Browsing by Organization "University of Helsinki, Faculty of Theology"

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  • Palola, Tuomas (Suomen Rauhanyhdistysten Keskusyhdistys ry, 2015)
    North American Laestadianism, also known as Apostolic Lutheranism, has been divided by schisms on several occasions, which in turn, have also had an effect on the development of schisms within the revivalist movement in Scandinavia. The revivalist movement s problematic history has been traditionally explained by members of the movement as being caused by the actions of individuals or different doctrines. No comprehensive, scientific study has examined the reasons behind the schisms. Those Laestadians who joined the revivalist movement in the original regions, from which they would later emigrate to North America, did not bring with them a monolithic dogmatic heritage. Into the doctrinal diversity of the Apostolic Lutheran melting pot were added the challenges brought forth by the movement s own independent free church status and Americanization. The revivalist movement s leadership in Fennoscandinavia attempted to guide the North American movement, without understanding the factors that were influencing its development. As a result, the leadership created additional conflicts, which precipitated a schism. The doctrinal views within this lay movement were not developed systematically, but rather situationally. The group formation was influenced by the fact that three different languages were spoken in the regions from which the immigrants departed: Finnish, Swedish and Norwegian. In addition to these languages, the immigrants adapted to English usage in North America. The assimilation process progressed at a different pace with different individuals and groups. Thus, they usually ended up having to respond to challenges without a vision, and as a result, the solutions were pragmatic. The chronologically uneven development of schisms in the revivalist movement s areas of influence in Scandinavia and North America also created a situation in which not all of the groups found a corresponding group on the other continent. This factor caused more tension within the movement. The aforementioned factors shaped from Apostolic Lutheranism, in terms of its identity, practices, organization, doctrinal emphases and group formation, a distinctive form of Laestadianism, which maintained contact with the Old Country . This slowed down the pace of Americanization in Apostolic Lutheranism, more so than in other Finnish American churches, and stoked divisions within Laestadianism in Fennoscandinavia. Thus, Apostolic Lutheranism diverged from the general developmental trends of other immigrant churches. Keywords: Finnish immigration to North America, assimilation, laestadianism,laestadian schisms, the third use of the Law, confession
  • Sorsa, Leena (Kirkon tutkimuskeskus, 2010)
    A national church, freedom of religion, and the state The interpretation of freedom of religion formulated by the Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland in reference to the relationship between the Church and the state from 1963 to 2003 This paper discusses the interpretation of freedom of religion formulated by the Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland during the years 1963-2003. The effect of these formulations and decisions made by the Synod on the relationship between the Church and the state is also discussed as the relationship has been a central issue in the debate about freedom of religion in Finland. Active co-operation with the state caused a dispute in the Church during this period. Another cause for concern for the Synod, a strong defender of the national church, was the weakening position of the Church in a society undergoing many changes. As the Synod of 1963 discussed the status of the Church, the Church began to reflect upon its identity as a national church, and to evaluate freedom of religion in the country, as well as the relationship between the Church and the state. Some of the radicals of the 1960s and 1970s presented the Church as an obstacle to freedom of religion. The Synod was keen to emphasize that, in accordance with international agreements on human rights, freedom of religion means the freedom to have and follow a religion, and also that freedom of religion was a right of the majority in Finnish society. As an active guardian of the rights of its members, the Synod defended such issues as the teaching of religion in schools. Throughout the dispute, the Church focused on its right to act freely and, according to its identity, to express spirituality in the society. At the end of the 1960s, several efforts to reform the law on the freedom of religion and the relationship between the Church and the state gained favour in the Synod. These formulations of the Church were the basis for the work of a parliamentary committee in the 1970s, but no significant changes resulted. Instead, freedom of religion in Finland was judged to be fairly good. The committee paper did, however, lead to preparations for greater independence of the Church. The Synod at the time chose to react to the changes presented to it, but it was not before the 1990s that the Synod became an active force of reform in these matters. Though the Synod, particularly from the 1970s onwards, began clearly to favour the improvement of the position of other religious communities in Finland, it felt it had reason to be cautious as each church and religious community had the freedom to decide individually its relationship with the state. Any changes that would have weakened the position of the Church in Finnish society were met with disapproval in the Synod. Even though some theological concerns regarding the national identity of the Church were raised, the Synod emphasized issues of church policy. Keen to preserve and protect its legal status in society, the Synod judged that this status supported the freedom of action enjoyed by the Church as well as the freedom of religion.
  • Sorsa, Leena (Kirkon tutkimuskeskus, 2010)
    A national church, freedom of religion, and the state The interpretation of freedom of religion formulated by the Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland in reference to the relationship between the Church and the state from 1963 to 2003 This paper discusses the interpretation of freedom of religion formulated by the Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland during the years 1963-2003. The effect of these formulations and decisions made by the Synod on the relationship between the Church and the state is also discussed as the relationship has been a central issue in the debate about freedom of religion in Finland. Active co-operation with the state caused a dispute in the Church during this period. Another cause for concern for the Synod, a strong defender of the national church, was the weakening position of the Church in a society undergoing many changes. As the Synod of 1963 discussed the status of the Church, the Church began to reflect upon its identity as a national church, and to evaluate freedom of religion in the country, as well as the relationship between the Church and the state. Some of the radicals of the 1960s and 1970s presented the Church as an obstacle to freedom of religion. The Synod was keen to emphasize that, in accordance with international agreements on human rights, freedom of religion means the freedom to have and follow a religion, and also that freedom of religion was a right of the majority in Finnish society. As an active guardian of the rights of its members, the Synod defended such issues as the teaching of religion in schools. Throughout the dispute, the Church focused on its right to act freely and, according to its identity, to express spirituality in the society. At the end of the 1960s, several efforts to reform the law on the freedom of religion and the relationship between the Church and the state gained favour in the Synod. These formulations of the Church were the basis for the work of a parliamentary committee in the 1970s, but no significant changes resulted. Instead, freedom of religion in Finland was judged to be fairly good. The committee paper did, however, lead to preparations for greater independence of the Church. The Synod at the time chose to react to the changes presented to it, but it was not before the 1990s that the Synod became an active force of reform in these matters. Though the Synod, particularly from the 1970s onwards, began clearly to favour the improvement of the position of other religious communities in Finland, it felt it had reason to be cautious as each church and religious community had the freedom to decide individually its relationship with the state. Any changes that would have weakened the position of the Church in Finnish society were met with disapproval in the Synod. Even though some theological concerns regarding the national identity of the Church were raised, the Synod emphasized issues of church policy. Keen to preserve and protect its legal status in society, the Synod judged that this status supported the freedom of action enjoyed by the Church as well as the freedom of religion.
  • Vuori, Timo (Timo Vuori, 2011)
    The main purpose of this research is to shed light on the factors that gave rise to the office of Field Bishop in the years 1939-1944. How did military bishophood affect the status of the head of military pastoral care and military clergy during these years? The main sources of my research are the collections in the Finnish National Archives, and I use a historical-qualitative method. The position of the military clergy was debated within both the Church and the Defence Forces before 1939. At that stage, Church law did not yet recognize the office of the leading military priest, the Field Dean. There had been a motion in 1932 to introduce the office of a military bishop, but the bishops' synod blocked it. The concept of Field Bishop appeared for the first time in 1927 in a Finnish military document, which dealt with pastoral care in the Polish military. The Field Dean in Finland had regularly proposed improvements to the salary of the military clergy before the Winter War. After the Winter War, arguments were made for strengthening the position of the military clergy: these arguments were based on the increased respect shown towards this clergy, especially due to their role in the care of the fallen, which had become their task during the war. Younger members of the military clergy in particular supported the demands to improve their position within the Church and the army. The creation of a Field Bishop was perceived as strengthening the whole military clergy, as the Field Bishop was envisioned as a bishop within the Church and a general within the Defence Forces. During that time the Field Dean was still without any military rank. The idea of a Field Bishop was recommended to Mannerheim in June 1940, after which the Defence Forces lent their support to the cause. The status of the military clergy, in Church law, made it to the agenda of the Church council in January 1941, thanks largely to the younger priests' group influence and Mannerheim's leverage. The bishops opposed the notion of a Field Bishop mostly on theological grounds but were ready to concede that the position the Field Dean in Church law required further defining. The creation of the office of Field Bishop was blocked in the Church law committee report issued close to the beginning of the Continuation War. The onset of that war, however, changed the course of events, as the President of the Republic appointed Field Dean Johannes Björklund as Field Bishop. Speculation has abounded about Mannerheim's role in the appointment, but the truth of the matter is not clear. The title of Field Bishop was used to put pressure on the Church, and, at the same time, Mannerheim could remain detached from the matter. Later, in September 1941, the Church council approved the use of the Field Bishop title to denote the head of military pastoral care in Church law, and Field Bishops were assigned some of the duties formerly pertaining to bishops. Despite all expectations and hopes, the new office of Field Bishop did not affect the status of the military clergy within the Defence Forces, as no ranks were established for them, and their salary did not improve. However the office of the Field Bishop within Army HQ was transformed from a bureau into a department in the summer of 1942. At the beginning of the Continuation War, the Field Bishop was criticized by certain military and Church clergy for favouring Russian Orthodox Christians in Eastern Karelia. Björklund agreed in principle with most of the Lutheran clergy on the necessity of Lutheranizing East Karelia but had to take into account the realities at Army HQ. As well, at the same time the majority of the younger clergy were serving in the army, and there was a lack of parish priests on the home front. Bishop Lehtonen had actually expressed the wish that more priests could have been released from the front to serve in local parishes. In his notes Lehtonen accused Björklund of trying to achieve the position of Field Bishop by all possible means. However, research has revealed a varied group of people behind the creation of the office of Field Bishop, including in particular younger clergy and the Defence Forces.
  • Antila, Jaakko Olavi (Suomen kirkkohistoriallinen seura, 2010)
    This study in church history deals with the formation of aims in the church politics of the Centre Party during a period of extensive politicisation in Finnish society – 1966 to 1978. The focus is on the processes of creating political input within the party organisation. The most important source material consists of the records of the highest party organs as well as material from the party office and the party’s committee for church politics. In the late 1960s, at a time of leftist radicalism in Finnish society, issues concerning the Church were seldom dealt with in the highest party organs, even though informal discussion took place within the party. This phase was followed by a conservative reaction in society during the 1970s. The rightist trend as well as the ongoing politicisation process substantially strengthened the role of church politics in the party. An aim of great importance was to prevent those supporters who belonged to the Lutheran revival movements from moving into the Finnish Christian League. Therefore it became increasingly important to prove that the Centre Party was defending the Church as well as so-called Christian values in state politics, e.g., by advocating religious instruction in schools. The Centre Party also defended the independence and legal status of the Church, at the same time positioning itself against Finland’s Social Democratic Party. Many party members were of the opinion that the church politics should have been about defending the Church and Christian values in state politics instead of defending the proportional share of the party’s seats in the ecclesiastical decision-making system. Nevertheless, the struggle for hegemony between the Centre Party and the Social Democrats was reflected in the Evangelical Lutheran Church particularly since 1973. Thus the aims of church politics were increasingly directed towards ecclesiastical elections and appointments in the 1970s. To justify its activities in church elections, the party stressed that it was not politicising the Church. To the contrary, it was asserted that the church leaders themselves had politicised the Church by favouring the Social Democrats. These alleged efforts to affiliate the Church with one political party were strictly condemned in the Centre Party. But when it came to the political parties’ activity in church elections, opinions diverged. Generally, the issues of church politics resembled those of the party’s trade union politics in the 1970s.
  • Bergström, Milla (Suomen kirkkohistoriallinen seura, 2015)
    The Holy See, Poland and the Polish-Ukrainian Tensions in Eastern Galicia, 1921-1931 This study analyzes the principles that guided the Holy See in problems generated by Polish-Ukrainian tensions during the pontificate of Pope Pius XI. The geographical focus is in Poland where Pius XI had acted as apostolic visitor and nuncio only eight months before he ascended the throne of Saint Peter. Poland was declared independent in November 1918, and from the start, the Poles were thrown into competition with the republic s largest minority, the three million Greek Catholic Ukrainians of Eastern Galicia. The Ukrainians reluctance to acknowledge Polish dominance over Eastern Galicia in addition to the government s aspirations to pressure them into being loyal citizens resulted in nationalist tensions that persisted throughout the interwar period. These tensions were also reflected in religious matters, occasionally causing the Holy See to become involved with the incidents between the Polish government and the Greek Catholic Ukrainians. The study is based on the Holy See s primary sources that have been available for consultation since 2006. It provides the first thorough investigation of problems generated by Polish-Ukrainian tensions expressly from the point of view of the Holy See and the principles that influenced its responses. The study shows that the Vatican was guided by three main principles: the safeguarding and uncompromising defense of the rights of the Catholic Church and its freedom of action, adhering to the impartiality of the Holy See, and the promoting of peace between nations and preventing unrest. The principle of defending the rights of the Catholic Church and its freedom of action was a central factor in the decisions of the Holy See, for instance, when Polish officials arrested Greek Catholic priests and intruded into cloisters of nuns in Eastern Galicia. The Holy See responded to these violations by presenting to the Polish government an energetic objection and an official protest. Since the Holy See aimed at protecting the rights of the Greek Catholic Church and not those of the Ukrainians, it did not consider it was endangering its principle of impartiality. The principle of impartiality was inherently connected with the pontiff s role as the supreme spiritual shepherd of the universal Catholic Church. Pope Pius XI emphasized the equal benevolence he felt as the Holy Father of all Catholics towards both Roman Catholic Poles and Greek Catholic Ukrainians. In order to not offend either party, the Holy See could not interfere in the disputes between the Poles and the Ukrainians which were primarily a result of conflicting national interests. The Holy See considered that to remain impartial it was required to abstain from taking a public stance in what it regarded as purely political issues. According to the Holy See these issues included, for instance, the territorial dispute over Eastern Galicia. The Holy See´s principle of promoting peace between nations can be attested, for instance, in the Vatican´s endeavor to guide nationality-conscious bishops and clergy towards Christian fraternity. The Holy See considered as particularly problematic the fact that the nationalism of the Roman Catholic and Greek Catholic clerics inspired them to participate in nationalistic politics, and sometimes they seemed to pay more attention to politics than to saving souls. At the same time the national politics and enmity among the bishops and the clergy caused confusion in the parishioners and disrupted the amicable coexistence between the Poles and the Ukrainians. The Holy See instructed the bishops and priests to set an example by showing moderation and thus promoting peace in Eastern Galicia. The main focus of this study is on the two most difficult challenges brought forth by the Polish-Ukrainian tensions Pius XI faced during his pontificate, which aptly demonstrate the principles of the Holy See. The first of these cases was a dispute between the Holy See and the Polish government concerning the return of the Greek Catholic Metropolitan Andrei Sheptytskyi, considered as an enemy by the Poles, to his Archiepiscopal See of Lviv (Eastern Galicia) from his extended journey abroad in 1923. In this case the emphasis was on the principles of ensuring the rights of the church and promoting peace and preventing unrest between the Poles and the Ukrainians. The second problematic case arising from the Polish-Ukrainian tensions dealt with the violent pacification of Ukrainians in the fall of 1930 ordered by the Prime Minister of Poland Józef Piłsudski. This case was of a political nature and because of that, the Holy See s principle of impartiality significantly affected the Pope s resolutions. Pius XI held the principle of impartiality to bind him even when his conscience told him to publicly express his disapproval of the violence inflicted on Ukrainians.
  • Niemistö, Hilkka (2013)
    The impact of a merger of parishes on customer orientation A case study of the impact of a change process on customer orientation from the viewpoint of middle management in Helsinki city centre parishes The objective of this dissertation was to answer the following question: What was the impact of a particular merger process on the elements of customer orientation and the ability of employees to act in a customer-oriented way in certain parishes in the Helsinki city centre? The dissertation focused on the viewpoint of middle management, and the main data were derived from interviews with middle- management personnel. During the planning phase of the merger of several Helsinki city centre parishes, some parish employees exhausted themselves in thinking about and commenting on the merger. It is likely that this negatively affected customer orientation in these parishes. Further, during and immediately after the merger and accompanying administrative change, many employees were mainly focused on the internal matters of the organisation. This reduced their ability to carry out their mission and to take customers needs into account. The merger process of the Helsinki city centre parishes reached a stabilisation phase only after the administrative change, and the new merged parish gradually united also at the level of operational attitudes and procedures. The coordination and integration of activities as well as cooperation, which are enablers of optimal customer orientation, were also improved during this stabilisation phase. The merger increased the diversity of employees in the new parish. It enabled the more diverse personnel to specialise in catering to the needs of specific groups, i.e. to act in a more customer-oriented manner. The merger improved workforce mobility, with the parish`s greater means allowing for a more flexible and focused deployment of resources. These changes improved the ability of employees to serve the different groups and more effectively respond to their needs. Over time, larger numbers of employees came to realise the necessity of the merger and accepted the objective of becoming a single parish that could function in unison. Still, the change in the parishes, target groups as well as some of the new methods for achieving goals caused both positive and negative reactions among employees, although increasing numbers of them eventually agreed with the new working methods. The employees awareness of the methods used in the parish work carried out in the city centre also rose following the merger. The comprehensiveness of planning the actual work was improved remarkably in the stabilisation phase. These developments positively affected customer orientation. The increased resources resulting from the merger also enabled the united parish to more systematically gather information about the needs and expectations of people. Specialisation also increased the expertise of employees regarding the different target groups. Employees developed new ideas and viewpoints, and their provision of services became more diversified. The merger also increased the willingness of the leadership to take more risks. However, issues concerning communication arose during the planning and implementation phases, and some in middle management felt that the merger process was having a permanent adverse effect on the flow of information, as previously in the smaller parishes the employees were more closely involved with each other in their daily work. The research results show that as a result of the merger the number of meetings increased but that decision-making was more distant than was previously the case. Within this context, though, a positive result of the merger was that it allowed for greater focus on communication. The Helsinki city centre parishes did not cooperate to any large extent before the merger. In the light of the interviews, one of the key enablers of customer-oriented thinking internal cooperation appears to have increased during the merger process. The facilitating factors of internal cooperation within an organisation employees attitudes towards cooperation and their general awareness of each others work also had a greater influence over time during the merging process. Further, the wider resources of the merged parish made it possible to better coordinate voluntary work.
  • Alaja, Paavo (Suomen kirkkohistoriallinen seura, 2013)
    This study examines the poor relief at Finnish land parishes during the period from 1571 to 1686. During this era, Finland was part of Sweden, and in politics Sweden was an emerging Great Power. In the 16th century, the Reformation was introduced in Sweden and the ecclesiastical circumstances were changing. In the 17th century, the Lutheran changes became more pronounced, and some modifications regarding poor relief were implemented, as in all Protestant countries. The principles of Swedish administration were renewed in the first decades of the 17th century, leading to several social, economic and political changes that increased poverty and decreased social care. This necessitated finding more effective ways to take care of the poor. This was a great challenge because the State had many expenditures and even in the countryside helping hands were becoming scarcer. Thus, the economy of the country was not meeting the needs of its people, who were then at the mercy of poor parishes. In this study, the viewpoint presented is that of the land parishes. How the local country folk took care of their poor and the practices implemented are explored. With circumstances being commonly poor, this study examines how country folk handled the burden. The development of Lutheran country parishes had differences, thus people had possibilities of different kinds to organize poor relief. Basic poor relief continued in several parishes as it had for over a hundred years. This meant, that predominantly family, relatives and village people helped one another, with some of the poor roaming from farm to farm begging for assistance. Slowly, other means of taking care of the poor emerged. Poor relief became more local, with each parish taking care of its own. Poor people and beggars were more closely defined, better controlling who was able to beg for alms. Authorities tried to forbid the wandering of vagabonds and vagrants, and for them begging became illegal. Unfortunately, at the same time the proportion of non-farmers was increasing, which made it difficult for a large group to earn subsistence. During this period money became a more relevant way of helping the poor in some pioneer parishes. The administration of land parishes had the responsibility of organizing their own poor relief. How this was done was influenced by the wider circumstances of the country side. Country folk did not want to be subjected to administrative guidelines and taxes for poor relief. They wanted to help the poor voluntarily and within their own means. This is why changes in poor relief were so slow during this period. The study shows that theological ideas did not have much weight in determining practices concerning poor relief in the country side. Economic hardship was more relevant than Christian dogmas in obtaining alms.
  • Pajunen, Mika Sakari (2012)
    The main focus of this study is the collection of apocryphal psalms in manuscript 4Q381 (4QNon-Canonical Psalms B). The foremost goals of this investigation are to determine what the function and setting(s) of the 4Q381 psalm collection were. No suggestions regarding these central issues have been made by scholars prior to this study. Consequently most of this research revolves around the actual manuscript 4Q381 and its contents. The analysis of the psalm collection begins with a material reconstruction of the manuscript. All of the large and medium sized fragments belonging to manuscript 4Q381 have been placed in this reconstruction. With this material reconstruction the research situation of 4Q381 is significantly altered from the state of affairs preceding this investigation. Instead of a hundred and ten separate individual fragments there is now a large sequence of consecutive, albeit fragmentary text from the last nine columns of a scroll. Also, the exact number of psalms in the preserved parts of the scroll can now be estimated as eight. In the next stage of the study each of these eight individual psalms is analyzed thoroughly in order to evaluate how they contribute to the overall psalm collection. The exact extent of the psalm and any possible additional fragments deriving from it are presented first. This is followed by a critical Hebrew text of the psalm with some notes on uncertain readings and the first English translation of the complete psalm. The exploration of the content is then begun with a basic outline of the psalm s content, followed by short comments on how the details of the text of the psalm are understood. Finally the psalm is investigated for direct links with other texts, and the message of the psalm as a whole is discussed. Each of the eight psalms in 4Q381 discusses specific periods of time. The first extant psalm covers a period from the Creation to the Flood and centers on humankind as the chosen species. The second psalm concentrates on the time of Israel as the elect nation and takes up events from the wilderness period to the Exile. The third psalm brings up the expected future of a group identified as the current chosen ones of God. These three psalms are followed by five royal psalms written expressly as psalms with pseudepigraphic attributions to different kings. These psalms have been named in this study as Praise of the Man of God (David), Praise of Hezekiah, Penitential Prayer of Manasseh, Lament of Josiah, and Penitential Prayer of Jehoiachin. After completing the analysis of the individual psalms, the collection as a whole and the central question of its function are explored in depth. Things common to the psalms of 4Q381 in matters of style and language, the use of earlier compositions, connections with wisdom, and on a larger thematic level are investigated. On the basis of this evidence the 4Q381 psalm collection is argued to be the work of a single author and to function as a unified lesson on the justice of God toward his elect, which was meant to be recited in a communal gathering. Such a degree of unity within a psalm collection is remarkable, and the only directly comparable psalm compilation in this respect seems to be the Psalms of Solomon, which is argued to be a similar collection. In the course of the investigation, 4Q381 is placed into its proper place inside some of the larger developments and ideologies perceivable within the broader framework of the late Second Temple period. In this discussion some suggestions are also made regarding possible developments in the general use of psalms and psalm collections in this period and their connections with wisdom circles. 4Q381 is part of the general trends discernible in psalmody of this period, namely, a general increase in reflection upon the past and the use of wisdom motifs. In addition, 4Q381 gives evidence of a perception of psalms as sources of history, which is argued to be a prominent point of view on the psalms in the second century BCE. Additionally, 4Q381 is connected to more traditional wisdom works from the same time period by its structure and style of discourse, and it seems to be a practical application of the contemporary ideology of looking at past events in order to learn to live properly in the present and to be able to predict the future. Finally, two specific settings are explored in connection with 4Q381, the psalm collection s original historical setting and its setting in the Qumran movement. The amount of information in 4Q381 concerning the historical setting is limited, but it seems that the 4Q381 sage led a particularistic group somewhere outside Jerusalem around the middle of the second century BCE. In the Qumran movement, 4Q381 could have been used as a lesson that in practice demonstrates the worth of the ideology of looking at past events in order to predict the future. Moreover, the particularistic group angle used in 4Q381 would have been directly applicable to the situation of the Qumran movement and its sectarian outlook. All in all, this study primarily contributes to the study of manuscript 4Q381 and its content, but it is also of interest to the ongoing general search for the functions of psalmody in the late Second Temple period.
  • Kauhanen, Tuukka (2011)
    The Lucianic text of the Septuagint of the Historical Books witnessed primarily by the manuscript group L (19, 82, 93, 108, and 127) consists of at least two strata: the recensional elements, which date back to about 300 C.E., and the substratum under these recensional elements, the proto-Lucianic text. Some distinctive readings in L seem to be supported by witnesses that antedate the supposed time of the recension. These witnesses include the biblical quotations of Josephus, Hippolytus, Irenaeus, Tertullian, and Cyprian, and the Old Latin translation of the Septuagint. It has also been posited that some Lucianic readings might go back to Hebrew readings that are not found in the Masoretic text but appear in the Qumran biblical texts. This phenomenon constitutes the proto-Lucianic problem. In chapter 1 the proto-Lucianic problem and its research history are introduced. Josephus references to 1 Samuel are analyzed in chapter 2. His agreements with L are few and are mostly only apparent or, at best, coincidental. In chapters 3 6 the quotations by four early Church Fathers are analyzed. Hippolytus Septuagint text is extremely hard to establish since his quotations from 1 Samuel have only been preserved in Armenian and Georgian translations. Most of the suggested agreements between Hippolytus and L are only apparent or coincidental. Irenaeus is the most trustworthy textual witness of the four early Church Fathers. His quotations from 1 Samuel agree with L several times against codex Vaticanus (B) and all or most of the other witnesses in preserving the original text. Tertullian and Cyprian agree with L in attesting some Hebraizing approximations that do not seem to be of Hexaplaric origin. The question is more likely of early Hebraizing readings of the same tradition as the kaige recension. In chapter 7 it is noted that Origen, although a pre-Lucianic Father, does not qualify as a proto-Lucianic witness. General observations about the Old Latin witnesses as well as an analysis of the manuscript La115 are given in chapter 8. In chapter 9 the theory of the proto-Lucianic recension is discussed. In order to demonstrate the existence of the proto-Lucianic recension one should find instances of indisputable agreement between the Qumran biblical manuscripts and L in readings that are secondary in Greek. No such case can be found in the Qumran material in 1 Samuel. In the text-historical conclusions (chapter 10) it is noted that of all the suggested proto-Lucianic agreements in 1 Samuel (about 75 plus 70 in La115) more than half are only apparent or, at best, coincidental. Of the indisputable agreements, however, 26 are agreements in the original reading. In about 20 instances the agreement is in a secondary reading. These agreements are early variants; mostly minor changes that happen all the time in the course of transmission. Four of the agreements, however, are in a pre-Hexaplaric Hebraizing approximation that has found its way independently into the pre-Lucianic witnesses and the Lucianic recension. The study aims at demonstrating the value of the Lucianic text as a textual witness: under the recensional layer(s) there is an ancient text that preserves very old, even original readings which have not been preserved in B and most of the other witnesses. The study also confirms the value of the early Church Fathers as textual witnesses.
  • Nokelainen, Mika (Suomen kirkkohistoriallinen seura, 2010)
    The Birth of the Minority State Church Development of the legal relationship between the state of Finland and the Finnish Orthodox Church 1917 1922 Mika Nokelainen, University of Helsinki, Finland. The present research seeks to explain how the legal relationship developed between the state of Finland and the Orthodox Church of Finland. The main focus is on three statutes: 1) the Statute of the Orthodox Church in Finland as stated by Prime Minister J. K. Paasikivi s cabinet in November 1918, 2) The Republican Constitution of July 1919 and 3) The Freedom of Religion Act of 1923. This study examines how different political goals influenced the three statutes mentioned above. Another important factor that is taken into account is the attitude of the Lutheran Church of Finland, the church of the national majority, towards the Orthodox minority and its judicial position in the country. Finland became independent in December 1917, in the aftermath of the November Revolution in Russia. The Orthodox Church already had hundreds of years of history in Finland. In the 19th century, several statutes by emperors of Russia had made the Orthodox Church an official state church of Finland. Due to the long history of the Orthodox Church in Finland, Prime Minister Paasikivi s cabinet made the decision to support the church in the spring of 1918. Furthermore, the cabinet s goal to occupy East Karelia increased its willingness to support the church. The Finnish-national Orthodox Church was needed to educate the East-Karelians. A new statute on the Orthodox Church in Finland came into force in November 1918, reorganising the administration, economy and legal relationship between the church and state in Finland. With this statue, the cabinet gained some authority over the church. Sections of this statute made possible, for example, the cabinet s interference in the internal affairs of the church. The Republican Constitution of 1919 included the principle of freedom of religion. The state, which previously had been Lutheran, now became non-denominational. However, the Republican Constitution explicitly mentioned the Lutheran as well as the Orthodox Church, which indirectly confirmed the position of the Orthodox Church as the second state church of Finland. This position was finally confirmed by the Freedom of Religion Act in 1923. In general, the Lutheran Church of Finland did not resist the judicial position of the Orthodox Church. However, some Lutherans regarded the Orthodox Church with suspicion because of its intimate connection with Russia.
  • Isotalo, Leena (Suomen kirkkohistoriallinen seura, 2013)
    This study examines the policy of Kokoomus, the Finnish National Coalition Party, towards religious instruction in Finnish primary schools between 1918 and 1923. The issue is explored in the context of the party s ideology and activities. Kokoomus was established in December 1918 by the monarchists of the Finnish Party ( Old Finns ) and the Young Finnish Party ( Young Finns ). It was the third largest party in the Finnish Parliament during the period examined in this study. Approximately one-fifth of its Members of Parliament were pastors. Previous tensions between the Old Finns and the Young Finns were reflected in the policies of Kokoomus in its early years. Other factors that affected the party s policies included the Finnish Civil War in early 1918. Kokoomus strived to ensure social stability and security, and its followers widely believed that schools and their religious instruction could play a role in this. The issue of religious instruction was especially advocated by the large number of theologians within the party. In practice, religious instruction proved a key issue of contention between 1918 and 1923 in conjunction with the enactment of three pieces of legislation: the Compulsory Education Act (101/1921), the Freedom of Religion Act (267/1922) and the act on the foundation of the primary school system (137/1923). Left-wing parties in the Finnish Parliament opposed the continued inclusion of denominational religious instruction in the school syllabus. The parliamentary group for Kokoomus disagreed, with most members taking a more favourable view. In Kokoomus, the issue of religious instruction was usually regarded as part of church policy rather than school policy, but rifts within the party emerged. Four separate factions can be distinguished in Kokoomus according to the emphasis they placed on religious instruction. The most significant faction in terms of church and school policy comprised the theologians of the Young Churchmen movement, for whom religious instruction in schools was especially important. They emphasised its necessity for religious, national and moral reasons and deemed the coming into force of the Freedom of Religion Act as necessary for both church and society. Furthermore, they declared that children exempted from religious instruction must be offered other non-denominational instruction in ethics. Another key faction within Kokoomus represented the party s mainstream, whose political ideas were similar to those of the above group. Although church policy issues were less central to their political platform, members of this second faction also supported religious instruction as part of a primary school system with a sound value base, primarily on national and moral grounds. They emphasised that children should be educated to know the religious traditions of their people. The third faction within Kokoomus consisted of the theologically conservative Christian revival wing, which opposed the Freedom of Religion Act and advocated religious instruction mostly on religious and moral grounds. It also disagreed with the teaching of non-denominational ethics in schools. Although this faction wielded relatively little influence in the party s parliamentary group, many candidates representing the faction won a seat in the summer 1922 elections. The fourth faction, the party s cultural radicals, subscribed to non-denominational religious instruction. This faction remained quite small, and none of the members of the party s parliamentary group belonged to it. The lack of success of cultural radicals in Kokoomus can also be attributed to the emphasis placed on religious instruction in the party s election propaganda, particularly during the 1922 election cycle. Publicly, the cultural radicals never challenged their party s church policy, but internal party debate and private statements show that this faction also had its adherents in Kokoomus. The official position of Kokoomus regarding religious instruction shifted slightly during the period examined in this study. In the party s early years, it used the rhetoric of public good, stability and security to justify its support for religious instruction. Later, however, when the Finnish Parliament enacted the Freedom of Religion Act and addressed the issue of ethics instruction in primary schools, the idea that religious instruction was not only a public good, but also a private right gained traction.