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  • Bergström, Milla (Suomen kirkkohistoriallinen seura, 2015)
    The Holy See, Poland and the Polish-Ukrainian Tensions in Eastern Galicia, 1921-1931 This study analyzes the principles that guided the Holy See in problems generated by Polish-Ukrainian tensions during the pontificate of Pope Pius XI. The geographical focus is in Poland where Pius XI had acted as apostolic visitor and nuncio only eight months before he ascended the throne of Saint Peter. Poland was declared independent in November 1918, and from the start, the Poles were thrown into competition with the republic s largest minority, the three million Greek Catholic Ukrainians of Eastern Galicia. The Ukrainians reluctance to acknowledge Polish dominance over Eastern Galicia in addition to the government s aspirations to pressure them into being loyal citizens resulted in nationalist tensions that persisted throughout the interwar period. These tensions were also reflected in religious matters, occasionally causing the Holy See to become involved with the incidents between the Polish government and the Greek Catholic Ukrainians. The study is based on the Holy See s primary sources that have been available for consultation since 2006. It provides the first thorough investigation of problems generated by Polish-Ukrainian tensions expressly from the point of view of the Holy See and the principles that influenced its responses. The study shows that the Vatican was guided by three main principles: the safeguarding and uncompromising defense of the rights of the Catholic Church and its freedom of action, adhering to the impartiality of the Holy See, and the promoting of peace between nations and preventing unrest. The principle of defending the rights of the Catholic Church and its freedom of action was a central factor in the decisions of the Holy See, for instance, when Polish officials arrested Greek Catholic priests and intruded into cloisters of nuns in Eastern Galicia. The Holy See responded to these violations by presenting to the Polish government an energetic objection and an official protest. Since the Holy See aimed at protecting the rights of the Greek Catholic Church and not those of the Ukrainians, it did not consider it was endangering its principle of impartiality. The principle of impartiality was inherently connected with the pontiff s role as the supreme spiritual shepherd of the universal Catholic Church. Pope Pius XI emphasized the equal benevolence he felt as the Holy Father of all Catholics towards both Roman Catholic Poles and Greek Catholic Ukrainians. In order to not offend either party, the Holy See could not interfere in the disputes between the Poles and the Ukrainians which were primarily a result of conflicting national interests. The Holy See considered that to remain impartial it was required to abstain from taking a public stance in what it regarded as purely political issues. According to the Holy See these issues included, for instance, the territorial dispute over Eastern Galicia. The Holy See´s principle of promoting peace between nations can be attested, for instance, in the Vatican´s endeavor to guide nationality-conscious bishops and clergy towards Christian fraternity. The Holy See considered as particularly problematic the fact that the nationalism of the Roman Catholic and Greek Catholic clerics inspired them to participate in nationalistic politics, and sometimes they seemed to pay more attention to politics than to saving souls. At the same time the national politics and enmity among the bishops and the clergy caused confusion in the parishioners and disrupted the amicable coexistence between the Poles and the Ukrainians. The Holy See instructed the bishops and priests to set an example by showing moderation and thus promoting peace in Eastern Galicia. The main focus of this study is on the two most difficult challenges brought forth by the Polish-Ukrainian tensions Pius XI faced during his pontificate, which aptly demonstrate the principles of the Holy See. The first of these cases was a dispute between the Holy See and the Polish government concerning the return of the Greek Catholic Metropolitan Andrei Sheptytskyi, considered as an enemy by the Poles, to his Archiepiscopal See of Lviv (Eastern Galicia) from his extended journey abroad in 1923. In this case the emphasis was on the principles of ensuring the rights of the church and promoting peace and preventing unrest between the Poles and the Ukrainians. The second problematic case arising from the Polish-Ukrainian tensions dealt with the violent pacification of Ukrainians in the fall of 1930 ordered by the Prime Minister of Poland Józef Piłsudski. This case was of a political nature and because of that, the Holy See s principle of impartiality significantly affected the Pope s resolutions. Pius XI held the principle of impartiality to bind him even when his conscience told him to publicly express his disapproval of the violence inflicted on Ukrainians.
  • Palola, Tuomas (Suomen Rauhanyhdistysten Keskusyhdistys ry, 2015)
    North American Laestadianism, also known as Apostolic Lutheranism, has been divided by schisms on several occasions, which in turn, have also had an effect on the development of schisms within the revivalist movement in Scandinavia. The revivalist movement s problematic history has been traditionally explained by members of the movement as being caused by the actions of individuals or different doctrines. No comprehensive, scientific study has examined the reasons behind the schisms. Those Laestadians who joined the revivalist movement in the original regions, from which they would later emigrate to North America, did not bring with them a monolithic dogmatic heritage. Into the doctrinal diversity of the Apostolic Lutheran melting pot were added the challenges brought forth by the movement s own independent free church status and Americanization. The revivalist movement s leadership in Fennoscandinavia attempted to guide the North American movement, without understanding the factors that were influencing its development. As a result, the leadership created additional conflicts, which precipitated a schism. The doctrinal views within this lay movement were not developed systematically, but rather situationally. The group formation was influenced by the fact that three different languages were spoken in the regions from which the immigrants departed: Finnish, Swedish and Norwegian. In addition to these languages, the immigrants adapted to English usage in North America. The assimilation process progressed at a different pace with different individuals and groups. Thus, they usually ended up having to respond to challenges without a vision, and as a result, the solutions were pragmatic. The chronologically uneven development of schisms in the revivalist movement s areas of influence in Scandinavia and North America also created a situation in which not all of the groups found a corresponding group on the other continent. This factor caused more tension within the movement. The aforementioned factors shaped from Apostolic Lutheranism, in terms of its identity, practices, organization, doctrinal emphases and group formation, a distinctive form of Laestadianism, which maintained contact with the Old Country . This slowed down the pace of Americanization in Apostolic Lutheranism, more so than in other Finnish American churches, and stoked divisions within Laestadianism in Fennoscandinavia. Thus, Apostolic Lutheranism diverged from the general developmental trends of other immigrant churches. Keywords: Finnish immigration to North America, assimilation, laestadianism,laestadian schisms, the third use of the Law, confession
  • Pihkala, Panu (Unigrafia, 2014)
    This study analyzes early twentieth-century ecotheology about which it provides a great deal of new information. The focal point is the work of Joseph Sittler (1904 1987), an American Lutheran and ecumenical theologian. Through the use of systematic analysis and historical methods, Sittler s thought is placed in context in relation to other early ecotheology and environmentalism. Many strands of early ecotheology are here reintroduced into the discourse on ecotheology, such as the British contributions by both Anglican and Reformed theologians. For the first time, a relatively comprehensive overview of early ecotheology is given. American and British sources are the most prominent, although some discussion about Scandinavian ecotheology is included. German sources are not used, but early German ecotheology is briefly discussed. The study confirms that there were significant forms of Christian environmental thought and action well before the age of environmentalism began in the 1960s. This fact has consequences for the definition of ecotheology. The study includes substantive discussion of definitions, typologies and methods of environmental theology. It argues that ecotheology (or ecological theology) has many benefits as a general term for the subject matter. The existence of early ecotheology requires that the concept be widened to include these early forms, even though a significant change took place in the 1960s, when a wider ecotheological movement was born. For the first time, the growth of ecotheology is placed in the historical context of theological developments in the twentieth century. One of the findings is that certain socially-oriented forms of Christian theology included environmental concerns early on. Especially significant in this regard is Walter Rauschenbusch, the famous Social Gospel theologian, whose ecotheology receives a close reading for the first time in this study, and the multitalented Liberty Hyde Bailey. The study shows that their concerns were picked up by different post-liberal (in a general sense) and neo-liberal theologians, such as several of the realist theologians in the United States. Paul Tillich s theology of nature evidently made a powerful impact. The most influential early ecotheologians combined insights from both liberalism and neo-orthodoxy. Through their work, the legacy of early ecotheology was carried on to the next generation, who made their mark in the age of environmentalism. In this study, Sittler s early theological development is comprehensively examined for the first time. Although Sittler grew up in a traditional American Lutheran environment, he was affected by ecumenical currents relatively early on. Already in his youth he manifested a strong interest in the natural world and the fine arts, both of which later became major themes in his theology. Sittler was shaped by neo-orthodoxy and Scandinavian theology as propounded by his teachers John O. Evjen and Walter M. Horton, and he later became closely involved with the realist theologians, including Tillich. Sittler contributed to the changes in American Lutheranism, especially with his first book, The Doctrine of the Word (1948), and he soon moved in an ever more ecumenical direction. He was influenced by process thought, but developed his (eco)theology in a more traditionally theistic manner. Sittler began addressing environmental concerns in the early 1950s, especially in his seminal essay A Theology for Earth (1954). At the same time he found his theological stance: Sittler wanted to develop neo-orthodoxy-influenced theology in a more earth-affirming direction. Many of the ecotheological arguments Sittler used are already found in some form in earlier ecotheology, but out of these arguments, Sittler constructed a more comprehensive ecotheology in a creative fashion. He included basic notions of stewardship, yet Sittler was exceptional in emphasizing the status of nature as man s sister and the interdependence of humans and the rest of nature. He further developed many of his insights in his later work, which is a topic for future research. Overall, early ecotheology emerges from this study as multifaceted. There was dominion (Horton) and stewardship ecotheology (the agrarians, Walter C. Lowdermilk, the Malvern Conference 1941); there were eco-justice elements (Daniel Day Williams, Sittler), emphasis on spiritual experiences in nature (Bernard E. Meland) and ecological subjectivity (Charles E. Raven, Herbert H. Farmer, Tillich, Sittler). There was both strong and weak anthropocentrism, and some early ecotheologians emphasized the theocentric, intrinsic value of nature (Bailey, Tillich, Sittler). Numerous themes are featured, such as aesthetics, eschatology, Christology, Incarnation, sacraments and theological anthropology. The role of these early ecotheologians is discussed in relation to environmental history and environmental education. The findings show that ecotheology was not as emphatically separate from other kinds of environmentalism as it was after the end of the 1960s and the Lynn White debate. Early ecotheologians contributed to the general development of environmental thought and action.
  • Laitinen, Aappo (2013)
    The British colony of Malta became the centre of attention in Anglo-Vatican relations in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Originally a local conflict between politicians and the Catholic bishops in Malta escalated into a diplomatic imbroglio. The central issue of the lengthy dispute was the separation, or the lack of it, between religion and politics. I examine how different perceptions of politics and of religion affected the decisions of the protagonists and the outcome of the diplomatic dispute. The study begins with the Maltese election of 1927 and the ascent to power of the controversial Anglo-Maltese politician Gerald Strickland and his Constitutional Party. Before long, the government and the local ecclesiastical hierarchy clashed over the role of the clergy in politics. By seeking support from higher quarters, Strickland and the bishops embroiled the British and Vatican authorities in the affair. The disagreement began to unravel gradually from 1931 onwards, and the reappointment of the British Minister to the Holy See in 1933, which was a visible expression of the restoration of normal diplomatic relations, affords a natural end for the study. The politico-religious problems in Malta during the 1920s and 1930s constituted an extremely complex skein. Owing to the traditionally strong position of the Catholic Church in Maltese society, it was closely linked to the central organs of Maltese self-government. Furthermore, the political activity of the culturally pro-Italian clergy inevitably drew the Church into political affairs. The situation was made more complex by disputes over language Maltese, English, and Italian were all commonly spoken on the island and allegations that Pope Pius XI had made a secret pact with Mussolini to help Italianise Malta. Strickland, in spite of his Catholicism, did not shirk from attacking the priests, most of whom opposed his efforts to promote English and the vernacular instead of Italian and abhorred his apparent want of respect towards the ecclesiastical authorities. The Holy See was concerned with defending the Church against political aggression. However, Pius XI and the Cardinals of the Roman Curia wished to avoid conflict if possible and hoped to maintain working relations with the British. Still, in the case of Malta, the Pope was convinced that Strickland posed a threat to the Catholic faith. Pius XI was not prepared to back down before Strickland was removed from the political arena. Thus, the Pope sanctioned the use of spiritual penalties against anyone voting for him. Pius XI, who fundamentally regarded the political activity of priests as suspect, clearly perceived the Maltese situation as exceptional. He adamantly maintained that defending the interests of the Church was not an intrusion into politics, but the religious duty of the Pope and bishops as spiritual leaders. There was a marked difference in the attitudes of the Holy See and the British Government on what constituted politics and political activity. The British Government was averse to any kind of ecclesiastical interference, especially that of Roman Catholics, in the internal political affairs of one of its colonies. However, the outlooks of the Colonial and Foreign Offices were not uniform. The Colonial Office, which was responsible for the governance of Malta, recognised the central position of the Church in local society. According to the central tenets of the Colonial administration, the Church helped it to maintain social stability and order in Malta, thus benefitting imperial interests that were mainly concerned with the security of the British fortress on the island. The Foreign Office became involved in the Maltese conflict because the foreign relations of the colony fell under its remit. The Foreign Office s policy started from the premise that the British Legation in the Vatican had no other purpose than to further imperial interests. Thus, the Foreign Office was keen to put an end to what it perceived as unwarranted meddling in the internal politics of Malta and cared less for the susceptibilities of the Church. While both the Holy See and Britain agreed in principle that politics and religion could, and should, be separated, they had very different ideas on where the dividing line should be drawn. In addition, the public debate on Malta in Britain stirred up traditional anti-Catholic sentiment, demonstrating that anti-Catholicism remained a persistent feature of British society in the inter-war period. After various efforts to solve the deadlock, the Maltese crisis was finally resolved when Strickland, encouraged by the Maltese bishops, apologized to the Pope in 1932. With his subsequent defeat in the local elections, Strickland no longer posed a problem for Anglo-Vatican relations. Although normal diplomatic relations were resumed soon after, the rapprochement was not based on any ideological consensus over the respective spheres of politics and religion in society but on solely practical considerations.
  • Uusimäki, Elisa (2013)
    This study provides the first thorough investigation of the wisdom text 4QBeatitudes (4Q525). In addition to historical-critical methods, selected theories and models of literary studies, social psychology, and sociolinguistics are exploited in order to shed light on questions related to 4Q525 and its social world. The first part approaches 4Q525 from the viewpoints of material and content-related questions, while the second part aims at locating the text in its wider linguistic and literary context. The material reconstruction of the fragmentary manuscript was carried out to restore the measurements of the former scroll, as well as the sequence of the largest fragments, while the study of its content began with an analysis of scriptural impact. Scripture is shown to have several roles to play in the composition. The analysis of quotations and allusions indicates the primary role of Prov 1–9 as a source to the extent that 4Q525 can be characterised as its rewriting. Other sources are used in an ancillary way, yet their effect on the work is dominant. The Psalms references in particular indicate that a Torah adjustment to the instruction of Proverbs takes place in 4Q525. The text also shares imagery and ideas with Deut 32 and Ps 91 that highlight the promise of divine protection and blessings, as well as the description of curses (frgs. 14 ii; 15; par. 5Q16 1–2+5). The genre of 4Q525 is studied in the light of the prototype theory. The theory, which requires a fair amount of resemblance but allows for some differences, is outstandingly applicable because of the rewriting process detected in 4Q525. The form of 4Q525 largely follows that of the prototype, Prov 1–9, while the content, having various theological components, is more divergent. In particular, 4Q525 shares many topics and specifically the female motifs with Proverbs, but a distinctive twist is added due to the Torah orientation and the worldview with eschatological and demonological beliefs. The basic didactic function of 4Q525 and Prov 1–9 is the same, but in addition to preparing for good and successful behaviour, 4Q525 takes part in the spiritual formation of its intended audience. Despite being included in the Qumran collection, 4Q525 does not contain specifically sectarian features and barely originates from such a movement. The likely origin lies in Judaean wisdom education of the second (or first at the latest) century B.C.E. The social function of 4Q525, related to the formation of group identity, might in part explain its context of discovery. The beatitudes and the description of curses (frgs. 2 ii; 15; par. 5Q16 1–2+5) serve as speech acts and social markers. The macarisms strengthen the self of intended in-group recipients, whereas the curses serve as an external threat and a means of group control. The endeavour to place 4Q525 in its wider context involves the study of the text from the viewpoint of language choice. The sociolinguistic model of diglossia, concerned with the use of “high” and “low” varieties of a language, can illuminate the factors that affected the choice. In particular, the highly literary variety of Hebrew employed in 4Q525 was closely related to scripture, used in specific formal settings such as education, and pertained to Jewish identity. The relevance of 4Q525 for the understanding of late Second Temple wisdom is prominent. Firstly, 4Q525 identifies wisdom with the Torah (2 ii 3–4) and contains other related passages (esp. frgs. 2 ii; 5; 24). It is argued that the concept of &#1514;&#1493;&#1512;&#1492; was helpful in wisdom contexts due to its multifaceted character and connotations. In general, the Torah discourse of 4Q525 lacks specificity, yet it is natural to wisdom poetry, which aims at promoting Torah piety. Secondly, 4Q525 should be included in the Proverbs tradition in the late Second Temple context when there was no fixed canon and the status of the ketuvim was in a state of flux. Further, 4Q525 indicates that its primary source, Prov 1–9, was regarded as worth reinterpretation and transmission to a contemporary audience. Hence, 4Q525 is an informative exemplar of the changes in Second Temple Jewish wisdom tradition. The instruction is modelled after its literary prototype, Prov 1–9, but unlike early Hebrew wisdom, 4Q525 is Torah oriented and familiar with revelatory ideas. The text reflects the reception, reinterpretation, and renewal of the Proverbs tradition in the first centuries B.C.E. The text 4Q525 invites scholars to pay attention to rewriting processes as they manifest in poetical literature, witnesses the scripturalisation process of Jewish wisdom, and shows that Torah-inclined wisdom materials had evident spiritual and social functions in educational contexts.</p>
  • Alaja, Paavo (Suomen kirkkohistoriallinen seura, 2013)
    This study examines the poor relief at Finnish land parishes during the period from 1571 to 1686. During this era, Finland was part of Sweden, and in politics Sweden was an emerging Great Power. In the 16th century, the Reformation was introduced in Sweden and the ecclesiastical circumstances were changing. In the 17th century, the Lutheran changes became more pronounced, and some modifications regarding poor relief were implemented, as in all Protestant countries. The principles of Swedish administration were renewed in the first decades of the 17th century, leading to several social, economic and political changes that increased poverty and decreased social care. This necessitated finding more effective ways to take care of the poor. This was a great challenge because the State had many expenditures and even in the countryside helping hands were becoming scarcer. Thus, the economy of the country was not meeting the needs of its people, who were then at the mercy of poor parishes. In this study, the viewpoint presented is that of the land parishes. How the local country folk took care of their poor and the practices implemented are explored. With circumstances being commonly poor, this study examines how country folk handled the burden. The development of Lutheran country parishes had differences, thus people had possibilities of different kinds to organize poor relief. Basic poor relief continued in several parishes as it had for over a hundred years. This meant, that predominantly family, relatives and village people helped one another, with some of the poor roaming from farm to farm begging for assistance. Slowly, other means of taking care of the poor emerged. Poor relief became more local, with each parish taking care of its own. Poor people and beggars were more closely defined, better controlling who was able to beg for alms. Authorities tried to forbid the wandering of vagabonds and vagrants, and for them begging became illegal. Unfortunately, at the same time the proportion of non-farmers was increasing, which made it difficult for a large group to earn subsistence. During this period money became a more relevant way of helping the poor in some pioneer parishes. The administration of land parishes had the responsibility of organizing their own poor relief. How this was done was influenced by the wider circumstances of the country side. Country folk did not want to be subjected to administrative guidelines and taxes for poor relief. They wanted to help the poor voluntarily and within their own means. This is why changes in poor relief were so slow during this period. The study shows that theological ideas did not have much weight in determining practices concerning poor relief in the country side. Economic hardship was more relevant than Christian dogmas in obtaining alms.
  • Niemistö, Hilkka (2013)
    The impact of a merger of parishes on customer orientation A case study of the impact of a change process on customer orientation from the viewpoint of middle management in Helsinki city centre parishes The objective of this dissertation was to answer the following question: What was the impact of a particular merger process on the elements of customer orientation and the ability of employees to act in a customer-oriented way in certain parishes in the Helsinki city centre? The dissertation focused on the viewpoint of middle management, and the main data were derived from interviews with middle- management personnel. During the planning phase of the merger of several Helsinki city centre parishes, some parish employees exhausted themselves in thinking about and commenting on the merger. It is likely that this negatively affected customer orientation in these parishes. Further, during and immediately after the merger and accompanying administrative change, many employees were mainly focused on the internal matters of the organisation. This reduced their ability to carry out their mission and to take customers needs into account. The merger process of the Helsinki city centre parishes reached a stabilisation phase only after the administrative change, and the new merged parish gradually united also at the level of operational attitudes and procedures. The coordination and integration of activities as well as cooperation, which are enablers of optimal customer orientation, were also improved during this stabilisation phase. The merger increased the diversity of employees in the new parish. It enabled the more diverse personnel to specialise in catering to the needs of specific groups, i.e. to act in a more customer-oriented manner. The merger improved workforce mobility, with the parish`s greater means allowing for a more flexible and focused deployment of resources. These changes improved the ability of employees to serve the different groups and more effectively respond to their needs. Over time, larger numbers of employees came to realise the necessity of the merger and accepted the objective of becoming a single parish that could function in unison. Still, the change in the parishes, target groups as well as some of the new methods for achieving goals caused both positive and negative reactions among employees, although increasing numbers of them eventually agreed with the new working methods. The employees awareness of the methods used in the parish work carried out in the city centre also rose following the merger. The comprehensiveness of planning the actual work was improved remarkably in the stabilisation phase. These developments positively affected customer orientation. The increased resources resulting from the merger also enabled the united parish to more systematically gather information about the needs and expectations of people. Specialisation also increased the expertise of employees regarding the different target groups. Employees developed new ideas and viewpoints, and their provision of services became more diversified. The merger also increased the willingness of the leadership to take more risks. However, issues concerning communication arose during the planning and implementation phases, and some in middle management felt that the merger process was having a permanent adverse effect on the flow of information, as previously in the smaller parishes the employees were more closely involved with each other in their daily work. The research results show that as a result of the merger the number of meetings increased but that decision-making was more distant than was previously the case. Within this context, though, a positive result of the merger was that it allowed for greater focus on communication. The Helsinki city centre parishes did not cooperate to any large extent before the merger. In the light of the interviews, one of the key enablers of customer-oriented thinking internal cooperation appears to have increased during the merger process. The facilitating factors of internal cooperation within an organisation employees attitudes towards cooperation and their general awareness of each others work also had a greater influence over time during the merging process. Further, the wider resources of the merged parish made it possible to better coordinate voluntary work.
  • Palmén, Ritva (2013)
    This study analyses Richard of St. Victor s theory of the imagination (imaginatio) in its function as a psychological faculty. The research relates to the historical study of philosophical psychology, the aims being to provide a systematic investigation of the main features of Richard s idea of the nature of the imagination and its relation to other cognitive functions, to reveal his philosophical assumptions, and to analyse conceptual distinctions in his arguments. The study starts with a survey of the various ancient and early medieval theories of philosophy of mind in which the imagination is considered as a distinctive function of the soul. (Ch. 2). The essentials of Richard s anthropology and the basic principles of his theological methodology provide an important framework for the research (Ch. 3). Richard s theological method can be formulated as per visibilia ad invisibilia, i.e., from visible to invisible things. This principle is the basis for his theory of contemplation and can be seen in his highlighting the importance of both the senses and the imagination. The main sources in this work are Richard s two spiritual treatises, Benjamin Minor and Benjamin Major, both written between 1160 and 1170. In Benjamin Minor, Richard analyses the functioning of senses, imagination and higher cognitive abilities, i.e., reason and understanding, pointing out at least three different modes of imagination (Ch. 4). The first mode is able to transfer sensory data to be further processed by reason. In the second and third modes, imagination and higher cognitive abilities co-operate, enabling the human being to ascend from sensible reality to invisible reality without having to deny the fundamentally sensuous nature of mankind. In Benjamin Major, Richard constructs a six-fold model of contemplation (Ch. 5), imagination forming an integral part of the first three kinds. The first kind admires and considers images and forms of visible things through imagination. In the second kind, imagination and reason together examine the rationality of sensible objects. Richard suggests that in the third kind of contemplation the soul, aided by imagination, ascends from visible things to invisible by studying analogous likenesses between them. (Ch. 6). The study acknowledges that the faculty of imagination plays an important role in Richard s understanding of the human soul, since it turns out to be a necessary precondition for human reasoning in general. Furthermore, it sets the contemplative process in motion and functions as a link between the lower levels of contemplation and the higher spiritual levels. Richard also develops ideas which deal with the interpretation of biblical language, metaphors, rhetoric and the possibility of creative imagination. The main questions in the last chapter (Ch. 7) are: how does imagination produce new objects, and can the operation of the imagination be considered creative? Considering all these aspects of the imagination in Richard s texts improves our understanding of his theological epistemology and sheds new light on the theory of the imagination in the history of medieval philosophy and theology.
  • Perttilä, Elina (omakustanne, 2013)
    The Sahidic version of 1 Samuel is an ancient daughter version of the Septuagint. Because the Sahidic translation was made before most of the Greek manuscripts we know were copied, it potentially contains ancient readings no longer preserved or only faintly attested in the Greek tradition. This study considers the Sahidic version of 1 Samuel as a translation and how it may best be used in Greek textual criticism. The aim of this study is twofold. First, one chapter examines the translation technique of the Sahidic translator. Second, based on this knowledge of the translation technique, a further chapter analyzes the affiliations between the Sahidic manuscripts as well as the affiliations between the Sahidic version and Greek traditions. In the translation-technical section, clause connections and translator s additions feature prominently. These foci were motivated by the tendency of the citations given in the Brooke/McLean edition of the Greek text. If the Sahidic appears in their apparatus, the citation mostly concerns conjunctions or additions found in the Sahidic. The first part of the translation-technical analysis examines clause connections. Clause connections appear throughout the text and offer, therefore, a fruitful starting point for a translation-technical study. When working with this material, comparative analyses rely on clausal sectioning as a basis for comparable semantic units. The second topic in the translation-technical part is translator s additions. In the chapter concerning the affiliations of the Sahidic text, detailed textual analyses prevail. Seven passages were selected in which several Sahidic manuscripts have preserved the text. Additional criteria in selecting the passages were the age of the fragments and the coverage of different parts of the book. These analyses describe the textual character of each Sahidic manuscript, and search for the existence of secondary readings and/or corruptions. In the cases where variants occur within the Sahidic tradition, this study seeks to establish whether these readings relate to Greek variants or solely derive from Sahidic transmission. This study supports the creation of a new critical edition of the Septuagint of 1 Samuel for the Göttingen series. With respect to this edition, the primary goal is to identify the affiliations of the Sahidic version. This translation-technical study, however, will additionally allow for a more careful and accurate citation of the Sahidic version within the critical apparatus of the Greek text.
  • Tervahauta, Ulla (2013)
    This study on the Authentikos Logos (NHC VI,3) analyses the writing and its story of the soul s descent and ascent. The aim of the work was to find a context to the little studied Nag Hammadi writing that has been thus far dated to the second century. On the basis of comparative analysis this study agues that that date is too early. It is proposed instead that AL was composed sometime between the third and the fifth centuries. The manuscript, language, and the genre of AL are first discussed, and the broad lines of late ancient Egyptian Christianity are sketched. To shed light on the Christianity of the text, use of scriptures in AL is analysed in several chapters. The story of the soul s descent and ascent is compared with Christian and Platonic authors. The closest point of comparison is The Exegesis on the Soul (NHC II,6), but despite the general similarity between the texts, this study argues that the emphasis in the AL is on the soul s struggle towards its goal, whereas Exeg. Soul emphasises repentance and the help of the heavenly Father. The relationship of AL with the Valentinian Wisdom myth is discussed, with the outcome that there is no firm evidence to connect the writing closely with Valentinian traditions. Comparisons with Plato, Origen, and Plotinus suggest a Platonic mind-set; however, no literary dependency can be assumed. AL contains four specific epithets attached to the soul: the invisible soul , the pneumatic soul , the material soul , and the rational soul . The combination of the epithets is unique, and the individual terms point in different directions. The invisible soul is not used otherwise in the Nag Hammadi library. The pneumatic soul is a rare term only used by Synesius of Cyrene and John Chrysostom. The material soul is known in Sethian and Valentinian texts, whereas the rational soul is widely attested in ancient texts, but in the Nag Hammadi library it only appears in the AL and the Asclepius excerpt (NHC VI,8). Analysis on the views on matter in the AL suggest an emphasis on ethics, and the evilness of matter. Matter is furthermore combined with Christian scriptural allusions. Views on the soul are connected with views on the body and human life. The body is the soul s place of contest and progress. To ascend, the soul, enveloped in a pneumatic body must pass aerial powers invisibly; the Pauline term is used allusively, but with a Platonic perspective. Several texts that circulated amongst Christians in late ancient Egypt and discuss the soul s ascent are brought into the discussion (The Apocalypse of Paul, The First Apocalypse of James, the Gospel of Mary, Asclepius, and Life of Antony). The comparison reveals that AL aligns more with the two latter that emphasise ethics and stands at some distance from the Codex V accounts and the Gospel of Mary.
  • Tervanotko, Hanna (Bookwell, 2013)
    The task of this study is twofold. First, it aims to analyze the treatment and the development of the figure of Miriam as a literary character in ancient Jewish texts by taking into account all the references to this figure preserved in the ancient Jewish literature from the exilic period to the early second century C.E.: Exodus 15:20-21, Numbers 12:1-15; 20:1; 26:59, Deuteronomy 24:8-9, 1 Chronicles 5:29, Micah 6:4, the Septuagint, the Dead Sea Scrolls (4Q365 6 II, 1-7; 4Q377 2 I, 9; 4Q543 1 I, 6 = 4Q545 1 I, 5; 4Q546 12, 4; 4Q547 4 I, 10; 4Q549 2, 8), Jubilees 47:4, Ezekiel the Tragedian 18, Demetrius Chronographer frag. 3, texts by Philo of Alexandria: De vita contemplativa 87; Legum allegoriae 1.76; 2.66-67; 3.103; De agricultura 80-81; Liber antiquitatum biblicarum 9:10; 20:8, and finally texts by Josephus: Antiquitates judaicae 2.221; 3.54; 3.105; 4.78. The passages referring to Miriam demonstrate that the picture of Miriam preserved in the ancient Jewish texts is richer than the Hebrew Bible suggests. Her function extends beyond the household-responsibility role that is often assigned to women in antiquity. The peak of Miriam traditions falls to the 3rd and 2nd centuries B.C.E. when this figure was used to promote the family of Levi. After this period, the figure of Miriam lost, at least partly, her prominence, and she became the target of different interpretations. She did not fit into the ideal of a woman in the Roman era, and she became more marginalized in a number of texts. Second, in light of poststructuralist literary studies that treat texts as reflections of specific social situations, I argue that the treatment of Miriam in ancient Jewish literature mostly reflects a reality in which women had little space as active agents. In particular, the interpretation of Miriam in the Greco-Roman era shows that when the political goals in the texts are emphasized, the room for women gets narrower. Despite this general tendency, prominent women may have enjoyed occasional freedom. Miriam continues to be given the title prophetess during the Greco-Roman era. That demonstrates that female prophecy was a known phenomenon even in a context that generally downplayed women.
  • Isotalo, Leena (Suomen kirkkohistoriallinen seura, 2013)
    This study examines the policy of Kokoomus, the Finnish National Coalition Party, towards religious instruction in Finnish primary schools between 1918 and 1923. The issue is explored in the context of the party s ideology and activities. Kokoomus was established in December 1918 by the monarchists of the Finnish Party ( Old Finns ) and the Young Finnish Party ( Young Finns ). It was the third largest party in the Finnish Parliament during the period examined in this study. Approximately one-fifth of its Members of Parliament were pastors. Previous tensions between the Old Finns and the Young Finns were reflected in the policies of Kokoomus in its early years. Other factors that affected the party s policies included the Finnish Civil War in early 1918. Kokoomus strived to ensure social stability and security, and its followers widely believed that schools and their religious instruction could play a role in this. The issue of religious instruction was especially advocated by the large number of theologians within the party. In practice, religious instruction proved a key issue of contention between 1918 and 1923 in conjunction with the enactment of three pieces of legislation: the Compulsory Education Act (101/1921), the Freedom of Religion Act (267/1922) and the act on the foundation of the primary school system (137/1923). Left-wing parties in the Finnish Parliament opposed the continued inclusion of denominational religious instruction in the school syllabus. The parliamentary group for Kokoomus disagreed, with most members taking a more favourable view. In Kokoomus, the issue of religious instruction was usually regarded as part of church policy rather than school policy, but rifts within the party emerged. Four separate factions can be distinguished in Kokoomus according to the emphasis they placed on religious instruction. The most significant faction in terms of church and school policy comprised the theologians of the Young Churchmen movement, for whom religious instruction in schools was especially important. They emphasised its necessity for religious, national and moral reasons and deemed the coming into force of the Freedom of Religion Act as necessary for both church and society. Furthermore, they declared that children exempted from religious instruction must be offered other non-denominational instruction in ethics. Another key faction within Kokoomus represented the party s mainstream, whose political ideas were similar to those of the above group. Although church policy issues were less central to their political platform, members of this second faction also supported religious instruction as part of a primary school system with a sound value base, primarily on national and moral grounds. They emphasised that children should be educated to know the religious traditions of their people. The third faction within Kokoomus consisted of the theologically conservative Christian revival wing, which opposed the Freedom of Religion Act and advocated religious instruction mostly on religious and moral grounds. It also disagreed with the teaching of non-denominational ethics in schools. Although this faction wielded relatively little influence in the party s parliamentary group, many candidates representing the faction won a seat in the summer 1922 elections. The fourth faction, the party s cultural radicals, subscribed to non-denominational religious instruction. This faction remained quite small, and none of the members of the party s parliamentary group belonged to it. The lack of success of cultural radicals in Kokoomus can also be attributed to the emphasis placed on religious instruction in the party s election propaganda, particularly during the 1922 election cycle. Publicly, the cultural radicals never challenged their party s church policy, but internal party debate and private statements show that this faction also had its adherents in Kokoomus. The official position of Kokoomus regarding religious instruction shifted slightly during the period examined in this study. In the party s early years, it used the rhetoric of public good, stability and security to justify its support for religious instruction. Later, however, when the Finnish Parliament enacted the Freedom of Religion Act and addressed the issue of ethics instruction in primary schools, the idea that religious instruction was not only a public good, but also a private right gained traction.
  • Hankela, Elina (2013)
    This study engages with ubuntu as a moral notion, and exclusionary social boundaries in the context of refugee ministry at the Central Methodist Mission (CMM) in inner-city Johannesburg. Ubuntu, a Nguni term that can be translated as humanity or humaneness, is often claimed to be the moral backbone of (South) African communities. According to the academic ubuntu discourse that scrutinises this notion, interdependence characterises human existence, as human beings only become, and exist, through other human beings, in a community. Virtues commonly attached to ubuntu include respect, hospitality and compassion. While the ubuntu discourse comprises the theoretical framework and dialogue partner in the study, international migration, socio-economic inequality and xenophobia are among the forces that defined the social location of the CMM. A praxis cycle framework informed the structure of this research, as it offered a way to combine ethnographic fieldwork with notions emphasized in grounded theory and an interest in patterns of socio-moral thinking invoked by the writer s training in systematic theology. Drawing, for instance, on emphases vocalized by liberation theologians, the praxis cycle also underlines the importance of questions about societal context and the researcher s agency. In 2009 when the fieldwork for the study was conducted, the CMM building, a six-storey church in inner-city Johannesburg, both served a large local congregation ( members ) and offered shelter to 2,000-3,000 international migrants and homeless South Africans ( dwellers ). The objective of the scrutiny of the tense relationship between these two groups is to understand grassroots meanings attached to being human(e) and factors that limited or enabled the actualization of ubuntu in this context. The study approaches these meanings and dynamics from two perspectives. Firstly, the liberation-theologically framed vision of the leader of the CMM, Bishop Verryn, is analysed and defined as a contextual Christian ubuntu vision. As the challenges in the vision s material application in the Refugee Ministry are examined, it is noted that the contestation of the notion of interdependence in community in the day-to-day managing of the ministry seemed to reinforce the often exclusionary member/dweller boundary; while, on the other hand, the preaching of the vision and the leader s lifestyle contributed to the bridging of the boundary. Secondly, the study explores the negotiation of exclusionary identities and boundaries within and between the members and the dwellers through examining the collective narratives of xenophobia and dirt circulating at the CMM. Attention is also paid to the forging of affirming relationships between the groups. On the basis of these dynamics the writer presents socio-moral patterns attached to ubuntu and being human(e) in the given context: they involve relational virtues that people were expected to embody; the rules of reciprocity and survival that regulated the actualization of these virtues; limiting structural elements external and internal to the CMM; and the enabling element of encounter.
  • Lopes Pereira , Jairzinho (2012)
    This study analyses the relationship between Augustine and Luther in their understandings of the doctrine of Original Sin and the justification of sinners, taking as its main source Augustine's writings addressed against Julian of Aeclanum as well as Luther's Lectures on Romans. I argue that the radical anthropological and soteriological insights with which Augustine opposed the theologians associated with fifth century Pelagianism are the key for understanding the early stages of Luther's call for Reformation of the doctrine of the Catholic Church regarding Original Sin and justification. The study commences with a preliminary discussion on the terminology linked with Augustine's definition of sin. I claim that the Augustinian concept of sin was defined in intimate connection with a concept he inherited from his contact with neo-Platonism the concept of order. Sin is disorder. Original Sin was an expression of disorder which implanted disorder in the very core of human nature. This was a line of thought that Luther fully endorsed. The young Luther's doctrine of Original Sin, I point out, is essentially Augustinian. Although Augustine did not invent the doctrine of Original Sin, he certainly brought a new way of understanding the implications of the Adamic Fall in the human-divine relationship and in the salvation of human beings. I explain that whether Augustine first outlined his radical approach to salvation through the gracious mercy of God and only then developed his theological formulation of Original Sin (or came to it in the reverse order) may be open to dispute. What is certain is that the way Augustine approached the gravity of Original Sin is in harmony with the way he approached the issue of justification of the sinner and the salvation process as a whole. One of the main theses maintained in this study is that the way Augustine approached human beings and their salvation put him on a collision course with the very tradition of the Church Fathers he so eagerly claims to defend. Augustine's understanding of human salvation, I explain, constitutes a break with the patristic tradition precisely because he took the notion of a general condemnation in Adam to radical consequences. After some hesitations in the initial years of his literary career, Augustine broke with the line of thought according to which humans start their salvation by turning to God and God then accomplish their salvation. This turning point was crystallized in two major works authored by the Church Father, Ad Simplicianum and Confessiones. In these two works Augustine unequivocally claims that the very first step one takes towards God is itself a divine gift. The very will to believe is God's grace. This assessment constituted a break with the traditional view of the Fathers on the issue of salvation. It is precisely this crucial detail that explains Luther's reliance upon Augustine. Luther's doctrine of justification by faith alone was essentially a deliberate attempt to recover the old Augustinian claim according to which both the beginnings and the accomplishment of the salvation process belong to God and only to God. This is a crucial point because in this assessment lies the main reason why Luther preferred Augustine to any other Church Father. It was based on this Augustinian defense of the radical gratuity of the salvation process that Luther relied to oppose the Nominalist axiom of facere quod in se est Deus non denegat gratiam. The teaching of the Fathers according to which human beings start and God accomplishes the process of salvation may have seemed to Luther dangerously close to the teaching of the recentiores doctores he so vehemently opposed. I show my opposition towards the trend within modern Lutheran scholarship to argue that the young Luther's doctrine of justification found its inspiration elsewhere, not in Augustine's anti-Pelagian writings. Against the common argument that while Augustine taught justification by grace and by love, Luther taught justification by faith alone, I argue that such a claim is not consistent with the evidence in the sources by showing significant affinities between Augustine and Luther's positions. Augustine, some scholars argue, never conceived justification as fides Christi, but rather as a transformation of the human will or disposition for God's commands. A closer look into the two theologians' understandings of justification would suggest otherwise. Augustine taught justification by grace as well as justification as fides Christi. Luther taught justification by faith, justification as a declaration of righteousness on account of the fides Christi, but his doctrine of justification went beyond a mere declaration of righteousness. For both Augustine and Luther, justification starts with the bestowal of the grace of faith and keeps manifesting itself through moral progress throughout the entire earthly life of the justified sinner. I also try to shed some light upon the old discussion regarding Augustine's reading of Gal. 5:6. I argue that this passage was used by Augustine with no other purpose than to characterise the genuine Christian faith, the justifying faith. Augustine's reading of Gal. 5:6 does not collide with Luther's doctrine of justification by faith. The essence of Augustine's doctrine of justification states that humans are justified through or by the grace of faith (gratia fidei). Faith is not acquired by any merit, so it is a grace, that is, freely given. Justification is entirely God's doing since it begins once one is bestowed with the grace of faith and proceeds, impelled by the grace of perseverance (which is deep down what Augustine called gratia cooperativa, a reality not absent in Luther's understanding of the justification process). The Augustinian notion of grace is a very comprehensive one. Grace assumes many forms. Among its main expressions, according to Augustine, are the gifts of faith, hope and love. Luther did not deviate from this path. Perhaps there is only a slight difference in emphasis. Augustine elected love as the great distinctive characteristic of justifying faith, while Luther selected humility. For both theologians, however, faith is the only source of justification. This faith would obviously be useless without love, hope and humility. After all, without these ingredients it would not be the justifying faith.
  • Peiponen, Matti (Luther-Agricola-Seura, 2012)
    Ecumenical Action in World Politics. The Creation of the Commission of the Churches on International Affairs (CCIA),1945 1949 The World Council of Churches in Process of Formation (WCC) entered the ecumenical scene on the eve of the Second World War. Soon, it emerged as the new flagship for the ecumenical work of the ecumenically involved Orthodox and Protestant churches. The architects of the WCC were also determined to incorporate international affairs into the scope of the new council as an area of central concern. This newcomer within the modern ecumenical movement induced the gradual dissolution of the World Alliance movement, which had been the first organisational expression of churches concern for international affairs, and especially for world peace. American ecumenists pressed for the creation of the Commission of the Churches on International Affairs (CCIA) soon after the end of the Second World War. Their proposal for a new ecumenical body was adopted by the Provisional Committee of the WCC at its first post-war meeting. The aims and functions of the CCIA were further discussed by the International Conference of Church Leaders on the Problems of World Order. At this Conference, 60 church leaders, mostly from Britain, Western Europe and the U.S., gave the green light to the creation of the CCIA in August 1946. The organisational structure of the CCIA was formed and the CCIA was officially established by its parent bodies, the WCC and the International Missionary Council (IMC). The actual work was done by the key office-holders of the CCIA, Mr Kenneth Grubb, Professor O. Frederick Nolde, and Dr Willem A. Visser t Hooft. In spite of their being located in London, New York and Geneva, these three men dynamically, although not without personal tensions, completed the task entrusted to them by the parent bodies. As the CCIA began carry out its appointed tasks, the post-war period threatened to degenerate into an era of conflict between the superpowers. A third world war seemed close because tensions between the Soviet Union and the U.S. were deepening alarmingly in the international arena. The modern ecumenical movement, especially the WCC and its CCIA, could not prevent these political rivalries entering their agenda and affecting their work. The international situation became a testing ground for the efficiency and utility of the CCIA. The usefulness of the CCIA was first tested at the Amsterdam Assembly of the WCC in the summer of 1948. The CCIA was entrusted to prepare and introduce topics addressing war and peace, international law, human rights, religious freedom, and communism. All these themes provoked broad discussion in an atmosphere overshadowed by the Cold War. In the end, the Amsterdam Assembly chose not to take sides in the political dispute between the East and the West and thus managed to establish its neutrality and impartiality between the two political blocs. In addition to the ecumenical arena, the CCIA was also expected to achieve results in the international arena. The leadership of the CCIA prioritised human rights and religious freedom as the main issue of concern where Christian principles ought to be borne in mind, and the CCIA saw the United Nations (UN) and the formulation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) as the area in which it should press its interests. The incorporation of a broad set of religious freedoms into the UDHR was ensured at the General Assembly of the UN in December 1948, allowing the CCIA also to pass the second test of its efficiency and utility.
  • Vähäkangas, Päivi (Bookwell Oy, 2012)
    Eugnostos and Recognitions represent diverging early Christian traditions. Eugnostos, a religious-philosophical treatise from the Nag Hammadi library, was born on Egyptian soil and read in Gnostic Christian circles. It describes the divine realm from the Primal God up to the completion of his emanations. Recognitions arose out of Syrian Jewish Christian speculations and shows an interest in earthly affairs: the missionary journeys of the apostles, the history of the early Church, the right teaching and praxis. What connects these writings is their concern with philosophy. Both sources contain an explicit refutation of philosophy and philosophers. They use similar arguments and a similar pattern: first they point out how philosophers have erred, and then they reveal what constitutes the source of the truth. Both consider knowledge gained in the right manner and from a proper source antithetical to philosophy. In presenting the concept of philosophy as something voluntarily adopted and maintained they simultaneously sketch an idea of religion in a similar way: becoming a Christian means adopting and maintaining a distinct way of life and a set of beliefs. Eugnostos and Recognitions stress the correct teaching concerning God and the origin of the world. It is a crucial theme that dominates their theology. The interest Platonists showed in the distinction between the nature and functions of the first and the second principles was also reflected in Christian theology. Eugnostos stresses the importance of making a distinction between the absolute transcendent Primal God and his emanations that represent the beginning of multiplicity and the visible things. Recognitions also offers a philosophically oriented exposition of the distinction between the Father and the Son as regards their nature. Another major theme in Eugnostos and Recognitions is salvation. The Platonic emphasis on saving knowledge also holds a special position in these writings. Salvation is connected with possessing the right kind of knowledge of God and the origin of the cosmos. The key position in the process of salvation belongs to the figure that originally brought the revelation to the ignorant/erring humankind and to those who faithfully transmit the correct teaching for future generations.
  • Valkama, Kirsi (2012)
    This study presents the archaeological evidence dated to the time after the invasion of Judah by the Neo-Babylonian forces during the early sixth century BCE and before the appearance of the distinctive Persian Period material culture by the end of the same century. This is done in order to understand what the material culture reveals of the reality in Judah during the mid-sixth century BCE and why the material is interpreted in various ways by scholars. The aim of this study is to understand the process of the collapse and reconstruction of the society during the sixth century BCE in Judah. This process is approached using the model of post-collapse societies. Publications in which archaeological finds are dated to the mid-sixth century are used as source material. Thirteen sites and several possible sites are discussed. Most of the finds come from mixed contexts which are complicated to interpret. Stratified finds of this period are few. The archaeological finds clearly indicate that several sites were destroyed during the early sixth century but the occupation in the region continued in a diminished form. The material culture of Judah during the mid-sixth century reflects all the major features of a post-collapse society: decline of population, limited resources, little building activity and reorganization of the administration. The size of the population was reduced to a third of that of the previous period. The society was limited in resources and very little was built during this phase, but instead, old structures were modified. While the building traditions ceased, the local pottery was produced continuously even though there were few types and only very few indicative types can be recognized. No resources were invested in high quality pottery. Trade was minimal, bringing in few imports. The old capital, Jerusalem, was abandoned and the regions north and south of Jerusalem became the new central regions. Administrative centers like Tell en-Nasbeh and Ramat Rahel controlled their surroundings, attracting population to these areas. The central position of the region north of Jerusalem is reflected in the Hebrew Bible; otherwise, the realities of this period are not evident in the texts, only the reflections of the trauma of the destruction. Judah started to recover slowly only during the fifth century BCE. The Neo-Babylonian overlords did not invest in the region. This was one of the reasons which slowed down recovery. The little material evidence left from mid-sixth century BCE Judah has been interpreted as evidence of both continuity and discontinuity of the Iron Age II culture. Both interpretations are right concerning some aspects of the culture; others ceased while others continued through the sixth century but in a revised form.
  • Pajunen, Mika Sakari (2012)
    The main focus of this study is the collection of apocryphal psalms in manuscript 4Q381 (4QNon-Canonical Psalms B). The foremost goals of this investigation are to determine what the function and setting(s) of the 4Q381 psalm collection were. No suggestions regarding these central issues have been made by scholars prior to this study. Consequently most of this research revolves around the actual manuscript 4Q381 and its contents. The analysis of the psalm collection begins with a material reconstruction of the manuscript. All of the large and medium sized fragments belonging to manuscript 4Q381 have been placed in this reconstruction. With this material reconstruction the research situation of 4Q381 is significantly altered from the state of affairs preceding this investigation. Instead of a hundred and ten separate individual fragments there is now a large sequence of consecutive, albeit fragmentary text from the last nine columns of a scroll. Also, the exact number of psalms in the preserved parts of the scroll can now be estimated as eight. In the next stage of the study each of these eight individual psalms is analyzed thoroughly in order to evaluate how they contribute to the overall psalm collection. The exact extent of the psalm and any possible additional fragments deriving from it are presented first. This is followed by a critical Hebrew text of the psalm with some notes on uncertain readings and the first English translation of the complete psalm. The exploration of the content is then begun with a basic outline of the psalm s content, followed by short comments on how the details of the text of the psalm are understood. Finally the psalm is investigated for direct links with other texts, and the message of the psalm as a whole is discussed. Each of the eight psalms in 4Q381 discusses specific periods of time. The first extant psalm covers a period from the Creation to the Flood and centers on humankind as the chosen species. The second psalm concentrates on the time of Israel as the elect nation and takes up events from the wilderness period to the Exile. The third psalm brings up the expected future of a group identified as the current chosen ones of God. These three psalms are followed by five royal psalms written expressly as psalms with pseudepigraphic attributions to different kings. These psalms have been named in this study as Praise of the Man of God (David), Praise of Hezekiah, Penitential Prayer of Manasseh, Lament of Josiah, and Penitential Prayer of Jehoiachin. After completing the analysis of the individual psalms, the collection as a whole and the central question of its function are explored in depth. Things common to the psalms of 4Q381 in matters of style and language, the use of earlier compositions, connections with wisdom, and on a larger thematic level are investigated. On the basis of this evidence the 4Q381 psalm collection is argued to be the work of a single author and to function as a unified lesson on the justice of God toward his elect, which was meant to be recited in a communal gathering. Such a degree of unity within a psalm collection is remarkable, and the only directly comparable psalm compilation in this respect seems to be the Psalms of Solomon, which is argued to be a similar collection. In the course of the investigation, 4Q381 is placed into its proper place inside some of the larger developments and ideologies perceivable within the broader framework of the late Second Temple period. In this discussion some suggestions are also made regarding possible developments in the general use of psalms and psalm collections in this period and their connections with wisdom circles. 4Q381 is part of the general trends discernible in psalmody of this period, namely, a general increase in reflection upon the past and the use of wisdom motifs. In addition, 4Q381 gives evidence of a perception of psalms as sources of history, which is argued to be a prominent point of view on the psalms in the second century BCE. Additionally, 4Q381 is connected to more traditional wisdom works from the same time period by its structure and style of discourse, and it seems to be a practical application of the contemporary ideology of looking at past events in order to learn to live properly in the present and to be able to predict the future. Finally, two specific settings are explored in connection with 4Q381, the psalm collection s original historical setting and its setting in the Qumran movement. The amount of information in 4Q381 concerning the historical setting is limited, but it seems that the 4Q381 sage led a particularistic group somewhere outside Jerusalem around the middle of the second century BCE. In the Qumran movement, 4Q381 could have been used as a lesson that in practice demonstrates the worth of the ideology of looking at past events in order to predict the future. Moreover, the particularistic group angle used in 4Q381 would have been directly applicable to the situation of the Qumran movement and its sectarian outlook. All in all, this study primarily contributes to the study of manuscript 4Q381 and its content, but it is also of interest to the ongoing general search for the functions of psalmody in the late Second Temple period.
  • Koivisto, Jussi (Jussi Koivisto, 2012)
    This article dissertation examines Luther s idea of evil in his Biblical interpretation. In Luther s central works and in his various comments on Biblical passages he seems to repeat over and over again the idea that individual human beings or other creatures cannot avoid being part of evil or becoming victims of evil. In short, evil seems to be an inevitable part of human life and the Creation. This article dissertation studies this kind of inevitability of evil from various perspectives. In order to provide a multiple perspective on the inevitability of evil in Luther s works, this dissertation studies the following themes in these works: the terminological definition of the inevitability of evil; the manifold phenomenon of fascinare; the serpent (Gen. 3) possessed by the Devil; did the first human choose evil? (Gen. 3); was God the origin of evil?; how was God involved in evil?; the problem of evil. Various methods have been used: systematic argumentation and concept analysis, contextualizing Luther in the history of doctrines and ideas, using reception criticism or the Wirkungsgeschichte of Biblical texts, and source criticism. Using these methodological approaches to Luther, this dissertation offers new insights on Lutheranism and the various traditions preceding it. It introduces the ancient tradition which dominated early, medieval and early modern Christianity, but is not recognized in modern exegesis: the idea that the serpent of Genesis chapter three was possessed by the Devil. The main results of this dissertation can be summarized as follows: Luther considered evil in its various forms as an inevitable part of human life and the Creation. Luther avoided giving the impression that God was the causal, ontological or active origin of evil. However, Luther thought that God had permitted evil to slither into the world. The active origin of evil in the fall of angels and the first human was the Devil. However, after these two falls, God has been involved more actively in evil: He uses and is even present in evil so that He can execute His good plans for the salvation of humankind and for His own glory. Luther also suggested that (an omnipotent) God allowed the Fall to occur, because through Christ s salvific sacrifice humankind could truly comprehend how much God cared for humans. In other words, Luther deemed that God permitted evil for executing His good aims. On the other hand, Luther thought that liberation from various forms of (inevitable) evil, including sin, possession, and bewitchment, was only possible through pastoral care or spiritual healing orchestrated by the Holy Spirit.
  • Ketola, Hanna-Maija (2012)
    My aim in this study is to find how the official relations between the Church of England and the Russian Orthodox Church were created and developed during the Second World War. I look at the events mainly from the British point of view, asking who took the first steps, how the attempts were handled within the Church of England and what the motives were of those who promoted friendship between the churches. The position of the Russian Orthodox Church changed on the eve of and during the war and the Soviet government allowed it to establish relations with churches abroad. One of the first churches that the Russian Church contact was established with was the Church of England. The relations between the churches were also important in supporting the alliance between Britain and the Soviet Union. The main events concerning the relations between the Church of England and the Russian Orthodox Church were the visit of an English Church delegation to Moscow in 1943, discussion about translating a book published by the Moscow Patriarchate, and the return visit to England by the Russian delegation in 1945. The decisions concerning the relations were made in a small circle in the Church of England. The Ministry of Information and the Foreign Office were deeply involved, although they wanted to give the impression in public that the visits were a purely religious affair. In its actions the Church of England supported the British government s aims concerning the alliance, but at the same time it had its own agenda. Its leaders wanted to support Christians in the Soviet Union by establishing contacts with them in an attempt to guarantee that the concessions which Stalin had made to the Orthodox Church would become permanent. That meant that the English church leaders chose to be quiet in public about some difficult matters concerning, for instance, the fate of the Baltic States, because they thought that it would make the situation worse for the victims. However, they tried to influence politicians privately. The main archival sources on the church s side are the Archbishops (Lang, Temple) and Bishops (Headlam, Bell) papers and the papers of the Church of England Council on Foreign Relations at Lambeth Palace Library. The papers of the Ministry of Information and the Foreign Office at the Public Record Office (National Archives) reveal how those government bodies were involved in developing the connections. I also use Archbishop Garbett s papers from the York Minster Archives and Swedish Bishop Yngve Brilioth s papers from Carolina Rediviva in Uppsala.