Cumulative meta-analysis of interleukins 6 and 1 beta, tumour necrosis factor alpha and C-reactive protein in patients with major depressive disorder

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Haapakoski , R , Mathieu , J , Ebmeier , K P , Alenius , H & Kivimaki , M 2015 , ' Cumulative meta-analysis of interleukins 6 and 1 beta, tumour necrosis factor alpha and C-reactive protein in patients with major depressive disorder ' , Brain, Behavior, and Immunity , vol. 49 , pp. 206-215 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2015.06.001

Title: Cumulative meta-analysis of interleukins 6 and 1 beta, tumour necrosis factor alpha and C-reactive protein in patients with major depressive disorder
Author: Haapakoski, Rita; Mathieu, Julia; Ebmeier, Klaus P.; Alenius, Harri; Kivimaki, Mika
Other contributor: University of Helsinki, Clinicum

Date: 2015-10
Language: eng
Number of pages: 10
Belongs to series: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
ISSN: 0889-1591
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2015.06.001
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/203431
Abstract: Cumulative meta-analyses are used to evaluate the extent to which further studies are needed to confirm or refute a hypothesis. We used this approach to assess observational evidence on systemic inflammation in individuals with major depressive disorder. We identified 58 studies of four common inflammatory markers in a literature search of PubMed, Embase and Psychlnfo databases in May 2014. Pooled data from the earliest eight studies already showed an association between interleukin-6 concentrations and major depression; 23 more recent studies confirmed this finding (d = 0.54, p <0.0001). A significant association between C-reactive protein levels and major depression was noted after 14 studies and this did not change after addition of six more studies (d = 0.47, p <0.0001). For these two inflammatory markers, there was moderate heterogeneity in study-specific estimates, subgroup differences were small, and publication bias appeared to be an unlikely explanation for the findings. Sensitivity analyses including only high-quality studies and subjects free of antidepressant medication further verified the associations. While there was a link between tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels and major depression (d = 0.40, p = 0.002), the cumulative effect remained uncertain due to the extensive heterogeneity in study-specific estimates and inconsistencies between subgroups. No evidence was found for the association between interleukin-1 beta levels and major depression (d = -0.05, p = 0.86). In conclusion, this cumulative meta-analysis confirmed higher mean levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein in patients with major depression compared to non-depressed controls. No consistent association between tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta and major depression was observed. Future studies should clarify the specific immune mechanisms involved as well as continue testing anti-inflammatory therapies in patients suffering from major depression. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Subject: Major depression
Inflammation
Interleukin-6
Interleukin-1 beta
Tumour necrosis factor-alpha
C-reactive protein
Cumulative meta-analysis
REUPTAKE INHIBITOR THERAPY
CELL-MEDIATED-IMMUNITY
ACUTE-PHASE PROTEINS
LATE-LIFE DEPRESSION
IL-6 LEVELS
SOLUBLE INTERLEUKIN-2
INFLAMMATORY MARKERS
TREATMENT RESPONSE
CYTOKINE LEVELS
PLASMA-LEVELS
3112 Neurosciences
3124 Neurology and psychiatry
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