Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry


Recent Submissions

  • Kaustell, Kim (2020)
    Agriculture and commercial fishing are among the most hazardous occupations world- wide, also in Finland. Various efforts have been developed to prevent and mitigate the effects of occupational accidents and diseases. The process of risk management comprises two significant stages: 1) risk assessment, and 2) risk treatment. Occupational safety and health (OSH) risk assessment builds on the evolution of accident causation models and of knowledge on human behavior over several decades. Risk treatment has also evolved, ranging from limited targeted efforts to multi-faceted interventions. The aims of this thesis were to identify factors that influence the incidence and se- verity of occupational accidents (risk assessment approach) and work system related factors that affect efficacy of occupational safety interventions (risk treatment approach). Information of the identified factors, called “occupational safety determinants” in this thesis, was composed into a list of occupational safety determinant clusters with respect to their contribution to occupational safety risk assessment and risk treatment. Four original articles were used as case studies to derive occupational safety determinants. Two of the articles focused on the occupational safety of farmers while the two other articles dealt with that of commercial fishers. For both occupations, there was one article based on accident insurance claim records, and one article based on user (farmer/fisher) centered surveys. The list of occupational safety determinant clusters was used to facilitate the assessment and discussion of occupational safety determinants. The list comprises the following nine titles: Physical environment, Organization and management, Individual, Task, Tools and technologies, External, Performance, Intervention mechanisms, and Intervention drivers and barriers. Analysis of occupational accident insurance claim records with a limited set of variables yielded a narrow quantitative set of safety determinants that mainly described the immediate accident context. The result was expected, because the national and the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) methods include sparse if any information on distal factors to the accident, such as the effect of work organization, management, or external factors of the accident etiology. The user centered surveys yielded a broader qualitative spectrum of occupational safety determinants, and provided also insight into additional, macro-ergonomic factors, such as the social and organizational context as well as contextual factors potentially influencing adoption of safety interventions. User centered research methods along with research that is based on accident claim records can assist in designing more effective occupational safety interventions. These methods contribute to understanding the individuals’ behavior in the context of work, both from accident and hazard analysis as well as from the accident prevention view- point. Multi-faceted approaches are needed to provide comprehensive information that is essential for reducing the excessive burden of injury and illness in agriculture and commercial fishing.
  • Zhao, Yafei (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Flowers and their number and arrangement within inflorescences are essential for the reproductive fitness and adaptive success of plants as well as for human sustenance. Comparative studies using species representing various plant lineages are a prerequisite for a comprehensive understanding of the development of diverse flower forms during the evolution of plants. In addition to a few classical model plants, new models, including core eudicots Asteraceae and basal eudicots Papaveraceae, have emerged to enhance our current understanding of the genetic networks in the regulation of plant growth and development from an evolutionary developmental biology perspective. This thesis seeks to understand the evolutionary origin of the Asteraceae capitulum and the regulatory networks of flower type specification as well as to illustrate the ancestral functions of CYCLOIDEA/TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (CYC/TB1)-like (CYL) genes in basal eudicots. The Asteraceae inflorescence (capitulum, or flower head) superficially resembles a solitary flower, but it is a tightly packed structure composed of different types of flowers, including marginal ray flowers and central disc flowers. Such evolutionary innovations, as studied in Gerbera hybrida here, are owing to the novel functions of the gerbera orthologues of flower meristem identity (FMI) genes LEAFY (GhLFY) and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (GhUFO) as well as the regulatory networks involving MADS-box and TCP transcription factors (TFs). The expression domain of GhLFY at the inflorescence meristem mimics that of a single flower meristem, suggesting that the Asteraceae capitulum resembles a solitary flower not only morphologically but also at the molecular level. This expression pattern defines the capitulum as a determinate structure that can display floral fate upon ectopic GhUFO expression. Additionally, suppression of GhLFY and GhUFO led to a loss of FMI and suppressed MADS-box floral organ identity genes in a flower type-dependent manner. In particular, GhLFY regulates the early ontogeny of ray flowers, providing the first molecular evidence for how this structure has evolved. We speculate that the differentiation of flower types in Asteraceae is associated with their independent evolutionary origins from separate branching systems. Furthermore, the establishment of the regulatory networks amongst TCP and MADS-box gene family members in flower type specification provides additional support for distinct genetic origins of flower types. As trans-acting regulators of GhCYC3, the strongest CYC-like TCP gene in specifying ray flower identity, the CINCINNATA (CIN)-like TCP GhCIN1 co-localises with GhCYC3 in ray primordia and specifies the development of ray ligules. Moreover, we discovered that the whorl-specific MADS-box TFs control GhCYC3 expression during flower organ development: SEPALLATA3-like GERBERA REGULATOR OF CAPITULUM DEVELOPMENT5 (GRCD5) specifies ray ligule elongation, and C-class GERBERA AGAMOUS-LIKE1 (GAGA1) controls staminode development in ray flowers. Papaveraceae, belonging to a lineage basal to all other eudicots, represents a phylogenetically important family to understand the origin, evolution, and diversification of CYL genes in eudicots. Comparative studies between Eschscholzia californica and Cysticapnos vesicaria revealed their conserved functional roles in shoot branching, petal size, flower symmetry, and stamen growth, although in a species-specific manner. Nonetheless, our studies revealed a novel function in perianth development for CyveCYLs that were shown to specify the distinction of sepal and petal identity by suppressing B-class genes expression in C. vesicaria. These data indicate that instead of recruiting completely new regulators, the evolution of divergent morphologies employs conserved regulatory genes that show varying spatial/temporal expression patterns to perform their functions within modified regulatory networks, thereby contributing to the morphological diversification and origin of evolutionary innovations.
  • Ala-Poikela, Marjo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    Potyviruses (genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae) are plant RNA viruses infecting a broad range of agriculturally important crops. Potyviruses have compact genomes encoding a small number of proteins and are therefore dependent on host factors. Even though several host factors are indispensable for plant virus infection, most so far identified natural recessive resistance genes to different potyviruses are homologs of the same genes, translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and its plant-specific isoform eIF(iso)4E. The eIF4E is best known for recruiting ribosomes to capped mRNAs during cap-dependent translation. The viral-genome linked protein (VPg) encoded by potyviruses have been reported to interact with eIF4E/eIF(iso)4E. The hypothesis is that VPg substitutes for the cap-structure by binding to the eIF4E and hereby hijacks and assembles the host cell translation machinery for viral translation that subsequently inhibits host translation. However, the exact roles of eIF4E/eIF(iso)4E in recessive resistance against potyviruses are still cryptic. In this study we present novel data that will give new insights into the molecular mechanisms behind eIF4E-mediated resistance against potyviruses. In this study, we demonstrated that helper component proteinase (HCpro) from Potato virus A (PVA), Potato virus Y (PVY), and Tobacco etch virus (TEV) interacted with the eIF(iso)4E and eIF4E of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum). An eIF4E-binding motif was found in the C-terminal region of HCpro and point mutations within the motif debilitated interactions of HCpro with translation initiation factors and impeded PVA virulence in plants. In PVA-infected cells, interactions between HCpro and eIF(iso)4E were confined to round-shaped structures that associated with the 6 kilodalton protein 2 (6K2)-induced viral replication vesicles. Furthermore an eIF4E-binding motif was recognized in the VPg of PVA and two other potyviruses. Mutations in the eIF4E-binding motif interfered with interactions of VPg with eIF4E, impaired suppression of RNAi by VPg, and abolished virulence of PVA. These results show that the interaction of VPg with eIF4E controlled by the eIF4E-binding motif in VPg is essential for PVA virulence, regardless of that VPg still binds to the cap-binding domain of eIF4E. The capability to bind to two distinct binding sites of eIF4E might reflect two distinct functions of VPg. HCpro and VPg were found to interact with each other in the nucleus and nucleolus in PVA-infected cells. In cytoplasm, the VPg-HCpro interaction was observed in round-shaped bodies in the proximity of the nucleus and chloroplasts, but not in association with the 6K2-induced replication vesicles. The interactions of VPg with eIF4E via the eIF4E-binding domain may also regulate interactions of HCpro with eIF4E. Taken together, the results suggest novel mechanisms by which potyviruses interact with the host translation system and other putative functions involving eIF4E/eIFiso4E.
  • Laurila, Jussi (2013)
    The aim of this thesis was to improve the quality of energy wood and therefore increase the potential of forest energy. About half of the mass of a freshly-felled tree consists of water. From the point of view of energy generation this water is unwelcome. There are two main ways to dry energy wood; these are artificial drying and drying naturally. The Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) stump wood dries fairly quickly in favourable natural conditions. The average moisture content (wet basis) of a stump was about 31 % one month after stump harvesting. Small-sized whole trees did not dry well at roadside storage sites under natural conditions. About one year after harvesting the moisture content of a small-sized whole tree was still about 43 %. However, during storing a remarkable weight loss of 37 % was detected between the forest and the heating plant. The most effective and the fastest drying method found in this study was the continuous compression drying method. The lowest moisture content of 30 % was achieved for Downy birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) by continuous pressing using 38 MPa and with a pressing time of 30 seconds. The energy consumption for compression drying is very low compared to the energy required to vaporise water in thermal drying. The techno-economic forest energy potential of the study area was 1.6 TWh/y. The forest energy potential calculations were made using the heating value of fresh wood and therefore the real potential will be greater when using dried energy wood. For absolutely dry wood the potential was about 1.9 TWh/y. The properties of energy wood vary widely depending on its assortment, storage conditions, as well as the weather conditions and the origin of the energy wood. However, a better understanding of energy wood properties will increase forest energy s potential and the use of renewable energy and thus help mitigate climate change globally.
  • Kallioniemi, Marja (MTT eli Maa- ja elintarviketalouden tutkimuskeskus, Taloustutkimus, 2013)
    The restructuring of agriculture in Finland has resulted in several types of change on farms during recent years. The field areas and sizes of herds per farm have been increasing, while the number of farms has been decreasing. Concurrently, the risks of agriculture have increased. Ongoing change has been described as a modernization process from traditional farming towards a more enterprise form of agriculture. Farms are mainly owned by private persons in Finland. The farm entrepreneurs and their well-being at work are at the core of this thesis. Human capacity, including work ability, health and coping has been assessed as a crucial element for the success of the farm enterprise. Stress is commonly described as a situation in which the demands of work are greater than the worker is able to cope with. This type of conflicting and strenuous situation may induce different kinds of symptoms and diseases in people. Agriculture is among the most injury-prone working sectors. The aims of this research were to determine the prevalence and symptoms of stress among full-time farm entrepreneurs, identify possibilities to increase occupational safety during animal handling work and characterise the negative and positive elements of women s working conditions on dairy farms. These aims were addressed through two main samples. The first was a telephone survey of 1 182 full-time farmers focusing on stress and symptoms among the respondents. Secondly, a qualitative study was carried out involving ten female farmers working on dairy farms that focused on occupational safety during animal handling and the working conditions of women. According to the results, full-time farmers experienced less stress than among the general working population in Finland. One in four (26%) full-time farmers had symptoms of weakness or fatigue and one in five (19%) farmers had symptoms of insomnia or difficulties in falling asleep. Both of these symptoms had increased statistically significantly when compared to an earlier follow-up survey in 1992. Problems with social relationships and lowered state of health were associated with stress and symptoms. Pesticide usage of over two weeks during the previous growing period had an association with symptoms. Based on the literature review, the most common stressors among farm entrepreneurs were the farm economy, regulations, the weather, dangers in farm work and new legislation. In the qualitative study occupational accidents were frequent: nearly all women had suffered one or more injuries during the previous two years. Unexpected animal behavior was considered as the most significant injury risk.The results revealed that a positive relationship between the stockperson and cattle as well as knowledge of animal behaviour and welfare enabled a safer working environment to gradually be built in the cattle barn. In practice, the stockperson should keep physical conditions animal friendly, perform positive and predictable routines, habituate young calves to people, avoid the separation of an individual animal, not dominate animals by force and be patient during work among farm animals. In addition, it is important to always be prepared for self-defence. Female respondents were involved in wide range of different work tasks on dairy farms. As a positive element, nearly all respondents considered work with animals and close to nature to be rewarding. On the other side, women s working days were long. Old traditions may create invisible barriers to organizing the work in a more functional way on enlarged farm units. Most women chose farm entrepreneur as their professional title, but their professional position was often undefined or misunderstood. The valuable contribution of female farm entrepreneurs to agriculture should be recognized and supported, because women s expertise within agriculture is important in finding solutions for future challenges such as sustainable, organic agriculture and animal welfare. Due to the ongoing restructuring of the agricultural sector in Finland, the well-being at work among farm entrepreneurs requires support, efforts and attention. The working environment related to agriculture includes several risks such as stress, injury and an impairment of work ability.
  • Heikkilä, Anna-Maija (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, 2013)
    The objective of this thesis was to find expedients that would improve the economic performance of Finnish dairy farms. Means under examination were replacement decisions related to technology and herds. The theory of optimal behavior formed the basis for the methods used in solving the research problems. Empirical data originated from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) and from the Finnish dairy herd recording system. When studying the sustainability of herds, the replacement of a dairy cow was investigated by applying dynamic programming. The optimal replacement rules were almost similar for healthy and diseased cows indicating that the treatment of diseases is more profitable than replacing a diseased cow with a first-lactating one. Only cows with low milk production capacity should be disposed intentionally. A linear programming model was built for examining the optimal choices between conventional insemination, insemination with sex-sorted sperm and the use of conventional or sex-selected embryo transfer in a herd. The optimal outcome was a mixture of available technologies. Sex-sorted sperm was recommended for heifers only and primarily for calf production. In practice, the optimal insemination strategy is herd-specific. When studying the adoption of novel technology, discrete technology choice models were utilized. The results suggested that investment allowances significantly affect the changeover to loose-housing technology and robotic milking. Total factor productivity growth increased on those farms that switched from a conventional to an automatic milking system. The growth rate was derived from technology-specific production functions estimated with a two-stage estimation method. This method catered for the sample selection bias caused by the endogenous technology choice. The adoption of robotic milking intensified the positive development linked to overall improvements in production technology and an expansion in herd size given that milk production matched the capacity of the robot. In conclusion, by prolonging the herd life of dairy cows, dairy farmers can improve the economic performance of milk production. Therefore, farmers' awareness about the real costs of premature culling and the gains that can be achieved by treating a diseased cow must be improved. Optimizing tools, based on farm-specific input data, should be developed for determining the optimal replacement decisions and, hence, the optimal reproduction policy. Investment allowances are needed to boost up investments on those farms which have potential to develop their production to meet the future challenges. Investments in technology appropriate for large farms improve productivity growth and, thus, the prospects of dairy farms to survive in the long run. However, a human cannot be replaced by technology, not even by novel technology.
  • Niskanen, Anna-Maija (Finnish Society of Forest Science, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry of the University of Helsinki, School of Forest Sciences of the University of Eastern Finland, 2013)
    The aim of this study is to assess the clonal variation in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clones and in transgenic lines of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and its causes, with special attention to the effects of cloning and transgenesis in tree breeding programmes. The parental effect on cloning success variation was studied in an experiment where Scots pine embryogenic lines were initiated from immature seeds of a full diallele cross. The evaluation was made after culture initiation, on maintenance medium and by mature embryo production. Growth and stem straightness of Scots pine clones were assessed in a 10-year field trial established with rooted cuttings. The effect of a single gene transfer, the sugar beet chitinase IV gene (chiIV), was assessed on plant growth, susceptibility to fungal diseases and development of root associated fungal communities and phenology, in a 3-year field trial established with micropropagated transgenic silver birch lines and wild-type clones. The results of the somatic embryogenesis experiment with Scots pine showed that the initiation success, as well as maturation, was more affected by the genotype of the mother than the one of the father, while during the proliferation period the mother s effect decreased and the father s increased. The field trial with Scots pine showed that the tree s genotype, more than the propagation method, has an effect on the plant behaviour in the field. In silver birch transgenic lines, the introduction of a single gene (chiIV) led to a reduction in growth and quality characteristics, although no significant changes occurred regarding fungal disease resistance, ectomycorrhizal colonization or fungal community structure, as compared to the natural variation occurring in wild type clones. The conclusion was that the variation in the success of Scots pine embryogenesis and in the growth of rooted cuttings is strongly affected by genotype and, hence, the rooted cuttings are suitable for testing height growth in breeding programmes. A single chiIV gene transfer did not improve significantly fungal disease resistance in silver birch or interfere with root associated fungal community. However, the variation in adaptive traits among silver birch transgenic lines is at the same level with the variation detected in randomly selected wild-type silver birches and single transgenic lines may be selected in breeding programmes.
  • Omoro, Loice M A (2012)
    Although forest ecosystems are crucial for human survival they are constantly under threat from human interventions and natural disasters which reduce their capacities to effectively provide ecosystem services. As populations increase, incidences of forest encroachments become frequent to affect the provision of the services. The objective in this study was to assess some ecosystem benefits and to determine how the local communities used and value them. The benefits assessed were floristic diversity; biomass and soil organic carbon densities; and suitability of indigenous tree species for forest rehabilitation based on soil properties in four different forest types, indigenous and plantations of cypress, eucalypt and pine in Taita Hills, Kenya. The perceptions of local community regarding how they use and value these benefits were also assessed. The conceptual framework was based on the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Sampling design was based on a US Forest Service model used in the indigenous forests. For each forest area and forest type, a minimum of four plots were randomly selected and a total of 77 plots from 38 groups were sampled. In each plot, all juvenile trees of 5 cm or more in diameter at breast height were sampled for floristic diversity, biomass carbon stock and vegetation-soil relationship assessments. Soils were sampled at, 0-20 and 20-50 cm, for chemical and physical analyses to determine the soil organic carbon densities and vegetation-soil relationships. Tree species diversity, carbon densities derived from biomass and soil data were analyzed quantitatively. A qualitative analysis was done for the socio-economic part of the study, from data obtained using selected participatory rural appraisal tools and semi-structured questionnaires. Biodiversity analyses were accomplished using the Shannon-Weaver s Index. to assess the tree species composition. Tree biomass was estimated from allometric functions developed for tropical forests while soil organic carbon stocks were computed as a product of the analyzed carbon contents and bulk density values estimated using a pedotransfer function and measured particle size. Soil-vegetation relationships were determined by Principal Component Analysis, using CANOCO 4.5 software. The statistical analyses were accomplished by use of three versions of SPSS software for Windows (15, 16 and 20). The study established that indigenous forest was more diverse than plantations and regeneration of indigenous species significantly higher in exotic plantations of the most disturbed area than in the less disturbed areas. Some indigenous species correlated with sodium, phosphorus, carbon, pH and soil texture while some had no correlation with soil variables. Factors unrelated to soil variables, namely gaps were found to be important for the emergence and early establishment of seedlings. Total biomass C densities were generally higher in indigenous forest than in some exotic plantations, especially the cypress. Indigenous forest also had higher soil carbon stocks than plantations of exotic species. Community survey showed perceptions that exotics plantations contributed reductions of the forests to provide water and medicinal plants. Therefore, they are motivated to rehabilitate the forest by planting indigenous tree species. This study concluded that indigenous forest valuable for ecosystem services and that soil-vegetation relationships established be utilized along with soil analyses to select indigenous species to be planted in certain areas for rehabilitation. Such rehabilitation will enhance the floristic diversity and carbon sequestration and storage and therefore, contribute to restoration of the ecosystem services. Therefore, the initiated reforestation exercises with indigenous tree species to replace the exotic tree species are well justified. Key Words: Floristic diversity, biomass, carbon stocks, plantation, indigenous forest, Principal Component Analysis
  • Li, Ning (Finnish Society of Forest Science, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry of the University of Helsinki, School of Forest Sciences of the University of Eastern Finland, 2012)
    Growing interest in corporate sustainability has translated into growing concerns about how corporate responsibility management can be more effectively integrated with economic business goals, challenging organizations to shift their priorities toward more holistic strategies and performance assessment models which encompass measures related to both multiple stakeholders and responsibilities. Although interactions between corporate (social) strategy, sustainability performance, and business competitiveness have received considerable attention in both theory and practice over the past three decades, the phenomenon is under-investigated in forest-based industry, which is undergoing broad structural changes and global shifts in market demand and supply. This dissertation aims to fill this gap by approaching it from the resource-based view of the firm and empirically investigating a variety of aspects in an attempt to provide an overview of state-of-the-art corporate sustainability in global forest-based industry and to capture a structured view of the relationships between sustainability performance, competitiveness and economic performance among forest-based companies. The results indicate that both larger and small forest-based companies seem to have clear stakeholder orientations. Driven by legal requirements aspects, small companies tend to adopt informal corporate responsibility strategies and tools to meet their stakeholder expectations. A majority of large forest industry companies appear to have implemented corporate responsibility mainly with a profit-maximizing assumption and a relatively defensive approach parallel to and beyond their core business. To these large companies, environmental and economic issues are dominant in disclosure and profitability, while regional differences are not decisive in formulating strategies for sustainability reporting. Furthermore, the results bolster previous findings that have reported a positive return on corporate responsibility initiatives in terms of profitability, suggesting that corporate responsibility can enhance value creation for forest-based companies. To that end, a differentiated business-oriented approach is necessary in managing the business case for sustainability.
  • Toivonen, Ritva (Suomen Metsätieteellinen Seura ry, 2011)
    The research analyzes product quality from a customer perspective in the case of the wood products industry. Of specific interest is to understand better how environmental quality is perceived from a customer perspective. The empirical material used comprises four data-sets from Finland, Germany and the UK, collected during 1992 2004. The methods consist of a set of quantitative statistical analyses. The results indicate that perceived quality from a customer perspective can be presented using a multidimensional and hierarchical construct with tangible and intangible dimensions, that is common to different markets and products. This applies in the case of wood products but also more generally at least for some other construction materials. For wood products, tangible product quality has two main sub-dimensions: technical quality and appearance. For product intangibles, a few main quality dimensions seem be detectable: Quality of intangibles related to the physical product, such as environmental issues and product-related information, supplier-related characteristics, and service and sales personnel behavior. Environmental quality and information are often perceived as being inter-related. Technical performance and appearance are the most important considerations for customers in the case of wood products. Organizational customers in particular also clearly consider certain intangible quality dimensions to be important, such as service and supplier reliability. The high technical quality may be considered as a license to operate , but product appearance and intangible quality provide potential for differentiation for attracting certain market segments. Intangible quality issues are those where Nordic suppliers underperform in comparison to their Central-European competitors on the important German markets. Environmental quality may not have been used to its full extent to attract customers. One possibility is to increase the availability of the environment-related information, or to develop environment-related product characteristics to also provide some individual benefits. Information technology provides clear potential to facilitate information-based quality improvements, which was clearly recognized by Finnish forest industry already in the early 1990s. The results indeed indicate that wood products markets are segmented with regard to quality demands
  • Hiltunen, Lea (2010)
    Tieteellinen tiivistelmä Common scab is one of the most important soil-borne diseases of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in many potato production areas. It is caused by a number of Streptomyces species, in Finland the causal agents are Streptomyces scabies (Thaxter) Lambert & Loria and S. turgidiscabies Takeuchi. The scab-causing Streptomyces spp. are well-adapted, successful plant pathogens that survive in soil also as saprophytes. Control of these pathogens has proved to be difficult. Most of the methods used to manage potato common scab are aimed at controlling S. scabies, the most common of the scab-causing pathogens. The studies in this thesis investigated S. scabies and S. turgidiscabies as causal organisms of common scab and explored new approaches for control of common scab that would be effective against both species. S. scabies and S. turgidiscabies are known to co-occur in the same fields and in the same tuber lesions in Finland. The present study showed that both these pathogens cause similar symptoms on potato tubers, and the types of symptoms varied depending on cultivar rather than the pathogen species. Pathogenic strains of S. turgidiscabies were antagonistic to S. scabies in vitro indicating that these two species may be competing for the same ecological niche. In addition, strains of S. turgidiscabies were highly virulent in potato and they tolerated lower pH than those of S. scabies. Taken together these results suggest that S. turgidiscabies has become a major problem in potato production in Finland. The bacterial phytotoxins, thaxtomins, are produced by the scab-causing Streptomyces spp. and are essential for the induction of scab symptoms. In this study, thaxtomins were produced in vitro and four thaxtomin compounds isolated and characterized. All four thaxtomins induced similar symptoms of reduced root and shoot growth, root swelling or necrosis on micro-propagated potato seedlings. The main phytotoxin, thaxtomin A, was used as a selective agent in a bioassay in vitro to screen F1 potato progeny from a single cross. Tolerance to thaxtomin A in vitro and scab resistance in the field were correlated indicating that the in vitro bioassay could be used in the early stages of a resistance breeding program to discard scab-susceptible genotypes and elevate the overall levels of common scab resistance in potato breeding populations. The potential for biological control of S. scabies and S. turgidiscabies using a non-pathogenic Streptomyces strain (346) isolated from a scab lesion and S. griseoviridis strain (K61) from a commercially available biocontrol product was studied. Both strains showed antagonistic activity against S. scabies and S. turgidiscabies in vitro and suppressed the development of common scab disease caused by S. turgidiscabies in the glasshouse. Furthermore, strain 346 reduced the incidence of S. turgidiscabies in scab lesions on potato tubers in the field. These results demonstrated for the first time the potential for biological control of S. turgidiscabies in the glasshouse and under field conditions and may be applied to enhance control of common scab in the future.
  • Yrjölä, Raimo (2006)
    A View into the World of Kitchen: Development and retention of a leading position in the market of kitchen interiors - a case study of 20 years. This study focuses on the development of a kitchen interiors company, presently called Novart Inc., into the leading company of the industry from 1980´s to the present. The objective of the study is to describe the effects of strategic choices, the decisions of the management and the owner´s direction and control to the build up and the retaining of the leading position in the market. From theory point of view, strategic choices refer to com-pany purchases as corporate-level strategies, and business and marketing strategies. The empirical research was carried out in two phases and it is based on various company documents and records, and on the intensive interviews of seven key executives in the company. An abductive research design was utilized. The company gained the leading position in the kitchen market in Finland by company purchases, and the company has been able to retain the position. Firstly the goal was to expand to retail market and, secondly, the company has maintained the balance of supply and demand by closing the purchased production units when needed. The simultaneous use of these two strategic goals is a kind of a new observation, and the strategy may be suitable only for market leaders. During the latter part of the research period the strategy of com-pany purchases has been abandoned and the leading position in the market has been main-tained by developing systematically business and marketing capability. In the business and marketing strategies the distribution channels and the brands have been emphasized. During the research period the company has almost totally abandoned the long distribution channels and started to use its own channels built and named after the main brands. These are A la Carte, Parma and Petra. At the moment, in the beginning of the 21st century, a new distribution channel, the concept of the Kitchen World, is being built in addition to the channels mentioned above. The management´s decision making and the implementation the decisions have been well-considered. The executives emphasized the valuing of the importance of the decisions dif-ferently except the two decisions named the most important ones, i.e., the decisions to start own production of the raw material and to concentrate the business only to one company. The executive staff has also succeeded in managing crisis and threats of bankruptcy, and the company has been managed profitable. During all the four terms of ownership: Puolimatka Corporation, the Hankkija/Novera Corporation, the ownership period of the "bank", and the Nobia Corporate the ownership direction and control has been somewhat different. All the owners have paid attention to economic issues. The direction of cash flows and investments was at its strongest during the Hankkija/Novera term. For the last owner Nobia the production and marketing of the kitchen interiors has been the core business, which thus has strengthened the business and marketing capabilities of the target company of this research. A common denominator during all the four terms of ownership has been owners' trust gained by the professional skills of the management of the target company. This has lead to greater independence of the management of the company and less owners´ direction. Keywords: leading position, marketing strategy, management decisions, acquisition, corporate governance
  • Väre, Minna (Maa- ja elintarviketalouden tutkimuskeskus, 2007)
    In the past decade, the Finnish agricultural sector has undergone rapid structural changes. The number of farms has decreased and the average farm size has increased when the number of farms transferred to new entrants has decreased. Part of the structural change in agriculture is manifested in early retirement programmes. In studying farmers exit behaviour in different countries, institutional differences, incentive programmes and constraints are found to matter. In Finland, farmers early retirement programmes were first introduced in 1974 and, during the last ten years, they have been carried out within the European Union framework for these programmes. The early retirement benefits are farmer specific and de-pend on the level of pension insurance the farmer has paid over his active farming years. In order to predict the future development of the agricultural sector, farmers have been frequently asked about their future plans and their plans for succession. However, the plans the farmers made for succession have been found to be time inconsistent. This study estimates the value of farmers stated succession plans in predicting revealed succession decisions. A stated succession plan exists when a farmer answers in a survey questionnaire that the farm is going to be transferred to a new entrant within a five-year period. The succession is revealed when the farm is transferred to a suc-cessor. Stated and revealed behaviour was estimated as a recursive Binomial Probit Model, which accounts for the censoring of the decision variables and controls for a potential correlation between the two equations. The results suggest that the succession plans, as stated by elderly farmers in the questionnaires, do not provide information that is significant and valuable in predicting true, com-pleted successions. Therefore, farmer exit should be analysed based on observed behaviour rather than on stated plans and intentions. As farm retirement plays a crucial role in determining the characteristics of structural change in agriculture, it is important to establish the factors which determine an exit from farming among eld-erly farmers and how off-farm income and income losses affect their exit choices. In this study, the observed choice of pension scheme by elderly farmers was analysed by a bivariate probit model. Despite some variations in significance and the effects of each factor, the ages of the farmer and spouse, the age and number of potential successors, farm size, income loss when retiring and the location of the farm together with the production line were found to be the most important determi-nants of early retirement and the transfer or closure of farms. Recently, the labour status of the spouse has been found to contribute significantly to individual retirement decisions. In this study, the effect of spousal retirement and economic incentives related to the timing of a farming couple s early retirement decision were analysed with a duration model. The results suggest that an expected pension in particular advances farm transfers. It was found that on farms operated by a couple, both early retirement and farm succession took place more often than on farms operated by a single person. However, the existence of a spouse delayed the timing of early retirement. Farming couples were found to co-ordinate their early retirement decisions when they both exit through agricultural retirement programmes, but such a co-ordination did not exist when one of the spouses retired under other pension schemes. Besides changes in the agricultural structure, the share and amount of off-farm income of a farm family s total income has also increased. In the study, the effect of off-farm income on farmers retirement decisions, in addition to other financial factors, was analysed. The unknown parameters were first estimated by a switching-type multivariate probit model and then by the simulated maxi-mum likelihood (SML) method, controlling for farmer specific fixed effects and serial correlation of the errors. The results suggest that elderly farmers off-farm income is a significant determinant in a farmer s choice to exit and close down the farm. However, off-farm income only has a short term effect on structural changes in agriculture since it does not significantly contribute to the timing of farm successions.
  • Bäckman, Stefan (2008)
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate intensity, productivity and efficiency in agriculture in Finland and show implications for N and P fertiliser management. Environmental concerns relating to agricultural production have been and still are focused on arguments about policies that affect agriculture. These policies constrain production while demand for agricultural products such as food, fibre and energy continuously increase. Therefore the importance of increasing productivity is a great challenge to agriculture. Over the last decades producers have experienced several large changes in the production environment such as the policy reform when Finland joined the EU 1995. Other and market changes occurred with the further EU enlargement with neighbouring countries in 2005 and with the decoupling of supports over the 2006-2007 period. Decreasing prices a decreased number of farmers and decreased profitability in agricultural production have resulted from these changes and constraints and of technological development. It is known that the accession to the EU 1995 would herald changes in agriculture. Especially of interest was how the sudden changes in prices of commodities on especially those of cereals, decreased by 60%, would influence agricultural production. The knowledge of properties of the production function increased in importance as a consequence of price changes. A research on the economic instruments to regulate productions was carried out and combined with earlier studies in paper V. In paper I the objective was to compare two different technologies, the conventional farming and the organic farming, determine differences in productivity and technical efficiency. In addition input specific or environmental efficiencies were analysed. The heterogeneity of agricultural soils and its implications were analysed in article II. In study III the determinants of technical inefficiency were analysed. The aspects and possible effects of the instability in policies due to a partial decoupling of production factors and products were studied in paper IV. Consequently connection between technical efficiency based on the turnover and the sales return was analysed in this study. Simple economic instruments such as fertiliser taxes have a direct effect on fertiliser consumption and indirectly increase the value of organic fertilisers. However, fertiliser taxes, do not fully address the N and P management problems adequately and are therefore not suitable for nutrient management improvements in general. Productivity of organic farms is lower on average than conventional farms and the difference increases when looking at selling returns only. The organic sector needs more research and development on productivity. Livestock density in organic farming increases productivity, however, there is an upper limit to livestock densities on organic farms and therefore nutrient on organic farms are also limited. Soil factors affects phosphorous and nitrogen efficiency. Soils like sand and silt have lower input specific overall efficiency for nutrients N and P. Special attention is needed for the management on these soils. Clay soils and soils with moderate clay content have higher efficiency. Soil heterogeneity is cause for an unavoidable inefficiency in agriculture.
  • Iho, Antti (MTT, 2010)
    Phosphorus is a nutrient needed in crop production. While boosting crop yields it may also accelerate eutrophication in the surface waters receiving the phosphorus runoff. The privately optimal level of phosphorus use is determined by the input and output prices, and the crop response to phosphorus. Socially optimal use also takes into account the impact of phosphorus runoff on water quality. Increased eutrophication decreases the economic value of surface waters by Deteriorating fish stocks, curtailing the potential for recreational activities and by increasing the probabilities of mass algae blooms. In this dissertation, the optimal use of phosphorus is modelled as a dynamic optimization problem. The potentially plant available phosphorus accumulated in soil is treated as a dynamic state variable, the control variable being the annual phosphorus fertilization. For crop response to phosphorus, the state variable is more important than the annual fertilization. The level of this state variable is also a key determinant of the runoff of dissolved, reactive phosphorus. Also the loss of particulate phosphorus due to erosion is considered in the thesis, as well as its mitigation by constructing vegetative buffers. The dynamic model is applied for crop production on clay soils. At the steady state, the analysis focuses on the effects of prices, damage parameterization, discount rate and soil phosphorus carryover capacity on optimal steady state phosphorus use. The economic instruments needed to sustain the social optimum are also analyzed. According to the results the economic incentives should be conditioned on soil phosphorus values directly, rather than on annual phosphorus applications. The results also emphasize the substantial effects the differences in varying discount rates of the farmer and the social planner have on optimal instruments. The thesis analyzes the optimal soil phosphorus paths from its alternative initial levels. It also examines how erosion susceptibility of a parcel affects these optimal paths. The results underline the significance of the prevailing soil phosphorus status on optimal fertilization levels. With very high initial soil phosphorus levels, both the privately and socially optimal phosphorus application levels are close to zero as the state variable is driven towards its steady state. The soil phosphorus processes are slow. Therefore, depleting high phosphorus soils may take decades. The thesis also presents a methodologically interesting phenomenon in problems of maximizing the flow of discounted payoffs. When both the benefits and damages are related to the same state variable, the steady state solution may have an interesting property, under very general conditions: The tail of the payoffs of the privately optimal path as well as the steady state may provide a higher social welfare than the respective tail of the socially optimal path. The result is formalized and an applied to the created framework of optimal phosphorus use.
  • Sipiläinen , Timo (MTT Taloustutkimus, 2008)
    The objective was to measure productivity growth and its components in Finnish agriculture, especially in dairy farming. The objective was also to compare different methods and models - both parametric (stochastic frontier analysis) and non-parametric (data envelopment analysis) - in estimating the components of productivity growth and the sensitivity of results with respect to different approaches. The parametric approach was also applied in the investigation of various aspects of heterogeneity. A common feature of the first three of five articles is that they concentrate empirically on technical change, technical efficiency change and the scale effect, mainly on the basis of the decompositions of Malmquist productivity index. The last two articles explore an intermediate route between the Fisher and Malmquist productivity indices and develop a detailed but meaningful decomposition for the Fisher index, including also empirical applications. Distance functions play a central role in the decomposition of Malmquist and Fisher productivity indices. Three panel data sets from 1990s have been applied in the study. The common feature of all data used is that they cover the periods before and after Finnish EU accession. Another common feature is that the analysis mainly concentrates on dairy farms or their roughage production systems. Productivity growth on Finnish dairy farms was relatively slow in the 1990s: approximately one percent per year, independent of the method used. Despite considerable annual variation, productivity growth seems to have accelerated towards the end of the period. There was a slowdown in the mid-1990s at the time of EU accession. No clear immediate effects of EU accession with respect to technical efficiency could be observed. Technical change has been the main contributor to productivity growth on dairy farms. However, average technical efficiency often showed a declining trend, meaning that the deviations from the best practice frontier are increasing over time. This suggests different paths of adjustment at the farm level. However, different methods to some extent provide different results, especially for the sub-components of productivity growth. In most analyses on dairy farms the scale effect on productivity growth was minor. A positive scale effect would be important for improving the competitiveness of Finnish agriculture through increasing farm size. This small effect may also be related to the structure of agriculture and to the allocation of investments to specific groups of farms during the research period. The result may also indicate that the utilization of scale economies faces special constraints in Finnish conditions. However, the analysis of a sample of all types of farms suggested a more considerable scale effect than the analysis on dairy farms.
  • Ryynänen, Toni (Kuluttajatutkimuskeskus, Helsinki, 2009)
    Designed by the Media The Media publicity of Design in the Finnish Economic Press The meaning of design has increased in consumer societies. Design is the subject of debate and the number of media discussions has also increased steadily. Especially the role of industrial design has been emphasised. In this study I examine the media publicity of design in the Finnish economic press from the late 1980s to the beginning of the 2000s. The research question is connected to media representations: How is design represented in the Finnish economic press? In other words, what are the central topics of design in the economic press, and to what issues are the media debates connected? The usually repeated phrase that design discussions take place only on the cultural pages of the daily press or in cultural contexts is being changed. Design is also linked to the consumer culture and consumers everyday practices. The research material has been collected from the Finnish economic press. The qualitative sample consists of articles from Kauppalehti, Taloussanomat and from several economic papers published by the Talentum Corporation. The approach of the research is explorative, descriptive and hermeneutic. This means that the economic press articles are used to explore how design is represented in the media. In addition, the characteristics of design represented in the media are described in detail. The research is based on the interpretive tradition of studying textual materials. Background assumptions are thus grounded in hermeneutics. Erving Goffman s frame analysis is applied in analysing the economic press materials. The frames interpreted from the articles depict the media publicity of design in the Finnish economic press. The research opens up a multidimensional picture of design in the economic press. The analysis resulted in five frames that describe design from various points of view. In the personal frame designers are described in private settings and through their personal experiences. The second frame relates to design work. In the frame of mastery of the profession, the designers work is interpreted widely. Design is considered from the aspects of controlling personal know-how, co-operation and the overall process of design. The third frame is connected to the actual substance of the economic press. In the frame of economy and market, design is linked to international competitiveness, companies competitive advantage and benefit creation for the consumers. The fourth frame is connected to the actors promoting design on a societal level. In the communal frame, the economic press describes design policy, design research and education and other actors that actively develop design in the societal networks. The last frame is linked to the traditions of design and above all to the examination of the cultural transition. In the frame of culture the traditions of design are emphasised. Design is also connected to the industrial culture and furthermore to the themes of the consumer culture. It can be argued that the frames construct media publicity of design from various points of view. The frames describe situations, action and the actors of design. The interpreted media frames make it possible to understand the relation of interpreted design actions and the culture. Thus, media has a crucial role in representing and recreating meanings related to design. The publicity of design is characterised by the five focal themes: personification, professionalisation, commercialisation, communalisation and transition of cultural focus from the traditions of design to the industrial culture and the consumer culture. Based on my interpretation these themes are guided by the mediatisation of design. The design phenomenon is defined more often on the basis of the media representations in the public discourses. The design culture outlined in this research connects socially constructed and structurally organised action. Socially constructed action in design is connected to the experiences, social recreation and collective development of design. Structurally, design is described as professional know-how, as a process and as an economic profit generating action in the society. The events described by the media affect the way in which people experience the world, the meanings they connect to the events around themselves and their life in the world. By affecting experiences, the media indirectly affects human actions. People have become habituated to read media representations on a daily basis, but they are not used to reading and interpreting the various meanings that are incorporated in the media texts.
  • Autio, Minna (Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2006)
    This study examines the narrative construction of consumerism in Finnish consumer culture in the early 21st century. The objects of the study are consumer life stories and essays on environmentally friendly consumption, written by 15-19-year-old high school students. Moreover, group discussions were used as additional research material. The data was gathered at five high schools in different areas of Finland. Young people's consumer narratives are interpreted through cultural stories and consumer ethos such as self-control, gratification and green consumerism. The narrative research approach is used to analyse what types of consumer positions these young people construct in stories on their own consumer history, and what kinds of ideas and thought patterns they construct on green consumerism. The study creates a multifaceted image of young people as agents in consumer society. They construct archetypical stories of wastrels and scrooges, as well as prudent and environmentally friendly consumers. Consumption and expenditure are however mostly a continuous battle between self-control and giving in to gratification. This reality is illustrated among other things by clever expressions invented by young people, such as Carefree Pennywise, Prudent Hedonist and Wasteful Scrooge. In their narratives, young people also analyse the usefulness - or uselessness - of their decisions on consumption, as well as develop themselves into controlling and sensible consumers. This kind of virtuous consumer allows him/herself the joy and the gratification of consumption, as long as these are "kept in check". One's view of expenditure and consumption is not permanent. Consumerism may alter with time. A wastrel may grow up to be a young person in control of their desires, or a thrifty child may awaken to the pleasures of consumption in their teens. Consumerism may also be polyphonic: it may simultaneously - and even uncomplicatedly - be constructed upon the discourses of wastefulness, prudence, gratification and green consumerism. Young people allow for gratification to form a part of green consumerism, too: it is not simply restrictive self-denial. They also see many hurdles in the way of green consumerism, such as the elevated price of ecological products, and the difficulties of green consumer practices. The stories also show the gender division in green consumerism. For young men, ecological considerations offer elements for the construction of consumerism only on the very rare occasion, whereas striving for day-to-day green practices is typical for young women.
  • Nykänen, Arja (MTT Agrifood Research Finland, 2008)
    In agricultural systems which rely on organic sources of nitrogen (N), of which the primary source is biological N fixation (BNF), it is extremely important to use N as efficiently as possible with minimal losses to the environment. The amount of N through BNF should be maximised and the availability of the residual N after legumes should be synchronised to the subsequent plant needs in the crop rotation. Six field experiments in three locations in Finland were conducted in 1994-2006 to determine the productivity and amount of BNF in red clover-grass leys of different ages. The residual effects of the leys for subsequent cereals as well as the N leaching risk were studied by field measurements and by simulation using the CoupModel. N use efficiency (NUE) and N balances were also calculated. The yields of red clover-grass leys were highest in the two-year-old leys (6 700 kg ha-1) under study, but the differences between 2- and 3-year old leys were not high in most cases. BNF (90 kg ha-1 in harvested biomass) correlated strongly with red clover dry matter yield, as the proportion of red clover N derived from the atmosphere (> 85%) was high in our conditions of organically farmed field with low soil mineral N. A red clover content of over 40% in dry matter is targeted to avoid negative N-balances and to gain N for the subsequent crop. Surprisingly, the leys had no significant effect on the yields and N uptake of the two subsequent cereals (winter rye or spring wheat, followed by spring oats). On the other hand, yield and C:N of leys, as well as BNF-N and total-N incorporated into the soil influenced on subsequent cereal yields. NUE of cereals from incorporated ley crop residues was rather high, varying from 30% to 80% (mean 48%). The mineral N content of soil in the profile of 0-90 cm was low, mainly 15-30 kg ha-1. Simulation of N dynamics by CoupModel functioned satisfactorily and is considered a useful tool to estimate N flows in cropping systems relying on organic N sources. Understanding the long-term influence of cultivation history and soil properties on N dynamics remains to be a challenge to further research.
  • Ylivainio, Kari (2009)
    The low solubility of iron (Fe) depresses plant growth in calcareous soils. In order to improve Fe availability, calcareous soils are treated with synthetic ligands, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylenediimi-nobis(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid (EDDHA). However, high expenses may hinder their use (EDDHA), and the recalcitrance of EDTA against biodegra-dation may increase the potential of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) leaching. This study evaluated the ability of biodegradable ligands, i.e. different stereo-isomers of ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS), to provide Fe for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. Prego), their effects on uptake of other elements and solubility in soils and their subsequent effects on the activity of oxygen-scavenging enzymes in lettuce. Both EDTA and EDDHA were used as reference ligands. In unlimed and limed quartz sand both FeEDDS(S,S) and a mixture of stereo-isomers of FeEDDS (25% [S,S]-EDDS, 25% [R,R]-EDDS and 50% [S,R]/[R,S]-EDDS), FeEDDS(mix), were as efficient as FeEDTA and FeEDDHA in providing lettuce with Fe. However, in calcareous soils only FeEDDS(mix) was comparable to FeEDDHA when Fe was applied twice a week to mimic drip irrigation. The Fe deficiency increased the manganese (Mn) concentration in lettuce in both acidic and alkaline growth media, whereas Fe chelates depressed it. The same was observed with zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) in acidic growth media. EDDHA probably affected the hormonal status of lettuce as well and thus depressed the uptake of Zn and Mn even more. The nutrient concentrations of ryegrass were only slightly affected by the Fe availability. After Fe chelate splitting in calcareous soils, EDDS and EDTA increased the solubility of Zn and Cu most, but only the Zn concentration was increased in lettuce. The availability of Fe increased the activity of oxygen-scavenging enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase). The activity of Cu/ZnSOD (Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase) and MnSOD in lettuce leaves followed the concentrations of Zn and Mn. In acidic quartz sand low avail-ability of Fe increased the cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni) concentrations in let-tuce, but Fe chelates decreased them. EDTA increased the solubility of Cd and Pb in calcareous soils, but not their uptake. The biodegradation of EDDS was not affected by the complexed element, and [S,S]-EDDS was biodegraded within 28 days in calcareous soils. EDDS(mix) was more recalcitrant, and after 56 days of incubation water-soluble elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb) corresponded to 10% of the added EDDS(mix) concentration.

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