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  • Gustafsson, Sofia (Finska Vetenskaps-Societeten, 2015)
    In 1748, the Swedish Crown began construction of the fortress Sveaborg outside Helsinki. This was an expensive military investment, but where did the money invested actually end up? Traditionally historians have claimed that the burghers of Helsinki benefitted economically from the construction. However, studies of early-modern Western European fortress construction sites show that local communities did not necessarily benefit directly; the money could just as easily have gone to large entrepreneurs from the central areas. The aim of this study is to identify which geographical areas and social groups sold the construction materials needed to build Sveaborg during the first period of construction in 1748-1756. It also discusses the institutional constraints, whether formal or informal, that limited the suppliers actions and choices. The main source material is the accounts of the Fortification Fund in Helsinki. However, to identify the sellers, we combined this material with local civil and private sources. The accounts rarely provided enough information for identification, and the key-question involved determining where to search for local and private sources. Alfred Weber s theory of location of economic activities claims that the optimal location for production depends on labour and transportation costs. The logistics of Sveaborg were water-based, so the search focused on coastal regions either near the fortress or with unique natural resources. With regard to the institutions, we used the theories of Douglass C. North. The laws of the period limited trade to certain groups in the cities, but equally important were the restrictions on suitable conduct for different estates. However, institutions constantly change, and according to Sten Carlsson, the traditional social system in 18th-century Sweden was already in decline. The results suggest that different economic zones specialising in certain products emerged around the fortress. Suppliers benefitting from Sveaborg could be found not only in the city of Helsinki, but also in the surrounding countryside. Other Finnish cities supplying the fortress include Porvoo, Turku and Loviisa. In Sweden, the main areas involved were Stockholm and Gotland. In contrast to the traditional view, one could definitely not claim that the burghers of Helsinki alone profited from the construction. Although formal constraints should have restricted the participation of other social groups, the informal constraints were obviously more permissive. Unlike in Western Europe, where the states tended to use large entrepreneurs from the central areas, the Swedish Crown used small entrepreneurs from the periphery. The money invested in Sveaborg was spread over large areas and many hands, including peasants, merchants, and noblemen.
  • von Boehm, Jukka (2015)
    The study analyses the performance history and Wirkungsgeschichte of Richard Wagner s Lohengrin (premiered 1850) in Germany and Russia in the 20th century. In Wagner s opera the mysterious knight arrives in medieval Brabant, where the people receive him as their redeemer . Lohengrin became one of Adolf Hitler s favourite operas. Through analysis of Lohengrin s influence, the study casts light on a broad and complex theme: how did Wagner s ideas and art become intertwined with Nazi ideology? Or how were they received in the context of other radical societal experiments, namely Soviet and East German socialism? This examination of different interpretations of the same text (Lohengrin) on stage and through its reception will reveal prevailing societal attitudes, taboos, values and hopes. Case study I discusses the reception of a few nationalist themes in Lohengrin. Specifically, the focus is on ultra-nationalist projections onto Lohengrin, which emerged during the resurgence of late 19th-century German Hurrah-patriotism and Nazi ideology. The focus of Case study II is on Heinz Tietjen s direction of Lohengrin at the Bayreuth Festival during the Third Reich (1936). The study demonstrates how Tietjen embedded Nazi ideology in his reading. Case study III takes another look at Lohengrin s influence on Soviet and East German socialism. The study scrutinises the ambivalent role of Lohengrin in the context of a dogmatic communist cultural policy that valued (socialist) realism. Another theme discussed is the problematic relationship of Lohengrin to the German Democratic Republic and its anti-fascism. Case study IV analyses Peter Konwitschny s innovative direction of Lohengrin in 1998. Characteristic of the deconstructive style of German director s theatre , the opera was set in a school classroom before the outbreak of the First World War. Konwitschny s interpretation offers an excellent case for analysing strategies by which a modern direction can take up the challenge of ideologically ambivalent opera. The study challenges the commonly oversimplified narrative that presents Wagner as a forerunner of Hitler and Nazism. Although there was irrational potential in Lohengrin, which became topical in the Third Reich, the relationship between Wagner s opera and National Socialism is much more complex, including the fact that Wagner s utopian ideas in Lohengrin also inspired the left. The main primary sources consist of German archival material, newspapers and journals.
  • Henriksson, Laura (Suomen Musiikkitieteellinen Seura, 2015)
    Summary Vocal humour and critique in the couplet recordings by J. Alfred Tanner, Matti Jurva, Reino Helismaa, Juha Vainio and Veikko Lavi The aim of this study is to research the lyrics and singing styles of five Finnish couplet singers who are connected to the Finnish schlager tradition. The material-oriented study is performed by analyzing altogether 160 couplet recordings sung by J. Alfred Tanner, Matti Jurva, Reino Helismaa, Juha Vainio, and Veikko Lavi. The study examines the singers humoristic and critical approaches to the lyrics and investigates how the attitudes are performed orally by the singers. The aim of the study is to analyze the singing styles of the songs together with the content of the songs lyrics. The history of the couplet and the previous studies of the subject are reviewed in the beginning of the first part of the work, which also contains the methodological background of the work, which is divided into cultural models and attitudes and to textual and musical conventions. The methodological section introduces a viewpoint which takes into account the couplet songs musical and textual practices alongside with the general cultural views such as attitudes advocating the culture of contestation and hegemonic masculinity. A detailed analysis of Juha Vainio s couplet song Käyn ahon laitaa demonstrates in practice how the couplet recordings can be analyzed. In the articles the couplets themes are examined by using scientific concepts and by analysing couplet recordings. In the first article couplets and their critical attitudes towards persons in power are examined by using the term of carnivalism. The second article deals with self-irony of the couplets characters which is investigated by using the concept of incongruity and the relief theory previously used in humour studies. The subject of the third article is female characters in the couplet songs. The subjects of the fourth article are masculinity and its vocal interpretation in the songs. The theoretical framework of the study is based on the Judith Butler s concept of performativity and Zygmunt Bauman s categories of the postmodern pilgrim and its followers. Keywords: Couplet, humour, carnivalism, culture of contestation, performativity
  • Konttori, Johanna (2015)
    The aim of this study is to add a new perspective to the large body of scholarly work dealing with the debates on the use of headscarves and full veils in contemporary France. The study examines the discursive construction of national identity by members of the political and social elite as they discuss the use of headscarves in state schools, and the use of full veils in the public sphere more generally. The new perspective that the study presents is threefold. First, the study examines both headscarf and full veil debates, which have so far been mainly studied separately. Second, the data consists of the little-studied transcripts of the hearings organized by the two parliamentary commissions (the Debré and Gerin Commissions) that looked into the headscarf and full veil issues in 2003 and 2009, respectively. Third, even though it has been widely noted in the existing research literature that the headscarf and full veil debates were linked to national identity, it has not been common to draw theoretical insights from nationalism studies, as is done here. The analytical focus is on Muslims and Islam, headscarves and full veils, and their relation to the Republic, its identity and values (notably laïcité). Using analytical tools derived from the discourse-historical approach, the study shows the great variety of different perceptions of Islam and Muslims, but also laïcité, in the data. Even though headscarves and especially full veils are mostly regarded as problematic and even threatening to the Republic, this does not necessarily result in negative perceptions of Muslims and Islam. Finally, the study ponders the usefulness of binary categories. It is concluded that neither the Us vs Them categorization often linked to the construction of national identities nor the claim of Muslims as Others in France entirely fit the data. Instead, it is suggested that the concepts of stranger and national capital enable a more nuanced examination of the place of Muslims and Islam in France.
  • Nokkonen, Soili (Société Néophilologique, 2015)
    This cumulative dissertation is the first systematic study of semi-modal NEED TO and its semantic variation in Present-day British English. This topic is particularly relevant today, since the use of semi-modals, e.g., HAVE TO, HAVE (GOT) TO and NEED TO has increased in the field of obligation and necessity, while the frequencies of core modals such as MUST and NEED have decreased. The link of modal change with the process of democratization, and the way the semi-modals offer a less authoritarian way of obliging, present an interesting background for a corpus-based sociolinguistic study. The primary material of the five studies in this thesis is drawn from mainly spoken corpora from the 1950s to the 1990s. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are applied in data retrieval and the empirical analyses. The chosen corpora enable the exploration of NEED TO across variables such as real time, medium, the speaker variables of age, gender and social class, and a number of spoken registers. For comparison, Article 5 studies NEED TO and six other modals as variants of deontic obligation. The findings on the semantic variation indicate that the functions of NEED TO increasingly resemble those of core modals: the directive obligation uses cover most of the instances, and NEED TO is in the process of developing epistemic meaning. However, the original inherent necessity sense is still frequent. NEED TO shows clear social stratification. It is strongly favoured by the younger age groups, and they also use the newer semantic functions more. It is slightly more frequent among men in general, but in certain relevant speaker groups, e.g., among young adults, women have a lead. The upper middle class leads in its use. NEED TO is clearly undergoing change, but Labovian concepts cannot be applied in a rigid way. A finding that stands out is that register variation plays a decisive role. NEED TO is significantly more frequent in spoken public contexts as opposed to private contexts. Both the persuasive nature of a register and its high degree of interactivity increase the use of NEED TO. The basic inherent meaning relates to the strategic value of NEED TO in a deontic situation by softening an imposed obligation as being in the addressee s best interest. Indeed, NEED TO has found a niche in the face-to-face conversations where it is necessary to negotiate power and also to oblige the addressee in the least face-threatening manner.
  • Kupari, Helena (2015)
    This study examines the lived religion of elderly Finnish Orthodox Christian women in present-day Finland. It discusses the women s everyday religious practice within the domestic environment. Furthermore, it also traces the ways in which their religion had been affected by their life histories, the changing status of the Orthodox community, and the modernization of Finnish society in the course of the 20th century. The primary research material for this study consists of interviews of 24 women. Finland is a Lutheran-dominated country; today, about one percent of Finns belong to the Orthodox Church. Traditionally, most of the Orthodox resided in Finnish Karelia. After the Second World War, Finland had to cede large areas of Karelia to the Soviet Union. In the process, two thirds of the Finnish Orthodox lost their homelands. All the interviewees, or their parents, had been among the evacuees from Karelia. The theoretical-methodological approach made use of in the study is based on practice theory. In particular, the concept of habitus as developed by the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu is applied to analyze the women s interview accounts. The concept captures Bourdieu s understanding of the reciprocal dynamic between practice, subjectivity, and structures of power. The analysis demonstrates that the interviewees religion was characterized by a movement between routine and reflexive action. Judging from the material, they mostly did religion in a habitual fashion. Nevertheless, they could also perform their practices more intentionally, to reinforce their identity against specific others. These two aspects of the women s religion are traced, respectively, to their childhood religious socialization and their social trajectories as minority religious practitioners in Finnish society. Ultimately, the analysis forms an account of the women s religion as habitus. The informants religious habitus constituted an embodied and practical sense of religion, which informed both their routine religious practices and more conscious and creative religious actions. This study provides a description and a theoretical representation of one particular style of contemporary religiosity: the lifelong religion of older lay women. Within recent scholarship on religion, the religion of women of the inter-war generation has not received much attention. This study, moreover, offers a reading of Bourdieuan social theory as applied to the lived religion of minority practitioners. As such, it illustrates the explanatory potential that a Bourdieuan approach can bring to analyses of relatively stable religion.
  • Mainio, Aleksi (Omakustanne, 2015)
    The October Revolution in 1917 led to Europe being divided into two camps. The turmoil in Russia also affected Finland, the territory of which became a safe haven for different counterrevolutionary organisations. It is possible to even talk about an invisible war between Finland and the Soviet Union although officially the countries had reached a peace agreement in 1920. This doctoral thesis examines how different White Russian intelligence and military organisations used the territory of Finland for counterrevolutionary activities between 1918 and 1939. It also discusses the relations of the Finnish Security Police and the Military Intelligence of the General Staff with the underground organisations and the attitude of Finnish authorities towards their illegal activities. No comprehensive research has previously been made on these activities. Nor have the groups operating in Finland been formerly examined in a broader international context. Research on these movements and their operations in Finland has therefore remained fragmented and unconnected with the broader picture of the anti-Bolshevistic activity in Russia and the whole of Europe. One of the main conclusions of this thesis is that the territory of Finland served as a significant base for counterrevolutionary operations. Between 1918 and 1939, White Russian emigrants organised intelligence operations and even terrorist attacks against the Soviet Union from the territory of Finland. These events resulted from the previous history of the country and its geopolitical location close to Leningrad and Moscow as well as from the traditions of Finnish activism. This thesis also shows that the White Russian emigrant organisations were closely linked with Finnish security authorities. Arranging terrorist and intelligence operations against the Soviet Union would have been almost impossible without their active or at least passive support. The General Staff, in particular, and the Finnish Security Police to a certain extent, were ready to tolerate and even support the secret activities of White Russian emigrants under certain conditions. This resulted from their desire to affect the developments in the Soviet Union but also from the great demand for intelligence on the neighbouring country. Without close cooperation with the emigrant organisations this would have been difficult to achieve. Such cooperation was a major risk for Finland and its relations with the Soviet Union. From time to time it might even have brought the countries onto the verge of a military conflict. Soviet propaganda used the support of Finnish authorities to emigrant activists involved in terrorist attack plans to harm the reputation of Finland and to justify the shift towards an increasingly totalitarian system.
  • Savolainen, Ulla (Suomen Kansantietouden Tutkijain Seura, 2015)
    As a result of the Winter War (1939 1940) and the Continuation War (1941 1944), Finland ceded territories of Karelia to the Soviet Union. There was a Finnish population of over 400,000 people living in the ceded area at that time, and this population was evacuated to the Finnish side of the new border. The evacuation generated narratives about the evacuation journey. Later on, the evacuation journey has itself become a symbol enriched with meanings, a symbol that seems to characterize memories and reminiscences of Karelian evacuees more than any other theme. The research of the present thesis explores the poetics and rhetorical techniques of reminiscence writings about childhood evacuation journeys. The methodological foundation of the research combines theories of folkloristics, oral history research and narrative research. Memories and reminiscences are a fascinating area to explore because they are, according to the approach used here, the contemporary, personal and also narrative interpretations given to the past as well as rendering the significance the individuals assigned to it. Accordingly, the topic of this research is not so much childhood as it was in the past but childhood as it is formulated in writings at the moment of reminiscing. In the case of former Karelian child evacuees, both childhood and the childhood home are remote in time and in space. Narrative reminiscing operates as a tool for handling and crossing this distance. It is a means of creating and analyzing the relationship between the past, the present and the future. The research reveals three narrative strategies: 1. Truth and history oriented narrative strategy 2. Reflexive narrative strategy 3. Literary narrative strategy These strategies are illustrated through three different ways of how writers describe the evacuation journey. Strategies are also characterized by certain kinds of intertextual connections on the one hand and the writer s different ways of handling time in narration on the other. These narrative strategies are emblematic of the goals and intentions of the individual writers, and their investigation produces an outline of the genre of reminiscence writings. In evacuation journey writings, memories tend to interconnect with concrete points of reference, such as objects, documents, places, bodily experiences or crystallized narratives. In this research, these points are defined as sites of memory. Sites of memory testify, authenticate and reassert the link between the past, the present and the future. The research indicates that in reminiscence writings, sites of memory appear as points for the condensation of memories from different times, which in narration are manifested as temporal leaps and expansions of the plot into several overlapping levels of chronology. In addition, the research explores the significance attached to food and social relations in the writings. Central topics are children s reliance on their parents, their role within the family and peer group, and the dependence of the evacuees on other people s help and benevolence. The research shows that negotiations relating to social and power relations interconnect with more general ethical discourses understandings of right and wrong, good and bad which illustrate a writer s comprehensive experiences of losing his or her home and being an evacuee.
  • Walta, Ville (2014)
    This study is concerned with the libraries, manuscripts and book culture of the Birgittine Vadstena Abbey. It offers a case study of a large late medieval monastic library in Sweden and examines the book acquisition, manuscript production and the contents of Vadstena Abbey s libraries. The study demonstrates that the libraries were fashioned after European models and that book importation played a large role in book acquisition throughout the abbey s history. The study also argues that the differences in the contents, palaeography and codicology of the manuscripts testify to the differences in the book cultures of the abbey s two convents. Vadstena manuscripts form the principal source material for the study. The source corpus is taken into account more extensively than in previous studies. In addition to the entire manuscript collection, the study includes manuscript fragments and the abbey s correspondence. The manuscripts are presented in Appendix 1 and examined using methodology adopted from quantative codicology. This makes it possible to comprehensively study the Vadstena manuscript production. The study also challenges some nationalistic claims concerning the special nature of the Vadstena manuscripts that have been made based on a smaller sample of material. In chapters 2, 3 and 5, the organisation, acquisition and contents of the Vadstena collection are examined, and several similarities to other collections are pointed out. The abbey employed various methods of book acquisition, including organised visits to the European book markets, and quickly adopted new innovations such as the use of paper as writing material and the printing press. Most of the writing done in the abbey was based on texts popular throughout Europe. The same is true for the sisters library; although their manuscripts were produced locally and written in Swedish, they often include translations of widely popular texts. Chapter 4 examines the palaeography and codicology of the manuscripts. I argue that the palaeography and codicology of the manuscripts show that the two convents approached the book as an object in different ways. Whereas for the brothers the manuscripts were objects necessary for performing their daily tasks, for the sisters the manuscripts had a more profound meaning. They saw writing as a useful ascetic exercise as a prayer conducted with the hands instead of the mouth. Since the books served as devotional objects, it was also important to place more care into their making and materials. This explains why the liturgical books and the books of the sisters are usually written on parchment and carefully decorated, while the brothers books are often on paper and lack decorations. The manuscripts of Vadstena Abbey show that a single uniform Birgittine book culture did not exist. The abbey rather served as the intersection of two different approaches to literacy and manuscript production.
  • Stepanova, Eila (Suomen Kansantietouden Tutkijain Seura, 2014)
    This thesis concentrates on the lament genre of Karelian oral poetry and the speech register distinctive of it. Laments can be defined as sung poetry of varying degrees of improvisation, which nonetheless follows conventionalized rules of traditional verbal and non-verbal expression, most often performed by women in ritual contexts and potentially also on non-ritual grievous occasions. The study focuses on the Seesjärvi region (Republic of Karelia, Russian Federation), with a corpus of 446 documented laments from 58 lamenters. Of these laments, one was recorded in 1871, and the rest during the period 1937-2007. The approach to this topic differs from previous research in two significant ways. First, emphasis is placed on the lamenters who used this poetry, how they understood it and used it both socially and also individually. Second, the study employs a theoretical and analytical framework that was not used in earlier research. This framework makes it possible to look closely at the use of laments by individual lamenters in practice and also at the genre, its speech register s potential to produce and communicate meanings as well as knowledge and understandings about the mythic world. This is done by triangulating three interrelated aspects of the tradition. These are the lament register, which is made up of the language, grammar, poetics and performance features of the genre; the lament themes and compositional structures; and the mythic conceptions of laments, which are forms of knowledge and understanding of the unseen world that are actualized and communicated through lament performance. Interaction is fundamental to the lament tradition. The lament register was, first and foremost, a ritual variety of language with an exceptional capacity for honorific interaction with unseen powers in the otherworld. It was also a resource for moderating and mediating individual as well as communal expressions of grief. The register and genre of laments is internalized and developed on the basis of individual experience. Consequently, each lamenter develops her own unique variation of the register or idiolect, with corresponding understandings of themes as integers of tradition and also of the mythic knowledge with which these are all linked. This is a fundamental aspect of the tradition which gives each lamenter the potential to influence others as they internalize the tradition as a social process. In other words, the tradition was not based on petrified models, but rather on models which continuously develop within the interaction between people in different situations.
  • Yliaska, Ville (Into Kustannus, 2014)
    This study explores the birth and development of marketisation of the public sector in Finland since the 1970s. These quasi-market reforms were labeled New Public Management (NPM) in the 1990s. The main idea of NPM was to introduce competition and result-oriented management into the public sector. The main focus falls on three different reforms: the management-by-results reform, state subsidy reform and the incorporation and privatization of public agencies. The research falls at the intersection of political and administrational history. The analysis is based primarily on archival sources, press debates and publications that deal with the marketisation of the public sector. The main questions are: how were the reforms justified and how it was possible to maintain the wave of reform for decades without any feedback about the economic impacts of the reforms? The study begins with the history of the welfare state and with the criticism that the welfare state encountered from different directions in the wake of the oil crisis of the 1970s. The study shows that New Public Management was one of the turning points where ideas about democratisation, decentralisation, conservancy and decommodification of work born in the 1960s and mid-1970s gave way to the centralisation, recommodification and marketisation of structures in the public sector. The study also shows that by 1980s and 1990s power over public resources in Finnish society was centralised from local to central government through doctrines of New Public Management, which separated operational and strategic power in order to reallocate public resources from welfare services to industrial policy. This power shift is analysed in the context of the recession of the 1970s, which was interpreted at the time as an overproduction crisis. The main justification of the NPM reforms – “decentralization” – is analysed from different angles, but the main focus is on the methods of conceptual history. The political battle over the meaning of the concept “decentralisation”, which had a pleasant connotation, was an important factor in defining the results of the reforms. The findings of the study align with the recent interpretations of the political and economic history of other European countries where structural reforms have also led to the centralisation of power from local government to the central government and especially to the treasury.
  • Kraenker, Sabine (Publications romanes de l'Université de Helsinki, 2014)
    The study examines unpublished writings and literary works which belong mostly either to novelistic or autobiographical genre. The study is divided into three parts: after the introduction, a Preamble presents the theoretical framework used in the study. The other two parts deal with break-up narratives, and, to a lesser extent, with Dear John Letters . The introduction presents the research questions and asks whether it is possible to find a typology and a rhetoric in the way leaving someone is expressed. The central notion of falling out of love in the Western tradition is defined, connected with passion, adulterous love and the image of impossible love. In this context, the dominant narrative is the one which describes the suffering of the one left more than the one leaving. The choice of texts, both among published and unpublished writings, is intended to give the possibility to compare fiction and non-fiction, ordinary writings and literary writings, and to find common features between them, which, if proved true, would confirm that there is a specific way to write about break-up and to write a break-up letter. The frames of references for the study, presented in the Preamble, are numerous: rhetorics and pragmatics, linguistics, and the theory of enunciation. Furthermore, some approaches are also based on sociology and psychology. The part concerning the analysis of break-up narratives shows that among the published break-up narratives, the difference between fictional and non-fictional writings is clear in the older texts, but more complex in the contemporary literature. The conclusion is that a hybrid status can be observed, at the border between fiction and non-fiction. Most of the texts are autobiographical without being called so. The notion of self-fiction, however convenient a label it may be, is not relevant. The genre description appearing on the front page or as a subtitle only reflects how frequently the novel genre is alluded to, which can be interpreted in different ways. Only one thing is common to all the texts: they are all written in the first person singular. Many break-up narratives have fragmentary structure, with letters and diaries as components. Pictures also play an important role in certain texts. The structure of the narratives, their openings and closings, the fact that they are addressing someone, and the close link between letter and diary is examined. Letters and diaries are shown to be the most appropriate forms when dealing with break-up, they are the most commonly used forms. The last part of the study focuses on the examination of break-up letters. The study shows their formal characteristics, noting how brief the letters frequently are, and also how contradictory too, because writing to someone, the mere act of writing a letter, tends to make people closer, when, at the same time, the content of the letter is meant to express distance. The examples in this part of the study come mainly from the unpublished writings. Choosing to break up by writing a letter leads to thinking about argumentation. Some micro analyses elucidate how the arguments work and how they are used to hide the end of a feeling by giving logical reasons for a change in the sentiments of the one writing the letter. The study shows that there are specific characteristics in break-up writing, both in narratives and break-up letters, but it is not possible to talk about a break-up genre.
  • Kotakallio, Juho (2014)
    Present All Over: Secret Service of London - The Secret Intelligence Service and Finland 1918-1941 This study gives new information about lesser known aspects of British intelligence relations with Finland, 1918-1941. The purpose of this research is to explore the relations between the British Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) and Finland. The study shows the main function of the intelligence organisation, and how it was organized. British intelligence in Finland is also evaluated. The main focus is placed on the agents of the SIS and how they gathered information. For this reason, HUMINT activities have been closely researched. The main obstacle to intelligence history research is the lack of archival material. The archives of the British Secret Intelligence Service remain closed and other official material has been weeded out. Despite the lack of sources, it has been possible to gather information about British intelligence and Finland through extensive archive research. The present research follows the line of a traditional historical study based on primary sources with source criticism. In general, intelligence history has concentrated on the Great Powers and relations between the SIS and Finland have not previously been the main focus of historical studies. After World War I Finland became an important watching post. The main target of British intelligence operating from Finland was Soviet Russia. The British and the Finns were anti-Bolsheviks. Intelligence gathering was directed from the Passport Control Offices of the legations. The present study argues that the British intelligence was based on confidential and long-term relations. The SIS created its contacts, among others, with Finnish politicians, officers and important businessmen. One main source of intelligence was Russian emigrants, who were also recruited to the SIS. The research demonstrates that the work of SIS in Finland was based on a few individuals, since the number of possible recruits was limited. As circumstances changed, the intelligence work was adapted. During the Winter War, the SIS operated in Finland and continued to use its old and reliable agents. The Interim Peace created difficulties for Finnish and British relations and at the time of the Continuation War Finland became a target of British intelligence. In spite of the war, the SIS officers who had served in Finland remained personally sympathetic to Finland. From the results of this research it can be concluded that location played an important role in intelligence. Researching minor countries and their intelligence environment allows more light to be shed on different intelligence organisations.
  • Konstenius , Reetta Alexandra (2014)
    This dissertation is interested in the metatheory and ethics of linguistics. The research questions are concerned with the use of methodological terms and concepts. They study the question of whether the term experiment currently used in linguistics, e.g. experimental syntax and experimental semantics, corresponds to the conventional meaning of the term in methodology and other human sciences. This question is of interest as since the 1990's an increasing amount of studies in linguistics are presented under the term experiment. Experiments also often involve humans and therefore face ethical questions concerning their applications. At the moment, there is little or no actual knowledge about whether experiments in linguistics face the same ethical problems as in, for example, biomedicine. The aim of this study is to 1) discover the philosophy of linguistics as applicable to experiments 2) define the correct use of the term and 3) clarify those concepts with which the ethics of experiments in linguistics can be adequately discussed. This study takes as its starting point the unconventional term loose experiment coined by Itkonen and Pajunen (2010). By analyzing one particular unconventional use of the term experiment, this study seeks to reveal the conceptual background systems through which empirical methods, particularly experiments, are conceptualized in linguistics. The initial hypothesis is that a conflict between differing conceptual systems in the philosophy of linguistics is motivating the terminology. A systematic analysis of empirical and experiment in Itkonen AND Pajunen (2010) reveals how the meaning of the concept of empirical is build up by several conceptual systems. The rejection of both positivism and Chomskyan methodological naturalism leads to methodological dualism. A lack of hermeneutic philosophy seems to leave the qualitative methods in linguistics without conceptual support, resulting in unconventional interpretations of the empirical methods with human participants. These conceptual systems and lack of other concepts motivate the use of terms such as loose experiments. The distinctions between an experiment and qualitative research are lost in the conceptual system that Itkonen AND Pajunen (2010) rely on. It seems like maintaining a positivist, naturalist or methodological dualistic position in linguistics would entail conceptual problems regarding the understanding of experiments in linguistics. This points to a necessity to study further the metatheoretical frameworks for empirical research. Finally, the question of whether or not linguistics should apply conventional methodological terminology is to some extent also an ethical one. To answer ethical questions concerning empirical methods, it is essential to understand the relation the method has to human subjects. The current conventional terminology used in human sciences seems to be more apt to consider and explicate the distinctive relations the scientific technique has to humans than that of Itkonen AND Pajunen (2010), for example. It is also necessary that third parties, such as ethical committees, are able to understand the relation the method has to human participants.
  • Hannikainen, Matti O. (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This thesis analyses the main trends in the development of public green spaces in London from the mid-1920s to the late 1990s. With a broad approach, that combines perspectives of urban, planning, environmental and leisure history this thesis sheds new light on the processes, through which public green spaces have been created and used in the city. This thesis focuses on two London boroughs, Camden and Southwark, but despite its nominal focus, it deals with ten municipal authorities and the Royal Parks Department providing a comparative perspective on the official policies about creating and managing various public green spaces in London. The interaction between national, regional, and local authorities provides the framework for a coherent analysis of the development of public green spaces. Based on extensive archive work on administrative sources including departmental memoranda and reports, and the Minutes of Proceedings of the Councils studied, this thesis shows that the number and acreage of public green spaces in the city grew substantially during the period studied. Vested with new legal powers, municipal authorities were the main providers of new green space between the late 1940s and the early 1970s having replaced the private landowners and associations. Yet there were crucial differences between the authorities studied on the creation of new public green spaces. Moreover, from the 1970s, the legal and financial powers, the scope of new town plans, and the reason for creating new public green spaces fragmented due to sharpened political ideologies and the structural changes of British society. National governments also tightened their control over municipal authorities and, from the 1980s, the creation of new green spaces was again based on opportunity and co-operation between municipal authorities and local associations. This thesis argues that one reason for creating new green spaces in London was to promote physical recreation and sport, as there was an intense demand for sport and playing facilities. As a result, sport dominated the use of most municipal green spaces between the 1920s and the 1960s, whereas the Royal Parks were kept for general recreation. London s public green spaces were the centres for non-commercial outdoor leisure underlining the role of the municipal authorities, instead of the state, in organising leisure. From the 1950s, however, commercialisation, growing personal affluence and mobility, and domestic leisure affected the popularity of various outdoor entertainments. Yet some activities, like football, remained popular apparently due to the loss of private facilities. The official reason for the use of public green spaces fragmented, and, from the 1970s, new concepts like ecology challenged their prevailing uses and perceptions. The management of public green spaces was also plagued by the lack of funding and staff from the 1950s explaining why local associations and external funding became vital for their maintenance and why they were perceived as unsafe. The development of public green spaces in London is currently at a cross roads as the lack of financial and legal muscle for their provision is accompanied by the lack of dominant reason for their development.
  • Snellman, Alex (Omakustanne, 2014)
    The dissertation is based on a simple observation: in the beginning of the nineteenth century the nobility ruled the Grand Duchy of Finland. The nobles were on the top of the society. A social group that represented 0.2 percent of the population controlled 30-40 percent of manors and higher offices. Three-quarters of the government council members were nobles. The Finnish society has changed drastically since then. Today the nobility is of no relevance, and the nobles have all but disappeared from public life. The members of parliament, government ministers and business leaders are all non-nobles. It is evident that, at least, after the Second Wold War the nobility did not have any social significance. When did the nobility loose its social standing, through which mechanisms and why? How did it move from the top of the society to new roles? Alex Snellman studies this fundamental social transformation in his doctoral dissertation. The approach of the dissertation is socio-historical: the main source for historical analysis is an extensive dataset that includes all the members of the Finnish nobility (nearly 20,000 persons). Statistical findings are complemented and illustrated by case studies that portray eight noble families: Armfelt, Furuhjelm, Järnefelt, Mannerheim, Ramsay, Soisalon-Soininen, Törngren and von Wendt. The dissertation suggests that the Finnish nobility lost its dominant role in the society at the turn of the century 1800-1900 and disappeared completely from the political elite when the first republic was replaced by the second republic after the Second Wold War. A few nobles have had some influence in the economic elite to this day, but for the most part nobles have lost their economic positions as well. The Finnish nobility has turned into a middle-class social group. In part, the nobility lost its influence because of political upheavals: the alliance between the Russian emperor and the Finnish nobility was severed during the russification period at the turn of the century. Key events include also the abolition of the old legislative assembly (the four-estate diet) in 1906, the dissolution of the monarchy in 1917 and the failure to re-establish monarchy, when Finland gained independence. In part, the nobility lost its position because of legislative reforms, such as the abolition of noble privileges from the 1860s onwards. And finally, the influence of the nobility vanished in the minds of the people: as it became more and more common to cross the dividing line between nobles and non-nobles in marriages and as the noble rank lost its value and esteem as status capital. The Finnish nobility did not perish in a revolution, whereas its peaceful withdrawal from the top of the society has been an important factor in the formation of the current egalitarian Finnish society. Finland did not become a rigid class society in the British manner. The old elite renounced its power - albeit under social pressure - for the most part voluntarily.
  • Talja, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Sport, Recreation and Space in Urban Policy: Helsinki and Dublin from the 1940s to the 1980s This study analyses the development of sport and recreation facilities in Helsinki and Dublin. The period of the study, from the end of the Second World War until the 1980s, was an era of rapid urbanisation and modernisation in both Finnish and Irish societies, with 1960s and 1970s being the watershed decades. This is a comparative study combining perspectives from the fields of urban and sport history. Particular focus is given on the actions of the municipal authorities of the Helsinki City, and those of the Dublin County Borough and Dublin County. However, the development of sport and recreation facilities is not only looked at through the planning and urban policy framework, but the evolution of sport and recreation cultures is incorporated in the study. The primary sources analysed in this study comprise official local authority minutes and reports, urban plans, surveys, and to some extent national level documents. In addition, this study uses professional publications, magazines and newspapers, as well as histories and archival materials produced by sports associations. Whereas postwar urbanisation and suburbanisation as well as the development of associational sports and more unorganised recreation are topics that have attracted historical research, studies combining these aspects and setting them in a comparative framework are less common. This is particularly the case in Dublin. This study argues that although leisure and sporting trends increasingly converged during this period in Helsinki and Dublin, urban policies towards these issues remained different. Planners and professionals in both cities were influenced by wider international models, but in the realisation of facilities, differences in local authority resources and in how public authorities saw their role in the sphere of sport and recreation, played equally significant role. In Helsinki, the role of the local authority became particularly influential in planning and financing urban sport facilities, whereas in Dublin, there remained a stronger continuity from the earlier late nineteenth century and early twentieth century situation where private and voluntary actors were the prominent providers of facilities. Local authorities in Dublin focused predominantly on local authority housing areas, and were more dependent on national level funding schemes. In particular, this was evident in indoor facilities. In Helsinki, there was a stronger ideal of planning sport facilities for all. There were also differences in how knowledge of participation in sport and recreation was produced. Through the detailed case studies this study unravelled the complex nature of patterns of actors involved. The strong municipal policies in Helsinki were influenced by private interests, and the municipality was involved in private projects. In Dublin, these connections remained less institutionalised, and private investors and voluntary actors remained more independent when providing indoor and outdoor facilities.
  • Korppi-Tommola, Riikka (2013)
    Other Movements, New Currents. The Process of Change in Finnish Modern Dance during the 1960s. The study examines the process of change in Finnish modern dance during the 1960s. It focuses on the phenomena, and their characteristics, that influenced the transforming genre. While the early modern dance style, free dance, was still vigorous in the prevailing system - expressed in the dancers bodies and evident in critics opinion, for example - new foreign influences from the United States were affecting Finnish dance. The study highlights the polyphony that existed in Finnish dance during the 1960s. The article-based dissertation includes six articles and a summarising report. Two choreographers, Riitta Vainio (b. 1936) and Ritva Arvelo (1921-2013), are examined using historiographical methods. The latter choreographer is also observed in terms of dance generations. However, the main viewpoint of the study is on the dancers. Applying the concept of the historical body, four active dancers from the period (Kirsi Arajärvi, Sinikka Gripenberg, Liisa Priha, and Pirjo Viitanen) are investigated. With this method, the body memory is revealed in an interactive situation: through semi-structured interviews. The dance identity emerges in the concrete dance work while rehearsing or co-operating with the choreographer. The other research material consists of the newspaper reviews of the performance events. The American dance groups who visited Helsinki included the Martha Graham Dance Company (1962), Merce Cunningham Dance Company and John Cage (1964), Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater, and Anna Halprin JA Dancers Workshop (1965). The analysis of the critics reviews exposes the differences between phases of the genre s national development. The transnational aspect of the research identifies the cross-cultural interactions between the United States and Finland. Exchanges occurred between institutions and within the networks of dance agents, and the politics of the Cold War was involved. The new modern dance techniques were thus taught mainly by American dance teachers. As well, some of the transnational factors were also textual: straight translations from the American dance literature, introducing new dance styles to Finland. The investigation shows that in these different processes, transnational phenomena were transformed to become part of local dance. Dancers bodies assimilated American dance techniques, already hybrid methods, into the dancers own personal movements. The dance generational research shows that not only was it young dancers who were influenced: through interactions with their younger counterparts, older dancers were affected as well. Co-operation between the generations produced new dance works featuring a fusion of the new and the old.
  • Rydenfelt, Henrik (Philosophical Studies from the University of Helsinki, 2013)
    Questions of normativity are among the most vexing in philosophy, and among the philosophical questions that most concern us in our everyday life. What is it to maintain that something is correct or incorrect, right or wrong, good or bad? Is normative opinion (rationally or objectively) constrained in any fashion, or merely the product of the history of ourselves and our societies? What, if anything, can be said to those with whom we find ourselves in deep disagreement over normative questions? How does normativity fit in a scientific or philosophically naturalist world-view? Is science itself dependent on norms, and how can those norms be justified in light of its own project and theories? The five articles that comprise this thesis outline a perspective from which to answer these questions. Two features are common to all of them. Firstly, they are inspired by the tradition of philosophical pragmatism, especially by its origins in Charles S. Peirce s ideas and its outgrowth in contemporary non-representationalism. Secondly, when taken together, these articles lay the ground for a scientific approach to norms a normative science. The first three articles are mainly critical in nature. The first two concern contemporary pragmatist arguments which attempt to justify a democratic political outlook by drawing from epistemic norms, putting forward a rebuttal of Robert B. Talisse s and Cheryl Misak s arguments that we all are bound by similar epistemic norms. The third article considers a widespread philosophical approach to normativity which maintains that normative principles are valid when they are shared by all agents. It is argued that this constructivist stance - shared by thinkers such as John Rawls, Jürgen Habermas and Christine Korsgaard - faces a dilemma between what I call historicist relativism and conceptual chauvinism, the choice between relying on either our contingent moral agreements or artificial stipulations of key terms. The last two articles are more constructive in nature. The fourth article argues, both in a historical and a systematic vein, that contemporary non-representationalism, such as developed by Huw Price, fits the notion of truth and realism developed by the classical pragmatists, especially Peirce, and that this combination can be exploited to reconceptualize normative realism. Finally, the fifth article offers a reconsideration of philosophical naturalism, and attempts to show that the notion of normative science developed can be fitted to a broadly speaking naturalist framework.
  • Rosato, Paolo (The International Semiotics Institute, 2013)
    Music analysis is an expression that covers a wide field of meanings and phenomena. We can analyze music as an anthropological condition of human beings; or as a set of historically determined social systems; or finally, as a concrete, individual musical expression. The latter can be regarded from the sides of enunciation and of utterance, which in turn take the opposing forms of text-system (not necessarily written) and performed-text. My aim is to demonstrate that a common organic principle joins together all these different musical facts. That principle is homeostasis, a term coined by Walter Bradford Cannon at the end of the 1920s, and first applied to music by Fulvio Delli Pizzi in 1984. Homeostasis is the property that a system or an organism must maintain in a stable and constant condition in its own internal environment. When applied to analysis of musical utterances, homeostasis allows us to give to musical signs a proper content: composers, performers, and listeners can deal with musical signs as people usually do with all the signs of natural languages. The proper homeostatic content in turn finds its roots in tensional-relaxation processes within human body. Homeostasis regulates both melodic and harmonic processes, at least of the Western musical tradition, and allows them to obtain an internal syntactic meaning that is neither merely structural nor merely formal. Pitches, as our analyses demonstrate, are not neutral in their interactions and relationships. In fact, homeostasis arranges melodic and harmonic elements - as it can do with all musical parameters - into significant units that act as organic parts of a musical whole. I do not deny that musical signs are also historically, socially, and culturally codified. I only claim that historical, social, and cultural internal musical meanings result from a dialectical process between natural , transcendental conditions, and their actualization in space and time. (In this respect, it seems that Raymond Monelle's theory of topics can cover just a part of the problem of musical meaning.) Main references in my research are drawn from the semiotic perspectives of Umberto Eco and Eero Tarasti, from Louis Hjelmslev's linguistic theory, and from Delli Pizzi's musical theory, this last adapted to my personal approach. In most of this book, I present my original analyses of music of the Western tradition, from ancient plainchant to contemporary music. In Chapter 1, I elaborate an enlarged musical-organic model: like other complex natural phenomena, music may be comprised of organic and/or inorganic parts, and regarded as a complex system endowed with living properties. In Chapters 2 and 3, respectively, I present melody and harmony as two systems. Starting from sound waves as a physical system, I analyze the evolution of melody as a symbolic, syntactic, and semantic system. Moreover, I develop Delli Pizzi's harmonic theory, while arguing that Schenker's, Riemann's, and de la Motte's approaches are neither organic nor functionalist in the strict sense. In Chapter 4, I point out the strong relations between Tarasti's existential semiotics and my homeostatic perspective; this allows me to apply the model constructed in Chapter 1 to musical pieces regarded as organic text-systems. Finally, I elaborate in Chapter 5 a new model capable of explaining relations among musical subjects - entrepreneurs, composers, performers, customers, and so on - who can interact, even though very distant from each other in space and time. To do this, I introduce the concept of Manifestum, drawn from Martin Heidegger's thought, but adapted to my specific aims.