Methods for estimating uncertainty in PMF solutions : Examples with ambient air and water quality data and guidance on reporting PMF results

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http://hdl.handle.net/10138/203425

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Brown , S G , Eberly , S , Paatero , P & Norris , G A 2015 , ' Methods for estimating uncertainty in PMF solutions : Examples with ambient air and water quality data and guidance on reporting PMF results ' , The Science of the Total Environment , vol. 518 , pp. 626-635 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.01.022

Title: Methods for estimating uncertainty in PMF solutions : Examples with ambient air and water quality data and guidance on reporting PMF results
Author: Brown, Steven G.; Eberly, Shelly; Paatero, Pentti; Norris, Gary A.
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Department of Physics
Date: 2015-06-15
Language: eng
Number of pages: 10
Belongs to series: The Science of the Total Environment
ISSN: 0048-9697
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/203425
Abstract: The new version of EPA's positive matrix factorization (EPA PMF) software, 5.0, includes three error estimation (EE) methods for analyzing factor analytic solutions: classical bootstrap (BS), displacement of factor elements (DISP), and bootstrap enhanced by displacement (BS-DISP). These methods capture the uncertainty of PMF analyses due to randomerrors and rotational ambiguity. To demonstrate the utility of the EEmethods, results are presented for three data sets: (1) speciated PM2.5 data froma chemical speciation network (CSN) site in Sacramento, California (2003-2009); (2) trace metal, ammonia, and other species inwater quality samples taken at an inline storage system (ISS) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin (2006); and (3) an organic aerosol data set from high- resolution aerosolmass spectrometer (HR-AMS) measurements in Las Vegas, Nevada (January 2008). We present an interpretation of EE diagnostics for these data sets, results fromsensitivity tests of EE diagnostics using additional and fewer factors, and recommendations for reporting PMF results. BS-DISP and BS are found useful in understanding the uncertainty of factor profiles; they also suggest if the data are over-fitted by specifying toomany factors. DISP diagnosticswere consistently robust, indicating its use for understanding rotational uncertainty and as a first step in assessing a solution's viability. The uncertainty of each factor's identifying species is shown to be a useful gauge for evaluating multiple solutions, e.g., with a different number of factors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Subject: Receptor modeling
Air pollution
Water pollution
Positive matrix factorization
EPA PMF
POSITIVE MATRIX FACTORIZATION
AEROSOL MASS-SPECTROMETER
ORGANIC-AEROSOL
SOURCE APPORTIONMENT
HIGH-RESOLUTION
FINE PARTICLES
EMISSIONS
COMPONENTS
EVOLUTION
SPECTRA
114 Physical sciences
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