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  • Ripatti, Anna (Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistys, 2011)
    Jac. Ahrenberg and Patrimony Restoration Plans for Viipuri and Turku Castles at the End of the 19th Century This dissertation examines the unrealized restoration plans for two castles in the Grand Duchy of Finland one located at Viipuri (Vyborg, nowadays in Russia), the other at Turku (in Swedish, Åbo) during the last decades of the 19th century. Both castles were used as prisons, barracks and warehouses. From the middle of the 19th century on, their restoration and transformation into museums and "national monuments" were demanded in the newspapers. The prison reform in the 1860s stimulated the documentation and debate concerning their future, but it was only at the beginning of the 1880s when their restoration became an official state-run project. The undertaking was carried out by Johan Jacob (Jac.) Ahrenberg (1847 1914), architect of the National Board of Public Buildings. By combining written sources with drawings and photographs, this dissertation examines the restoration projects, the two castles' significance and the ways in which they were investigated by scholars. The plans are analyzed in connection with restoration practices in France and Sweden and in the context of contemporary discussions concerning national art and patrimony. The thesis argues that these former castles of the Swedish crown were used to manifest the western roots of Finnish law and order, the lineage of power and the capacity of the nation to defend itself. However, because of their symbolism, their restoration became a politically delicate question concerning the role of the Swedish heritage in Finland's nation-building process. According to Jac. Ahrenberg's plans, the two castles were to be restored to their assumed appearance at the time of the Vasa dynasty. Consequently, the structures would have resembled castles in Sweden. It is suggested that one aim of the restoration plans was to transform the two buildings into monuments testifying to the common history of Sweden and Finland. They were meant to consolidate the Swedish basis of Finnish culture and autonomy and thus to secure them against the threatening implications of Russian imperialism. It seems that along with the changing ideals of architectural restoration and the need for an original Finnish architectural heritage, the political connotations associated with the castles were one reason why Jac. Ahrenberg's restoration plans were never realized.
  • Eskelinen, Kirsi (Suomen kirkkohistoriallinen seura, 2008)
    The object of this study is Jacopo Bassano (c. 1510 1592) as a fresco painter and the significance of frescoes in his late production. The research focuses on the only surviving cycle of frescoes of his later years in the Cartigliano parish church, bearing the date 1575. The other cycle studied here was painted for the 16th century parish church of Enego. It contained one of the most extensive fresco decorations executed by Jacopo Bassano together with his eldest son Francesco. However, nothing has survived of the fresco cycle and the ceiling paintings of the church, nor is any visual documentation of them left. Only the small altarpiece attributed to Jacopo Bassano and depicting Saints Justine, Sebastian, Anthony Abbott, and Roch (dated to c. 1555/1560) has been preserved. I have suggested that the frescoes of the Cartigliano parish church should be examined in the interpretational context of the spirituality of the post-Tridentine period. This period frames the historical context for the frescoes and functions as a basis for the iconographical interpretation that I have proposed. I have shown that the iconographic programme of the frescoes in the choir of the Cartigliano parish church has obvious points of contact with the Catholic doctrines reconfirmed by the Council of Trent (1545 1563). I also argue that the fresco cycle and the ceiling paintings of the Enego church should be placed in the same interpretational context as the frescoes of Cartigliano. I present a reconstruction of the frescoes in the choir attributed to Jacopo Bassano and of those on the walls of the nave attributed to his son Francesco Bassano. According to my reconstruction, the frescoes in the choir and nave walls formed a coherent cycle with a unitary iconographic programme which included the 28 paintings with Old Testament subjects in the nave ceiling. The reconstruction includes the dating and the iconography of the fresco programme and its interpretative basis. The reconstruction is based on visitation records and inventories from the 16th and 17th centuries as well as on the oldest relevant literature, namely the descriptions offered by Carlo Ridolfi (1648) and G. B. Verci (1775). I also consider the relationship of the large compositional sketches attributed to Jacopo Bassano and depicting Christological subjects to the lost frescoes in Enego. These studies have been executed with coloured chalks, and many of them are also dated 1568 or 1569 by the painter. I suggest in this study that these large studies in coloured chalks were preparatory drawings for the fresco cycle in Enego, depicting scenes from the life and suffering of Christ. All the subjects of the aforesaid drawings were included in the Enego cycle.
  • Forssell, Pia (2008)
    The Collected Works of J. L. Runeberg from the Viewpoint of Textual Scholarship The theoretical framework of this dissertation builds on textual scholarship. The dissertation explores the history of Runeberg’s publications and his relations with his publishers, from his debut and the first editions, through the editions of collected works published during the course of his life, to the later commercial editions, including the critical edition, published in 1933–2005 by the Svenska Vitterhetssamfundet (The Swedish Society for Belles Lettres) and The Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland (The Society of Swedish Literature in Finland). The various editions of Runeberg’s collected works are situated in their respective critical traditions, from the 19th century German Ausgabe letzter Hand, to the influence of Anglo-American bibliography on Swedish textual criticism in the late 20th century. By making use of primary material previously not used for research purposes, the author is able to present a new view on Runebergian publishing history, including Runeberg’s fees and his relations with the censor authorities. There are indications that his Finnish publishers could not bear the cost of his sizable fees, that were in proportion neither with the book market in Finland nor with the numbers of copies sold. Apart from a certain body of editions the primary material is comprised of correspondences, publishing contracts, printing house invoices, as well as censor authority records. One of the conclusions drawn is that the early and detailed biography, Biografiska anteckningar om Johan Ludvig Runeberg (Biographical Notes on …) by J. E. Strömborg is not reliable in matters concerning publishing history, and that this work has been used far too uncritically. The history of the critical edition gets a chapter of its own, based on primary material in Swedish and Finnish archives. Finally, the author analyses the critical choices, made primarily in the critical edition, and uses examples from the commercial editions to study the editors’ interventions over time, from the 1850s to the 1920s. The changes to the text are usually small and subtle, but cumulative – and in some cases, crucial for the interpretation of the work. One objective of textual scholarship should be to examine the publishing history of a single work or of an author’s œuvre, and another to pay attention both to changes in a work as such and to the shifts of meaning they might entail.
  • Kotakallio, Juho (2014)
    Present All Over: Secret Service of London - The Secret Intelligence Service and Finland 1918-1941 This study gives new information about lesser known aspects of British intelligence relations with Finland, 1918-1941. The purpose of this research is to explore the relations between the British Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) and Finland. The study shows the main function of the intelligence organisation, and how it was organized. British intelligence in Finland is also evaluated. The main focus is placed on the agents of the SIS and how they gathered information. For this reason, HUMINT activities have been closely researched. The main obstacle to intelligence history research is the lack of archival material. The archives of the British Secret Intelligence Service remain closed and other official material has been weeded out. Despite the lack of sources, it has been possible to gather information about British intelligence and Finland through extensive archive research. The present research follows the line of a traditional historical study based on primary sources with source criticism. In general, intelligence history has concentrated on the Great Powers and relations between the SIS and Finland have not previously been the main focus of historical studies. After World War I Finland became an important watching post. The main target of British intelligence operating from Finland was Soviet Russia. The British and the Finns were anti-Bolsheviks. Intelligence gathering was directed from the Passport Control Offices of the legations. The present study argues that the British intelligence was based on confidential and long-term relations. The SIS created its contacts, among others, with Finnish politicians, officers and important businessmen. One main source of intelligence was Russian emigrants, who were also recruited to the SIS. The research demonstrates that the work of SIS in Finland was based on a few individuals, since the number of possible recruits was limited. As circumstances changed, the intelligence work was adapted. During the Winter War, the SIS operated in Finland and continued to use its old and reliable agents. The Interim Peace created difficulties for Finnish and British relations and at the time of the Continuation War Finland became a target of British intelligence. In spite of the war, the SIS officers who had served in Finland remained personally sympathetic to Finland. From the results of this research it can be concluded that location played an important role in intelligence. Researching minor countries and their intelligence environment allows more light to be shed on different intelligence organisations.
  • Selkokari, Hanne (Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistys, 2008)
    Treasures of a Patriot Eliel Aspelin-Haapkylä as an art collector and art historian Treasures of a Patriot is a study of Eliel Aspelin-Haapkylä (1847 - 1917), professor of aesthetics and modern literature, as an art collector and art historian. The study combines the biographical perspective, art history as a discipline in the 19th-century Finland, and Aspelin-Haapkylä s art historical scholarship. My intention was to answer to questions such as what kind of an art collector an academic art historian was, why he collected art and cultural-historical objects and what the purpose of his collecting was. Aspelin-Haapkylä was an ideal choice for the main character because the ideologies of the era, culture, art and European ideas, especially German ideas about museums, are intertwined in his life. In addition, the ideas of the Fennomen can be found in his ideological background. Together with his wife, Ida Aspelin-Haapkylä, he bequeathed a rich donation to the National Museum of Finland, and a wideranging archive concerning the collection, his writings, and letters to the Finnish Literature Society. I have highlighted the materials from the archives related both to the collection and art history, especially the letters between Aspelin-Haapkylä and artists, fellow members of academia, his spouse and relatives. The content and the structure of the research are divided into seven main chapters. First, I discuss Susan M. Pearce s theory of collecting and the history of collecting. I also introduce some other art historians who were private collectors. The late 19th-century Fennomen and other nationalists who were active in cultural life and the arts, are introduced in the second chapter. In the third I deal with Aspelin-Haapkylä s collection of European art combined with his writings, his early published works, studies and many trips to Europe. The fourth and the fifth chapters are dedicated to those Finnish artists who he wrote biographies of, and the artists of his own era whom he supported. The sixth chapter discusses institutions and channels of influence and power through which the initiative to found the National Museum of Finland, his action in the Antell Delegation and co-operation with the art merchant Henryk Bukowski, rise up to the fore. Finally, I process the last will and the fate of the collection from 1917 until 1932. As an appendix, I have included a report and reconstruction of the art collection. The catalogue is based on the words in Aspelin-Haapkylä s the so-called blue notebooks, which I have completed with additions from other sources.
  • Henttonen, Maarit (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2009)
    This dissertation addresses the modernization process of Finnish hospital architecture between the First and Second World War, with focus on facilities explicitly designed for women and children, which as special hospitals reflect specialization, a distinct feature of the modern era. The facilities considered in the study are the Salus hospital, Dr. Länsimäki s women s hospital, the Folkhälsan in Svenska Finland association s child-care institute, the Helsinki Women s Clinic, the Viipuri Women s Hospital, the Helsinki Children s Clinic and the Children's Castle (Lastenlinna) in Helsinki. The study considers hospital architecture as an architectural, medical and social object of design. The theoretical starting point and perspective are the views of the French philosopher and historian Michel Foucault (1925 1983) concerning the relationship of bio-power and architecture. Underlying the construction of health-care facilities for women and children were not only the desire to help but also issues of population policy, social policies, training and professionalization. In this study, hospital architecture is interpreted as reflecting developments in medicine, while also producing and reinforcing discourses associated with the ideologies of the time of design and construction. The results of the present research provide new information on the field of hospital design. The design of hospitals was no longer the sole prerogative of architects. Instead, modern hospital design involved the collaboration and networking of experts in various fields. During the period studied, the pavilion system was incorporated in hospital architecture in the block system, which was regarded as a rational. Rationalization was implemented upon the conditions of medical work. This led to spatial design in accordance with medical practices, through which norms were reinforced and created. An important aspect of the material is that the requirements of light, air, openness and hygiene created architecture in glass of an x-ray character, strongly associated with the element of discipline. The alliance of hygiene and architecture became a strategy for controlling the behaviour and encounters of people, for producing pedagogical and moral hygiene, and for reinforcing class hygiene. The modern hospital building also had to meet the requirements of aesthetic hygiene. Health-care facilities designed for women and children became production-oriented machinery, instruments for producing a healthy population and for reinforcing medical discourses.
  • Anttonen, Erkki (Valtion taidemuseo/Kuvataiteen keskusarkisto, 2006)
    The theme of this doctoral thesis is the Finnish printmaking in the years 1930-1939. During this decade, there were approximately 100 artists making prints in Finland. Indeed, the period was an especially important one for printmaking. Associations for printmakers were founded in Helsinki and Turku, training in the field was launched, and the number of printmaking exhibitions increased considerably. Through their national organisations, Finnish printmakers participated in many exhibitions abroad, interaction with Nordic printmakers being especially intense. Thus, a firm basis for post-war developments was created. However, printmakers' activity- which had continued throughout the 1930s - declined notably after the Winter War broke out in the autumn of 1939. As a result, the period 1930-1939 forms a coherent and distinct unity in Finnish printmaking history. The study consists of two parts: the main text and an appendix in which the production of each printmaking artist active in the 1930s is examined separately. The study also includes a comprehensive list of the prints made in the course of the decade. One of the central themes is the printmakers' relationship to "Finnish nationalist" art and concepts of art in the 1930s. I analyse the various manifestations of this way of thinking in the visual arts of the period. Finnish fine art in the period between the world wars has usually been characterised as conservative, introverted and spiritually isolated from the modern European trends of the time. On the basis of this study, such a view is too simple. Many artists and printmakers adopted a modernistic notion of art that approached the newest in European modernism, including such trends as avant-garde classicism and general European new Objective Realism (Die neue Sachlichkeit). On the other hand, choosing Finnish nationalist motifs did not necessarily mean that the artist was opposed to modernism: modernist artists could still be interested in national themes. The relationship of 1930s printmaking to the world of nationalist ideas is examined in this doctoral thesis from several perspectives. Towards the end of the main text, I examine the issue from the point of view of selected artists. Another feature that emerged during the study and turned out to be surprisingly widespread was the close relationship of many artists to religious, theosophical and pantheistic views. I deal with this issue in greater detail through a few representative printmakers.
  • Levä, Ilkka (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2008)
    From Steely Nation-State Superman to Conciliator of Economical Global Empire – A Psychohistory of Finnish Police Culture 1930-1997 My study concerns the way police culture has changed within the societal changes in Finnish society between 1930 and 1997. The method of my study was psycho-historical and post-structural analysis. The research was conducted by examining the psycho-historical plateaus traceable within Finnish police culture. I made a social diagnosis of the autopoietic relationship between the power-holders of Finnish society and the police (at various levels of hierarchical organization). According to police researcher John P. Crank, police culture should be understood as the cognitive processes behind the actions of the police. Among these processes are the values, beliefs, rituals, customs and advice which standardize their work and the common sense of policemen. According to Crank, police culture is defined by a mindset which thinks, judges and acts according to its evaluations filtered by its own preliminary comprehension. Police culture consists of all the unsaid assumptions of being a policeman, the organizational structures of police, official policies, unofficial ways of behaviour, forms of arrest, procedures of practice and different kinds of training habits, attitudes towards suspects and citizens, and also possible corruption. Police culture channels its members’ feelings and emotions. Crank says that police culture can be seen in how policemen express their feelings. He advises police researchers to ask themselves how it feels to be a member of the police. Ethos has been described as a communal frame for thought that guides one’s actions. According to sociologist Martti Grönfors, the Finnish mentality of the Protestant ethic is accentuated among Finnish policemen. The concept of ethos expresses very well the self-made mentality as an ethical tension which prevails in police work between communal belonging and individual freedom of choice. However, it is significant that it is a matter of the quality of relationships, and that the relationship is always tied to the context of the cultural history of dealing with one’s anxiety. According to criminologist Clifford Shearing, the values of police culture act as subterranean processes of the maintenance of social power in society. Policemen have been called microcosmic mediators, or street corner politicians. Robert Reiner argues that at the level of self-comprehension, policemen disparage the dimension of politics in their work. Reiner points out that all relationships which hold a dimension of power are political. Police culture has also been called a canteen culture. This idea expresses the day-to-day basis of the mentality of taking care of business which policing produces as a necessity for dealing with everyday hardships. According to police researcher Timo Korander, this figurative expression embodies the nature of police culture as a crew culture which is partly hidden from police chiefs who are at a different level. This multitude of standpoints depicts the diversity of police cultures. According to Reiner, one should not see police culture as one monolithic whole; instead one should assess it as the interplay of individuals negotiating with their environment and societal power networks. The cases analyzed formed different plateaus of study. The first plateau was the so-called ‘Rovaniemi arson’ case in the summer of 1930. The second plateau consisted of the examinations of alleged police assaults towards the Communists during the Finnish Continuation War of 1941 to 1944 and the threats that societal change after the war posed to Finnish Society. The third plateau was thematic. Here I investigated how using force towards police clients has changed culturally from the 1930s to the 1980s. The fourth plateau concerned with the material produced by the Security Police detectives traced the interaction between Soviet KGB agents and Finnish politicians during the long 1970s. The fifth plateau of larger changes in Finnish police culture then occurred during the 1980s as an aftermath of the former decade. The last, sixth plateau of changing relationships between policing and the national logic of action can be seen in the murder of two policemen in the autumn of 1997. My study shows that police culture has transformed from a “stone cold” steely fixed identity towards a more relational identity that tries to solve problems by negotiating with clients instead of using excessive force. However, in this process of change there is a traceable paradox in Finnish policing and police culture. On the one hand, policemen have, at the practical level, constructed their policing identity by protecting their inner self in their organizational role at work against the projections of anger and fear in society. On the other hand, however, they have had to safeguard themselves at the emotional level against the predominance of this same organizational role. Because of this dilemma they must simultaneously construct both a distance from their own role as police officers and the role of the police itself. This makes the task of policing susceptible to the political pressures of society. In an era of globalization, and after the heyday of the welfare state, this can produce heightened challenges for Finnish police culture.
  • Tuori, Riikka (2013)
    In this dissertation I analyse the historical background, poetic form, and language of the Karaite zĕmīrōt (paraliturgical hymns) written in Hebrew during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The study corpus contains thirty-four zĕmīrōt from the Karaite Prayer Book (Vilna, 1890 - 1892). Eighteenth- and nineteenth-century manuscripts from Russia and Lithuania serve as another important source of information. I provide a philological close reading of the zĕmīrōt with a descriptive analysis of their prosodic features and Hebrew language, and concise annotations to the zĕmīrōt. Methodologically, the dissertation relies on the study of East European Karaite history and the Hebrew language on the one hand, and on the study of medieval Hebrew poetry and poetics on the other. Because paraliturgical Hebrew poetry written by this minority group has so far been neglected, the results of this study provide novel insights on the study of East European Karaism. Polish-Lithuanian Karaite zĕmīrōt are poems written for paraliturgical events: Sabbaths, weddings, and festivals. They are metric poems adorned with refrains, and easily adaptable to melodies. In terms of prosody, they are indebted to the Hispano-Hebrew (Andalusian) poetic tradition by employing the quantitative-syllabic metre (the metre of yĕtēdōt and tĕnūʿōt) and, in some cases, even containing wordings extracted from Hispano-Hebrew poems. I demonstrate prosodic connections between families of poems through the examination of incipits, metres, and rhyme schemes. Most Karaite zĕmīrōt are (sometimes inventive) emulations of popular Hebrew poems familiarized through collections of rabbinic and Karaite poetry stemming most likely from the Turkish Karaite communities. While the language of the zĕmīrōt is replete with biblical phraseology, paraphrases, and allusions, its morphology and lexicon reflect the influence of post-classical Hebrew poetry and exegetics. Karaite Jews reject the rabbinic interpretation of Judaism and emphasize the independent interpretation of biblical texts. This polemic dynamics between Karaism and rabbinic Judaism are shown to influence the rhetoric of the zĕmīrōt. The Karaite ideology emerges, for example, in the descriptions of the correct, biblical calculation of Shaḇuʿot and in the condemnation of rabbinic customs for the Sabbath. The Karaite relationship to popular Jewish currents of thought, such as Neoplatonism and Kabbalah, are also discussed. The results of this study demonstrate that the zĕmīrōt provided an excellent venue for their authors for expressing both devout feelings and philosophical notions
  • Sahavirta, Harri (omakustanne, 2006)
    This doctoral thesis in theoretical philosophy is a systematic analysis of Karl Popper's philosophy of science and its relation to his theory of three worlds. The general aim is to study Popper's philosophy of science and to show that Popper's theory of three worlds was a restatement of his earlier positions. As a result, a new reading of Popper's philosophy and development is offered and the theory of three worlds is analysed in a new manner. It is suggested that the theory of three worlds is not purely an ontological theory, but has a profound epistemological motivation. In Part One, Popper's epistemology and philosophy of science is analysed. It is claimed that Popper's thinking was bifurcated: he held two profound positions without noticing the tension between them. Popper adopted the position called the theorist around 1930 and focused on the logical structure of scientific theories. In Logik der Forschung (1935), he attempted to build a logic of science on the grounds that scientific theories may be regarded as universal statements which are not verifiable but can be falsified. Later, Popper emphasized another position, called here the processionalist. Popper focused on the study of science as a process and held that a) philosophy of science should study the growth of knowledge and that b) all cognitive processes are constitutive. Moreover, the constitutive idea that we see the world in the searchlight of our theories was combined with the biological insight that knowledge grows by trial and error. In Part Two, the theory of three worlds is analysed systematically. The theory is discussed as a cluster of theories which originate from Popper's attempt to solve some internal problems in his thinking. Popper adhered to realism and wished to reconcile the theorist and the processionalist. He also stressed the real and active nature of the human mind, and the possibility of objective knowledge. Finally, he wished to create a scientific world view.
  • Viholainen, Aila (Viholainen, Aila, 2015)
    My dissertation research concentrates on medieval Western Christian pictorial material presented in religious contexts. The common perspective of the different articles included in my research is make to believe/faire croire : the ways in which pictorial materials in medieval times persuaded, enticed and instructed viewers. My study is characterized by a rhetorical approach that focuses especially on the visuality of medieval images and its analysis. I participate in the study of the past. I see the past that I study as an alien entity located in its own historical context. I am looking for answers from a vantage point that feels strange from the position of the contemporary re-searcher. Questions that arise from consideration of this reveal a gap between the researcher s understanding of today and how things were under-stood in medieval times, a gap which motivates this research. In the first two articles of my work, the medieval world of imagery is perceived as a phenomenon on an abstract level. Here I study and evaluate discussions and studies that have been done in medieval times and subsequently: conceptually, theoretically and methodologically. In the latter two articles, the abstract phenomenon becomes concrete and the focus of analysis is actual pictorial material selected from the medieval world of imagery found in the Holy Cross Church of Hattula. In these articles, the mermaid motif functions as an object of analysis. Imagining is an important practice in the context of medieval art and religion, and it is presented in my work as a supporting theme. First, imagination has operated in the background of my study as a guiding frame of interpretation, as the researcher s own resource. In this case, as Markku Hyrkkänen describes it, imagination can be thought of as an imagining of possible contexts. Second, imagination has worked as a concrete conceptual tool: as Benedict Anderson's imagined communities and later as Barbara Newman's imaginative theology. Third, it is also a medieval concept (imaginatio), the primary task of which was to determine truth. Thus, imagination was a multi-leveled and many-faceted cognitive skill. I locate my research, as well as international studies that I use for dialogue, in a broader humanistic tradition and the research trends of the last decades. Used as the starting point are critical evaluations of previous studies in art history, the study of visual culture and medieval art history over the last decades. I also connect my work to the latest Finnish studies on medieval pictorial material, as well as to the latest research discussions in my own field of religious studies. These findings are definitively presented in the compilation.
  • Jylhänkangas, Leila (2013)
    The study examines conceptions of euthanasia among both ordinary people and experts in contemporary Finnish culture. Euthanasia has not been legalised in Finland, but in recent years, the euthanasia debate has flared up at regular intervals in the media as a result of different ethical conflicts in the care of dying patients. In the study, euthanasia representations are explored as a part of the late modern Finnish culture of death. The primary data consist of 137 written accounts in which ordinary Finns discuss euthanasia and fifteen qualitative interviews among religious specialists and health care professionals, to whom official knowledge of death has traditionally been entrusted. Supplementary data include newspaper articles and other texts discussing euthanasia. The study was inspired by the classical anthropological idea according to which differences in the way life and death are approached and perceived make culture visible. It rests on social representations approach, psychological models of memory and earlier research on the sacred and the profane as culturally constructed categories. In the study, sacred is employed as an analytical anthropological tool, not as a theological concept. It is conceptualised as a category-boundary that is actualised in social situations in which the inviolability of classifications such as a good vs. bad death are threatened and risk losing their authority as the moral basis of society and its social systems and orders. On the basis of these notions, a theoretical model is constructed for the analysis of the euthanasia debate. The main result of the study is that people wish to discuss euthanasia and are eager to share their views about it in order to protect their value territory that shelters the dying human body. Whether people are for or against euthanasia, the human body is central in the classifications and metaphors concerning the images of a good and bad death. Thus, euthanasia is tamed using old and familiar categories. In this way, the line between life and death is culturally constructed and has to be handled using the terms of the socially shared reality. Both ordinary Finns and professionals draw on a variety of cultural scripts rising from medicine, psychology, the media and personal experiences. In the study, ordinary people are seen as experts through experience who have a good knowledge of death on the basis of their personal observations and experiences. These experiences affect the cultural images of euthanasia. An often expressed fear is the possibility of falling into dependence upon the care of other people and not being able to control one s own life. In the study data, an ideal death is described in different ways that legitimate the contemporary conceptions of a good death in late modernity: there is an emphasis on painlessness and the meaningfulness of the last moments of life which resonates with the dying person s individuality. Among religious specialists, euthanasia is opposed and seen as an inappropriate way of dying because the idea of a human being taking too much power of self-determination in the face of death is viewed as threatening and violating the religious moral code that forbids killing and keeps things in their right place. Among physicians, euthanasia is constructed according to professional medical ethics, which are not easily compatible with euthanasia. Many ordinary people and some of the interviewees, however, are willing to legalise euthanasia and highlight the autonomy of the dying individual. Eventually, the study shows that in contemporary Finnish society, there does not exist a moral consensus on euthanasia; rather, there are a number of different realities which are built in relation to context dependent and changing conceptions of a good death.
  • Hakapää, Jyrki (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2008)
    Books Paths to Readers describes the history of the origins and consolidation of modern and open book stores in Finland 1740 1860. The thesis approaches the book trade as a part of a print culture. Instead of literary studies choice to concentrate on texts and writers, book history seeks to describe the print culture of a society and how the literary activities and societies interconnect. For book historians, printed works are creations of various individuals and groups: writers, printers, editors, book sellers, censors, critics and finally, readers. They all take part in the creation, delivery and interpretation of printed works. The study reveals the ways selling and distributing books have influenced the printed works and the literary and print culture. The research period 1740 1860 covers the so-called second revolution of the book, or the modernisation of the print culture. The thesis describes the history of 60 book stores and their 96 owners. The study concentrates on three themes: firstly, how the particular book trade network became a central institution for printed works distribution, secondly what were the relations between cosmopolitan European book markets and the national cultural sphere, and thirdly how book stores functioned as cultural institutions and business enterprises. Book stores that have a varied assortment and are targeted to all readers became the main institution for book trade in Finland during 1740 1860. It happened because of three features. First, the book binders monopoly on selling bound copies in Sweden was abolished in 1740s. As a consequence entrepreneurs could concentrate solely to trade activities and offer copies from various publishers at their stores. Secondly the common business model of bartering was replaced by selling copies for cash, first in the German book trade centre Leipzig in 1770s. The change intensified book markets activities and Finnish book stores foreign connections. Thirdly, after Finland was annexed to the Russian empire in 1809, the Grand duchy s administration steered foreign book trade to book stores (because of censorship demands). Up to 1830 s book stores were available only in Helsinki and Turku. During next ten years book stores opened in six regional centres. The early entrepreneurs ran usually vertical businesses consisting of printing, publishing and distribution activities. This strategy lowered costs, eased the delivery of printed works and helped to create elaborated centres for all book activities. These book stores main clientele consisted of the Swedish speaking gentry. During late 1840s various opinion leaders called for the development of a national Finnish print culture, and also book stores. As a result, during the five years before the beginning of the Crimean war (1853 1856) book stores were opened in almost all Finnish towns: at the beginning of the war 36 book stores operated in 21 towns. The later book sellers, mainly functioning in small towns among Finnish speaking people, settled usually strictly for selling activities. Book stores received most of their revenues from selling foreign titles. Swedish, German, French and Belgian (pirate editions of popular French novels) books were widely available for the multilingual gentry. Foreign titles and copies brought in most of the revenues. Censorship inspections or unfavourable custom fees would not limit the imports. Even if the local Finnish print production steadily rose, many copies, even titles, were never delivered via book stores. Only during the 1840 s and 1850 s the most advanced publishers would concentrate on creating publishing programmes and delivering their titles via book stores. Book sellers regulated commissions were small. They got even smaller because of large amounts of unsold copies, various and usual misunderstandings of consignments and accounts or plain accidents that destroyed shipments and warehouses. Also, the cultural aim of a creating large and assortments and the tendency of short selling periods demanded professional entrepreneurship, which many small town book sellers however lacked. In the midst of troublesome business efforts, co-operation and mutual concern of the book market s entrepreneurs were the key elements of the trade, although on local level book sellers would compete, sometimes even ferociously. The difficult circumstances (new censorship decree of 1850, Crimean war) and lack of entrepreneurship, experience and customers meant that half of the book stores opened in 1845 1860 was shut in less than five years. In 1858 the few leading publishers established The Finnish Book Publishers Association. Its first task was to create new business rules and manners for the book trade. The association s activities began to professionalise the whole network, but at the same time the earlier independence of regional publishing and selling enterprises diminished greatly. The consolidation of modern and open book store network in Finland is a history of a slow and complex development without clear signs of a beginning or an end. The ideal book store model was rarely accomplished in its all features. Nevertheless, book stores became the norm of the book trade. They managed to offer larger selections, reached larger clienteles and maintained constant activity better than any other book distribution model. In essential, the book stores methods have not changed up to present times.
  • Teittinen, Sanna (Taidehistorian seura, 2009)
    Towards Lyrical Abstraction Anitra Lucander s Modernism in the 1950s Anitra Lucander (1918-2000) was one of the early pioneers of abstract art in Finland. During the Second World War Finnish art and cultural life was isolated and stagnated and figurative art was still dominant after the war. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, new international abstract art movements started to come to Finland. Anitra Lucander was one of the artists of the younger generation after the war who took an interest in the abstract movements in the early 1950s. At the beginning of the 1950s, abstract art came to Finland primarily in the form of Concretism, but simultaneously, a more delicate abstract movement emerged, and Anitra Lucander was among those cultivating such conceptions in her art. In this thesis, I observe and analyze through Anitra Lucander s art this central movement in Finnish modern art that has not yet been extensively studied. I examine how Anitra Lucander s art connects with the style change in Finnish art. I scrutinize the factors that affected Lucander and turned her towards abstract expression, and the effect her art had on emergence of abstract art in Finland. I will also consider the development of her art, the reception and critique of her art and the effect the critique had on her position in the 1950s art world. Because of a lack of earlier studies, I will undertake basic research, relying on empirical primary source material, where the starting point is to place the phenomenon under examination in the historical and cultural context. The most significant study materials are the artist s paintings and graphics from 1948 to 1960, newspaper and magazine articles from the same era, archive sources and interviews with Lucander s relatives, fellow artists and friends. An interesting aspect of the topic is the fact that Anitra Lucander was the only woman among the important pioneers of early Finnish abstract art. Through Lucander s art, I also examine the position of female artists in the tradition of Modernism as well as in the Finnish art world of the 1950s. This theoretical background is provided by the studies of feminist art historians, such as Marsha Meskimmon, Gill Perry, Griselda Pollock and Anne Middleton Wagner. Lucander s position in the male-dominated Finnish art scene of the 1950s, and how she achieved her position, emerges as one of the central themes of the study. I will also observe whether gender is evident in Lucander s art and expression, as well as her reception and critique compared to the reception of her male colleagues art. From a woman s point of view, I reveal the masculine rhetoric and gendered attitudes in the critique of the era. As a theoretical and methodological frame of reference, I use discourse analysis. Anitra Lucander encountered modernistic, international art movements during her journeys to Paris in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Her art evolved from the geometric Concretism of the early decade towards more delicate and painterly abstract expression. After the mid-1950s, she had developed her signature expression; through Cubism and a collage technique, she developed in her painting a delicate, coloristic imagery, which can be characterized as Lyrical Abstraction. Lucander did not consider abstract expression to be categorical, but saw the abstract and the nonfigurative as equals: the line between the abstract and the figurative is very often fleeting in her art. Already in her own time, Lucander achieved a position as one of the most talented young artists of her generation and her work was included in significant exhibitions. This success can definitely be attributed to the fact that she embraced Modernism in its extreme form, abstraction, already at the beginning of her career and networked with male painters who shared her outlook and modernistic expression. For her, this was either a conscious or an unconscious method of adapting to the male-dominated Finnish art field in the 1950s. In spite of acclaim and attention, Lucander had to encounter the gendered attitudes in the critique of the time, and her art was often perceived through stereotypical views as overly feminine and dependent. However, with her art, Lucander played an important role in the breakthrough for colorism and abstract art in Finland in the 1950s.
  • Ojanperä, Riitta (Valtion taidemuseo / Kuvataiteen keskusarkisto, 2010)
    The doctoral dissertation Critic Einari J. Vehmas and Modern Art deals with one of the central figures of the Finnish art scene and his work as an art critic, art museum curator and cultural critic. The main body of research material consists of the writings of Einari J. Vehmas (1902 1980) from 1937 to the late 1960s. Vehmas wrote art reviews for magazines, and from the year 1945 he was a regular art critic for one of the major newspapers in Finland. Vehmas was heavily inclined towards French literature and visual arts. Marcel Proust and Charles Baudelaire influenced his views on the nature of art from the late 1920s onwards. Vehmas is commonly regarded as the most influential art critic of post-war Finland. His writings have been referred to and cited in numerous research papers on Finnish 20th-century art. A lesser known aspect of his work is his position as the deputy director of the Ateneum Art Museum, the Finnish national gallery. Through his art museum work, his opinions also shaped the canon of modern art considered particularly Finnish following the second world war. The main emphasis of the dissertation is on studying Vehmas s writings, but it also illustrates the diversity of his involvement in Finnish cultural life through biographical documents. The long chronological span of the dissertation emphasises how certain central themes accumulate in Vehmas s writings. The aim of the dissertation is also to show how strongly certain philosophical and theoretical concepts from the early 20th century, specifically Wassily Kandinsky s principle of inner necessity and Henri Bergson s epistemology highlighting intuition and instinct, continued to influence the Finnish art discourse even in the early 1960s, in part thanks to the writings of Vehmas. Throughout his production, Vehmas contemplated the state and future of modern art and humanity. Vehmas used a colourful, vitalistic rhetoric to emphasise the role of modern art as a building block of culture and humanity. At the same time, however, he was a cultural pessimist whose art views became infused with anxiety, a sense of loss, and a desire to turn his back on the world.
  • Katajamäki, Sakari (ntamo, 2016)
    Kukunor. Dream and the tradition of nonsense literature in Lauri Viitaʼs long poem This study examines Lauri Viita s (1916 1965) long poem Kukunor. Satu ihmislapsille [‛Koko Nor. A fairy tale for human children ] (1949) and its dream features from the perspective of the European tradition of literary nonsense. Here nonsense literature is defined as language-centred and play- or game-like literature, which balances meaning or a multiplicity of meaning with an absence of meaning. Usually, nonsense literature is topsy-turvy and self-reflective and it frequently represents emotions that are at odds with current events. In addition to earlier research on nonsense literature, the present study uses the three most canonical European nonsense writers Edward Lear, Lewis Carroll and Christian Morgenstern as the corpus for defining and analysing this literary genre. This study analyses the kind of relations Kukunorʼs dream features (i.e., structures and themes connected with dreaming) have with its nonsensical features. It examines Viitaʼs long poem from several structural and thematic perspectives. Most of the essential structural phenomena analysed in this survey include topsy-turvydom, palimpsest structures, and autocentricity. Other topics of analysis include epistemological matters and the instability of the subject or its identity. The main linguistic research themes of this study focus on anomalies regarding referentiality and arbitrariness, the concreteness of language and literature, and linguistic generation. The epithet dream has seen repeated use in the context of nonsense literature, and many surveys have dealt with the relations between dreaming and nonsense, though not in depth. Thus, this study is both an analysis of Viitaʼs long poem and a survey of the interrelation between dreams and nonsensicality in the European canon of literary nonsense. The present study argues that many confusing or incoherent features in Kukunor embody many structures of dreams and nonsense literature. The survey of these intertwining structural, stylistic and thematic characteristics helps to perceive Viitaʼs long poem and the relations between its parts in new ways. Contrary to the view of Elizabeth Sewellʼs eminent book The Field of Nonsense (1952), the key features of the nonsense genre correspond in various ways with many characteristics of dreaming. In Kukunor, Lauri Viita masters both the structural features of dreaming and the poetics of nonsense literature. Kukunor is exceptional among Viita s literary works, but analysing it offers new perspectives for understanding Viita s entire oeuvre.
  • Koski, Kaarina (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2011)
    Powers of Death. Church-väki in the Finnish Folk Belief Tradition Folk belief tradition can be defined as a communication system in which the truth value of traditional motifs is judged by their usefulness and applicability. According to the Finnish belief tradition, a substance of power called väki resides in sacred elements and in entities which vitally affect human life. Väki is both ritually avoided and harnessed for beneficial or malevolent purposes. The powers of church and death merge in church-väki, which, in beliefs and narratives, emerges when the boundary between the living and the dead is crossed or violated. In rural societies where the relationship to the dying and the deceased was close, the church-väki tradition was relevant and productive. This study is based on approximately 2700 units of archived material from thel late 19th and early 20th centuries narratives, rite descriptions, and linguistic data. It explicates the concept of church-väki, presents the background of the tradition, and analyses narratives, their meanings, and their role in early modern world view. It also explores how the concept was used when constructing social boundaries and handling otherness in the early modern Finland. The theoretic emphasis is on conceptual and genre analysis, narrativity, as well as the multiple meanings and uses of folklore motifs. Descriptions of church-väki vary from it being an invisible force to a crowd of beings and decomposing corpses. The author defines church-väki as a fuzzy concept with three prototypical cores and several names, most of which are polysemous. Polysemous words connect church-väki with for example ghosts and devils, unkempt people, and vermin, constructing a loose paradigm of supernatural and social otherness. Folklore genres of the studied narratives range from stories of personal experience to fabulates. The taleworlds and their content range from realistic (near) to extraordinary (distant). The distance between the taleworld and reality has concrete (local and temporal), narrative, and normative aspects. Distant taleworlds often follow an ontology different than in real life, although the narratives may be carefully linked to reality. Instead of being fictive, they show what would be expected outside the socially constructed everyday order. Methods of narratology are applied to coherent legends, which locate dramatic events in distant taleworlds. Linguistic genres, based on structure, function here as narrative registers of folklore genres.
  • Heikkilä, Elina (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2006)
    The study focuses on picture captions: their grammar and interplay with photographs and their position as semi-independent elements of the news stories. The research was conducted in the framework of critical discourse analysis, social semiotic visual theory and fennistic syntactical research. The data consist of 441 press photographs, 1,815 captions and a number of news items from Finnish dailies. The generic structure potential of the caption includes the caption headline, the caption proper, i.e. the verbalization of the picture content, and the frame. In the data, 41 per cent of the captions have a headline, and 44 per cent contain a caption proper. Characteristic of the caption proper is omission of the finite verb and the use of the present tense, both of which have decreased in Finnish papers during the 20th century. The caption proper is typically a main clause, and both subordinate clauses and participal phrases occur mostly in the frame. While comparing caption variants attached to the same pictures, the processes and their participants proved to be identified considerably identically, following the news agency captions. Instead, the reader?s interpretations of a picture could be directed by framing it in different ways. For example, the caption may focus on the only person depicted, deal with a whole group, or give an abstract account of the situation. The caption is a paratext, a typographically marked, semi-independent element of a news story. Between the headline and the caption, four semantic relations have been identified. The caption may be a paraphrase of the headline, or a close-up illustrating an abstract headline with a concrete example. If the name of the person depicted is their only common factor, the relation between the caption and the headline is additive. A specifying caption will give more details than the headline. The caption may complete, repeat, or summarize the body copy. Naturally, most captions completing the story verbalize the content of the picture. As the caption is often based on the story, it may even repeat the body copy verbatim. The summarizing function is probably becoming increasingly important, as most Finnish newspapers have abandoned the use of a separate standfirst.
  • Tossavainen, Mari (Suomen Tiedeseura, 2012)
    Sculptor's Work: Emil Wikström and the Infrastructure of Sculpture 1890-1920 This doctoral dissertation examines a sculptor´s work in the context of the formation of art infrastructures, collaborations, and the practice and profession of sculpture. In this study, Emil Wikström (1864-1942) is a major exemplary case through which to understand the practice and profession of sculpture in Finland. Wikström is especially famous for his monuments, and he has had a reputation as a 'dominant master' in the Finnish sculpture at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Earlier, he has mainly been regarded as a favourite artist of the Finnish-minded circles. However, this study shows that, in addition to a national obligation, he also felt a strong professional duty to develop Finnish art life and the professional status of sculptors. This study opens new perspectives on Finnish sculpture by showing, for instance, that Wikström was an early advocate of copyright legislation. Theoretically and methodologically, this study is connected with the current discussion in the field of art history, and it builds principally on an institutional and art sociological approach. The research is based on primary sources, including sculptors' professional correspondence and the documents of statue committees. Wikström entered the difficult and undervalued profession of sculpture in the end of 19th century. The foundations of the Finnish sculpture institution were laid in the years 1890-1920, and sculptors' professional identity and efforts began to emerge in many ways. Their work was being transformed, for instance, by contracts, art education, art foundries, new associations and publicity. This study also underlines the fact that, as stated by Wikström, sculpture is connected with place. Wikström played a decisive part in forming the image of the sculptor's profession and building up the infrastructures of sculpture in Finland. Keywords: Emil Wikström, Finnish sculptors, sculpture, art infrastructures, professional identity, monuments, late 19th century, early 20th century
  • Rausmaa, Heikki (2013)
    My doctoral thesis will investigate political relations between Finland and Estonia between the spring of 1988 and August 1991 when Estonia became independent. I will focus on Finland s policy towards Estonia, which manifested itself in white papers concerning Estonia s independence process and in governmental co-operation. I will also pay attention to the attitude of the Finnish parliament and those of Finnish political parties with Estonia. I will also explore Estonia s political aims with regard to Finland and the degree to which they were realized. The research is based on archival sources, interviews, materials of the leading organs of the political parties, and research literature. I have applied the classical scientific methods used in historical research: comparing sources, paying attention to the special characteristics of the data, and tapping my general knowledge about the context. From the summer of 1988 until early February 1990, aiming to benefit from Gorbachev s reform policy, Estonia tried to increase its national autonomy within the Soviet Union. From then on, Estonia s only goal was to bring the Soviet occupation to an end and restore the country s independence, which led to constant conflict with Moscow. Estonia sought support and help from Finland in building its new state and tried to put the question of Estonian independence onto the international agenda. Finland s foreign policy sought to support Gorbachev and maintain close relations with Moscow. On the other hand, supporting Estonia was considered to be a moral duty and public opinion put pressure on the Finnish government to help Estonia. Starting from the spring of 1989, the Finnish government supported Estonia by giving educational, professional, and material help. This aid was not well publicized, in an attempt to prevent it from receiving undue political significance. President Koivisto constantly warned Estonia not to proceed too quickly as this, it was felt, might damage Gorbachev s position both within the CPSU and the USSR. However, at the same time, Finland was providing considerable help to Estonia in the process of building up its own state. Most of Finland s political parties acted in the same way as the government of Finland: they didn t give any public support for Estonian independence but supported it in the form of practical co-operation. The only exceptions were the Greens and the Left Alliance who made their support for Estonia evident in public statements. The help provided by Finnish political parties was important especially in terms of passing on the international contacts. Finland was consciously conducting its foreign policy on two different levels: simultaneously supporting both Gorbachev and Estonia even though these two actors were pursuing diametrically opposed goals. This contradiction in Finland s policy was concealed and did not damage relations between Finland and the Soviet Union because Finland limited its support to Estonia and presented it as non-political cultural co-operation. The assistance given by Finland was of considerable help to Estonia in building up its own state institutions and gaining its independence. Therefore the common perception that Finland didn t support Estonia s independence doesn t correspond with political reality. On a practical level, Finland provided more help to Estonia than any other country.