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  • Hannikainen, Matti O. (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This thesis analyses the main trends in the development of public green spaces in London from the mid-1920s to the late 1990s. With a broad approach, that combines perspectives of urban, planning, environmental and leisure history this thesis sheds new light on the processes, through which public green spaces have been created and used in the city. This thesis focuses on two London boroughs, Camden and Southwark, but despite its nominal focus, it deals with ten municipal authorities and the Royal Parks Department providing a comparative perspective on the official policies about creating and managing various public green spaces in London. The interaction between national, regional, and local authorities provides the framework for a coherent analysis of the development of public green spaces. Based on extensive archive work on administrative sources including departmental memoranda and reports, and the Minutes of Proceedings of the Councils studied, this thesis shows that the number and acreage of public green spaces in the city grew substantially during the period studied. Vested with new legal powers, municipal authorities were the main providers of new green space between the late 1940s and the early 1970s having replaced the private landowners and associations. Yet there were crucial differences between the authorities studied on the creation of new public green spaces. Moreover, from the 1970s, the legal and financial powers, the scope of new town plans, and the reason for creating new public green spaces fragmented due to sharpened political ideologies and the structural changes of British society. National governments also tightened their control over municipal authorities and, from the 1980s, the creation of new green spaces was again based on opportunity and co-operation between municipal authorities and local associations. This thesis argues that one reason for creating new green spaces in London was to promote physical recreation and sport, as there was an intense demand for sport and playing facilities. As a result, sport dominated the use of most municipal green spaces between the 1920s and the 1960s, whereas the Royal Parks were kept for general recreation. London s public green spaces were the centres for non-commercial outdoor leisure underlining the role of the municipal authorities, instead of the state, in organising leisure. From the 1950s, however, commercialisation, growing personal affluence and mobility, and domestic leisure affected the popularity of various outdoor entertainments. Yet some activities, like football, remained popular apparently due to the loss of private facilities. The official reason for the use of public green spaces fragmented, and, from the 1970s, new concepts like ecology challenged their prevailing uses and perceptions. The management of public green spaces was also plagued by the lack of funding and staff from the 1950s explaining why local associations and external funding became vital for their maintenance and why they were perceived as unsafe. The development of public green spaces in London is currently at a cross roads as the lack of financial and legal muscle for their provision is accompanied by the lack of dominant reason for their development.
  • Snellman, Alex (Omakustanne, 2014)
    The dissertation is based on a simple observation: in the beginning of the nineteenth century the nobility ruled the Grand Duchy of Finland. The nobles were on the top of the society. A social group that represented 0.2 percent of the population controlled 30-40 percent of manors and higher offices. Three-quarters of the government council members were nobles. The Finnish society has changed drastically since then. Today the nobility is of no relevance, and the nobles have all but disappeared from public life. The members of parliament, government ministers and business leaders are all non-nobles. It is evident that, at least, after the Second Wold War the nobility did not have any social significance. When did the nobility loose its social standing, through which mechanisms and why? How did it move from the top of the society to new roles? Alex Snellman studies this fundamental social transformation in his doctoral dissertation. The approach of the dissertation is socio-historical: the main source for historical analysis is an extensive dataset that includes all the members of the Finnish nobility (nearly 20,000 persons). Statistical findings are complemented and illustrated by case studies that portray eight noble families: Armfelt, Furuhjelm, Järnefelt, Mannerheim, Ramsay, Soisalon-Soininen, Törngren and von Wendt. The dissertation suggests that the Finnish nobility lost its dominant role in the society at the turn of the century 1800-1900 and disappeared completely from the political elite when the first republic was replaced by the second republic after the Second Wold War. A few nobles have had some influence in the economic elite to this day, but for the most part nobles have lost their economic positions as well. The Finnish nobility has turned into a middle-class social group. In part, the nobility lost its influence because of political upheavals: the alliance between the Russian emperor and the Finnish nobility was severed during the russification period at the turn of the century. Key events include also the abolition of the old legislative assembly (the four-estate diet) in 1906, the dissolution of the monarchy in 1917 and the failure to re-establish monarchy, when Finland gained independence. In part, the nobility lost its position because of legislative reforms, such as the abolition of noble privileges from the 1860s onwards. And finally, the influence of the nobility vanished in the minds of the people: as it became more and more common to cross the dividing line between nobles and non-nobles in marriages and as the noble rank lost its value and esteem as status capital. The Finnish nobility did not perish in a revolution, whereas its peaceful withdrawal from the top of the society has been an important factor in the formation of the current egalitarian Finnish society. Finland did not become a rigid class society in the British manner. The old elite renounced its power - albeit under social pressure - for the most part voluntarily.
  • Talja, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Sport, Recreation and Space in Urban Policy: Helsinki and Dublin from the 1940s to the 1980s This study analyses the development of sport and recreation facilities in Helsinki and Dublin. The period of the study, from the end of the Second World War until the 1980s, was an era of rapid urbanisation and modernisation in both Finnish and Irish societies, with 1960s and 1970s being the watershed decades. This is a comparative study combining perspectives from the fields of urban and sport history. Particular focus is given on the actions of the municipal authorities of the Helsinki City, and those of the Dublin County Borough and Dublin County. However, the development of sport and recreation facilities is not only looked at through the planning and urban policy framework, but the evolution of sport and recreation cultures is incorporated in the study. The primary sources analysed in this study comprise official local authority minutes and reports, urban plans, surveys, and to some extent national level documents. In addition, this study uses professional publications, magazines and newspapers, as well as histories and archival materials produced by sports associations. Whereas postwar urbanisation and suburbanisation as well as the development of associational sports and more unorganised recreation are topics that have attracted historical research, studies combining these aspects and setting them in a comparative framework are less common. This is particularly the case in Dublin. This study argues that although leisure and sporting trends increasingly converged during this period in Helsinki and Dublin, urban policies towards these issues remained different. Planners and professionals in both cities were influenced by wider international models, but in the realisation of facilities, differences in local authority resources and in how public authorities saw their role in the sphere of sport and recreation, played equally significant role. In Helsinki, the role of the local authority became particularly influential in planning and financing urban sport facilities, whereas in Dublin, there remained a stronger continuity from the earlier late nineteenth century and early twentieth century situation where private and voluntary actors were the prominent providers of facilities. Local authorities in Dublin focused predominantly on local authority housing areas, and were more dependent on national level funding schemes. In particular, this was evident in indoor facilities. In Helsinki, there was a stronger ideal of planning sport facilities for all. There were also differences in how knowledge of participation in sport and recreation was produced. Through the detailed case studies this study unravelled the complex nature of patterns of actors involved. The strong municipal policies in Helsinki were influenced by private interests, and the municipality was involved in private projects. In Dublin, these connections remained less institutionalised, and private investors and voluntary actors remained more independent when providing indoor and outdoor facilities.
  • Korppi-Tommola, Riikka (2013)
    Other Movements, New Currents. The Process of Change in Finnish Modern Dance during the 1960s. The study examines the process of change in Finnish modern dance during the 1960s. It focuses on the phenomena, and their characteristics, that influenced the transforming genre. While the early modern dance style, free dance, was still vigorous in the prevailing system - expressed in the dancers bodies and evident in critics opinion, for example - new foreign influences from the United States were affecting Finnish dance. The study highlights the polyphony that existed in Finnish dance during the 1960s. The article-based dissertation includes six articles and a summarising report. Two choreographers, Riitta Vainio (b. 1936) and Ritva Arvelo (1921-2013), are examined using historiographical methods. The latter choreographer is also observed in terms of dance generations. However, the main viewpoint of the study is on the dancers. Applying the concept of the historical body, four active dancers from the period (Kirsi Arajärvi, Sinikka Gripenberg, Liisa Priha, and Pirjo Viitanen) are investigated. With this method, the body memory is revealed in an interactive situation: through semi-structured interviews. The dance identity emerges in the concrete dance work while rehearsing or co-operating with the choreographer. The other research material consists of the newspaper reviews of the performance events. The American dance groups who visited Helsinki included the Martha Graham Dance Company (1962), Merce Cunningham Dance Company and John Cage (1964), Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater, and Anna Halprin JA Dancers Workshop (1965). The analysis of the critics reviews exposes the differences between phases of the genre s national development. The transnational aspect of the research identifies the cross-cultural interactions between the United States and Finland. Exchanges occurred between institutions and within the networks of dance agents, and the politics of the Cold War was involved. The new modern dance techniques were thus taught mainly by American dance teachers. As well, some of the transnational factors were also textual: straight translations from the American dance literature, introducing new dance styles to Finland. The investigation shows that in these different processes, transnational phenomena were transformed to become part of local dance. Dancers bodies assimilated American dance techniques, already hybrid methods, into the dancers own personal movements. The dance generational research shows that not only was it young dancers who were influenced: through interactions with their younger counterparts, older dancers were affected as well. Co-operation between the generations produced new dance works featuring a fusion of the new and the old.
  • Rydenfelt, Henrik (Philosophical Studies from the University of Helsinki, 2013)
    Questions of normativity are among the most vexing in philosophy, and among the philosophical questions that most concern us in our everyday life. What is it to maintain that something is correct or incorrect, right or wrong, good or bad? Is normative opinion (rationally or objectively) constrained in any fashion, or merely the product of the history of ourselves and our societies? What, if anything, can be said to those with whom we find ourselves in deep disagreement over normative questions? How does normativity fit in a scientific or philosophically naturalist world-view? Is science itself dependent on norms, and how can those norms be justified in light of its own project and theories? The five articles that comprise this thesis outline a perspective from which to answer these questions. Two features are common to all of them. Firstly, they are inspired by the tradition of philosophical pragmatism, especially by its origins in Charles S. Peirce s ideas and its outgrowth in contemporary non-representationalism. Secondly, when taken together, these articles lay the ground for a scientific approach to norms a normative science. The first three articles are mainly critical in nature. The first two concern contemporary pragmatist arguments which attempt to justify a democratic political outlook by drawing from epistemic norms, putting forward a rebuttal of Robert B. Talisse s and Cheryl Misak s arguments that we all are bound by similar epistemic norms. The third article considers a widespread philosophical approach to normativity which maintains that normative principles are valid when they are shared by all agents. It is argued that this constructivist stance - shared by thinkers such as John Rawls, Jürgen Habermas and Christine Korsgaard - faces a dilemma between what I call historicist relativism and conceptual chauvinism, the choice between relying on either our contingent moral agreements or artificial stipulations of key terms. The last two articles are more constructive in nature. The fourth article argues, both in a historical and a systematic vein, that contemporary non-representationalism, such as developed by Huw Price, fits the notion of truth and realism developed by the classical pragmatists, especially Peirce, and that this combination can be exploited to reconceptualize normative realism. Finally, the fifth article offers a reconsideration of philosophical naturalism, and attempts to show that the notion of normative science developed can be fitted to a broadly speaking naturalist framework.
  • Rosato, Paolo (The International Semiotics Institute, 2013)
    Music analysis is an expression that covers a wide field of meanings and phenomena. We can analyze music as an anthropological condition of human beings; or as a set of historically determined social systems; or finally, as a concrete, individual musical expression. The latter can be regarded from the sides of enunciation and of utterance, which in turn take the opposing forms of text-system (not necessarily written) and performed-text. My aim is to demonstrate that a common organic principle joins together all these different musical facts. That principle is homeostasis, a term coined by Walter Bradford Cannon at the end of the 1920s, and first applied to music by Fulvio Delli Pizzi in 1984. Homeostasis is the property that a system or an organism must maintain in a stable and constant condition in its own internal environment. When applied to analysis of musical utterances, homeostasis allows us to give to musical signs a proper content: composers, performers, and listeners can deal with musical signs as people usually do with all the signs of natural languages. The proper homeostatic content in turn finds its roots in tensional-relaxation processes within human body. Homeostasis regulates both melodic and harmonic processes, at least of the Western musical tradition, and allows them to obtain an internal syntactic meaning that is neither merely structural nor merely formal. Pitches, as our analyses demonstrate, are not neutral in their interactions and relationships. In fact, homeostasis arranges melodic and harmonic elements - as it can do with all musical parameters - into significant units that act as organic parts of a musical whole. I do not deny that musical signs are also historically, socially, and culturally codified. I only claim that historical, social, and cultural internal musical meanings result from a dialectical process between natural , transcendental conditions, and their actualization in space and time. (In this respect, it seems that Raymond Monelle's theory of topics can cover just a part of the problem of musical meaning.) Main references in my research are drawn from the semiotic perspectives of Umberto Eco and Eero Tarasti, from Louis Hjelmslev's linguistic theory, and from Delli Pizzi's musical theory, this last adapted to my personal approach. In most of this book, I present my original analyses of music of the Western tradition, from ancient plainchant to contemporary music. In Chapter 1, I elaborate an enlarged musical-organic model: like other complex natural phenomena, music may be comprised of organic and/or inorganic parts, and regarded as a complex system endowed with living properties. In Chapters 2 and 3, respectively, I present melody and harmony as two systems. Starting from sound waves as a physical system, I analyze the evolution of melody as a symbolic, syntactic, and semantic system. Moreover, I develop Delli Pizzi's harmonic theory, while arguing that Schenker's, Riemann's, and de la Motte's approaches are neither organic nor functionalist in the strict sense. In Chapter 4, I point out the strong relations between Tarasti's existential semiotics and my homeostatic perspective; this allows me to apply the model constructed in Chapter 1 to musical pieces regarded as organic text-systems. Finally, I elaborate in Chapter 5 a new model capable of explaining relations among musical subjects - entrepreneurs, composers, performers, customers, and so on - who can interact, even though very distant from each other in space and time. To do this, I introduce the concept of Manifestum, drawn from Martin Heidegger's thought, but adapted to my specific aims.
  • Hintikka, Marianna (Uusfilologinen yhdistys r.y., 2013)
    It is a well-established fact that the human body and its various aspects have provided a source domain for metaphor throughout recorded history. One of the most salient instantiations of the body-metaphor is the concept of the Body Politic, the idea that society is analogous to the human body. In addition to society, however, the body can stand as a model for other, more abstract, target domains, too. One of these is the human mind and other facets of what could be characterised as inner life . This dissertation is a corpus-based study of metaphors that draw from the human body and corporeality in Early Modern and Present-day English texts. The focus is on the development of conceptual mappings between source and target domains from the EModE to the PDE period. The primary research questions concern metaphor extendedness and SOCIETY AS BODY and MIND AS BODY mappings. By extendedness I mean instances of metaphor use which consist of more than one instantiation of metaphor in a given context. By SOCIETY AS BODY and MIND AS BODY mappings I mean instances of metaphor where the target domain is either the society or the mind. Using electronic corpora I have compared metaphor use in the two periods in order to establish whether there are notable differences in these two above mentioned respects. As key concepts I have adopted metaphor strength (the clustering of source domain items in given contexts to form systematic extended metaphors) and metaphor productivity (the occurrence of many terms with similar meanings, i.e. items pertaining to the same source concept, in metaphor across the language) so that I view metaphor extendedness as indicative of metaphor strength, and the proliferation of source domain items in either target domain (SOCIETY or MIND) as indicative of metaphor productivity within that target domain. My findings indicate that there are significant differences between the two periods studied as regards both these aspects. In terms of metaphor extendedness (and strength), the material shows a marked decline from EModE to PDE. This might be due to a more faithful adherence to the idea of the Body Politic (governed by more formulaic rhetorical conventions) in the Early Modern period as compared to the present. This would have made an extended analogy drawn between these particular source and target domains to be felt as meaningful. In terms of SOCIETY AS BODY and MIND AS BODY mappings, the material indicates a shift towards less SOCIETY-dominated metaphorical network: while the SOCIETY AS BODY mapping is clearly more common in both periods, the difference in strength and productivity is less pronounced in the PDE material. This seems to be in keeping with the modern, foregrounded role of the individual, as opposed to a group of people, as the basic social unit.
  • Jylhänkangas, Leila (2013)
    The study examines conceptions of euthanasia among both ordinary people and experts in contemporary Finnish culture. Euthanasia has not been legalised in Finland, but in recent years, the euthanasia debate has flared up at regular intervals in the media as a result of different ethical conflicts in the care of dying patients. In the study, euthanasia representations are explored as a part of the late modern Finnish culture of death. The primary data consist of 137 written accounts in which ordinary Finns discuss euthanasia and fifteen qualitative interviews among religious specialists and health care professionals, to whom official knowledge of death has traditionally been entrusted. Supplementary data include newspaper articles and other texts discussing euthanasia. The study was inspired by the classical anthropological idea according to which differences in the way life and death are approached and perceived make culture visible. It rests on social representations approach, psychological models of memory and earlier research on the sacred and the profane as culturally constructed categories. In the study, sacred is employed as an analytical anthropological tool, not as a theological concept. It is conceptualised as a category-boundary that is actualised in social situations in which the inviolability of classifications such as a good vs. bad death are threatened and risk losing their authority as the moral basis of society and its social systems and orders. On the basis of these notions, a theoretical model is constructed for the analysis of the euthanasia debate. The main result of the study is that people wish to discuss euthanasia and are eager to share their views about it in order to protect their value territory that shelters the dying human body. Whether people are for or against euthanasia, the human body is central in the classifications and metaphors concerning the images of a good and bad death. Thus, euthanasia is tamed using old and familiar categories. In this way, the line between life and death is culturally constructed and has to be handled using the terms of the socially shared reality. Both ordinary Finns and professionals draw on a variety of cultural scripts rising from medicine, psychology, the media and personal experiences. In the study, ordinary people are seen as experts through experience who have a good knowledge of death on the basis of their personal observations and experiences. These experiences affect the cultural images of euthanasia. An often expressed fear is the possibility of falling into dependence upon the care of other people and not being able to control one s own life. In the study data, an ideal death is described in different ways that legitimate the contemporary conceptions of a good death in late modernity: there is an emphasis on painlessness and the meaningfulness of the last moments of life which resonates with the dying person s individuality. Among religious specialists, euthanasia is opposed and seen as an inappropriate way of dying because the idea of a human being taking too much power of self-determination in the face of death is viewed as threatening and violating the religious moral code that forbids killing and keeps things in their right place. Among physicians, euthanasia is constructed according to professional medical ethics, which are not easily compatible with euthanasia. Many ordinary people and some of the interviewees, however, are willing to legalise euthanasia and highlight the autonomy of the dying individual. Eventually, the study shows that in contemporary Finnish society, there does not exist a moral consensus on euthanasia; rather, there are a number of different realities which are built in relation to context dependent and changing conceptions of a good death.
  • Rausmaa, Heikki (2013)
    My doctoral thesis will investigate political relations between Finland and Estonia between the spring of 1988 and August 1991 when Estonia became independent. I will focus on Finland s policy towards Estonia, which manifested itself in white papers concerning Estonia s independence process and in governmental co-operation. I will also pay attention to the attitude of the Finnish parliament and those of Finnish political parties with Estonia. I will also explore Estonia s political aims with regard to Finland and the degree to which they were realized. The research is based on archival sources, interviews, materials of the leading organs of the political parties, and research literature. I have applied the classical scientific methods used in historical research: comparing sources, paying attention to the special characteristics of the data, and tapping my general knowledge about the context. From the summer of 1988 until early February 1990, aiming to benefit from Gorbachev s reform policy, Estonia tried to increase its national autonomy within the Soviet Union. From then on, Estonia s only goal was to bring the Soviet occupation to an end and restore the country s independence, which led to constant conflict with Moscow. Estonia sought support and help from Finland in building its new state and tried to put the question of Estonian independence onto the international agenda. Finland s foreign policy sought to support Gorbachev and maintain close relations with Moscow. On the other hand, supporting Estonia was considered to be a moral duty and public opinion put pressure on the Finnish government to help Estonia. Starting from the spring of 1989, the Finnish government supported Estonia by giving educational, professional, and material help. This aid was not well publicized, in an attempt to prevent it from receiving undue political significance. President Koivisto constantly warned Estonia not to proceed too quickly as this, it was felt, might damage Gorbachev s position both within the CPSU and the USSR. However, at the same time, Finland was providing considerable help to Estonia in the process of building up its own state. Most of Finland s political parties acted in the same way as the government of Finland: they didn t give any public support for Estonian independence but supported it in the form of practical co-operation. The only exceptions were the Greens and the Left Alliance who made their support for Estonia evident in public statements. The help provided by Finnish political parties was important especially in terms of passing on the international contacts. Finland was consciously conducting its foreign policy on two different levels: simultaneously supporting both Gorbachev and Estonia even though these two actors were pursuing diametrically opposed goals. This contradiction in Finland s policy was concealed and did not damage relations between Finland and the Soviet Union because Finland limited its support to Estonia and presented it as non-political cultural co-operation. The assistance given by Finland was of considerable help to Estonia in building up its own state institutions and gaining its independence. Therefore the common perception that Finland didn t support Estonia s independence doesn t correspond with political reality. On a practical level, Finland provided more help to Estonia than any other country.
  • Tuori, Riikka (2013)
    In this dissertation I analyse the historical background, poetic form, and language of the Karaite zĕmīrōt (paraliturgical hymns) written in Hebrew during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The study corpus contains thirty-four zĕmīrōt from the Karaite Prayer Book (Vilna, 1890 - 1892). Eighteenth- and nineteenth-century manuscripts from Russia and Lithuania serve as another important source of information. I provide a philological close reading of the zĕmīrōt with a descriptive analysis of their prosodic features and Hebrew language, and concise annotations to the zĕmīrōt. Methodologically, the dissertation relies on the study of East European Karaite history and the Hebrew language on the one hand, and on the study of medieval Hebrew poetry and poetics on the other. Because paraliturgical Hebrew poetry written by this minority group has so far been neglected, the results of this study provide novel insights on the study of East European Karaism. Polish-Lithuanian Karaite zĕmīrōt are poems written for paraliturgical events: Sabbaths, weddings, and festivals. They are metric poems adorned with refrains, and easily adaptable to melodies. In terms of prosody, they are indebted to the Hispano-Hebrew (Andalusian) poetic tradition by employing the quantitative-syllabic metre (the metre of yĕtēdōt and tĕnūʿōt) and, in some cases, even containing wordings extracted from Hispano-Hebrew poems. I demonstrate prosodic connections between families of poems through the examination of incipits, metres, and rhyme schemes. Most Karaite zĕmīrōt are (sometimes inventive) emulations of popular Hebrew poems familiarized through collections of rabbinic and Karaite poetry stemming most likely from the Turkish Karaite communities. While the language of the zĕmīrōt is replete with biblical phraseology, paraphrases, and allusions, its morphology and lexicon reflect the influence of post-classical Hebrew poetry and exegetics. Karaite Jews reject the rabbinic interpretation of Judaism and emphasize the independent interpretation of biblical texts. This polemic dynamics between Karaism and rabbinic Judaism are shown to influence the rhetoric of the zĕmīrōt. The Karaite ideology emerges, for example, in the descriptions of the correct, biblical calculation of Shaḇuʿot and in the condemnation of rabbinic customs for the Sabbath. The Karaite relationship to popular Jewish currents of thought, such as Neoplatonism and Kabbalah, are also discussed. The results of this study demonstrate that the zĕmīrōt provided an excellent venue for their authors for expressing both devout feelings and philosophical notions
  • Rahkonen, Pauli (2013)
    The subject of the present dissertation is the West Uralic past, mainly linguistic and settlement history. It focuses on historically known ancient tribes and their linguistic backgrounds such as the Merya, Muroma, Me čera and Čude as well as on some unknown Uralic tribes and languages. The tools employed are onomastics (mostly hydronyms) and archaeology. The main results of the study are as follows. The Me čera seem to have been a tribe inhabiting the left bank of the Middle Oka and, surprisingly, they most probably spoke a Permian language. It seems that linguistically two kinds of Novgorodian Čudes lived in the catchment areas of the Upper Volkhov and Luga. Traces are found of East Čudes and, further west, West Čudes . Both of these were apparently not Finnic tribes. The language of the East Čudes shows similarities with Meryan. The West Čudian language shows some features of Mordvin and probably Early Proto-Finnic. The Meryans and Muromas were linguistically close relatives. Their languages may have been only two dialects of the same language. The Meryan language stretched as far as the western parts of Vologda oblast in the north. A kind of Meryan was spoken in the Moscow area as well. The Meryan language had a cognate language in the eastern parts of Novgorod and Tver oblasts which I have called East Čudian. Apparently another related language was spoken in the eastern parts of Leningrad oblast, in the south-western parts of Arkhangelsk oblast and in Karelia in the Lake Onega region probably before the Finnic era. Ancient Mordvin-type toponyms are found in Kaluga and Moscow oblasts. There seem to have been two extreme edges of ancient Mordvin hydronyms, the first in the environs of the town of Tver and another on the left bank of the Volga between the river Kostroma and the estuary of the Un a. It is possible that an unknown Uralic x-language (or languages) was spoken in Finland, Karelia and in the North Russian lakeland. In my opinion, this language probably cannot be derived from Proto-Finnic or Proto-Saami. I have presented a hypothesis that this language was spoken by the population (and their descendants) of the early Textile Ceramics culture. In any event, the lexicon shows similarities with the Meryan language as defined by hydronyms.
  • Tahkokallio, Jaakko (Unigrafia, 2013)
    This work examines the twelfth- and thirteenth-century readership and reception of Geoffrey of Monmouth s History of the Kings of Britain (c. 1138), a pseudohistorical narrative still widely remembered for introducing King Arthur into European literature. It suggests a new rationale for the great popularity of the work and presents evidence of why it circulated among religious orders. It also proposes a redating of the various versions of the text. On a general level, its results underline that for the high-medieval reading public moral education was a central function of historical writing, and that in this respect there existed a strong literary continuity with classical antiquity. The study is based on an examination of over 130 manuscripts of the History predating c. 1300. Particular attention has been given to the setting of their production (monastic or other), and to their twelfth- and thirteenth-century marginalia. Independent manuscripts of the Prophecies of Merlin, a part of the History that also circulated separately, have as well been studied, as have medieval narratives making reference to Geoffrey's History or using it as a source. The work consists of five main chapters. Chapter two discusses the publication of the History and the composition of its audience, demonstrating the wide extent of its monastic readership. Chapter three shows that the History was frequently read for factual information and that it was mostly seen as a trustworthy historical account. Chapter four presents the central new argument of the study, namely that the History was perceived as a morally edifying narrative by its audience. The reception of the Prophecies of Merlin is examined in Chapter five, which introduces evidence supporting the acceptability of this potentially controversial part. Chapter six discusses the role that Arthurian interests played in the early success of the History. The study contains several appendices, offering new information on the origin and medieval ownership of various manuscripts. They also update the list of commentaries written to the Prophecies and add five new witnesses to the handlist of manuscripts of the History. The results of the study highlight how the classical idea of history as a means of moral edification was widely shared in the middle ages. Importantly, the study demonstrates that to function as morally edificatory a historical narrative did not need to be particularly religious in its tone or substance. The usefulness of reading historical writing was seen to reside primarily in the way it inculcated certain virtues of character — it did not necessarily need to set models for direct imitation regarding how to conduct a proper Christian life.
  • Laiho, Timo (Timo Laiho, 2013)
    The present study introduces the theoretical principles and analytical concepts of analytic-generative methodology (AGM) in order to specify the temporal organization of music from a viewpoint of perceptual experience. The principal aim of this research-project is simultaneously focused on clarifying those structural features that form the basis of temporally and contextually bound cognitive processing in general. While it is commonly acknowledged that the flowing musical organization unquestionably relies on our sense perceptions, the investigations particularly emphasizing this subject are not numerous. The reason for this is undoubtedly connected with the assumed subjectivity associated with our perception/sensation capacity. Regarding this problematic, the present research referring to examples of temporal musical organization strives to outline the structural basis of sensory cognition more objectively. Besides introducing a new music analytic-generative methodology (AGM), the present treatment offers a descriptive model of cognition based on the temporal interaction of outside and inside structures of cognitive processing. This model endeavours to provide solutions for the problematic mechanisms related to the structural organization between high and low levels of sensory perception (often referred to as a meaning barrier ), which even from the point of view of present day cognitive science remain unspecified. The presented cognitive model also provides a framework of sub-semiotic studies, which as a broader discipline can be understood as a basis for a more general art-analysis. The main target of the present approach, however, is music analysis. Key structural features of analysis are connected with the principles of differentiation and analysis of movement. These principles form both the theoretical groundwork and the structural basis of the analytical tools of AGM that consist of three interlocked concepts: interval-time complexes (intiCs), musical vectors (muVs), and milieu-territorial structures. Although the basic research related to AGM reflects a variety of different scientific/philosophic disciplines (i.e. poststructuralist philosophy, linguistics, music analysis, semiotics, modern physics etc.), the theoretical background relies much on the structural aspects of the quantum physicist David Bohm s theory of implicate order. In this sense the present AGM, referring to concrete, analytic-generative examples of musical organization, offers an interpretative account of Bohm s influential theory.
  • Relas, Jukka (Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistys, 2013)
    Power, style and space. Emperors and Presidents residence in Helsinki 1837 1940 The subject of this research is the Imperial Palace of Helsinki. It first served the Grand Duchy of Finland, which belonged to the Russian Empire, and later became the Presidential Palace of independent Finland. The primary focus of this research is the interior design of the Palace between 1837 1940. The research is based on facts about the building, its preserved objects and furniture and existing documents. These have been combined and studied in relation to different historical contexts. The fundamental concepts of the research are power, style and space. In 1837, Emperor Nicholas I ordered the buying an old merchant s house to serve as the Imperial Palace of Helsinki. The alterations, designed by architect Carl Ludvig Engel, were finished in 1843. The palace was decorated partially with the furniture that had been acquired in 1819 from St Petersburg for the old residence of the Governor General, and partially with new furniture bought in St Petersburg and Helsinki. The interior of the palace would bear a strong similarity to that of the much larger Winter Palace of St Petersburg, whitch was redecorated around the same time. Later in the 1860s the furniture was complemented with acquisitions from Berlin. In the second half of the 19th century 28 pieces of mainly Finnish art were acquired. In the end of 1890s the interior of the palace was renovated, and the building was enlarged in 1907. Both of these projects were designed by architect Jac. Ahrenberg. The Emperor very seldom visited the palace and it was infrequently used for ceremonial purposes. Nevertheless, it was a reminder of the existence of the Emperor in Helsinki. During the First World War the Palace served as a military hospital and in 1917 during the Russian Revolution it was taken over by the Russian military committee. Finland gained independence during the same year, but the building became the Presidential Palace only after many phases in 1919, when it was transformed into one of the central buildings of political activity in the country. New traditions of a now independent Finland were developed there on top of the heritage of the period of Finnish autonomy in the Russian Empire. The history of Finland s autonomy and independence are interestingly intertwined in the Palace. The building and its interior were not originally designed for its future purpose, but they developed gradually under different emperors, political systems and art style periods into a multilayered cultural and architectural structure.
  • Maurizi, Luca (Suomen tiedeseura, 2013)
    The Cursus Honorum from Augustus to Trajan. Formal and Stylistic Developments in Latin and Greek Inscriptions The term cursus inscription essentially refers to an honorary, funerary or public inscription where the senator is represented not only with the office that he was holding at the moment when the dedication was set, but also with a list of the different stages of his public, religious or local career. In other words one may see a cursus as a modern curriculum vitae. This research aims to study the stylistic developments of the mention of senatorial career (cursus honorum) in Latin and Greek Epigraphy, during the years between Augustus and Trajan (27 B.C. 117 A.D.). The research is based on a corpus of about 420 Latin and Greek inscriptions from the whole Roman Empire showing a senatorial career or part of it. The method of the research consists in showing issues and features of the career s mention with the aim to set out developments in the epigraphic expression of the cursus honorum in order to find structures and typologies in the mention of career. Connecting those typologies and structures with the chronological and geographical factors, it is possible to illustrate how cursus honorum stylistically developed as an own epigraphic phenomenon. Another fundamental key of interpretation is senatorial self-representation. Often senators adapted the mention of their cursus in order to impress the readers of the inscription, stressing some features or omitting some others. As an appendix to this work, one will find a list of all inscriptions in chronological order, with text, bibliography, and other information. This easy-to-browse archive of inscriptions showing senatorial careers could be used in future as a tool for scholars. This research shows that the number of honorary inscriptions with full cursus dramatically increases from Augustus to Trajan. Geographically, cursus inscriptions initially restricted to Italy spread to the whole Roman Empire. In addition to this, the mention of career becomes stylistically more and more complex as the offices are often set out in descending order and with the anticipation of coherent blocks of offices. Even the mention of single offices becomes richer in details. Some of these developments may be used as dating criteria for inscriptions of uncertain chronology as well as a tool for dating single offices. This stylistic enhancement of the mention of careers manifests the important role of cursus honorum in the public representation of senators. This study shows on large basis of examples that the honoured senator must himself have played a part in the editing of his cursus honorum even in honorific inscriptions set up by another dedicator, and that careers were edited differently according to location, language and potential readers. This reveals cursus honorum as a mean of powerful impact in senatorial self-representation.
  • Reinikka, Anna (2013)
    This doctoral thesis contains the first edition of an anonymous Late Antique Latin elementary grammar discovered by Dr. Vivien Law more than two decades ago. The thesis presents not only the edited text and translation of the Ars Pseudo-Scauri (thus named because of the attributions of both Dr. Law as well as a Late Antique compiler known as Sergius), but also a commentary which aims to help the reader to make out the connections this text shares with other extant grammars. In the introduction and commentary, an attempt has also been made to describe certain developments in Roman language science, as well as to determine if and how they influence the doctrine of the Ars Pseudo-Scauri. In addition to a few articles by Vivien Law, little else has been written on this grammar. However, within the past few decades since the discovery of the text, an important adjustment in the paradigm of the study of ancient linguistics has taken place, with the repudiation of the traditional, static model of historiography in favour of one that emphasizes the fact that grammatical science was in lively interaction with philosophy in late Antiquity. In 1987 Dr. Law came to the conclusion that the text which has been preserved for us is either the Ars minor of Q. Terentius Scaurus, or a later abbreviation of a longer grammatical work by Scaurus. However, the attribution of this grammar to Scaurus appears not to be well founded. The text contains many doctrinal aspects which speak against such an early attribution, aspects which were not adequately addressed by Dr. Law in her article. The thesis argues against the attribution of this grammar to Q. Terentius Scaurus. The issue of dating the grammar, taking into account recent developments concerning the historiography of ancient linguistics, is also addressed. In the commentary and the introduction the content of the Ars Pseudo-Scauri is reviewed in the light of the recent hypotheses on the interaction between grammar and philosophy, which is today considered to have taken place from the first and second century AD onwards, in contrast with previous views which assumed a much earlier date. The fairly recently discovered Ars Pseudo-Scauri has not been subject to much analysis to date, and, more importantly, the few previous endeavours have not taken into account the developments which have shed new light on the study of ancient linguistics.
  • Brenden, Randi (Nordica Helsingensia, 2013)
    This thesis deals with literature written by the Norwegian writer Åsta Holth (1904-1999). Holth was particularly known for her texts about the so called forest Fins , i.e. descendents from Finnish immigrants in Norway (and Sweden), and for her work to make this ethnic group recognized among ethnic Norwegians. Her writing also reveals a deep interest in feminism. The material that is used consists of one short story, Tomasdagen (1941), two novels, Gullsmeden (1958), and Volva (1987), together with Holth s self biography, Piga (1979). The basis of this dissertation is articles about each of these chosen texts, (published in Norsk litterær årbok 2008, 2009, 2011, and 2012). The perspective in reading Holth s texts is double: From one point of view the ethnical aspct is studied, founded on post-colonial theories. Equally important is the feministic viewpoint: based upon the French feminist writers Hélène Cixous, Julia Kristeva, and Luce Irigary, the material is examined in order to focus on the feminist aspect in Holth s writing. Methodologically the basis of this dissertation is perspectivated readings where theoretical clusters are read together with the chosen parts of Holth s publications. Newer theory within the fields postcolonialism and feminism is applied as a foundation in these hermeneutic readings. The approach to the problem is to explore how the implementation of such theory in the reading of Holth s texts can highlight her literary work in a new way. The result of the investigation is that these readings tend to reactualize Holth s texts. The reactualization derives from the implementation of French feminists, which shows that Kristeva s conception of abjection is a central theme in connection with specific female experiences, such as female sexuality, birthing, and the dyade between mother and child. As to post-colonial theory, this thesis is based upon Foucault s theory concerning the discourse of power, and his idea of the contrast between dominant and dominated. The dissertation concludes that the gap between dominant and dominated, or elite and insurgent, can be overcome by individual, intimate meetings resulting in a productive hybrid, containing the possibility of thinking and acting independently, not being bound by old traditions.
  • Keskiaho, Jesse (2012)
    This is a study of the early medieval reception and use of the teachings of Augustine of Hippo (mainly in his De cura pro mortuis gerenda and De Genesi ad litteram), and Gregory the Great (in his Moralia and Dialogi) on dreams and visions, and canon law related to dreams. It proceeds from the contradiction between how these opinions, which highlight the problematic nature of dreams, and their influence have been interpreted, and the image of early medieval dreaming as it emerges from narrative sources. The study shows that these opinions were gradually received in the early middle ages but argues that their meanings and uses varied according to context. It is a detailed investigation into how early medieval readers and scholars dealt with one aspect of the inheritance of late antiquity in situations and for ends very different from those of the original texts. In this study I investigate several manuscripts of patristic, exegetical, and canonical texts, to determine the manuscript contexts of relevant texts, and to uncover signs of reading. The study shows how Gregory's teaching on the difficult nature of dreams, and Augustine's ideas about the apparitions of the dead, and his epistemological model of three visions became, through the process of early medieval reception, standard interpretative frames for discussing dreams and visions. I also argue that the reception and adoption of normative texts proscribing the observation of dreams was probably connected to the reception of theological views. I demonstrate how the reception of the opinions of even the most influential of the fathers was conditioned by current concerns. Discussions on dreams and visions were always also discussions about the saints, religious images, the fates of the dead, orthopraxy, learned identity, or the interpretation of Bible. In such discussions authoritative opinions could be used to argue both for and against the reality of certain dreams or visions. Cults of relics and interest in the fates of the dead pervaded early medieval cultures, and fostered stories of apparitions and visions, for which support could be sought in authoritative texts. However, especially in learned and reform-oriented contexts there was also interest in those aspects of these texts that underlined the problematic nature of visionary phenomena.
  • Shkvarov, Alexey (RME Group Oy (Helsinki) and Aleteja (St Petersburg, Russia), 2012)
    Cossacks at the time of Peter the Great. The Fall of Cossacks freedom is focused on the reign of Peter the Great, which turned out to be a breaking point in the Cossack history and which marked the historical fall of several Cossack communities, such as Little Russian and Zaporozhian Cossacks. It also opened a new epoch for some others, such as Don, Yaik (Ural) and Terek Cossacks. This was a period of transition from a state of traditional Cossack freedom into a regular social estate. Peter the Great s relations with the Cossacks is one of the least researched issues of his reign. For many reasons these questions have been neglected and covered with myths and legends. There was the revolt by K.Bulavin, the treachery by I.Mazepa, escape to Turkey of Zaporozhiers with K.Gordienko and Don Cossacks with I.Nekrasov. This approach is reflected in the official historiography, which concentrated its attention upon the Cossacks as a potential and actual source of troubles. Thereby it also minimized the Cossacks role in military actions. References to Cossacks in this literature are few and they are contradictory. Peter the Great used a large scale of measures to the Cossacks: from forgiveness in several cases of disobedience up to utmost cruel punishments. By and by Peter subdued the Cossacks to the laws of the Russian Empire while he left to them their local traditions and rights. It seems to be that the Russian tsar was able to get from his Cossacks what he wanted. They formed a group of professional warriors by vocation that horrified any foes. Using foreign sources and literature, it is possible to reconstruct the image of the Cossacks as seen by the enemy. Cossacks are the unique historical phenomena on their own right. They were also important not only for Russia, but also for all its neighboring countries - from the Baltic region to China. The whole phenomenon of Cossacks is still poorly known and contradictory information abounds, not only in Russia itself, but in the Western countries as well. This study also purports to determine the typology of Cossack communities, the meaning of contemporary terminology and difference between the Cossacks in service and free Cossacks. The study represents the main trade-off conflict of opposites - Freedom and Autocracy For some of the Cossacks, it was found, for others - not. Founding the reasons for this different outcome of the struggle is the purpose of the study. This study examined all aspects of life of the Cossacks - religious, political, philosophical and for the first time, provided the real part of the Cossacks in Peter's wars, especially in the Great Northern War. It has never been studied before.