dear John Letters . The introduction presents the research questions and asks whether it is possible to find a typology and a rhetoric in the way leaving someone is expressed. The central notion of falling out of love in the Western tradition is defined, connected with passion, adulterous love and the image of impossible love. In this context, the dominant narrative is the one which describes the suffering of the one left more than the one leaving. The choice of texts, both among published and unpublished writings, is intended to give the possibility to compare fiction and non-fiction, ordinary writings and literary writings, and to find common features between them, which, if proved true, would confirm that there is a specific way to write about break-up and to write a break-up letter. The frames of references for the study, presented in the Preamble, are numerous: rhetorics and pragmatics, linguistics, and the theory of enunciation. Furthermore, some approaches are also based on sociology and psychology. The part concerning the analysis of break-up narratives shows that among the published break-up narratives, the difference between fictional and non-fictional writings is clear in the older texts, but more complex in the contemporary literature. The conclusion is that a hybrid status can be observed, at the border between fiction and non-fiction. Most of the texts are autobiographical without being called so. The notion of self-fiction, however convenient a label it may be, is not relevant. The genre description appearing on the front page or as a subtitle only reflects how frequently the novel genre is alluded to, which can be interpreted in different ways. Only one thing is common to all the texts: they are all written in the first person singular. Many break-up narratives have fragmentary structure, with letters and diaries as components. Pictures also play an important role in certain texts. The structure of the narratives, their openings and closings, the fact that they are addressing someone, and the close link between letter and diary is examined. Letters and diaries are shown to be the most appropriate forms when dealing with break-up, they are the most commonly used forms. The last part of the study focuses on the examination of break-up letters. The study shows their formal characteristics, noting how brief the letters frequently are, and also how contradictory too, because writing to someone, the mere act of writing a letter, tends to make people closer, when, at the same time, the content of the letter is meant to express distance. The examples in this part of the study come mainly from the unpublished writings. Choosing to break up by writing a letter leads to thinking about argumentation. Some micro analyses elucidate how the arguments work and how they are used to hide the end of a feeling by giving logical reasons for a change in the sentiments of the one writing the letter. The study shows that there are specific characteristics in break-up writing, both in narratives and break-up letters, but it is not possible to talk about a break-up genre.
  • Klein, Ottilie ([according to German regulations a publication prior to the public examination is not permitted], 2015)
    The doctoral thesis investigates the cultural function of dramatic narratives of female murder. For this purpose, the study offers textual analyses of plays that feature female murder as a central event. Paying close attention to each play s plot, form, and dramaturgy, the study seeks to attach meaning to the dramatic function of women s homicidal action. The survey of women who kill in modern American drama that is at the heart of the study covers a seventy-year span (1910s - 1980s) that allows a mapping out of continuities and transitions in dramatizations of female murder. Given the politically charged nature of the figure of the female murderer, the study argues that there are two types of narratives of female murder in modern American drama (and beyond): one that uses women s homicidal action as a mechanism to create disorder at the level of plot to ultimately contain women s lethal threat by re-establishing order and thereby reinforcing dominant ideology, so-called narratives of containment; and one that exploits the ideologically disruptive potential of the female murderer to comment on social ills or to dismantle ideological contradictions, so-called lethal performances. The study concludes that the cultural function of narratives of female murder is intricately connected with the cultural and historical moment from which they emerge and the type of narrative they respond to.
  • Gustafsson, Sofia (Finska Vetenskaps-Societeten, 2015)
    In 1748, the Swedish Crown began construction of the fortress Sveaborg outside Helsinki. This was an expensive military investment, but where did the money invested actually end up? Traditionally historians have claimed that the burghers of Helsinki benefitted economically from the construction. However, studies of early-modern Western European fortress construction sites show that local communities did not necessarily benefit directly; the money could just as easily have gone to large entrepreneurs from the central areas. The aim of this study is to identify which geographical areas and social groups sold the construction materials needed to build Sveaborg during the first period of construction in 1748-1756. It also discusses the institutional constraints, whether formal or informal, that limited the suppliers actions and choices. The main source material is the accounts of the Fortification Fund in Helsinki. However, to identify the sellers, we combined this material with local civil and private sources. The accounts rarely provided enough information for identification, and the key-question involved determining where to search for local and private sources. Alfred Weber s theory of location of economic activities claims that the optimal location for production depends on labour and transportation costs. The logistics of Sveaborg were water-based, so the search focused on coastal regions either near the fortress or with unique natural resources. With regard to the institutions, we used the theories of Douglass C. North. The laws of the period limited trade to certain groups in the cities, but equally important were the restrictions on suitable conduct for different estates. However, institutions constantly change, and according to Sten Carlsson, the traditional social system in 18th-century Sweden was already in decline. The results suggest that different economic zones specialising in certain products emerged around the fortress. Suppliers benefitting from Sveaborg could be found not only in the city of Helsinki, but also in the surrounding countryside. Other Finnish cities supplying the fortress include Porvoo, Turku and Loviisa. In Sweden, the main areas involved were Stockholm and Gotland. In contrast to the traditional view, one could definitely not claim that the burghers of Helsinki alone profited from the construction. Although formal constraints should have restricted the participation of other social groups, the informal constraints were obviously more permissive. Unlike in Western Europe, where the states tended to use large entrepreneurs from the central areas, the Swedish Crown used small entrepreneurs from the periphery. The money invested in Sveaborg was spread over large areas and many hands, including peasants, merchants, and noblemen.
  • Walta, Ville (2014)
    This study is concerned with the libraries, manuscripts and book culture of the Birgittine Vadstena Abbey. It offers a case study of a large late medieval monastic library in Sweden and examines the book acquisition, manuscript production and the contents of Vadstena Abbey s libraries. The study demonstrates that the libraries were fashioned after European models and that book importation played a large role in book acquisition throughout the abbey s history. The study also argues that the differences in the contents, palaeography and codicology of the manuscripts testify to the differences in the book cultures of the abbey s two convents. Vadstena manuscripts form the principal source material for the study. The source corpus is taken into account more extensively than in previous studies. In addition to the entire manuscript collection, the study includes manuscript fragments and the abbey s correspondence. The manuscripts are presented in Appendix 1 and examined using methodology adopted from quantative codicology. This makes it possible to comprehensively study the Vadstena manuscript production. The study also challenges some nationalistic claims concerning the special nature of the Vadstena manuscripts that have been made based on a smaller sample of material. In chapters 2, 3 and 5, the organisation, acquisition and contents of the Vadstena collection are examined, and several similarities to other collections are pointed out. The abbey employed various methods of book acquisition, including organised visits to the European book markets, and quickly adopted new innovations such as the use of paper as writing material and the printing press. Most of the writing done in the abbey was based on texts popular throughout Europe. The same is true for the sisters library; although their manuscripts were produced locally and written in Swedish, they often include translations of widely popular texts. Chapter 4 examines the palaeography and codicology of the manuscripts. I argue that the palaeography and codicology of the manuscripts show that the two convents approached the book as an object in different ways. Whereas for the brothers the manuscripts were objects necessary for performing their daily tasks, for the sisters the manuscripts had a more profound meaning. They saw writing as a useful ascetic exercise as a prayer conducted with the hands instead of the mouth. Since the books served as devotional objects, it was also important to place more care into their making and materials. This explains why the liturgical books and the books of the sisters are usually written on parchment and carefully decorated, while the brothers books are often on paper and lack decorations. The manuscripts of Vadstena Abbey show that a single uniform Birgittine book culture did not exist. The abbey rather served as the intersection of two different approaches to literacy and manuscript production.
  • Lehtinen, Virpi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2010)
    Luce Irigaray is a Belgian-born philosopher, psychoanalyst and linguist. Irigaray s concept of woman is crucial for understanding her own work but also for examining and developing the theoretical and methodological basis of feminist theory. This thesis argues that, ultimately, Irigaray s exploration of woman s being challenges our traditional notion of philosophy as a neutral discourse and the traditional notion of ourselves as philosophizing persons or human beings. However, despite its crucial role, Irigaray s idea of woman still lacks a comprehensive explication. This is because the discourse of sexual difference is blurred by the ideas of essentialism and biologism. --- Irigaray s concept of woman has been interpreted and criticized from the perspectives of metaphysical essentialism, strategic essentialism, realist essentialism and deconstructionism. This thesis argues that a reinterpretation is necessary to account for Irigaray s claims about the the traditional woman , mimesis, the specificity of the feminine body, feminine expression and sexual difference. Moreover, any reading should account for the differences between women and avoid giving a prescriptive function to the essence of woman. --- My thesis develops a new interpretation of Irigaray s concept of woman on the basis of the phenomenology of the body. It argues that Irigaray s discourse on woman can and must be understood by an idea of existential style. Existential style is embodied, affective and spiritual and it is constituted in relation to oneself, to others and to the world. It is temporal, it evolves and changes but preserves its open unity in its transformations. Stylistic unities, such as femininity or philosophy, are constituted in and by the singulars. -- This study discusses and analyses feminine existential style as a central theme and topic of Irigaray s works and shows how her work operates as a primary and paradigmatic example of the feminine style. These tasks are performed by studying the mimetic positions available for women and by explicating the phenomenological background of Irigaray s conceptions of the philosophical method, and the lived, expressive and affective body. The critical occupation and transformation of these mimetic positions, the inquiry into the first-person pre-discursive experience, and the cultivation of feminine expressivity open up the possibility of becoming a woman writer, a woman lover and a woman philosopher. The appearance of these new feminine figures is a precondition for the realization of sexual difference. So Irigaray opens up the possibility of sexual difference by instituting and constituting a feminine subject of love and wisdom, and by problematizing the idea of a neutral and absolute subject.
  • Kivilaakso, Sirpa (Atena Kustannus Oy, 2008)
    The Bosom of the Enchanted Wood, The Fairy Tale Symbolism of Anni Swan 1896–1923. Children´s and young adult author Anni Swan (1875–1958) is a significant forerunner and developer of the Finnish literary fairy tale. Her work covers around thirty novels and collections of stories for young adults. The dissertation studies the poetics of literary fairy tales in the context of the French tradition of post-modern feminist research, which considers the early 20th century literary fairy tale a female-specific literary genre and a mode of female expression. The feminist readings with Julia Kristeva, Hélène Cixous and Luce Irigaray mean that the text of the fairy tale is read in a way which goes against traditional methods of reading. The dissertation examines early modern womanhood and its characteristic female-specific expressive language and mute non-linguistic expression, or the otherness of the psyche and language. The fairy tales are seen in the context of the "Golden Age" of Finnish art, as part of the symbolic style and literary dialogue of their time of publishing. Swan´s stories are set in the natural world, often in the forest or water. The forest of the stories is simultaneously a symbolic psychological landscape of the beautiful Finnish forest and the mythic-symbolic topos of the story. Swan´s understanding of nature is structured around the protection of forests and the equal treatment of animals, including a perspective of early ecocriticism. In Swan´s poetically sensual writing, the many dimensions of nature description and the visual world are repeated through the sense analogies and metaphors typical of symbolism. She develops a symbolist style of narrative that follows its own rules, characterised by the Finnish forest described through symbols and the metamorphous flower. In Swan´s work, nature is depicted as evocative of sensations, emotions and ideas; in florid language, as a polymorphous floral ornament, which becomes anthropomorphic. Her narrative features the flower metaphors of the Art Nouveau / Jugendstil, synaesthetic images and the pictorial language typical of symbolism. Swan´s characteristic expression is present in the metonomy of motherhood in The Miracle Flower or the flower castle in Enchanted Castle and femaleness and the flower island in Secret of the Waves. In Swan´s symbolism-rich narrative, the subjective experience of nature combines with the visual elements of language, including the scents and sounds of nature. As they are repeated, they construct synaesthetic images between the stories as well as metonymic flower chains, which form Swan´s rhetorical trope. The dissertation depicts also the developmental arch of a female artist. Its theme is an insight into the development of the modern female subject´s identity. The feminist reading journeys into history and the emancipatory girlhood and womanhood present in these fairy tales from the turn of the previous century. In Marjaana´s Crown of Pearls, Swan dissociates herself from the previous gender-dichotomous folk tale and the fairy tale tradition established by Zacharias Topelius. Through Marjaana, Swan interprets a new kind of femininity: the contradiction between a free, independent life, and the longing for traditional romantic love. The story mirrors the change in women´s social status which was underway at the time. The fairy tale symbolism of Anni Swan is characterised by sensual aesthetics, metaphors, metonymy and metamorphoses. Swan´s work reveals new forms and representations of girlhood, motherhood, female artistry and the family. She is the developer of the Finnish symbolist literary fairy tale and creator of the Finnish feminist fairy tale.
  • Päivärinne, Tiina (Suomen Tiedeseura, 2010)
    Nature, science and technology. The image of Finland through popular enlightenment texts 1870-1920 This doctoral thesis looks at how Finnish popular enlightenment texts published between 1870 and 1920 took part in the process of forming a genuine Finnish national identity. The same process was occurring in other Nordic countries at the time and the process in Finland was in many ways influenced by them, particularly Sweden. In Finland the political realities under Russian rule especially during the Russification years, and the fact that its history was considered to be short compared to other European countries, made this nation-building process unique. The undertaking was led by members of the national elite, influential in the cultural, academic as well as political arenas, who were keen to support the foundation of a modern Finnish identity. The political realities and national philosophy of history necessitated a search for elements of identity in nature and the Finnish landscape, which were considered to have special national importance: Finland was very much determined as a political entity on the basis of its geography and nature. Nature was also used as means of taking a cultural or political view in terms of, for example, geographical facts such as the nation s borders or the country s geographical connections to Western Europe. In the building of a proper national identity the concept of nature was not, however, static, but was more or less affected by political and economic progress in society. This meant that nature, or the image of the national landscape, was no longer seen only as a visual image of the national identity, but also as a source of science, technology and a prosperous future. The role of technology in this process was very much connected to the ability to harness natural resources to serve national interests. The major change in this respect had occurred by the early 20th century, when indisputable scientific progress altered the relationship between nature and technology. Concerning technology, the thesis is mainly interested in the large and at the time modern technological manifestations, such as railways, factories and industrial areas in Finland. Despite the fact that the symbiosis between national nature and international but successfully localized technology was in Finnish popular enlightenment literature depicted mostly as a national success story, concerns began to arise already in last years of the 19th century. It was argued that the emerging technology would eventually destroy Finland s natural environment, and therefore the basis of its national identity. The question was not how to preserve nature through natural science, but more how to conserve such natural resources and images that were considered to be the basis of national identity and thus of the national history. National parks, isolated from technology, and distant enough so as to have no economic value, were considered the solution to the problem. Methodologically the thesis belongs to the genre of science and technology studies, and offers new viewpoints with regard to both the study of Finnish popular enlightenment literature and the national development process as a whole.
  • Linnovaara, Kristina (Statens konstmuseum, 2008)
    The dissertation examines the power mechanisms and institutional power hierarchies of the 1940s-1950s era arts elite in Helsinki and their influence on issues of taste in the visual arts. For the purposes of this study, the elite is understood to consist mainly of the board members of the principal elected bodies in the field of the arts. The theoretical framework employed is based on Pierre Bourdieu s field theory and the network perspective. The author has examined what the key, pervasive valuations were that governed the exercising of power by the arts elite in issues of taste, involving determination of who was an acknowledged artist and what was good art. The dissertation demonstrates that this exercising of power was governed by certain collective practices which maintained the illusion that the exercising of power was democratic and based on artistic quality. These practices were the corporate system, using artistic arguments in issues of taste, and using networks in the exercising of power. The struggle in the field of the arts was about who ultimately was entitled to define the value of contemporary art; the issue did not arise regarding historical art. Artists managed to gain a leading position as gatekeepers in issues regarding contemporary art. The author discusses a number of conflicts in the field of the arts that highlight the institutional hierarchies and the capital held by the various players. The structural changes that occurred in administration in the field of cultural production in the 1950s led to the separation of bureaucratic competence on the one hand and aesthetic competence on the other. There was a hierarchy in the field of the arts between institutions, between instruments of legitimisation, and between the symbolic and social capital of players in the field. The hierarchy in the arts ultimately depended on how well the elite could influence tastes through the instruments at their disposal. The various instruments of legitimisation grants, purchases, etc. were ranked differently in the evaluation of acknowledged artists and good art. The dissertation discusses what values, in the form of types of symbolic capital, the arts elite embraced and what role these played in the elite s exercising of power, with particular focus on gender, language, region and economic capital. The aesthetic capital of an artist was of only minor importance in the exercising of power by the arts elite. The dissertation further discusses the points of contact between the arts elite and players in other fields, such as the economic, media and consumer fields. When the arts elite, through the Academy of Fine Arts, became an active player in the art market, this led to a hierarchy where the division between acknowledged and not-acknowledged galleries became sharper.
  • Valjakka, Minna (2011)
    The main aim of this work was to explore the use of Mao Zedong s (毛泽东, 1893—1976) visual image in contemporary Chinese art during the years 1976—2006. Chairman Mao is the most visually reproduced person in the People's Republic of China (PRC), and the presence of his image is still unquestionable at many levels. Although several scholars have provided insightful observations on this topic, research focusing on Mao's visual image has been neglected. Employing the interdisciplinary approach of visual studies and using image as the main concept, this research combines different theoretical frameworks, deriving from art history, image studies and social sciences, for each chapter in order to explain the origins, intentions and major strategies of the contemporary Chinese artists. The focus of this research was to elucidate how Mao's visual image, deriving from the Maoist era, is re-created and negotiated in contemporary Chinese art works. The material reproductions - the visual images in contemporary art - are created to be juxtaposed with the immaterial mental images of Mao that were created during the Maoist era through the original visual images of Mao. This complex interaction between visual and mental images is further exemplified by art works that do not include Mao's visual image, but still imply his mental image. The methods used derive from both sinology and art history. The research is based on extensive fieldwork in China, which was crucial for gathering new information and materials from this vigorous art scene. The topic is approached through a Chinese cultural, political and historical perspective that is necessary for a further understanding of how the original visual images of Mao obtained their omnipotent status and what kind of iconography was created. Close structural analysis, taking into account the format, style, techniques, composition, colors, materials and space used in the art works, is employed to demonstrate the great variety of visual images created. The analysis is further placed in a continuous dialogue both with the contemporary art works of Mao and with the original visual images of Mao from the past. In this study it is shown that contemporary Chinese art relating to Chairman Mao is a more versatile and multilayered phenomenon than is generally assumed. Although some of the art works seem to fit into the definition of superficial art, the study demonstrates that this reading of the art works is not adequate. The author argues that employing Mao's visual images in contemporary Chinese art is based on three main strategies used by artists: to create a visual dialogue with a traumatizing past, to employ transcontextual parody, and to explore the importance of Tian'anmen through site-dependent art. These strategies are not exclusionary, but instead interdependent and many art works employ more than one of them. In addition, these three main strategies include versatile methods used by artists that make the use of Mao's visual images even more multifaceted.
  • Määttä, Vesa (2010)
    Matti Laurila (1895 1983) This is a biographical research of a Jaeger officer, a Civil Guard Chief, a Field Commander Matti Laurila. A broader practice of qualitative methods was utilized in the research. The main aim is a permanent reconstruction and reinterpretation of past events through the experiences of the study object. The life and times of Laurila are intertwined with the crucial events that led to the Finnish Declaration of Independence. Afterwards he helped to ensure that the young republic also stayed independent. As a Jaeger in the winter of 1917 Laurila witnessed an incident he would never forget. After disobeying a direct order, Sven Saarikoski from Lapua was shot dead by his commanding officer, K. A. Ståhlberg, on the ice of the river Aa. Laurila faced the horrors of war at closer quarters, for he lost his father and his brother in the battle of Länkipohja on 16th March 1918. This battle was a major turning point for Laurila and profoundly influenced the rest of his life. The relationship between Laurila and his superiors was problematic almost throughout his military career, haunted as he was by the memory of Sven Saarikoski's execution and the losses in Länkipohja The position of Laurila as an authority in South Ostrobothnia was a key factor in preventing the extreme right from rallying enough Civil Guard troops to escalate the embryonic Mäntsälä rebellion of 1932. After the rebellion Laurila routinely opposed anything he saw as a threat to the independence of the Civil Guard. He would flatly refuse to even consider the integration of the Civil Guard into the national defence force. His uncompromising stand in this matter annoyed some among the higher ranking officers. After the Winter War Laurila got himself into a dispute with Jaeger Colonel H. E. Hannuksela that would have long-lasting consequences. The conflicts between them became widely known in the attack phase of the Continuation War in 1941 at the latest. Laurila had to give up his military career at the end of 1944. In the years that followed he did what he could to ensure that the South Ostrobothnia Civil Guard patrimony remained in the province. Laurila's position as a respected authority in South Ostrobothnia remained unchanged until his death.