Into Africa : Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography of sub-Saharan African woodferns (Dryopteris)

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Sessa , E B , Juslen , A , Väre , H & Chambers , S M 2017 , ' Into Africa : Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography of sub-Saharan African woodferns ( Dryopteris ) ' , American Journal of Botany , vol. 104 , no. 3 , pp. 477-486 . https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.1600392

Title: Into Africa : Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography of sub-Saharan African woodferns (Dryopteris)
Author: Sessa, Emily B.; Juslen, Aino; Väre, Henry; Chambers, Sally M.
Contributor: University of Helsinki, University of Helsinki
University of Helsinki, Finnish Museum of Natural History
Date: 2017-03
Language: eng
Number of pages: 10
Belongs to series: American Journal of Botany
ISSN: 0002-9122
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/182406
Abstract: PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Our goal was to infer the phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography of the genus Dryopteris with a focus on taxa in sub-Saharan Africa and neighboring islands. In general, little is known about the relationships between African fern species and their congeners in other geographic regions, and our aim was to determine whether the sub-Saharan African species of Dryopteris are monophyletic and evolved within Africa or arrived there via repeated dispersals into Africa from other regions. METHODS: We obtained sequence data for five chloroplast markers from 214 species of Dryopteris and 18 outgroups. We performed phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses using a Bayesian relaxed clock method in BEAST with fossil and secondary calibration points and estimated ancestral ranges for the genus globally by comparing multiple models in BioGeoBEARS. KEY RESULTS: We found that 22 of 27 accessions of sub-Saharan African Dryopteris belong to a large clade of 31 accessions that also includes taxa from Indian and Atlantic Ocean islands. Additional accessions of taxa from our regions of interest have Asian, Hawaiian, European, or North American species as their closest relatives. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of sub-Saharan African Dryopteris species are descended from a shared common ancestor that dispersed to Africa from Asia approximately 10 Ma. There have been subsequent dispersal events from the African mainland to islands in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, including Madagascar. Several additional species are estimated to have descended from ancestors that reached Africa via separate events over the last roughly 20 million years.
Subject: Africa
ancestral range estimation
Dryopteridaceae
ferns
historical biogeography
long-distance dispersal
molecular dating
GENUS DRYOPTERIS
CHLOROPLAST DNA
RETICULATE EVOLUTION
SEQUENCE DATA
TREE FERNS
ASPLENIUM
ISLANDS
ORIGINS
OCEAN
CLASSIFICATION
1183 Plant biology, microbiology, virology
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