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  • Holvas, Jakke (Tutkijaliitto, 2009)
    Jakke Holvas: A Critique of the Metaphysics of Economy The research problem of this dissertation is the commonly held opinion according to which everything has become a question of economy in the present day. Economy legitimates and justifies. In this study, the pattern of thinking and conceptualizing in which economy figures as the ultimate reason is called the metaphysics of economy. The defining characteristic of the metaphysics of economy is its failure to recognize non-economic rules, ethics, or ways of existence. The sources included in the study cover certain classics of philosophy (Plato, Aristotle, Friedrich Nietzsche) and sociology (Karl Marx, Max Weber, Marcel Mauss), as well as the more recent French social theory (Jean Baudrillard, Michel Foucault). The research methods used are textual analysis and evaluation of concepts by means of historical comparison. The background to the study is given by the views of historians and sociologists according to whom traditional forms have ceased to exist and the market economy become established as the western system of values. The study identifies points of transition from the traditional forms to economic values. In addition, the dissertation focuses on the modern non-economic forms. The study examines the economic and ethical meanings of gift in antiquity in Homer, Plato, and Aristotle. Following Marcel Mauss, the study analyzes the forms and principles of gift exchange. The study also applies Nietzsche’s philosophy to evaluate under what conditions giving a gift becomes an act of exercising power that puts its receiver into debt. The conclusion of the study is that the classics of philosophy and sociology can rightly be interpreted in terms of the metaphysics of economy, but they also offer grounds for criticizing this metaphysics, even alternatives. One such alternative is non-economic archaic ethic. The study delineates a duality between economy and non-economy as well as creating concepts which could be used in the future to critically analyze economy from a position external to the economic system of concepts.
  • Seppälä, Mikko-Olavi (2007)
    Workers' theatres in Finland until 1922 The topic of this dissertation is the workers' theatres in Finland before the year 1922. The main question is: why did these amateur theatres within the workers' associations become part of the professional theatre field in the 1910s by getting state subsidy as local theatre institutions? How is it possible that they received this status even after the civil war in 1918 when new professional theatres were founded all over the country? The study also asks, what kind of position did workers' theatres have in the workers' associations and in the workers' movement, what did the Social Democrats and Communists think of theatre and in particular of workers' theatre, and what kind of repertoire did the workers' theatres perform? It is a particular feature of Finland that the professional theatre field was not organised and that the workers’ movement had a relatively strong political position. The study concludes that some workers' theatres were the only steady theatre institutions in their surroundings, and thus functioned as local popular theatres performing to all social groups. Although amateur-based, they started to resemble professional theatres. Even though the Social Democratic Party did not have a specific theatre policy, the leaders of the Party appreciated and supported the workers' theatres as educational institutions and worked for their artistic improvement. The workers' theatres were also largely approved of and seen as people's theatres thought to unite and educate the nation and the working class. This reveals the need for national consensus, in the 1910s against the Russian government who worked to dissolve the autonomous position of the Finnish state, and after the civil war (1918) against the threat of a communist revolution. A wave of agitating proletarian theatre was felt in Finland in the early 1920s but it was marginalised by the large anti-communist majority.
  • Häti-Korkeila, Marjatta (2010)
    DRAMATURGY OF THEATRE MANAGEMENT Essential tasks, everyday problems and the need for structural changes Theatre justifies its existence only through high quality performances. Maintaining the artistic level and organizing performances are the primary tasks of a manager, even though in everyday life this often seems to be overshadowed by all the other tasks of a manager s work. How does a theatre manager design strategies and make everyday decisions if aims are to have artistically meaningful performances, financial success and a socially healthy ensemble, when not only artistic work or leadership of an organization are to be taken into consideration, but also a manpower-based art institution with long traditions? What does theatre management consist of and what kind of dramaturgical movement happens in it? Based on interviews carried out in five different city theatres in Finland in the years 2004-2008, incident stories were written within a continuous comparison theory frame. Social constructionism within a dramaturgic framework enabled versatile dialog on a manager s work and problem areas. The result is an interpretative study, where instead of common regularities, many details are collected that can be taken into consideration when similar situations occur. Based on the interviews and historical data, four factors that influence a manager s work were chosen: ownership, media, work community and programme. Within theatre management, the central problems were 1) the inconsistent use of theatre resources and problems in corporate governance caused by the administrative models; 2) the theatre s image, based on the image of its manager, as presented by the media and its influence on the wellbeing of the staff; 3) unsolved problems between the staff left behind by the previous managers and problems related to casting; 4) knowledge of the audience. These points influence how the manager plans the artistic programme and divides the resources. The theatre manager s job description has remained quite the same since the early days of Kaarlo Bergbom. In the future, special attention should be placed on why managers face fairly similar problems decade after decade. Reducing these problems partly depends on whether structural improvements are made to a theatre s close network of owners, financers and labour unions. During this study clear evidence was seen that structural changes are necessary in the production of performances and in the creation of a more versatile programme. In this process, different kinds of co-operation, experiments, development projects, continuing education and international relations have special importance, especially if the aim is to make it possible for all citizens of Finland to enjoy a vibrant and revitalized theatre.
  • Yliaska, Ville (Into Kustannus, 2014)
    This study explores the birth and development of marketisation of the public sector in Finland since the 1970s. These quasi-market reforms were labeled New Public Management (NPM) in the 1990s. The main idea of NPM was to introduce competition and result-oriented management into the public sector. The main focus falls on three different reforms: the management-by-results reform, state subsidy reform and the incorporation and privatization of public agencies. The research falls at the intersection of political and administrational history. The analysis is based primarily on archival sources, press debates and publications that deal with the marketisation of the public sector. The main questions are: how were the reforms justified and how it was possible to maintain the wave of reform for decades without any feedback about the economic impacts of the reforms? The study begins with the history of the welfare state and with the criticism that the welfare state encountered from different directions in the wake of the oil crisis of the 1970s. The study shows that New Public Management was one of the turning points where ideas about democratisation, decentralisation, conservancy and decommodification of work born in the 1960s and mid-1970s gave way to the centralisation, recommodification and marketisation of structures in the public sector. The study also shows that by 1980s and 1990s power over public resources in Finnish society was centralised from local to central government through doctrines of New Public Management, which separated operational and strategic power in order to reallocate public resources from welfare services to industrial policy. This power shift is analysed in the context of the recession of the 1970s, which was interpreted at the time as an overproduction crisis. The main justification of the NPM reforms – “decentralization” – is analysed from different angles, but the main focus is on the methods of conceptual history. The political battle over the meaning of the concept “decentralisation”, which had a pleasant connotation, was an important factor in defining the results of the reforms. The findings of the study align with the recent interpretations of the political and economic history of other European countries where structural reforms have also led to the centralisation of power from local government to the central government and especially to the treasury.
  • Tiililä, Ulla (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2007)
    Texts in the work of a city department: A study of the language and context of benefit decisions This dissertation examines documents granting or denying the access to municipal services. The data consist of decisions on transport services made by the Social Services Department of the City of Helsinki. The circumstances surrounding official texts and their language and production are studied through textual analysis and interviews. The dissertation describes the textual features of the above decisions, and seeks to explain such features. Also explored are the topics and methods of genre studies, especially the relationship between text and context. Although the approach is linguistic, the dissertation also touches on research in social work and administrative decision making, and contributes to more general discussion on the language and duties of public administration. My key premise is that a text is more than a mere psycholinguistic phenomenon. Rather, a text is also a physical object and the result of certain production processes. This dissertation thus not only describes genre-specific features, but also sheds light on the work that generates the texts examined. Textual analysis and analyses of discursive practices are linked through an analysis of intertextuality: written decisions are compared with other application documents, such as expert statements and the applications themselves. The study shows that decisions are texts governed by strict rules and written with modest resources. Textwork is organised as hierarchical mass production. The officials who write decisions rely on standard phrases extracted from a computer system. This allows them to produce texts of uniform quality which have been approved by the department s legal experts. Using a computer system in text production does not, however, serve all the needs of the writers. This leads to many problems in the texts themselves. Intertextual analysis indicates that medical argumentation weighs most heavily in an application process, although a social appraisal should be carried out when deciding on applications for transport services. The texts reflect a hierarchy in which a physician ranks above the applicant, and the department s own expert physician ranks above the applicant s physician. My analysis also highlights good, but less obvious practices. The social workers and secretaries who write decisions must balance conflicting demands. They use delicate linguistic means to adjust the standard phrases to suit individual cases, and employ subtle strategies of politeness. The dissertation suggests that the customer contact staff who write official texts should be allowed to make better use of their professional competence. A more general concern is that legislation and new management strategies require more and more documentation. Yet, textwork is only rarely taken into account in the allocation of resources. Keywords: (Critical) text analysis, genre analysis, administration, social work, administrative language, texts, genres, context, intertextuality, discursive practices
  • Sklar, Howard (2008)
    "The Art of Sympathy: Forms of Moral and Emotional Persuasion" in Fiction is an interdisciplinary study that looks closely at the ways that stories evoke sympathy, and the significance of this emotion for the development of moral attitudes and awareness. By linking readers' emotional responses to fiction with the potential impact of such responses on "the moral imagination," the study builds on empirical research conducted by literary scholars and psychologists into the emotional effects of reading fiction, as well as social psychological research into the connections between empathy/sympathy and moral development. I first investigate the dynamics of readers beliefs regarding characters in fictional narratives, and the nature of the emotions that they may experience as a result of those beliefs. The analysis demonstrates that there are important similarities between real emotions and emotions generated by fiction. Recognizing these similarities, I claim, can help us to conceptualize the nature of sympathetic responses to fictional characters. Building on these assertions, I then draw on research from social psychology and philosophy to develop a comprehensive definition of sympathy and to clarify the ways in which sympathy operates, both in people s daily lives and in readers sympathetic responses to fictional characters. Having established this definition and delineated its practical implications, I then examine how particular stories, through a variety of narrative techniques, persuade readers to feel sympathy for characters who are unsympathetic in certain ways. In order to verify my claims about the impact of these stories on readers emotions, I also review the results of tests that I conducted with nearly 200 adolescent readers. Through these tests, which were constructed and scored according to methods prevalent in social psychological research, it was determined that a majority of readers felt sympathy for the protagonists in two of the stories included in the study. These results were combined with data from an additional test, a standard measure of empathy and sympathy in the field of social psychology. The cross-tabulation of these results suggests that there was not a strong connection between readers responses and their general tendencies to feel sympathy for others. This finding would appear to support my hypotheses regarding the sympathetic persuasiveness of the stories in question. In light of these results, finally, I consider the potential contribution that fiction can make to adolescent emotional and moral development and the implications of that potential for future language arts curricula in the schools. In particular, I suggest the pedagogical importance of providing adolescents with opportunities to engage with the lives of fictional characters, and especially to experience feelings of sympathy for individuals towards whom they ordinarily might feel aversion.
  • Beniard, Michel (2011)
    This dissertation is a narrative account of the negotiations concerning the question of the Far East and the Shandong issue at the Washington Conference, leading to treaties, agreements and resolutions. In this dissertation, a certain stress is laid on the interaction between the Conference and the internal situation in China, particularly concerning the question of the implications of the Conference for Cabinet politics in Peking. Through the narrative account of the Conference, the general aim is an attempt to reassess the achievements of the Washington Conference. Too often the Washington Conference has been viewed negatively. The political aim behind the legal framework was to open the door to China as a sovereign State member of the international community whose territorial integrity was internationally recognized, despite its chaotic internal situation. It is undeniable that the Washington Conference opened a new chapter in modern Chinese history. The violations of the agreements concerning China that occurred in the 1930s should not lead to the belief that these agreements were of no value. Peace may not be lasting and evolves according to circumstances; agreements are transitory, and new situations need new arrangements. This dissertation tries to demonstrate that the agreements in themselves were not the cause of their failure, but the failure was due to the lack of determination on the part of the Signatories Powers to defend them.
  • Hannikainen, Matti O. (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This thesis analyses the main trends in the development of public green spaces in London from the mid-1920s to the late 1990s. With a broad approach, that combines perspectives of urban, planning, environmental and leisure history this thesis sheds new light on the processes, through which public green spaces have been created and used in the city. This thesis focuses on two London boroughs, Camden and Southwark, but despite its nominal focus, it deals with ten municipal authorities and the Royal Parks Department providing a comparative perspective on the official policies about creating and managing various public green spaces in London. The interaction between national, regional, and local authorities provides the framework for a coherent analysis of the development of public green spaces. Based on extensive archive work on administrative sources including departmental memoranda and reports, and the Minutes of Proceedings of the Councils studied, this thesis shows that the number and acreage of public green spaces in the city grew substantially during the period studied. Vested with new legal powers, municipal authorities were the main providers of new green space between the late 1940s and the early 1970s having replaced the private landowners and associations. Yet there were crucial differences between the authorities studied on the creation of new public green spaces. Moreover, from the 1970s, the legal and financial powers, the scope of new town plans, and the reason for creating new public green spaces fragmented due to sharpened political ideologies and the structural changes of British society. National governments also tightened their control over municipal authorities and, from the 1980s, the creation of new green spaces was again based on opportunity and co-operation between municipal authorities and local associations. This thesis argues that one reason for creating new green spaces in London was to promote physical recreation and sport, as there was an intense demand for sport and playing facilities. As a result, sport dominated the use of most municipal green spaces between the 1920s and the 1960s, whereas the Royal Parks were kept for general recreation. London s public green spaces were the centres for non-commercial outdoor leisure underlining the role of the municipal authorities, instead of the state, in organising leisure. From the 1950s, however, commercialisation, growing personal affluence and mobility, and domestic leisure affected the popularity of various outdoor entertainments. Yet some activities, like football, remained popular apparently due to the loss of private facilities. The official reason for the use of public green spaces fragmented, and, from the 1970s, new concepts like ecology challenged their prevailing uses and perceptions. The management of public green spaces was also plagued by the lack of funding and staff from the 1950s explaining why local associations and external funding became vital for their maintenance and why they were perceived as unsafe. The development of public green spaces in London is currently at a cross roads as the lack of financial and legal muscle for their provision is accompanied by the lack of dominant reason for their development.
  • Toivanen, Hanna-Riitta (Suomen Kirkkohistoriallinen seura, 2007)
    The influence of the architecture of the Byzantine capital spread to the Mediterranean provinces with travelling masters and architects. In this study the architecture of the Constantinopolitan School has been detected on the basis of the typology of churches, completed by certain morphological aspects when necessary. The impact of the Constantinopolitan workshops appears to have been more important than previously realized. This research revealed that the Constantinopolitan composite domed inscribed-cross type or cross-in-square spread everywhere to the Balkans and it was assumed soon by the local schools of architecture. In addition, two novel variants were invented on the basis of this model: the semi-composite type and the so-called Athonite type. In the latter variant lateral conches, choroi, were added for liturgical reasons. Instead, the origin of the domed ambulatory church was partly provincial. One result of this study is that the origin of the Middle Byzantine domed octagonal types was traced to Constantinople. This is attested on the basis of the archaeological evidence. Also some other architectural elements that have not been preserved in the destroyed capital have survived at the provincial level: the domed hexagonal type, the multi-domed superstructure, the pseudo-octagon and the narthex known as the lite. The Constantinopolitan architecture during the period in question was based on the Early Christian and Late Antique forms, practices and innovations and this also emerges at the provincial level.
  • Niskanen, Samu (2009)
    Anselm of Canterbury (1033–1109) was a prolific letter writer. The modern edition of his letter collection comprises more than 600 folio-size pages in print and includes 472 letters, the vast majority of which were sent by him. Our knowledge of Anselm’s letters is derived from collections of his letters, for none of his correspondence survives in its original form of individual letters. There was no one canonical version of the collection, and the extant manuscripts generally differ substantially: the largest medieval manuscript witnesses include over 400 letters, while the smallest contain only a few. We know 38 manuscript witnesses, but no authorial manuscript survives. Certain references in Anselm’s letters reveal, however, that he collected his correspondence on at least two occasions while he was still abbot of Bec, and this study proposes that a third collection was possibly made under his supervision in Christ Church. The third collection also covered Anselm’s Canterbury period. Whether the third collection was authorial or posthumous is unclear. Certain contextual evidence and references in letters would suggest that the collection was authorial. If so, the collection was probably a register book, which was started in c. 1101 at the earliest. There is no positive proof that any of the three surviving minor collections may be authorial. Each of these collections was circulating at a very early stage, however, some probably in Anselm’s lifetime. Moreover, the minor collections seem to have been put together from smaller source units, which possibly originated at Bec. The contents of these units suggest very early and possibly authorial origins: the letters are mainly from Anselm’s years as prior of Bec. The critical edition by F. S. Schmitt represents the current phase in the textual tradition of Anselm’s letter collection. This study demonstrates that the value of the edition is weakened in particular by the way in which Schmitt selected manuscripts for collation, doubtless influenced by the fact that he had not established the structure of the tradition properly. Ultimately it is impossible to undertake systematic research on the letter collection on the basis of Schmitt’s edition.
  • Valtonen, Irmeli (2008)
    This doctoral dissertation examines the description of the North as it appears in the Old English Orosius (OE Or.) in the form of the travel accounts by Ohthere and Wulfstan and a catalogue of peoples of Germania. The description is discussed in the context of ancient and early medieval textual and cartographic descriptions of the North, with a special emphasis on Anglo-Saxon sources and the intellectual context of the reign of King Alfred (871-899). This is the first time that these sources, a multidisciplinary approach and secondary literature, also from Scandinavia and Finland, have been brought together. The discussion is source-based, and archaeological theories and geographical ideas are used to support the primary evidence. This study belongs to the disciplines of early medieval literature and (cultural) history, Anglo-Saxon studies, English philology, and historical geography. The OE Or. was probably part of Alfred s educational campaign, which conveyed royal ideology to the contemporary elite. The accounts and catalogue are original interpolations which represent a unique historical source for the Viking Age. They contain unparalleled information about peoples and places in Fennoscandia and the southern Baltic and sailing voyages to the White Sea, the Danish lands, and the Lower Vistula. The historical-philological analysis reveals an emphasis on wealth and property, rank, luxury goods, settlement patterns, and territorial divisions. Trade is strongly implied by the mentions of central places and northern products, such as walrus ivory. The references to such peoples as the Finnas, the Cwenas, and the Beormas appear in connection with information about geography and subsistence in the far North. Many of the topics in the accounts relate to Anglo-Saxon aristocratic culture and interests. The accounts focus on the areas associated with the Northmen, the Danes and the Este. These areas resonated in the Anglo-Saxon geographical imagination: they were curious about the northern margin of the world, their own continental ancestry and the geography of their homeland of Angeln, and they had an interest in the Goths and their connection with the southern Baltic in mythogeography. The non-judgemental representation of the North as generally peaceful and relatively normal place is related to Alfredian and Orosian ideas about the unity and spreading of Christendom, and to desires for unity among the Germani and for peace with the Vikings, who were settling in England. These intellectual contexts reflect the innovative and organizational forces of Alfred s reign. The description of the North in the OE Or. can be located in the context of the Anglo-Saxon worldview and geographical mindset. It mirrors the geographical curiosity expressed in other Anglo-Saxon sources, such as the poem Widsith and the Anglo-Saxon mappa mundi. The northern section of this early eleventh-century world map is analyzed in detail here for the first time. It is suggested that the section depicts the North Atlantic and the Scandinavian Peninsula. The survey of ancient and early medieval sources provides a comparative context for the OE Or. In this material, produced by such authors as Strabo, Pliny, Tacitus, Jordanes, and Rimbert, the significance of the North was related to the search for and definition of the northern edge of the world, universal accounts of the world, the northern homeland in the origin stories of the gentes, and Carolingian expansion and missionary activity. These frameworks were transmitted to Anglo-Saxon literary culture, where the North occurs in the context of the definition of Britain s place in the world.
  • Rosato, Paolo (The International Semiotics Institute, 2013)
    Music analysis is an expression that covers a wide field of meanings and phenomena. We can analyze music as an anthropological condition of human beings; or as a set of historically determined social systems; or finally, as a concrete, individual musical expression. The latter can be regarded from the sides of enunciation and of utterance, which in turn take the opposing forms of text-system (not necessarily written) and performed-text. My aim is to demonstrate that a common organic principle joins together all these different musical facts. That principle is homeostasis, a term coined by Walter Bradford Cannon at the end of the 1920s, and first applied to music by Fulvio Delli Pizzi in 1984. Homeostasis is the property that a system or an organism must maintain in a stable and constant condition in its own internal environment. When applied to analysis of musical utterances, homeostasis allows us to give to musical signs a proper content: composers, performers, and listeners can deal with musical signs as people usually do with all the signs of natural languages. The proper homeostatic content in turn finds its roots in tensional-relaxation processes within human body. Homeostasis regulates both melodic and harmonic processes, at least of the Western musical tradition, and allows them to obtain an internal syntactic meaning that is neither merely structural nor merely formal. Pitches, as our analyses demonstrate, are not neutral in their interactions and relationships. In fact, homeostasis arranges melodic and harmonic elements - as it can do with all musical parameters - into significant units that act as organic parts of a musical whole. I do not deny that musical signs are also historically, socially, and culturally codified. I only claim that historical, social, and cultural internal musical meanings result from a dialectical process between natural , transcendental conditions, and their actualization in space and time. (In this respect, it seems that Raymond Monelle's theory of topics can cover just a part of the problem of musical meaning.) Main references in my research are drawn from the semiotic perspectives of Umberto Eco and Eero Tarasti, from Louis Hjelmslev's linguistic theory, and from Delli Pizzi's musical theory, this last adapted to my personal approach. In most of this book, I present my original analyses of music of the Western tradition, from ancient plainchant to contemporary music. In Chapter 1, I elaborate an enlarged musical-organic model: like other complex natural phenomena, music may be comprised of organic and/or inorganic parts, and regarded as a complex system endowed with living properties. In Chapters 2 and 3, respectively, I present melody and harmony as two systems. Starting from sound waves as a physical system, I analyze the evolution of melody as a symbolic, syntactic, and semantic system. Moreover, I develop Delli Pizzi's harmonic theory, while arguing that Schenker's, Riemann's, and de la Motte's approaches are neither organic nor functionalist in the strict sense. In Chapter 4, I point out the strong relations between Tarasti's existential semiotics and my homeostatic perspective; this allows me to apply the model constructed in Chapter 1 to musical pieces regarded as organic text-systems. Finally, I elaborate in Chapter 5 a new model capable of explaining relations among musical subjects - entrepreneurs, composers, performers, customers, and so on - who can interact, even though very distant from each other in space and time. To do this, I introduce the concept of Manifestum, drawn from Martin Heidegger's thought, but adapted to my specific aims.
  • Lilja, Esa (IAML Finland, 2009)
    This thesis explores melodic and harmonic features of heavy metal, and while doing so, explores various methods of music analysis; their applicability and limitations regarding the study of heavy metal music. The study is built on three general hypotheses according to which 1) acoustic characteristics play a significant role for chord constructing in heavy metal, 2) heavy metal has strong ties and similarities with other Western musical styles, and 3) theories and analytical methods of Western art music may be applied to heavy metal. It seems evident that in heavy metal some chord structures appear far more frequently than others. It is suggested here that the fundamental reason for this is the use of guitar distortion effect. Subsequently, theories as to how and under what principles heavy metal is constructed need to be put under discussion; analytical models regarding the classification of consonance and dissonance and chord categorization are here revised to meet the common practices of this music. It is evident that heavy metal is not an isolated style of music; it is seen here as a cultural fusion of various musical styles. Moreover, it is suggested that the theoretical background to the construction of Western music and its analysis can offer invaluable insights to heavy metal. However, the analytical methods need to be reformed to some extent to meet the characteristics of the music. This reformation includes an accommodation of linear and functional theories that has been found rather rarely in music theory and musicology.
  • Saastamoinen, Ari (Helsinki University Print, 2008)
    This study analyses the diction of Latin building inscriptions. Despite its importance, this topic has rarely been discussed before: the most substantial contribution on the subject is a short dissertation by Klaus Gast (1965) that focuses on 100 inscriptions dating mostly from the Republican period. Marietta Horster (2001) also touched upon this theme in her thesis on imperial building inscriptions. I have collected my source material in North Africa because more Latin building inscriptions dating from the Imperial period have survived there than in any other area of the Roman Empire. By means of a thorough and independent survey, I have assembled all relevant African Latin building inscriptions datable to the Roman period (between 146 BC and AD 425), 1002 texts, into a corpus. These inscriptions are all fully edited in Appendix 1; Appendix 2 contains references to earlier editions. To facilitate search operations, both are also available in electronic form. They are downloadable from the address http://www.helsinki.fi/hum/kla/htm/jatkoopinnot.htm. Chapter one is an introduction dealing with the nature of building inscriptions as source material. Chapter two offers a statistical overview of the material. The following main section of the work falls into five chapters, each of which analyses one main part of a building inscription. An average building inscription can be divided into five parts: the starting phrase opens the inscription (a dedication to gods, for example), the subject part identifies the builder, the object part describes the constructed or repaired building, the predicate part records the building activity and the supplement part offers additional information on the project (it can specify the funding, for instance). These chapters are systematic and chronological and their purpose is to register and interpret the phrases used, to analyse reasons for their use and for their popularity among the different groups of builders. Chapter eight, which follows the main section of the work, creates a typology of building inscriptions based on their structure. It also presents the most frequently attested types of building inscriptions. The conclusion describes, on a general level, how the diction of building inscriptions developed during the period of study and how this striking development resulted from socio-economic changes that took place in Romano-African society during Antiquity. This study shows that the phraseology of building inscriptions had a clear correlation both with the type of builder and with the date of carving. Private builders tended to accentuate their participation (especially its financial side) in the project; honouring the emperor received more emphasis in the building inscriptions set up by communities; the texts produced by the army were concise. The chronological development is so clear that it enables stylistic dating. At the beginning of the imperial period the phrases were clear, concrete, formal and stereotyped but by Late Antiquity they have become vague, subjective, flexible, varied and even rhetorically or poetically coloured.
  • Keskiaho, Jesse (2012)
    This is a study of the early medieval reception and use of the teachings of Augustine of Hippo (mainly in his De cura pro mortuis gerenda and De Genesi ad litteram), and Gregory the Great (in his Moralia and Dialogi) on dreams and visions, and canon law related to dreams. It proceeds from the contradiction between how these opinions, which highlight the problematic nature of dreams, and their influence have been interpreted, and the image of early medieval dreaming as it emerges from narrative sources. The study shows that these opinions were gradually received in the early middle ages but argues that their meanings and uses varied according to context. It is a detailed investigation into how early medieval readers and scholars dealt with one aspect of the inheritance of late antiquity in situations and for ends very different from those of the original texts. In this study I investigate several manuscripts of patristic, exegetical, and canonical texts, to determine the manuscript contexts of relevant texts, and to uncover signs of reading. The study shows how Gregory's teaching on the difficult nature of dreams, and Augustine's ideas about the apparitions of the dead, and his epistemological model of three visions became, through the process of early medieval reception, standard interpretative frames for discussing dreams and visions. I also argue that the reception and adoption of normative texts proscribing the observation of dreams was probably connected to the reception of theological views. I demonstrate how the reception of the opinions of even the most influential of the fathers was conditioned by current concerns. Discussions on dreams and visions were always also discussions about the saints, religious images, the fates of the dead, orthopraxy, learned identity, or the interpretation of Bible. In such discussions authoritative opinions could be used to argue both for and against the reality of certain dreams or visions. Cults of relics and interest in the fates of the dead pervaded early medieval cultures, and fostered stories of apparitions and visions, for which support could be sought in authoritative texts. However, especially in learned and reform-oriented contexts there was also interest in those aspects of these texts that underlined the problematic nature of visionary phenomena.
  • Sipilä, Joonas (Societas Scientiarum Fennica, 2009)
    The dissertation examines Roman provincial administration and the phenomenon of territorial reorganisations of provinces during the Imperial period with special emphasis on the provinces of Arabia and Palaestina during the Later Roman period, i.e., from Diocletian (r. 284 305) to the accession of Phocas (602), in the light of imperial decision-making. Provinces were the basic unit of Roman rule, for centuries the only level of administration that existed between the emperor and the cities of the Empire. The significance of the territorial reorganisations that the provinces were subjected to during the Imperial period is thus of special interest. The approach to the phenomenon is threefold: firstly, attention is paid to the nature and constraints of the Roman system of provincial administration. Secondly, the phenomenon of territorial reorganisations is analysed on the macro-scale, and thirdly, a case study concerning the reorganisations of the provinces of Arabia and Palaestina is conducted. The study of the mechanisms of decision-making provides a foundation through which the collected data of all known major territorial reorganisations is interpreted. The data concerning reorganisations is also subjected to qualitative comparative analysis that provides a new perspective to the data in the form of statistical analysis that is sensitive to the complexities of individual cases. This analysis of imperial decision-making is based on a timeframe stretching from Augustus (r. 30 BC AD 14) to the accession of Phocas (602). The study identifies five distinct phases in the use of territorial reorganisations of the provinces. From Diocletian s reign there is a clear normative change that made territorial reorganisations a regular tool of administration for the decision-making elite for addressing a wide variety of qualitatively different concerns. From the beginning of the fifth century the use of territorial reorganisations rapidly diminishes. The two primary reasons for the decline in the use of reorganisations were the solidification of ecclesiastical power and interests connected to the extent of provinces, and the decline of the dioceses. The case study of Palaestina and Arabia identifies seven different territorial reorganisations from Diocletian to Phocas. Their existence not only testifies to wider imperial policies, but also shows sensitivity to local conditions and corresponds with the general picture of provincial reorganisations. The territorial reorganisations of the provinces reflect the proactive control of the Roman decision-making elite. The importance of reorganisations should be recognised more clearly as part of the normal imperial administration of the provinces and especially reflecting the functioning of dioceses.
  • Steinby, Christa (Suomen tiedeseura, 2007)
    The present dissertation discusses the development of the Roman navy, how it functioned strategically and tactically, and the role it played in the expansion of Rome’s Mediterraenan dominion. In previous studies, scholars (especially J.H. Thiel, 1946 and 1954) have seen the Romans as a nation of ‘land-lubbers’ in the wars that they fought against Carthage, Macedon and Syria. The idea stems from the historian Polybius, who represents the Romans as beginners at sea in the First Punic War and states that they won by using boarding-bridges which enabled them to turn a battle at sea into a battle on land. Thus, the Romans have been represented as a nation avoiding seafaring and in terms of the discussion of warfare at sea, historians have disregarded other wars in which the Roman navy played an important role, concentrating on the First Punic War alone. The Roman navy was active and absolutely necessary at all stages of the expansion of Rome’s Mediterranean dominion. In the centuries before the First Punic War, commerce with the Greeks and the Phoenicians made Rome a prosperous city. The Romans were involved in commerce, warfare and piracy like any other nation in the Tyrrhenian area. The navy was used in the process of the conquest of the Italian peninsula, not only as an aid to the army, but it also functioned independently in a manner appropriate to a sea power. In the First Punic War (264-241), the Romans challenged the Carthaginians for thalassocracy over the western Mediterranean. The competition continued in the Second Punic War 218-201, in which the fleets played an equally crucial role. It was really at sea that the Carthaginians lost the Second Punic War. In the eastern Mediterranean, the Romans challenged and defeated the Macedonian and Seleucid fleets and became the masters of the eastern Mediterranean. The Macedonian and Seleucid fleets were no match for the Roman fleet and so, if anyone could have stopped the Roman navy, it should have been the Carthaginians in the Second Punic War. We need to broaden our perspective concerning what is important in ancient warfare at sea. Practical matters in seafaring had implications for naval strategy. There was no room for water or food in ancient warships. Crews needed access to a coast to get water, food and rest after each voyage; thus control of safe landing places and ports was essential. The Romans were well aware of this. Therefore, when evaluatinging the role of the Roman navy, the number of sea battles is not the most important thing. The navy had other vital functions. It worked in cooperation with the army, and the organisation of supply routes, depots and landing places enabled the Romans to wage war overseas. In addition, the Roman navy operated at sea independently, participating in the contest for thalassocracy in the western and eastern Mediterranean by challenging and defeating the Punic, Macedonian and Seleucid fleets.
  • Bergholm, Alexandra (Helsingin yliopisto, 2009)
    This study examines the scholarly reception history of an early Irish text, Buile Shuibhne (The Frenzy of Suibhne), by focusing on the various theoretical and methodological presuppositions which have determined the scholars’ understanding of the text’s religious allegorical significance in the course of the 20th century. The reception-oriented inquiry takes the intersubjective aspect of literary interpretation as the basis for accentuating the importance of communally shared presumptions and reading strategies in the explication of interpretive variety. The materials of the study have been divided into four frameworks of interpretation: historical, pre-Christian, Christian and anthropological. This heuristic division does not denote mutually exclusive paradigms, but rather refers to perceived similarities within each group regarding the questions posed, and the evidence adduced, in textual analysis. The historical framework concentrates on the issues of the origins of the tale and the possible historicity of its main protagonist. The pre-Christian framework covers the theories of the shamanic, Indo-European and Celtic elements in the text, whereas the Christian framework includes readings emphasising the biblical, monastic and ascetic aspects of the tale. The anthropological framework in turn focuses on the parallels drawn between the narrative and the universal structure of the rites of passage. In addition to the examination of these four frameworks, the study also links the question of methodology with wider issues of authorship and textual integrity, and critically reconsiders the manner in which J.G. O'Keeffe's 1913 edition of the text has been reified in previous scholarship as a representation of a 12th century authorial original. The overall objective of the present case-study is to relate theoretical conceptions of literary theory, comparative religion and historiography to the study of early Irish narrative material by considering the communal and institutional dimension of meaning-making, and the implications of comparative methodology for historical research. In this aim, the prevailing methodological presuppositions informing the scholarly discourse on Buile Shuibhne are set against the wider context of Celtic Studies scholarship, in order to draw attention to the need to critically reflect upon the operations of knowledge production in future research.
  • Rahkonen, Pauli (2013)
    The subject of the present dissertation is the West Uralic past, mainly linguistic and settlement history. It focuses on historically known ancient tribes and their linguistic backgrounds such as the Merya, Muroma, Me čera and Čude as well as on some unknown Uralic tribes and languages. The tools employed are onomastics (mostly hydronyms) and archaeology. The main results of the study are as follows. The Me čera seem to have been a tribe inhabiting the left bank of the Middle Oka and, surprisingly, they most probably spoke a Permian language. It seems that linguistically two kinds of Novgorodian Čudes lived in the catchment areas of the Upper Volkhov and Luga. Traces are found of East Čudes and, further west, West Čudes . Both of these were apparently not Finnic tribes. The language of the East Čudes shows similarities with Meryan. The West Čudian language shows some features of Mordvin and probably Early Proto-Finnic. The Meryans and Muromas were linguistically close relatives. Their languages may have been only two dialects of the same language. The Meryan language stretched as far as the western parts of Vologda oblast in the north. A kind of Meryan was spoken in the Moscow area as well. The Meryan language had a cognate language in the eastern parts of Novgorod and Tver oblasts which I have called East Čudian. Apparently another related language was spoken in the eastern parts of Leningrad oblast, in the south-western parts of Arkhangelsk oblast and in Karelia in the Lake Onega region probably before the Finnic era. Ancient Mordvin-type toponyms are found in Kaluga and Moscow oblasts. There seem to have been two extreme edges of ancient Mordvin hydronyms, the first in the environs of the town of Tver and another on the left bank of the Volga between the river Kostroma and the estuary of the Un a. It is possible that an unknown Uralic x-language (or languages) was spoken in Finland, Karelia and in the North Russian lakeland. In my opinion, this language probably cannot be derived from Proto-Finnic or Proto-Saami. I have presented a hypothesis that this language was spoken by the population (and their descendants) of the early Textile Ceramics culture. In any event, the lexicon shows similarities with the Meryan language as defined by hydronyms.
  • Hintikka, Marianna (Uusfilologinen yhdistys r.y., 2013)
    It is a well-established fact that the human body and its various aspects have provided a source domain for metaphor throughout recorded history. One of the most salient instantiations of the body-metaphor is the concept of the Body Politic, the idea that society is analogous to the human body. In addition to society, however, the body can stand as a model for other, more abstract, target domains, too. One of these is the human mind and other facets of what could be characterised as inner life . This dissertation is a corpus-based study of metaphors that draw from the human body and corporeality in Early Modern and Present-day English texts. The focus is on the development of conceptual mappings between source and target domains from the EModE to the PDE period. The primary research questions concern metaphor extendedness and SOCIETY AS BODY and MIND AS BODY mappings. By extendedness I mean instances of metaphor use which consist of more than one instantiation of metaphor in a given context. By SOCIETY AS BODY and MIND AS BODY mappings I mean instances of metaphor where the target domain is either the society or the mind. Using electronic corpora I have compared metaphor use in the two periods in order to establish whether there are notable differences in these two above mentioned respects. As key concepts I have adopted metaphor strength (the clustering of source domain items in given contexts to form systematic extended metaphors) and metaphor productivity (the occurrence of many terms with similar meanings, i.e. items pertaining to the same source concept, in metaphor across the language) so that I view metaphor extendedness as indicative of metaphor strength, and the proliferation of source domain items in either target domain (SOCIETY or MIND) as indicative of metaphor productivity within that target domain. My findings indicate that there are significant differences between the two periods studied as regards both these aspects. In terms of metaphor extendedness (and strength), the material shows a marked decline from EModE to PDE. This might be due to a more faithful adherence to the idea of the Body Politic (governed by more formulaic rhetorical conventions) in the Early Modern period as compared to the present. This would have made an extended analogy drawn between these particular source and target domains to be felt as meaningful. In terms of SOCIETY AS BODY and MIND AS BODY mappings, the material indicates a shift towards less SOCIETY-dominated metaphorical network: while the SOCIETY AS BODY mapping is clearly more common in both periods, the difference in strength and productivity is less pronounced in the PDE material. This seems to be in keeping with the modern, foregrounded role of the individual, as opposed to a group of people, as the basic social unit.