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  • Jylhänkangas, Leila (2013)
    The study examines conceptions of euthanasia among both ordinary people and experts in contemporary Finnish culture. Euthanasia has not been legalised in Finland, but in recent years, the euthanasia debate has flared up at regular intervals in the media as a result of different ethical conflicts in the care of dying patients. In the study, euthanasia representations are explored as a part of the late modern Finnish culture of death. The primary data consist of 137 written accounts in which ordinary Finns discuss euthanasia and fifteen qualitative interviews among religious specialists and health care professionals, to whom official knowledge of death has traditionally been entrusted. Supplementary data include newspaper articles and other texts discussing euthanasia. The study was inspired by the classical anthropological idea according to which differences in the way life and death are approached and perceived make culture visible. It rests on social representations approach, psychological models of memory and earlier research on the sacred and the profane as culturally constructed categories. In the study, sacred is employed as an analytical anthropological tool, not as a theological concept. It is conceptualised as a category-boundary that is actualised in social situations in which the inviolability of classifications such as a good vs. bad death are threatened and risk losing their authority as the moral basis of society and its social systems and orders. On the basis of these notions, a theoretical model is constructed for the analysis of the euthanasia debate. The main result of the study is that people wish to discuss euthanasia and are eager to share their views about it in order to protect their value territory that shelters the dying human body. Whether people are for or against euthanasia, the human body is central in the classifications and metaphors concerning the images of a good and bad death. Thus, euthanasia is tamed using old and familiar categories. In this way, the line between life and death is culturally constructed and has to be handled using the terms of the socially shared reality. Both ordinary Finns and professionals draw on a variety of cultural scripts rising from medicine, psychology, the media and personal experiences. In the study, ordinary people are seen as experts through experience who have a good knowledge of death on the basis of their personal observations and experiences. These experiences affect the cultural images of euthanasia. An often expressed fear is the possibility of falling into dependence upon the care of other people and not being able to control one s own life. In the study data, an ideal death is described in different ways that legitimate the contemporary conceptions of a good death in late modernity: there is an emphasis on painlessness and the meaningfulness of the last moments of life which resonates with the dying person s individuality. Among religious specialists, euthanasia is opposed and seen as an inappropriate way of dying because the idea of a human being taking too much power of self-determination in the face of death is viewed as threatening and violating the religious moral code that forbids killing and keeps things in their right place. Among physicians, euthanasia is constructed according to professional medical ethics, which are not easily compatible with euthanasia. Many ordinary people and some of the interviewees, however, are willing to legalise euthanasia and highlight the autonomy of the dying individual. Eventually, the study shows that in contemporary Finnish society, there does not exist a moral consensus on euthanasia; rather, there are a number of different realities which are built in relation to context dependent and changing conceptions of a good death.
  • Rausmaa, Heikki (2013)
    My doctoral thesis will investigate political relations between Finland and Estonia between the spring of 1988 and August 1991 when Estonia became independent. I will focus on Finland s policy towards Estonia, which manifested itself in white papers concerning Estonia s independence process and in governmental co-operation. I will also pay attention to the attitude of the Finnish parliament and those of Finnish political parties with Estonia. I will also explore Estonia s political aims with regard to Finland and the degree to which they were realized. The research is based on archival sources, interviews, materials of the leading organs of the political parties, and research literature. I have applied the classical scientific methods used in historical research: comparing sources, paying attention to the special characteristics of the data, and tapping my general knowledge about the context. From the summer of 1988 until early February 1990, aiming to benefit from Gorbachev s reform policy, Estonia tried to increase its national autonomy within the Soviet Union. From then on, Estonia s only goal was to bring the Soviet occupation to an end and restore the country s independence, which led to constant conflict with Moscow. Estonia sought support and help from Finland in building its new state and tried to put the question of Estonian independence onto the international agenda. Finland s foreign policy sought to support Gorbachev and maintain close relations with Moscow. On the other hand, supporting Estonia was considered to be a moral duty and public opinion put pressure on the Finnish government to help Estonia. Starting from the spring of 1989, the Finnish government supported Estonia by giving educational, professional, and material help. This aid was not well publicized, in an attempt to prevent it from receiving undue political significance. President Koivisto constantly warned Estonia not to proceed too quickly as this, it was felt, might damage Gorbachev s position both within the CPSU and the USSR. However, at the same time, Finland was providing considerable help to Estonia in the process of building up its own state. Most of Finland s political parties acted in the same way as the government of Finland: they didn t give any public support for Estonian independence but supported it in the form of practical co-operation. The only exceptions were the Greens and the Left Alliance who made their support for Estonia evident in public statements. The help provided by Finnish political parties was important especially in terms of passing on the international contacts. Finland was consciously conducting its foreign policy on two different levels: simultaneously supporting both Gorbachev and Estonia even though these two actors were pursuing diametrically opposed goals. This contradiction in Finland s policy was concealed and did not damage relations between Finland and the Soviet Union because Finland limited its support to Estonia and presented it as non-political cultural co-operation. The assistance given by Finland was of considerable help to Estonia in building up its own state institutions and gaining its independence. Therefore the common perception that Finland didn t support Estonia s independence doesn t correspond with political reality. On a practical level, Finland provided more help to Estonia than any other country.
  • Tuori, Riikka (2013)
    In this dissertation I analyse the historical background, poetic form, and language of the Karaite zĕmīrōt (paraliturgical hymns) written in Hebrew during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The study corpus contains thirty-four zĕmīrōt from the Karaite Prayer Book (Vilna, 1890 - 1892). Eighteenth- and nineteenth-century manuscripts from Russia and Lithuania serve as another important source of information. I provide a philological close reading of the zĕmīrōt with a descriptive analysis of their prosodic features and Hebrew language, and concise annotations to the zĕmīrōt. Methodologically, the dissertation relies on the study of East European Karaite history and the Hebrew language on the one hand, and on the study of medieval Hebrew poetry and poetics on the other. Because paraliturgical Hebrew poetry written by this minority group has so far been neglected, the results of this study provide novel insights on the study of East European Karaism. Polish-Lithuanian Karaite zĕmīrōt are poems written for paraliturgical events: Sabbaths, weddings, and festivals. They are metric poems adorned with refrains, and easily adaptable to melodies. In terms of prosody, they are indebted to the Hispano-Hebrew (Andalusian) poetic tradition by employing the quantitative-syllabic metre (the metre of yĕtēdōt and tĕnūʿōt) and, in some cases, even containing wordings extracted from Hispano-Hebrew poems. I demonstrate prosodic connections between families of poems through the examination of incipits, metres, and rhyme schemes. Most Karaite zĕmīrōt are (sometimes inventive) emulations of popular Hebrew poems familiarized through collections of rabbinic and Karaite poetry stemming most likely from the Turkish Karaite communities. While the language of the zĕmīrōt is replete with biblical phraseology, paraphrases, and allusions, its morphology and lexicon reflect the influence of post-classical Hebrew poetry and exegetics. Karaite Jews reject the rabbinic interpretation of Judaism and emphasize the independent interpretation of biblical texts. This polemic dynamics between Karaism and rabbinic Judaism are shown to influence the rhetoric of the zĕmīrōt. The Karaite ideology emerges, for example, in the descriptions of the correct, biblical calculation of Shaḇuʿot and in the condemnation of rabbinic customs for the Sabbath. The Karaite relationship to popular Jewish currents of thought, such as Neoplatonism and Kabbalah, are also discussed. The results of this study demonstrate that the zĕmīrōt provided an excellent venue for their authors for expressing both devout feelings and philosophical notions
  • Rahkonen, Pauli (2013)
    The subject of the present dissertation is the West Uralic past, mainly linguistic and settlement history. It focuses on historically known ancient tribes and their linguistic backgrounds such as the Merya, Muroma, Me čera and Čude as well as on some unknown Uralic tribes and languages. The tools employed are onomastics (mostly hydronyms) and archaeology. The main results of the study are as follows. The Me čera seem to have been a tribe inhabiting the left bank of the Middle Oka and, surprisingly, they most probably spoke a Permian language. It seems that linguistically two kinds of Novgorodian Čudes lived in the catchment areas of the Upper Volkhov and Luga. Traces are found of East Čudes and, further west, West Čudes . Both of these were apparently not Finnic tribes. The language of the East Čudes shows similarities with Meryan. The West Čudian language shows some features of Mordvin and probably Early Proto-Finnic. The Meryans and Muromas were linguistically close relatives. Their languages may have been only two dialects of the same language. The Meryan language stretched as far as the western parts of Vologda oblast in the north. A kind of Meryan was spoken in the Moscow area as well. The Meryan language had a cognate language in the eastern parts of Novgorod and Tver oblasts which I have called East Čudian. Apparently another related language was spoken in the eastern parts of Leningrad oblast, in the south-western parts of Arkhangelsk oblast and in Karelia in the Lake Onega region probably before the Finnic era. Ancient Mordvin-type toponyms are found in Kaluga and Moscow oblasts. There seem to have been two extreme edges of ancient Mordvin hydronyms, the first in the environs of the town of Tver and another on the left bank of the Volga between the river Kostroma and the estuary of the Un a. It is possible that an unknown Uralic x-language (or languages) was spoken in Finland, Karelia and in the North Russian lakeland. In my opinion, this language probably cannot be derived from Proto-Finnic or Proto-Saami. I have presented a hypothesis that this language was spoken by the population (and their descendants) of the early Textile Ceramics culture. In any event, the lexicon shows similarities with the Meryan language as defined by hydronyms.
  • Tahkokallio, Jaakko (Unigrafia, 2013)
    This work examines the twelfth- and thirteenth-century readership and reception of Geoffrey of Monmouth s History of the Kings of Britain (c. 1138), a pseudohistorical narrative still widely remembered for introducing King Arthur into European literature. It suggests a new rationale for the great popularity of the work and presents evidence of why it circulated among religious orders. It also proposes a redating of the various versions of the text. On a general level, its results underline that for the high-medieval reading public moral education was a central function of historical writing, and that in this respect there existed a strong literary continuity with classical antiquity. The study is based on an examination of over 130 manuscripts of the History predating c. 1300. Particular attention has been given to the setting of their production (monastic or other), and to their twelfth- and thirteenth-century marginalia. Independent manuscripts of the Prophecies of Merlin, a part of the History that also circulated separately, have as well been studied, as have medieval narratives making reference to Geoffrey's History or using it as a source. The work consists of five main chapters. Chapter two discusses the publication of the History and the composition of its audience, demonstrating the wide extent of its monastic readership. Chapter three shows that the History was frequently read for factual information and that it was mostly seen as a trustworthy historical account. Chapter four presents the central new argument of the study, namely that the History was perceived as a morally edifying narrative by its audience. The reception of the Prophecies of Merlin is examined in Chapter five, which introduces evidence supporting the acceptability of this potentially controversial part. Chapter six discusses the role that Arthurian interests played in the early success of the History. The study contains several appendices, offering new information on the origin and medieval ownership of various manuscripts. They also update the list of commentaries written to the Prophecies and add five new witnesses to the handlist of manuscripts of the History. The results of the study highlight how the classical idea of history as a means of moral edification was widely shared in the middle ages. Importantly, the study demonstrates that to function as morally edificatory a historical narrative did not need to be particularly religious in its tone or substance. The usefulness of reading historical writing was seen to reside primarily in the way it inculcated certain virtues of character — it did not necessarily need to set models for direct imitation regarding how to conduct a proper Christian life.
  • Laiho, Timo (Timo Laiho, 2013)
    The present study introduces the theoretical principles and analytical concepts of analytic-generative methodology (AGM) in order to specify the temporal organization of music from a viewpoint of perceptual experience. The principal aim of this research-project is simultaneously focused on clarifying those structural features that form the basis of temporally and contextually bound cognitive processing in general. While it is commonly acknowledged that the flowing musical organization unquestionably relies on our sense perceptions, the investigations particularly emphasizing this subject are not numerous. The reason for this is undoubtedly connected with the assumed subjectivity associated with our perception/sensation capacity. Regarding this problematic, the present research referring to examples of temporal musical organization strives to outline the structural basis of sensory cognition more objectively. Besides introducing a new music analytic-generative methodology (AGM), the present treatment offers a descriptive model of cognition based on the temporal interaction of outside and inside structures of cognitive processing. This model endeavours to provide solutions for the problematic mechanisms related to the structural organization between high and low levels of sensory perception (often referred to as a meaning barrier ), which even from the point of view of present day cognitive science remain unspecified. The presented cognitive model also provides a framework of sub-semiotic studies, which as a broader discipline can be understood as a basis for a more general art-analysis. The main target of the present approach, however, is music analysis. Key structural features of analysis are connected with the principles of differentiation and analysis of movement. These principles form both the theoretical groundwork and the structural basis of the analytical tools of AGM that consist of three interlocked concepts: interval-time complexes (intiCs), musical vectors (muVs), and milieu-territorial structures. Although the basic research related to AGM reflects a variety of different scientific/philosophic disciplines (i.e. poststructuralist philosophy, linguistics, music analysis, semiotics, modern physics etc.), the theoretical background relies much on the structural aspects of the quantum physicist David Bohm s theory of implicate order. In this sense the present AGM, referring to concrete, analytic-generative examples of musical organization, offers an interpretative account of Bohm s influential theory.
  • Relas, Jukka (Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistys, 2013)
    Power, style and space. Emperors and Presidents residence in Helsinki 1837 1940 The subject of this research is the Imperial Palace of Helsinki. It first served the Grand Duchy of Finland, which belonged to the Russian Empire, and later became the Presidential Palace of independent Finland. The primary focus of this research is the interior design of the Palace between 1837 1940. The research is based on facts about the building, its preserved objects and furniture and existing documents. These have been combined and studied in relation to different historical contexts. The fundamental concepts of the research are power, style and space. In 1837, Emperor Nicholas I ordered the buying an old merchant s house to serve as the Imperial Palace of Helsinki. The alterations, designed by architect Carl Ludvig Engel, were finished in 1843. The palace was decorated partially with the furniture that had been acquired in 1819 from St Petersburg for the old residence of the Governor General, and partially with new furniture bought in St Petersburg and Helsinki. The interior of the palace would bear a strong similarity to that of the much larger Winter Palace of St Petersburg, whitch was redecorated around the same time. Later in the 1860s the furniture was complemented with acquisitions from Berlin. In the second half of the 19th century 28 pieces of mainly Finnish art were acquired. In the end of 1890s the interior of the palace was renovated, and the building was enlarged in 1907. Both of these projects were designed by architect Jac. Ahrenberg. The Emperor very seldom visited the palace and it was infrequently used for ceremonial purposes. Nevertheless, it was a reminder of the existence of the Emperor in Helsinki. During the First World War the Palace served as a military hospital and in 1917 during the Russian Revolution it was taken over by the Russian military committee. Finland gained independence during the same year, but the building became the Presidential Palace only after many phases in 1919, when it was transformed into one of the central buildings of political activity in the country. New traditions of a now independent Finland were developed there on top of the heritage of the period of Finnish autonomy in the Russian Empire. The history of Finland s autonomy and independence are interestingly intertwined in the Palace. The building and its interior were not originally designed for its future purpose, but they developed gradually under different emperors, political systems and art style periods into a multilayered cultural and architectural structure.
  • Maurizi, Luca (Suomen tiedeseura, 2013)
    The Cursus Honorum from Augustus to Trajan. Formal and Stylistic Developments in Latin and Greek Inscriptions The term cursus inscription essentially refers to an honorary, funerary or public inscription where the senator is represented not only with the office that he was holding at the moment when the dedication was set, but also with a list of the different stages of his public, religious or local career. In other words one may see a cursus as a modern curriculum vitae. This research aims to study the stylistic developments of the mention of senatorial career (cursus honorum) in Latin and Greek Epigraphy, during the years between Augustus and Trajan (27 B.C. 117 A.D.). The research is based on a corpus of about 420 Latin and Greek inscriptions from the whole Roman Empire showing a senatorial career or part of it. The method of the research consists in showing issues and features of the career s mention with the aim to set out developments in the epigraphic expression of the cursus honorum in order to find structures and typologies in the mention of career. Connecting those typologies and structures with the chronological and geographical factors, it is possible to illustrate how cursus honorum stylistically developed as an own epigraphic phenomenon. Another fundamental key of interpretation is senatorial self-representation. Often senators adapted the mention of their cursus in order to impress the readers of the inscription, stressing some features or omitting some others. As an appendix to this work, one will find a list of all inscriptions in chronological order, with text, bibliography, and other information. This easy-to-browse archive of inscriptions showing senatorial careers could be used in future as a tool for scholars. This research shows that the number of honorary inscriptions with full cursus dramatically increases from Augustus to Trajan. Geographically, cursus inscriptions initially restricted to Italy spread to the whole Roman Empire. In addition to this, the mention of career becomes stylistically more and more complex as the offices are often set out in descending order and with the anticipation of coherent blocks of offices. Even the mention of single offices becomes richer in details. Some of these developments may be used as dating criteria for inscriptions of uncertain chronology as well as a tool for dating single offices. This stylistic enhancement of the mention of careers manifests the important role of cursus honorum in the public representation of senators. This study shows on large basis of examples that the honoured senator must himself have played a part in the editing of his cursus honorum even in honorific inscriptions set up by another dedicator, and that careers were edited differently according to location, language and potential readers. This reveals cursus honorum as a mean of powerful impact in senatorial self-representation.
  • Reinikka, Anna (2013)
    This doctoral thesis contains the first edition of an anonymous Late Antique Latin elementary grammar discovered by Dr. Vivien Law more than two decades ago. The thesis presents not only the edited text and translation of the Ars Pseudo-Scauri (thus named because of the attributions of both Dr. Law as well as a Late Antique compiler known as Sergius), but also a commentary which aims to help the reader to make out the connections this text shares with other extant grammars. In the introduction and commentary, an attempt has also been made to describe certain developments in Roman language science, as well as to determine if and how they influence the doctrine of the Ars Pseudo-Scauri. In addition to a few articles by Vivien Law, little else has been written on this grammar. However, within the past few decades since the discovery of the text, an important adjustment in the paradigm of the study of ancient linguistics has taken place, with the repudiation of the traditional, static model of historiography in favour of one that emphasizes the fact that grammatical science was in lively interaction with philosophy in late Antiquity. In 1987 Dr. Law came to the conclusion that the text which has been preserved for us is either the Ars minor of Q. Terentius Scaurus, or a later abbreviation of a longer grammatical work by Scaurus. However, the attribution of this grammar to Scaurus appears not to be well founded. The text contains many doctrinal aspects which speak against such an early attribution, aspects which were not adequately addressed by Dr. Law in her article. The thesis argues against the attribution of this grammar to Q. Terentius Scaurus. The issue of dating the grammar, taking into account recent developments concerning the historiography of ancient linguistics, is also addressed. In the commentary and the introduction the content of the Ars Pseudo-Scauri is reviewed in the light of the recent hypotheses on the interaction between grammar and philosophy, which is today considered to have taken place from the first and second century AD onwards, in contrast with previous views which assumed a much earlier date. The fairly recently discovered Ars Pseudo-Scauri has not been subject to much analysis to date, and, more importantly, the few previous endeavours have not taken into account the developments which have shed new light on the study of ancient linguistics.
  • Brenden, Randi (Nordica Helsingensia, 2013)
    This thesis deals with literature written by the Norwegian writer Åsta Holth (1904-1999). Holth was particularly known for her texts about the so called forest Fins , i.e. descendents from Finnish immigrants in Norway (and Sweden), and for her work to make this ethnic group recognized among ethnic Norwegians. Her writing also reveals a deep interest in feminism. The material that is used consists of one short story, Tomasdagen (1941), two novels, Gullsmeden (1958), and Volva (1987), together with Holth s self biography, Piga (1979). The basis of this dissertation is articles about each of these chosen texts, (published in Norsk litterær årbok 2008, 2009, 2011, and 2012). The perspective in reading Holth s texts is double: From one point of view the ethnical aspct is studied, founded on post-colonial theories. Equally important is the feministic viewpoint: based upon the French feminist writers Hélène Cixous, Julia Kristeva, and Luce Irigary, the material is examined in order to focus on the feminist aspect in Holth s writing. Methodologically the basis of this dissertation is perspectivated readings where theoretical clusters are read together with the chosen parts of Holth s publications. Newer theory within the fields postcolonialism and feminism is applied as a foundation in these hermeneutic readings. The approach to the problem is to explore how the implementation of such theory in the reading of Holth s texts can highlight her literary work in a new way. The result of the investigation is that these readings tend to reactualize Holth s texts. The reactualization derives from the implementation of French feminists, which shows that Kristeva s conception of abjection is a central theme in connection with specific female experiences, such as female sexuality, birthing, and the dyade between mother and child. As to post-colonial theory, this thesis is based upon Foucault s theory concerning the discourse of power, and his idea of the contrast between dominant and dominated. The dissertation concludes that the gap between dominant and dominated, or elite and insurgent, can be overcome by individual, intimate meetings resulting in a productive hybrid, containing the possibility of thinking and acting independently, not being bound by old traditions.
  • Keskiaho, Jesse (2012)
    This is a study of the early medieval reception and use of the teachings of Augustine of Hippo (mainly in his De cura pro mortuis gerenda and De Genesi ad litteram), and Gregory the Great (in his Moralia and Dialogi) on dreams and visions, and canon law related to dreams. It proceeds from the contradiction between how these opinions, which highlight the problematic nature of dreams, and their influence have been interpreted, and the image of early medieval dreaming as it emerges from narrative sources. The study shows that these opinions were gradually received in the early middle ages but argues that their meanings and uses varied according to context. It is a detailed investigation into how early medieval readers and scholars dealt with one aspect of the inheritance of late antiquity in situations and for ends very different from those of the original texts. In this study I investigate several manuscripts of patristic, exegetical, and canonical texts, to determine the manuscript contexts of relevant texts, and to uncover signs of reading. The study shows how Gregory's teaching on the difficult nature of dreams, and Augustine's ideas about the apparitions of the dead, and his epistemological model of three visions became, through the process of early medieval reception, standard interpretative frames for discussing dreams and visions. I also argue that the reception and adoption of normative texts proscribing the observation of dreams was probably connected to the reception of theological views. I demonstrate how the reception of the opinions of even the most influential of the fathers was conditioned by current concerns. Discussions on dreams and visions were always also discussions about the saints, religious images, the fates of the dead, orthopraxy, learned identity, or the interpretation of Bible. In such discussions authoritative opinions could be used to argue both for and against the reality of certain dreams or visions. Cults of relics and interest in the fates of the dead pervaded early medieval cultures, and fostered stories of apparitions and visions, for which support could be sought in authoritative texts. However, especially in learned and reform-oriented contexts there was also interest in those aspects of these texts that underlined the problematic nature of visionary phenomena.
  • Shkvarov, Alexey (RME Group Oy (Helsinki) and Aleteja (St Petersburg, Russia), 2012)
    Cossacks at the time of Peter the Great. The Fall of Cossacks freedom is focused on the reign of Peter the Great, which turned out to be a breaking point in the Cossack history and which marked the historical fall of several Cossack communities, such as Little Russian and Zaporozhian Cossacks. It also opened a new epoch for some others, such as Don, Yaik (Ural) and Terek Cossacks. This was a period of transition from a state of traditional Cossack freedom into a regular social estate. Peter the Great s relations with the Cossacks is one of the least researched issues of his reign. For many reasons these questions have been neglected and covered with myths and legends. There was the revolt by K.Bulavin, the treachery by I.Mazepa, escape to Turkey of Zaporozhiers with K.Gordienko and Don Cossacks with I.Nekrasov. This approach is reflected in the official historiography, which concentrated its attention upon the Cossacks as a potential and actual source of troubles. Thereby it also minimized the Cossacks role in military actions. References to Cossacks in this literature are few and they are contradictory. Peter the Great used a large scale of measures to the Cossacks: from forgiveness in several cases of disobedience up to utmost cruel punishments. By and by Peter subdued the Cossacks to the laws of the Russian Empire while he left to them their local traditions and rights. It seems to be that the Russian tsar was able to get from his Cossacks what he wanted. They formed a group of professional warriors by vocation that horrified any foes. Using foreign sources and literature, it is possible to reconstruct the image of the Cossacks as seen by the enemy. Cossacks are the unique historical phenomena on their own right. They were also important not only for Russia, but also for all its neighboring countries - from the Baltic region to China. The whole phenomenon of Cossacks is still poorly known and contradictory information abounds, not only in Russia itself, but in the Western countries as well. This study also purports to determine the typology of Cossack communities, the meaning of contemporary terminology and difference between the Cossacks in service and free Cossacks. The study represents the main trade-off conflict of opposites - Freedom and Autocracy For some of the Cossacks, it was found, for others - not. Founding the reasons for this different outcome of the struggle is the purpose of the study. This study examined all aspects of life of the Cossacks - religious, political, philosophical and for the first time, provided the real part of the Cossacks in Peter's wars, especially in the Great Northern War. It has never been studied before.
  • Tossavainen, Mari (Suomen Tiedeseura, 2012)
    Sculptor's Work: Emil Wikström and the Infrastructure of Sculpture 1890-1920 This doctoral dissertation examines a sculptor´s work in the context of the formation of art infrastructures, collaborations, and the practice and profession of sculpture. In this study, Emil Wikström (1864-1942) is a major exemplary case through which to understand the practice and profession of sculpture in Finland. Wikström is especially famous for his monuments, and he has had a reputation as a 'dominant master' in the Finnish sculpture at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Earlier, he has mainly been regarded as a favourite artist of the Finnish-minded circles. However, this study shows that, in addition to a national obligation, he also felt a strong professional duty to develop Finnish art life and the professional status of sculptors. This study opens new perspectives on Finnish sculpture by showing, for instance, that Wikström was an early advocate of copyright legislation. Theoretically and methodologically, this study is connected with the current discussion in the field of art history, and it builds principally on an institutional and art sociological approach. The research is based on primary sources, including sculptors' professional correspondence and the documents of statue committees. Wikström entered the difficult and undervalued profession of sculpture in the end of 19th century. The foundations of the Finnish sculpture institution were laid in the years 1890-1920, and sculptors' professional identity and efforts began to emerge in many ways. Their work was being transformed, for instance, by contracts, art education, art foundries, new associations and publicity. This study also underlines the fact that, as stated by Wikström, sculpture is connected with place. Wikström played a decisive part in forming the image of the sculptor's profession and building up the infrastructures of sculpture in Finland. Keywords: Emil Wikström, Finnish sculptors, sculpture, art infrastructures, professional identity, monuments, late 19th century, early 20th century
  • Sjöberg, Sami (2012)
    The thesis essays examine the avant-garde movement known as lettrism, and the influence of medieval Jewish mysticism and messianism on its art. Most research in this area has focused on the history of lettrism but has disregarded the possibility of a Jewish influence. This volume offers the first detailed examination of the aesthetic, philosophical and practical implications and manifestations of religious mysticism, the Kabbalah, and messianism in lettrist poetics. Lettrist poetry consists of glossographic writing with imaginary signs, which amalgamates pictorial and linguistic (literary) expression and makes a categorical distinction between these media impossible. By virtue of such a melange, the conventions involved in the mediation of meaning are undermined, and lettrist poetry appears nonsensical. Lettrist poetics applies themes such as ineffability, obscurity and nothingness, which derive from the Kabbalah. The use of these themes establishes an anti-rational theory of language, which regards the lacunae of meaning recurring in lettrist poems as essential poetic elements with respect to meaning. Furthermore, the lacunae evoke a potentiality of meaning. Such potential meaning differs radically from conventional conceptions of textual meaning through its temporal suspension. This suggests that lettrism adapts the futureorientedness of messianism on a linguistic level. Potentiality evokes literary structures that circumvent dualisms based on any straightforward presence or absence of meaning. In the essays comprising this thesis, such structures are illustrated by the notions of nothing (rien), 'void' (blanc) and the 'secret'. Methodologically, the thesis introduces a theoretical device suitable for an examination of the aforementioned structures. The hermeneutics of the included middle extends the scope of hermeneutical inquiry to the potentiality of meaning. In addition to dialectical antinomic terms, the hermeneutics of the included middle acknowledges the middle both as a lack and as potentiality. In other words, any present lack of meaning is regarded as potential meaning and thus the poems themselves cannot be deemed meaningless. The study therefore argues that lettrism adapts the structures of religious messianism and incorporates a religious component into the glossography and lacunae of poetry. The quasi-language of lettrist poetry becomes both the means by which the religious inclination is manifested and its mainstay.
  • Király, Susanna (Révai Digitális Kiadó, 2012)
    My doctoral thesis has involved two related tasks. The first was to analyse Zoltán Kodály s philosophy of music education and, on this basis, to develop a computer-assisted instructional method (CAI) for teaching music theory and solfège (ear-training). The second task was to experiment with the effectiveness of this method and compare it with traditional approaches to teaching. Many students find music theory and ear training difficult. During the 1990s, in connection with my licentiate thesis "Solfège in the Computer Classroom" (2000), I initiated this research project and, developed a CAI method for teaching music theory and solfège. I wanted to see just how useful Kodály's approach could be in computer-aided teaching and learning. Kodály's philosophy of music education includes the idea that every child has the right to learn his musical mother tongue. This learning should take place in a child-centred, natural and easy way. In the present study, I particularly focused on the opportunities for developing and testing the new, computer-aided teaching method, especially for ear-training, using Kodály s concept. My purpose was to create a learning tool that could be used in music schools to facilitate the teaching of music theory and solfège. The second objective of my study was to examine the effectiveness of this new tool. Did these newly-developed CAI materials and methods cause differences in students' learning outcomes in different environments? Three different groups tested the music theory and solfège instruction with CAI: the PIT group, in which there was a computer-aided tutorial, but only the teacher used a computer, not the students; the FIT group, in which each student had a computer, and each could interact with the curriculum independently; and a control group, TRAD, to whom music theory and solfège were taught using a traditional method, that is, without any computer-aided programme. The study was conducted in the West Regional Music Institute (LUMO) in Lohja, Finland, during the school year 2004 05. The study included a total of 125 music students, ages10 to 16. This is an empirical and pedagogical developmental study. The testing phase also included quantitative analyses. The paramount objective was to develop and test a Kodály-based CAI solfège pedagogy. The results show that the Kodály approach can be successfully applied to the development of a computer-aided solfège programme: the Kodály-based computer-aided music theory and solfège material in fact produced the best results in most areas of learning, especially in the PIT group, in which a teacher worked with a computer-aided tutorial. The results also show that the Kodály system is applicable to new learning environments and teaching practices. It suggests that the computer-aided tutorial works well to support music theory and ear-training in individual lessons and indicates that pupils are eager to learn by using the computer. In music education CAI is an area with great potential for development. It offers multiple learning options and can enhance students motivation to study music theory and ear-training; some of the learning outcomes were even better than with the traditional ways of learning. The results also show, however, that the teacher pupil interaction is essential in a computer-aided learning programme. Keywords: basic education in the arts, CAI, digital network equipment, ear-training, Kodály, music education, music education technology, music theory, solfège Sales:
  • Tala, Henrik (2012)
    Rescuing Finland : French Prime Minister Édouard Daladier and French aid to Finland during the Winter War 1939-40 The objective of this study is to analyse the French Prime Minister Édouard Daladier s policy towards Finland during the so-called Winter War, 1939-40. In addition, this study focuses on the motives of Daladier in his attempts to try to rescue Finland. He was willing to assist Finland, and during the last weeks of the war, he wanted and even needed to rescue her, in order to prevent her from being crushed by the Soviet Union. Daladier s government suffered a damaging defeat in Parliament on the same day that the Winter War started. His response was to seek support from the political right, and providing Finland with political assistance and material aid was a practical way to achieve this. However, it soon became evident that the French government was expected to undertake a direct military intervention in support of Finland. During the winter the British government had also made plans for an intervention in Northern Europe. By early February the Allied governments had agreed to carry out a plan of action, which involved landing in Norway, occupying the iron ore fields of Swedish Lapland and, finally, sending the remaining troops to Finland. Relying on this agreement, Daladier was able to reject the criticisms of the opposition, by promising that France would send troops to Finland. The commitment, however, connected the survival of his government to the fate of Finland. Simultaneously, in early 1940, the French civil and military leadership was having second thoughts about the strategy of the Allies. There was growing distrust towards the so-called long war strategy, which relied on the assumption that the material superiority of Britain and France would result in military dominance over Germany in the fullness of time. Intervention in the Finnish war gained support from a strategic perspective, as it was seen as a means to favorably shift the balance of power between the Allied countries and Germany. In the end, Daladier s government did not survive the domestic political crises provoked by the Finnish peace treaty in March 1940. This study is centred on sources, namely diplomatic and military documents, which have thus far been unused in studies of French policy towards Finland in 1939-40. Besides, the method is dissimilar to that used in previous research, as this work is additionally based on a close examination of newspapers, diaries and other sources describing the political atmosphere in France. As a result, this research advances the notion that the prevailing mood in France was more pro-Finland than previously thought. Furthermore, this study stresses the significance of the shift in strategic thought as a key factor in the willingness of the French to intervene militarily in the Finnish war.
  • Immonen, Teemu (2012)
    As the community to which Benedict of Nursia had composed the Benedictine Rule, Monte Cassino enjoyed unquestioned authority in the Christian societies in the Middle Ages. In the second half of the eleventh century, the abbey’s prestige reached its peak under Abbot Desiderius, later Pope Victor III (d. 1087). At the time, Cassinese monks played an important role in the ecclesiastical reform that was changing the face of the Roman Church. The new basilica of Monte Cassino, consecrated in 1071, was a highly conscious manifestation of the Cassinese monastic identity. The church is regarded as one of the most important edifices of the Italian Middle Ages due to its role in the formation of Romanesque art. Apparently, the wall paintings of the church served to intermediate the pictorial traditions which harked back to the great Roman fourth-century basilicas of Old St. Peter’s and San Paolo fuori le mura. Unfortunately, the Desiderian basilica was destroyed in an earthquake in 1348, and it has proved difficult for scholars to determine whether the church contained a fresco program and if it did, of what the program consisted. In the present study, I propose a reconstruction of the program of fresco decoration that covered the walls of the nave and aisles of the basilica of Monte Cassino. I argue that the pictorial decoration of the Desiderian basilica can be largely reconstructed based on the material found in two late eleventh-century manuscripts, Codex Casinensis 280 and Vaticanus Latinus 1202. Though both manuscripts are well known to scholars, their direct relation to the pictorial decoration of the Desiderian basilica has never been demonstrated before. On the grounds of my reconstruction of the fresco program, I discuss the intended reading by the members of the monastic community and the function of the pictorial narratives in the reformulation of the Cassinese monastic identity.
  • Uljas, Päivi (Into Kustannus Oy, 2012)
    A Breakthrough of Welfare State. The inter-relationships of the civic movement, political transformation, and eroding of a hegemony based on small scale farming in the Finnish society in the late 1950's. The unusually rapid and powerful structural change; the non-parliamentary civic movements of 1956 - 1963; and the left majority in the Finnish parliament between 1958 - 1962 all took place as the Finnish welfare state started to develop. The aim of my research is to analyse the inter-relationships of these processes. The research describes the way the former semi self-sufficient, semi-proletarian and labour-intensive form of production - a simple and discriminatory system in itself - made it possible for the majority of the population to survive through hard work. For some it even provided a possibility to prosper. The waning vitality of semi self-sufficiency and small scale agriculture triggered a political ferment and started a period of searching for something new. The process was so intense that it broke up most of the parties and tore down the old consensus that was based on the power of economic and political elite. The most crucial battle of the great transformation was waged over the nature of the state: Should we build a welfare state and construct social security systems, or should we revert to the old night watchman state and, for example, cancel the modest forms of redistribution of income carried out in the 1950's? The people joining the civic movements were either cottagers of the impoverishing countryside or, quite often, people who had come from the countryside and thus had grown up under conditions of some form of solidarity that included taking care of one's own family. The Finnish social insurance developed in the midst of a change in the structure of production of the society, and it became a compromise to satisfy the needs of both the waning society of small scale agriculture and the rising proletarian society based on wage labour. The hodgepodge of political schemes and use of power became a battle between different notions of the economy and the state; the distribution of national income; and the position of Finland in the international context. This battle created a shape of an interregnum - a period of transformation including two notions of society, two alternative paths for the future and the logic of a correctional move. The transformation of Finland from a poor developing country into a prosperous society has been praised as a success story. In 1956 - 1959, when the old form of governance based on the interests of small scale agriculture and wood processing industry was in decay, and when the future seemed uncertain, the projects to reduce social benefits and efforts to distribute national income even more unequally than before led to a powerful counter-movement by citizens and started an hegemonic change and a equal socia development.
  • Forsén, Annette (2012)
    The voluntary associations dealt with in this dissertation were ethnic clubs and societies promoting the interests of German immigrants in Finland and Sweden. The associations were founded at the end of the 19th century as well as at the beginning of the 20th century during a time in which migration was high, the civil society grew rapidly and nationalism flourished. The work includes over 70 different associations in Finland and Sweden with a number of members ranging from ten to at most 2, 500. The largest and most important associations were situated in Helsinki and Stockholm where also most of the German immigrants lived. The main aim of this work is to explore to what extent and how the changes in government in Germany during 1910 to 1950 were reflected in the structures and participants, financial resources and meeting places, networks and activities of the German associations in Finland and Sweden. The study also deals with how a collective German national identity was created within the German associations. The period between 1910 and 1950 has been described by Hobsbawm as the apogee of nationalism. Nationalism and transnationalism are therefore key elements in the work. Additionally the research deals with theories about associations, networking and identity. The analysis is mostly based on minutes of meetings, descriptions of festivities, annual reports and historical outlines about the associations. Archival sources from the German legations, the German Foreign Office, and Finnish and Swedish officials such as the police and the Foreign Offices are also used. The study shows that the collective national identity in the associations during the Weimar Republic mostly went back to the time of the Wilhelmine Empire. It is argued that this fact, the cultural propaganda and the aims of the Weimar Republic to strengthen the contacts between Germany and the German associations abroad, and the role of the German legations and envoys finally helped the small groups of NSDAP to infiltrate, systematically coordinate and finally centralize the German associational life in Finland and Sweden. The Gleichschaltung did not go as smoothly as the party wanted, though. There was a small but consistent opposition that continued to exist in Finland until 1941 and in Sweden until 1945. The collective national identity was displayed much more in Sweden than in Finland, where the associations kept a lower profile. The reasons for the profile differences can be found in the smaller number of German immigrants in Finland and the greater German propaganda in Sweden, but also in the Finnish association act from 1919 and the changes in it during the 1920s and 1930s. Finally, the research shows how the loss of two world wars influenced the associations. It argues that 1918 made the German associations more vulnerable to influence from Germany, whereas 1945 brought the associational life back to where it once started as welfare, recreational and school associations.