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  • Laiho, Timo (Timo Laiho, 2013)
    The present study introduces the theoretical principles and analytical concepts of analytic-generative methodology (AGM) in order to specify the temporal organization of music from a viewpoint of perceptual experience. The principal aim of this research-project is simultaneously focused on clarifying those structural features that form the basis of temporally and contextually bound cognitive processing in general. While it is commonly acknowledged that the flowing musical organization unquestionably relies on our sense perceptions, the investigations particularly emphasizing this subject are not numerous. The reason for this is undoubtedly connected with the assumed subjectivity associated with our perception/sensation capacity. Regarding this problematic, the present research referring to examples of temporal musical organization strives to outline the structural basis of sensory cognition more objectively. Besides introducing a new music analytic-generative methodology (AGM), the present treatment offers a descriptive model of cognition based on the temporal interaction of outside and inside structures of cognitive processing. This model endeavours to provide solutions for the problematic mechanisms related to the structural organization between high and low levels of sensory perception (often referred to as a meaning barrier ), which even from the point of view of present day cognitive science remain unspecified. The presented cognitive model also provides a framework of sub-semiotic studies, which as a broader discipline can be understood as a basis for a more general art-analysis. The main target of the present approach, however, is music analysis. Key structural features of analysis are connected with the principles of differentiation and analysis of movement. These principles form both the theoretical groundwork and the structural basis of the analytical tools of AGM that consist of three interlocked concepts: interval-time complexes (intiCs), musical vectors (muVs), and milieu-territorial structures. Although the basic research related to AGM reflects a variety of different scientific/philosophic disciplines (i.e. poststructuralist philosophy, linguistics, music analysis, semiotics, modern physics etc.), the theoretical background relies much on the structural aspects of the quantum physicist David Bohm s theory of implicate order. In this sense the present AGM, referring to concrete, analytic-generative examples of musical organization, offers an interpretative account of Bohm s influential theory.
  • Relas, Jukka (Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistys, 2013)
    Power, style and space. Emperors and Presidents residence in Helsinki 1837 1940 The subject of this research is the Imperial Palace of Helsinki. It first served the Grand Duchy of Finland, which belonged to the Russian Empire, and later became the Presidential Palace of independent Finland. The primary focus of this research is the interior design of the Palace between 1837 1940. The research is based on facts about the building, its preserved objects and furniture and existing documents. These have been combined and studied in relation to different historical contexts. The fundamental concepts of the research are power, style and space. In 1837, Emperor Nicholas I ordered the buying an old merchant s house to serve as the Imperial Palace of Helsinki. The alterations, designed by architect Carl Ludvig Engel, were finished in 1843. The palace was decorated partially with the furniture that had been acquired in 1819 from St Petersburg for the old residence of the Governor General, and partially with new furniture bought in St Petersburg and Helsinki. The interior of the palace would bear a strong similarity to that of the much larger Winter Palace of St Petersburg, whitch was redecorated around the same time. Later in the 1860s the furniture was complemented with acquisitions from Berlin. In the second half of the 19th century 28 pieces of mainly Finnish art were acquired. In the end of 1890s the interior of the palace was renovated, and the building was enlarged in 1907. Both of these projects were designed by architect Jac. Ahrenberg. The Emperor very seldom visited the palace and it was infrequently used for ceremonial purposes. Nevertheless, it was a reminder of the existence of the Emperor in Helsinki. During the First World War the Palace served as a military hospital and in 1917 during the Russian Revolution it was taken over by the Russian military committee. Finland gained independence during the same year, but the building became the Presidential Palace only after many phases in 1919, when it was transformed into one of the central buildings of political activity in the country. New traditions of a now independent Finland were developed there on top of the heritage of the period of Finnish autonomy in the Russian Empire. The history of Finland s autonomy and independence are interestingly intertwined in the Palace. The building and its interior were not originally designed for its future purpose, but they developed gradually under different emperors, political systems and art style periods into a multilayered cultural and architectural structure.
  • Maurizi, Luca (Suomen tiedeseura, 2013)
    The Cursus Honorum from Augustus to Trajan. Formal and Stylistic Developments in Latin and Greek Inscriptions The term cursus inscription essentially refers to an honorary, funerary or public inscription where the senator is represented not only with the office that he was holding at the moment when the dedication was set, but also with a list of the different stages of his public, religious or local career. In other words one may see a cursus as a modern curriculum vitae. This research aims to study the stylistic developments of the mention of senatorial career (cursus honorum) in Latin and Greek Epigraphy, during the years between Augustus and Trajan (27 B.C. 117 A.D.). The research is based on a corpus of about 420 Latin and Greek inscriptions from the whole Roman Empire showing a senatorial career or part of it. The method of the research consists in showing issues and features of the career s mention with the aim to set out developments in the epigraphic expression of the cursus honorum in order to find structures and typologies in the mention of career. Connecting those typologies and structures with the chronological and geographical factors, it is possible to illustrate how cursus honorum stylistically developed as an own epigraphic phenomenon. Another fundamental key of interpretation is senatorial self-representation. Often senators adapted the mention of their cursus in order to impress the readers of the inscription, stressing some features or omitting some others. As an appendix to this work, one will find a list of all inscriptions in chronological order, with text, bibliography, and other information. This easy-to-browse archive of inscriptions showing senatorial careers could be used in future as a tool for scholars. This research shows that the number of honorary inscriptions with full cursus dramatically increases from Augustus to Trajan. Geographically, cursus inscriptions initially restricted to Italy spread to the whole Roman Empire. In addition to this, the mention of career becomes stylistically more and more complex as the offices are often set out in descending order and with the anticipation of coherent blocks of offices. Even the mention of single offices becomes richer in details. Some of these developments may be used as dating criteria for inscriptions of uncertain chronology as well as a tool for dating single offices. This stylistic enhancement of the mention of careers manifests the important role of cursus honorum in the public representation of senators. This study shows on large basis of examples that the honoured senator must himself have played a part in the editing of his cursus honorum even in honorific inscriptions set up by another dedicator, and that careers were edited differently according to location, language and potential readers. This reveals cursus honorum as a mean of powerful impact in senatorial self-representation.
  • Reinikka, Anna (2013)
    This doctoral thesis contains the first edition of an anonymous Late Antique Latin elementary grammar discovered by Dr. Vivien Law more than two decades ago. The thesis presents not only the edited text and translation of the Ars Pseudo-Scauri (thus named because of the attributions of both Dr. Law as well as a Late Antique compiler known as Sergius), but also a commentary which aims to help the reader to make out the connections this text shares with other extant grammars. In the introduction and commentary, an attempt has also been made to describe certain developments in Roman language science, as well as to determine if and how they influence the doctrine of the Ars Pseudo-Scauri. In addition to a few articles by Vivien Law, little else has been written on this grammar. However, within the past few decades since the discovery of the text, an important adjustment in the paradigm of the study of ancient linguistics has taken place, with the repudiation of the traditional, static model of historiography in favour of one that emphasizes the fact that grammatical science was in lively interaction with philosophy in late Antiquity. In 1987 Dr. Law came to the conclusion that the text which has been preserved for us is either the Ars minor of Q. Terentius Scaurus, or a later abbreviation of a longer grammatical work by Scaurus. However, the attribution of this grammar to Scaurus appears not to be well founded. The text contains many doctrinal aspects which speak against such an early attribution, aspects which were not adequately addressed by Dr. Law in her article. The thesis argues against the attribution of this grammar to Q. Terentius Scaurus. The issue of dating the grammar, taking into account recent developments concerning the historiography of ancient linguistics, is also addressed. In the commentary and the introduction the content of the Ars Pseudo-Scauri is reviewed in the light of the recent hypotheses on the interaction between grammar and philosophy, which is today considered to have taken place from the first and second century AD onwards, in contrast with previous views which assumed a much earlier date. The fairly recently discovered Ars Pseudo-Scauri has not been subject to much analysis to date, and, more importantly, the few previous endeavours have not taken into account the developments which have shed new light on the study of ancient linguistics.
  • Brenden, Randi (Nordica Helsingensia, 2013)
    This thesis deals with literature written by the Norwegian writer Åsta Holth (1904-1999). Holth was particularly known for her texts about the so called forest Fins , i.e. descendents from Finnish immigrants in Norway (and Sweden), and for her work to make this ethnic group recognized among ethnic Norwegians. Her writing also reveals a deep interest in feminism. The material that is used consists of one short story, Tomasdagen (1941), two novels, Gullsmeden (1958), and Volva (1987), together with Holth s self biography, Piga (1979). The basis of this dissertation is articles about each of these chosen texts, (published in Norsk litterær årbok 2008, 2009, 2011, and 2012). The perspective in reading Holth s texts is double: From one point of view the ethnical aspct is studied, founded on post-colonial theories. Equally important is the feministic viewpoint: based upon the French feminist writers Hélène Cixous, Julia Kristeva, and Luce Irigary, the material is examined in order to focus on the feminist aspect in Holth s writing. Methodologically the basis of this dissertation is perspectivated readings where theoretical clusters are read together with the chosen parts of Holth s publications. Newer theory within the fields postcolonialism and feminism is applied as a foundation in these hermeneutic readings. The approach to the problem is to explore how the implementation of such theory in the reading of Holth s texts can highlight her literary work in a new way. The result of the investigation is that these readings tend to reactualize Holth s texts. The reactualization derives from the implementation of French feminists, which shows that Kristeva s conception of abjection is a central theme in connection with specific female experiences, such as female sexuality, birthing, and the dyade between mother and child. As to post-colonial theory, this thesis is based upon Foucault s theory concerning the discourse of power, and his idea of the contrast between dominant and dominated. The dissertation concludes that the gap between dominant and dominated, or elite and insurgent, can be overcome by individual, intimate meetings resulting in a productive hybrid, containing the possibility of thinking and acting independently, not being bound by old traditions.
  • Keskiaho, Jesse (2012)
    This is a study of the early medieval reception and use of the teachings of Augustine of Hippo (mainly in his De cura pro mortuis gerenda and De Genesi ad litteram), and Gregory the Great (in his Moralia and Dialogi) on dreams and visions, and canon law related to dreams. It proceeds from the contradiction between how these opinions, which highlight the problematic nature of dreams, and their influence have been interpreted, and the image of early medieval dreaming as it emerges from narrative sources. The study shows that these opinions were gradually received in the early middle ages but argues that their meanings and uses varied according to context. It is a detailed investigation into how early medieval readers and scholars dealt with one aspect of the inheritance of late antiquity in situations and for ends very different from those of the original texts. In this study I investigate several manuscripts of patristic, exegetical, and canonical texts, to determine the manuscript contexts of relevant texts, and to uncover signs of reading. The study shows how Gregory's teaching on the difficult nature of dreams, and Augustine's ideas about the apparitions of the dead, and his epistemological model of three visions became, through the process of early medieval reception, standard interpretative frames for discussing dreams and visions. I also argue that the reception and adoption of normative texts proscribing the observation of dreams was probably connected to the reception of theological views. I demonstrate how the reception of the opinions of even the most influential of the fathers was conditioned by current concerns. Discussions on dreams and visions were always also discussions about the saints, religious images, the fates of the dead, orthopraxy, learned identity, or the interpretation of Bible. In such discussions authoritative opinions could be used to argue both for and against the reality of certain dreams or visions. Cults of relics and interest in the fates of the dead pervaded early medieval cultures, and fostered stories of apparitions and visions, for which support could be sought in authoritative texts. However, especially in learned and reform-oriented contexts there was also interest in those aspects of these texts that underlined the problematic nature of visionary phenomena.
  • Shkvarov, Alexey (RME Group Oy (Helsinki) and Aleteja (St Petersburg, Russia), 2012)
    Cossacks at the time of Peter the Great. The Fall of Cossacks freedom is focused on the reign of Peter the Great, which turned out to be a breaking point in the Cossack history and which marked the historical fall of several Cossack communities, such as Little Russian and Zaporozhian Cossacks. It also opened a new epoch for some others, such as Don, Yaik (Ural) and Terek Cossacks. This was a period of transition from a state of traditional Cossack freedom into a regular social estate. Peter the Great s relations with the Cossacks is one of the least researched issues of his reign. For many reasons these questions have been neglected and covered with myths and legends. There was the revolt by K.Bulavin, the treachery by I.Mazepa, escape to Turkey of Zaporozhiers with K.Gordienko and Don Cossacks with I.Nekrasov. This approach is reflected in the official historiography, which concentrated its attention upon the Cossacks as a potential and actual source of troubles. Thereby it also minimized the Cossacks role in military actions. References to Cossacks in this literature are few and they are contradictory. Peter the Great used a large scale of measures to the Cossacks: from forgiveness in several cases of disobedience up to utmost cruel punishments. By and by Peter subdued the Cossacks to the laws of the Russian Empire while he left to them their local traditions and rights. It seems to be that the Russian tsar was able to get from his Cossacks what he wanted. They formed a group of professional warriors by vocation that horrified any foes. Using foreign sources and literature, it is possible to reconstruct the image of the Cossacks as seen by the enemy. Cossacks are the unique historical phenomena on their own right. They were also important not only for Russia, but also for all its neighboring countries - from the Baltic region to China. The whole phenomenon of Cossacks is still poorly known and contradictory information abounds, not only in Russia itself, but in the Western countries as well. This study also purports to determine the typology of Cossack communities, the meaning of contemporary terminology and difference between the Cossacks in service and free Cossacks. The study represents the main trade-off conflict of opposites - Freedom and Autocracy For some of the Cossacks, it was found, for others - not. Founding the reasons for this different outcome of the struggle is the purpose of the study. This study examined all aspects of life of the Cossacks - religious, political, philosophical and for the first time, provided the real part of the Cossacks in Peter's wars, especially in the Great Northern War. It has never been studied before.
  • Tossavainen, Mari (Suomen Tiedeseura, 2012)
    Sculptor's Work: Emil Wikström and the Infrastructure of Sculpture 1890-1920 This doctoral dissertation examines a sculptor´s work in the context of the formation of art infrastructures, collaborations, and the practice and profession of sculpture. In this study, Emil Wikström (1864-1942) is a major exemplary case through which to understand the practice and profession of sculpture in Finland. Wikström is especially famous for his monuments, and he has had a reputation as a 'dominant master' in the Finnish sculpture at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Earlier, he has mainly been regarded as a favourite artist of the Finnish-minded circles. However, this study shows that, in addition to a national obligation, he also felt a strong professional duty to develop Finnish art life and the professional status of sculptors. This study opens new perspectives on Finnish sculpture by showing, for instance, that Wikström was an early advocate of copyright legislation. Theoretically and methodologically, this study is connected with the current discussion in the field of art history, and it builds principally on an institutional and art sociological approach. The research is based on primary sources, including sculptors' professional correspondence and the documents of statue committees. Wikström entered the difficult and undervalued profession of sculpture in the end of 19th century. The foundations of the Finnish sculpture institution were laid in the years 1890-1920, and sculptors' professional identity and efforts began to emerge in many ways. Their work was being transformed, for instance, by contracts, art education, art foundries, new associations and publicity. This study also underlines the fact that, as stated by Wikström, sculpture is connected with place. Wikström played a decisive part in forming the image of the sculptor's profession and building up the infrastructures of sculpture in Finland. Keywords: Emil Wikström, Finnish sculptors, sculpture, art infrastructures, professional identity, monuments, late 19th century, early 20th century
  • Sjöberg, Sami (2012)
    The thesis essays examine the avant-garde movement known as lettrism, and the influence of medieval Jewish mysticism and messianism on its art. Most research in this area has focused on the history of lettrism but has disregarded the possibility of a Jewish influence. This volume offers the first detailed examination of the aesthetic, philosophical and practical implications and manifestations of religious mysticism, the Kabbalah, and messianism in lettrist poetics. Lettrist poetry consists of glossographic writing with imaginary signs, which amalgamates pictorial and linguistic (literary) expression and makes a categorical distinction between these media impossible. By virtue of such a melange, the conventions involved in the mediation of meaning are undermined, and lettrist poetry appears nonsensical. Lettrist poetics applies themes such as ineffability, obscurity and nothingness, which derive from the Kabbalah. The use of these themes establishes an anti-rational theory of language, which regards the lacunae of meaning recurring in lettrist poems as essential poetic elements with respect to meaning. Furthermore, the lacunae evoke a potentiality of meaning. Such potential meaning differs radically from conventional conceptions of textual meaning through its temporal suspension. This suggests that lettrism adapts the futureorientedness of messianism on a linguistic level. Potentiality evokes literary structures that circumvent dualisms based on any straightforward presence or absence of meaning. In the essays comprising this thesis, such structures are illustrated by the notions of nothing (rien), 'void' (blanc) and the 'secret'. Methodologically, the thesis introduces a theoretical device suitable for an examination of the aforementioned structures. The hermeneutics of the included middle extends the scope of hermeneutical inquiry to the potentiality of meaning. In addition to dialectical antinomic terms, the hermeneutics of the included middle acknowledges the middle both as a lack and as potentiality. In other words, any present lack of meaning is regarded as potential meaning and thus the poems themselves cannot be deemed meaningless. The study therefore argues that lettrism adapts the structures of religious messianism and incorporates a religious component into the glossography and lacunae of poetry. The quasi-language of lettrist poetry becomes both the means by which the religious inclination is manifested and its mainstay.
  • Király, Susanna (Révai Digitális Kiadó, 2012)
    My doctoral thesis has involved two related tasks. The first was to analyse Zoltán Kodály s philosophy of music education and, on this basis, to develop a computer-assisted instructional method (CAI) for teaching music theory and solfège (ear-training). The second task was to experiment with the effectiveness of this method and compare it with traditional approaches to teaching. Many students find music theory and ear training difficult. During the 1990s, in connection with my licentiate thesis "Solfège in the Computer Classroom" (2000), I initiated this research project and, developed a CAI method for teaching music theory and solfège. I wanted to see just how useful Kodály's approach could be in computer-aided teaching and learning. Kodály's philosophy of music education includes the idea that every child has the right to learn his musical mother tongue. This learning should take place in a child-centred, natural and easy way. In the present study, I particularly focused on the opportunities for developing and testing the new, computer-aided teaching method, especially for ear-training, using Kodály s concept. My purpose was to create a learning tool that could be used in music schools to facilitate the teaching of music theory and solfège. The second objective of my study was to examine the effectiveness of this new tool. Did these newly-developed CAI materials and methods cause differences in students' learning outcomes in different environments? Three different groups tested the music theory and solfège instruction with CAI: the PIT group, in which there was a computer-aided tutorial, but only the teacher used a computer, not the students; the FIT group, in which each student had a computer, and each could interact with the curriculum independently; and a control group, TRAD, to whom music theory and solfège were taught using a traditional method, that is, without any computer-aided programme. The study was conducted in the West Regional Music Institute (LUMO) in Lohja, Finland, during the school year 2004 05. The study included a total of 125 music students, ages10 to 16. This is an empirical and pedagogical developmental study. The testing phase also included quantitative analyses. The paramount objective was to develop and test a Kodály-based CAI solfège pedagogy. The results show that the Kodály approach can be successfully applied to the development of a computer-aided solfège programme: the Kodály-based computer-aided music theory and solfège material in fact produced the best results in most areas of learning, especially in the PIT group, in which a teacher worked with a computer-aided tutorial. The results also show that the Kodály system is applicable to new learning environments and teaching practices. It suggests that the computer-aided tutorial works well to support music theory and ear-training in individual lessons and indicates that pupils are eager to learn by using the computer. In music education CAI is an area with great potential for development. It offers multiple learning options and can enhance students motivation to study music theory and ear-training; some of the learning outcomes were even better than with the traditional ways of learning. The results also show, however, that the teacher pupil interaction is essential in a computer-aided learning programme. Keywords: basic education in the arts, CAI, digital network equipment, ear-training, Kodály, music education, music education technology, music theory, solfège Sales: www.amazon.co.uk www.konyvzabalo.hu http://kirjakauppa.unigrafia.fi/
  • Tala, Henrik (2012)
    Rescuing Finland : French Prime Minister Édouard Daladier and French aid to Finland during the Winter War 1939-40 The objective of this study is to analyse the French Prime Minister Édouard Daladier s policy towards Finland during the so-called Winter War, 1939-40. In addition, this study focuses on the motives of Daladier in his attempts to try to rescue Finland. He was willing to assist Finland, and during the last weeks of the war, he wanted and even needed to rescue her, in order to prevent her from being crushed by the Soviet Union. Daladier s government suffered a damaging defeat in Parliament on the same day that the Winter War started. His response was to seek support from the political right, and providing Finland with political assistance and material aid was a practical way to achieve this. However, it soon became evident that the French government was expected to undertake a direct military intervention in support of Finland. During the winter the British government had also made plans for an intervention in Northern Europe. By early February the Allied governments had agreed to carry out a plan of action, which involved landing in Norway, occupying the iron ore fields of Swedish Lapland and, finally, sending the remaining troops to Finland. Relying on this agreement, Daladier was able to reject the criticisms of the opposition, by promising that France would send troops to Finland. The commitment, however, connected the survival of his government to the fate of Finland. Simultaneously, in early 1940, the French civil and military leadership was having second thoughts about the strategy of the Allies. There was growing distrust towards the so-called long war strategy, which relied on the assumption that the material superiority of Britain and France would result in military dominance over Germany in the fullness of time. Intervention in the Finnish war gained support from a strategic perspective, as it was seen as a means to favorably shift the balance of power between the Allied countries and Germany. In the end, Daladier s government did not survive the domestic political crises provoked by the Finnish peace treaty in March 1940. This study is centred on sources, namely diplomatic and military documents, which have thus far been unused in studies of French policy towards Finland in 1939-40. Besides, the method is dissimilar to that used in previous research, as this work is additionally based on a close examination of newspapers, diaries and other sources describing the political atmosphere in France. As a result, this research advances the notion that the prevailing mood in France was more pro-Finland than previously thought. Furthermore, this study stresses the significance of the shift in strategic thought as a key factor in the willingness of the French to intervene militarily in the Finnish war.
  • Immonen, Teemu (2012)
    As the community to which Benedict of Nursia had composed the Benedictine Rule, Monte Cassino enjoyed unquestioned authority in the Christian societies in the Middle Ages. In the second half of the eleventh century, the abbey’s prestige reached its peak under Abbot Desiderius, later Pope Victor III (d. 1087). At the time, Cassinese monks played an important role in the ecclesiastical reform that was changing the face of the Roman Church. The new basilica of Monte Cassino, consecrated in 1071, was a highly conscious manifestation of the Cassinese monastic identity. The church is regarded as one of the most important edifices of the Italian Middle Ages due to its role in the formation of Romanesque art. Apparently, the wall paintings of the church served to intermediate the pictorial traditions which harked back to the great Roman fourth-century basilicas of Old St. Peter’s and San Paolo fuori le mura. Unfortunately, the Desiderian basilica was destroyed in an earthquake in 1348, and it has proved difficult for scholars to determine whether the church contained a fresco program and if it did, of what the program consisted. In the present study, I propose a reconstruction of the program of fresco decoration that covered the walls of the nave and aisles of the basilica of Monte Cassino. I argue that the pictorial decoration of the Desiderian basilica can be largely reconstructed based on the material found in two late eleventh-century manuscripts, Codex Casinensis 280 and Vaticanus Latinus 1202. Though both manuscripts are well known to scholars, their direct relation to the pictorial decoration of the Desiderian basilica has never been demonstrated before. On the grounds of my reconstruction of the fresco program, I discuss the intended reading by the members of the monastic community and the function of the pictorial narratives in the reformulation of the Cassinese monastic identity.
  • Uljas, Päivi (Into Kustannus Oy, 2012)
    A Breakthrough of Welfare State. The inter-relationships of the civic movement, political transformation, and eroding of a hegemony based on small scale farming in the Finnish society in the late 1950's. The unusually rapid and powerful structural change; the non-parliamentary civic movements of 1956 - 1963; and the left majority in the Finnish parliament between 1958 - 1962 all took place as the Finnish welfare state started to develop. The aim of my research is to analyse the inter-relationships of these processes. The research describes the way the former semi self-sufficient, semi-proletarian and labour-intensive form of production - a simple and discriminatory system in itself - made it possible for the majority of the population to survive through hard work. For some it even provided a possibility to prosper. The waning vitality of semi self-sufficiency and small scale agriculture triggered a political ferment and started a period of searching for something new. The process was so intense that it broke up most of the parties and tore down the old consensus that was based on the power of economic and political elite. The most crucial battle of the great transformation was waged over the nature of the state: Should we build a welfare state and construct social security systems, or should we revert to the old night watchman state and, for example, cancel the modest forms of redistribution of income carried out in the 1950's? The people joining the civic movements were either cottagers of the impoverishing countryside or, quite often, people who had come from the countryside and thus had grown up under conditions of some form of solidarity that included taking care of one's own family. The Finnish social insurance developed in the midst of a change in the structure of production of the society, and it became a compromise to satisfy the needs of both the waning society of small scale agriculture and the rising proletarian society based on wage labour. The hodgepodge of political schemes and use of power became a battle between different notions of the economy and the state; the distribution of national income; and the position of Finland in the international context. This battle created a shape of an interregnum - a period of transformation including two notions of society, two alternative paths for the future and the logic of a correctional move. The transformation of Finland from a poor developing country into a prosperous society has been praised as a success story. In 1956 - 1959, when the old form of governance based on the interests of small scale agriculture and wood processing industry was in decay, and when the future seemed uncertain, the projects to reduce social benefits and efforts to distribute national income even more unequally than before led to a powerful counter-movement by citizens and started an hegemonic change and a equal socia development.
  • Forsén, Annette (2012)
    The voluntary associations dealt with in this dissertation were ethnic clubs and societies promoting the interests of German immigrants in Finland and Sweden. The associations were founded at the end of the 19th century as well as at the beginning of the 20th century during a time in which migration was high, the civil society grew rapidly and nationalism flourished. The work includes over 70 different associations in Finland and Sweden with a number of members ranging from ten to at most 2, 500. The largest and most important associations were situated in Helsinki and Stockholm where also most of the German immigrants lived. The main aim of this work is to explore to what extent and how the changes in government in Germany during 1910 to 1950 were reflected in the structures and participants, financial resources and meeting places, networks and activities of the German associations in Finland and Sweden. The study also deals with how a collective German national identity was created within the German associations. The period between 1910 and 1950 has been described by Hobsbawm as the apogee of nationalism. Nationalism and transnationalism are therefore key elements in the work. Additionally the research deals with theories about associations, networking and identity. The analysis is mostly based on minutes of meetings, descriptions of festivities, annual reports and historical outlines about the associations. Archival sources from the German legations, the German Foreign Office, and Finnish and Swedish officials such as the police and the Foreign Offices are also used. The study shows that the collective national identity in the associations during the Weimar Republic mostly went back to the time of the Wilhelmine Empire. It is argued that this fact, the cultural propaganda and the aims of the Weimar Republic to strengthen the contacts between Germany and the German associations abroad, and the role of the German legations and envoys finally helped the small groups of NSDAP to infiltrate, systematically coordinate and finally centralize the German associational life in Finland and Sweden. The Gleichschaltung did not go as smoothly as the party wanted, though. There was a small but consistent opposition that continued to exist in Finland until 1941 and in Sweden until 1945. The collective national identity was displayed much more in Sweden than in Finland, where the associations kept a lower profile. The reasons for the profile differences can be found in the smaller number of German immigrants in Finland and the greater German propaganda in Sweden, but also in the Finnish association act from 1919 and the changes in it during the 1920s and 1930s. Finally, the research shows how the loss of two world wars influenced the associations. It argues that 1918 made the German associations more vulnerable to influence from Germany, whereas 1945 brought the associational life back to where it once started as welfare, recreational and school associations.
  • Stubb, Elisabeth (Finska Vetenskaps-Societeten, 2012)
    Right as an Argument. Leo Mechelin and the Finnish Question 1886-1912 At the turn of the 20th century the Finnish Question rose up as a political and juridical issue at the international arena. The vaguely précised position of Finland in the Russian empire led to diverse conclusions concerning the correctness of the February manifesto of 1899. It was predominantly among a European elite of politicians, cultural workers and academics the issue rose some interest. Finns were active making propaganda for their cause, and they put an emphasis on the claim that the right was on the Finnish side. In the study Elisabeth Stubb compare the Finnish, Russian and European statements about the Finnish Question and analyse their use of right as an argument. The Finnish Question offers at the same time a case study of a national entity which possesses a political sphere of life but is not fully independent, and its possibilities to drive its interests in an international context. Leo Mechelin (1839-1914), the leader of the Finnish propaganda organization abroad, is used as a point of departure. The biographical stance is formed into a triangle, where Leo Mechelin, the idea of right and the Finnish Question abroad are the three cornerstones. The treatment of one cornerstone sheds a ligth on the two others. The metaphor of triangulation also worked as a method to reach "a third stance" in a scinetific and political issue that usually is polarised into two opposite alternatives. An adherence to a strict legal right could not in the end offer a complete, unquestionable and satisfactory solution to the Finnsih Question, it was dependent on "the right of state wisdom and sound insight". The Finnish propaganda abroad used almost completely alternative ways of making politics. The propaganda did not have a decisive effect on countries' official politics, but gained unofficial support, especially in the public opinion and in academic statements. Mechelin claimed that the political field was dependent on public opinion and scientific research. Together with the official politics these two fields formed a triangle that shared the task of balancing the political arena and preventing it from making unwise decisions of taking an unjust turn. The international sphere worked as a balancing part in the Finnish Question. Mechelin tried by claiming the status of state for Finland's part to secure the country a place at the official international arena. At the same time, and especially when the claim was not fully adopted, he emphasised, and in a European context worked for, that right would become the guiding light not only for international relations, but also for the policy making in the inner life of the state.
  • Seurujärvi-Kari, Irja (2012)
    This study examines the Sámi people and the construction of the Sámi identity and the role of language in the cross-border Sámi movement within the context of the international indigenous movement and discourse between 1962 and 2008. The Sámi movement began as a reaction to state assimilation policies. This led to the birth of indigenous processes strengthening the Sámi cultures and languages. Activities across borders and the ethnopolitical processes in each of the Nordic countries in question also formed the basis of the internationalization of the Sámi people. The discourse on indigenous peoples has grown into a question of human rights, which is examined in different national and international contexts. The study is based on ethnographic data that has been collected via interviews, questionnaires and participant observation with the researched people in different meetings and events. Archive and newsprint material are also used. The approach of the study is auto-ethnographic. The post-colonial theories used in the study strive to destabilize power relations and the distinctions of otherness produced by colonialism, and to reclaim both one's own culture and language in the context of the indigenous movement. A standard model for this type of approach was created by Edward W. Said in his 1978 work Orientalism. The central concepts of the analysis are decolonization, otherness, ethnicity and identity. The dissertation consists of four published articles and an introduction. The subject matter is analyzed on three levels: global, European and Nordic. On the global level, the results demonstrate that the indigenous movement has constructed a new understanding of indigenousness with new rights. International treaties have facilitated the unification of new concepts and rights, such as the right to self-determination and language, also helping in transforming them into rights of the Sámi people on a national level. On the Nordic level, aligning the Sámi culture with indigenous discourse became significant for the process of developing the Sámi identity in the Sámi movement. In this process, the Sámi movement made use of Sámi languages in order to mobilize groups of people and to construct relatedness between different Sámi groups. The realization that one s own language is significant to one's culture has resulted in recreating the vitality, visibility and the legitimation of language in society more generally. The migration of the Sámi people from their traditional territories to increasingly multi-ethnic urban areas alters one's relationship to one's own community as the relationship to cultural traditions changes. Among the urban Sámi, who form a group of ‘new Sáminess’, linguistic discrimination and assimilation continue because of the lack of legislative and other effective language policy measures to promote the learning and use of the Sámi language.
  • Lukin, Karina (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2011)
    The dissertation discusses the conceptions of place and landscape amongst Nenets living on the island of Kolguyev or being of Kolguyev descent. The conceptions are examined through the everyday life of the community, oral recollections and narration that unfold meanings related to the island. The research material has been collected in ethnographic fieldwork in 2000 2005. The duration of individual fieldworks varies from two weeks to three months and their total duration is nearly six months. The fieldwork has been conducted both on the island and in the city of Nar yan-Mar. The main methods have been participant observation and recorded and unrecorded informal interviews. In addition to the field work data, archive materials, travel accounts, and other historical texts by outsiders about Kolguyev or the Nenets living in the European side of Russia have been used as a research material. The analysis is based on the idea of the place as a meeting point of the physical features, experiences in them and collective narration about them. The concept sense of place is used to describe the interaction of these three. Lived space manifests individual s or collective sense of place. The places form different kinds of networks of meanings which are called landscapes. Hot spots are places where different meanings accumulate. Furthermore, the material is analysed using the concepts of Tale World and Story Realm by Katherine Young. The Tale World is a realm created during the Story Realm, i.e. the event of narrations. The Tale Worlds are true as such but become evaluated in the Story Realm. The Tale Worlds are seen to arise both from the physical features of a place and from oral tradition, but at the same time these worlds give meanings to the place. The Tale Worlds are one of the central ingredients for the sense of place. One of the most central hot spots in Kolguyev is the arok harbour, where most of the themes of the pre-Soviet Tale Worlds are placed: trade and interaction with the Russians, rituals of the popular religion and arrival of the first Nenets to the island. arok is also part of the landscape of the coast where the meetings of Nenets and the other(s) are generally connected. Furthermore, arok is connected to the network of amans graves but also more generally to the landscape of collective sacred and sacrificial places. Another hot spot is the population centre of Bugrino which unfolds through the evaluations of the Tale Worlds. It also is the centre of the everyday life of the community studied. The Tale Worlds of the radiant past fastens on the population centre which is described through the negative models within the genre of litany. Sacred places, that represent the possibility to meet the Otherworld or mark places were encounters with the Otherworld have taken place, generate many kinds of landscapes in the island. They fasten on the graves of the amans, sirtya tradition, and to collective sacred places with their associations. The networks are not closed systems but are given meanings and new associations continuously in narration and recollection. They form multi-level and significant landscapes which reflect the fastening of the Kolguyev Nenets in the tundra of the island. In the research material the holy places and the popular religiousness are emphasised which is one of the most significant research results. It can be seen to reflect collective resistance and the questioning of the atheistic propaganda of the Soviet years. The narration and the recollection often refer also to the discourse of the anti-religious propaganda or use its strategies. The centrality of the holy places is also based on the tenacity of the religious Tale Worlds and sense of place and to the collective significance of the religion in general.
  • Haapala, Leevi (Kuvataiteen keskusarkisto/Valtion taidemuseo, 2011)
    Leevi Haapala explores moving image works, sculptures and installations from a psychoanalytic perspective in his study The Unconscious in Contemporary Art. The Gaze, Voice and Time in Finnish Contemporary Art at the Turn of the Millennium . The artists included in the study are Eija-Liisa Ahtila, Hans-Christian Berg, Markus Copper, Liisa Lounila and Salla Tykkä. The theoretical framework includes different psychoanalytic readings of the concepts of the gaze, voice and temporality. The installations are based on spatiality and temporality, and their detailed reading emphasizes the medium-specific features of the works as well as their fragmentary nature, heterogeneity and affectivity. The study is cross-disciplinary in that it connects perspectives from the visual culture, new art history and theory to the interpretation of contemporary art. The most important concepts from psychoanalysis, affect theory and trauma discourse used in the study include affect, object a (objet petit a) as articulated by Jacques Lacan, Sigmund Freud s uncanny (das Unheimliche) and trauma. Das Unheimliche has been translated as uncanny in art history under the influence of Rosalind Krauss. The object of the study, the unconscious in contemporary art, is approached through these concepts. The study focuses on Lacan s additions to the list of partial drives: the gaze and voice as scopic and invocative drives and their interpretations in the studies of the moving image. The texts by the American film theorist and art historian Kaja Silverman are in crucial role. The study locates contemporary art as part of trauma culture, which has a tendency to define individual and historical experiences through trauma. Some of the art works point towards trauma, which may appear as a theoretic or fictitious construction. The study presents a comprehensive collection of different kinds of trauma discourse in the field of art research through the texts of Hal Foster, Cathy Caruth, Ruth Leys and Shoshana Felman. The study connects trauma theory with the theoretical analysis of the interference and discontinuity of the moving image in the readings by Susan Buck-Morss, Mary Ann Doane and Peter Osborn among others. The analysis emphasizes different ways of seeing and multisensoriality in the reception of contemporary art. With their reflections and inverse projections, the surprising mechanisms of Hans-Christian Berg s sculptures are connected with Lacan s views on the early mirroring and imitation attempts of the individual s body image. Salla Tykkä s film trilogy Cave invites one to contemplate the Lacanian theory of the gaze in relation to the experiences of being seen. The three oceanic sculpture installations by Markus Copper are studied through the vocality they create, often through an aggressive way of acting, as well as from the point of view of the functioning of an invocative drive. The study compares the work of fiction and Freud s texts on paranoia and psychosis to Eija-Liisa Ahtila s manuscripts and moving image installations about the same topic. The cinematic time in Liisa Lounila s time-slice video installations is approached through the theoretical study of the unconscious temporal structure. The viewer of the moving image is inside the work in an in-between state: in a space produced by the contents of the work and its technology. The installations of the moving image enable us to inhabit different kinds of virtual bodies or spaces, which do not correspond with our everyday experiences. Nevertheless, the works of art often try to deconstruct the identification to what has been shown on screen. This way, the viewer s attention can be fixed on his own unconscious experiences in parallel with the work s deconstructed nature as representation. The study shows that contemporary art is a central cultural practice, which allows us to discuss the unconscious in a meaningful way. The study suggests that the agency that is discursively diffuse and consists of several different praxes should be called the unconscious. The emergence of the unconscious can happen in two areas: in contemporary art through different senses and discursive elements, and in the study of contemporary art, which, being a linguistic activity is sensitive to the movements of the unconscious. One of the missions of art research is to build different kinds of articulated constructs and to open an interpretative space for the nature of art as an event.
  • von Boguslawski, Michael (2011)
    This monograph describes the emergence of independent research on logic in Finland. The emphasis is placed on three well-known students of Eino Kaila: Georg Henrik von Wright (1916-2003), Erik Stenius (1911-1990), and Oiva Ketonen (1913-2000), and their research between the early 1930s and the early 1950s. The early academic work of these scholars laid the foundations for today's strong tradition in logic in Finland and also became internationally recognized. However, due attention has not been given to these works later, nor have they been comprehensively presented together. Each chapter of the book focuses on the life and work of one of Kaila's aforementioned students, with a fourth chapter discussing works on logic by authors who would later become known within other disciplines. Through an extensive use of correspondence and other archived material, some insight has been gained into the persons behind the academic personae. Unique and unpublished biographical material has been available for this task. The chapter on Oiva Ketonen focuses primarily on his work on what is today known as proof theory, especially on his proof theoretical system with invertible rules that permits a terminating root-first proof search. The independency of the parallel postulate is proved as an example of the strength of root-first proof search. Ketonen was to our knowledge Gerhard Gentzen's (the 'father' of proof theory) only student. Correspondence and a hitherto unavailable autobiographic manuscript, in addition to an unpublished article on the relationship between logic and epistemology, is presented. The chapter on Erik Stenius discusses his work on paradoxes and set theory, more specifically on how a rigid theory of definitions is employed to avoid these paradoxes. A presentation by Paul Bernays on Stenius' attempt at a proof of the consistency of arithmetic is reconstructed based on Bernays' lecture notes. Stenius correspondence with Paul Bernays, Evert Beth, and Georg Kreisel is discussed. The chapter on Georg Henrik von Wright presents his early work on probability and epistemology, along with his later work on modal logic that made him internationally famous. Correspondence from various archives (especially with Kaila and Charlie Dunbar Broad) further discusses his academic achievements and his experiences during the challenging circumstances of the 1940s.