Long working hours, socioeconomic status, and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes : a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data from 222 120 individuals

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Kivimäki , M , Virtanen , M , Kawachi , I , Nyberg , S T , Alfredsson , L , Batty , G D , Bjorner , J B , Borritz , M , Brunner , E J , Burr , H , Dragano , N , Ferrie , J E , Fransson , E I , Hamer , M , Heikkila , K , Knutsson , A , Koskenvuo , M , Madsen , I E H , Nielsen , M L , Nordin , M , Oksanen , T , Pejtersen , J H , Pentti , J , Rugulies , R , Salo , P , Siegrist , J , Steptoe , A , Suominen , S , Theorell , T , Vahtera , J , Westerholm , P J M , Westerlund , H , Singh-Manoux , A & Jokela , M 2015 , ' Long working hours, socioeconomic status, and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes : a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data from 222 120 individuals ' , The Lancet diabetes & endocrinology , vol. 3 , no. 1 , pp. 27-34 . https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(14)70178-0

Title: Long working hours, socioeconomic status, and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes : a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data from 222 120 individuals
Author: Kivimäki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna; Kawachi, Ichiro; Nyberg, Solja T.; Alfredsson, Lars; Batty, G. David; Bjorner, Jakob B.; Borritz, Marianne; Brunner, Eric J.; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Ferrie, Jane E.; Fransson, Eleonor I.; Hamer, Mark; Heikkila, Katriina; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Madsen, Ida E. H.; Nielsen, Martin L.; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H.; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Siegrist, Johannes; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari; Theorell, Tres; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerholm, Peter J. M.; Westerlund, Hugo; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Jokela, Markus
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Clinicum
University of Helsinki, Department of Public Health
University of Helsinki, Behavioural Sciences
Date: 2015-01
Language: eng
Number of pages: 8
Belongs to series: The Lancet diabetes & endocrinology
ISSN: 2213-8587
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/203735
Abstract: Background Working long hours might have adverse health effects, but whether this is true for all socioeconomic status groups is unclear. In this meta-analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, we investigated the role of long working hours as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Methods We identified four published studies through a systematic literature search of PubMed and Embase up to April 30, 2014. Study inclusion criteria were English-language publication; prospective design (cohort study); investigation of the effect of working hours or overtime work; incident diabetes as an outcome; and relative risks, odds ratios, or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs, or sufficient information to calculate these estimates. Additionally, we used unpublished individual-level data from 19 cohort studies from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working-Populations Consortium and international open-access data archives. Effect estimates from published and unpublished data from 222 120 men and women from the USA, Europe, Japan, and Australia were pooled with random-effects meta-analysis. Findings During 1.7 million person-years at risk, 4963 individuals developed diabetes (incidence 29 per 10 000 person-years). The minimally adjusted summary risk ratio for long (>= 55 h per week) compared with standard working hours (35-40 h) was 1.07 (95% CI 0.89-1.27, difference in incidence three cases per 10 000 person-years) with significant heterogeneity in study-specific estimates (I-2 = 53%, p = 0.0016). In an analysis stratified by socioeconomic status, the association between long working hours and diabetes was evident in the low socioeconomic status group (risk ratio 1.29, 95% CI 1.06-1.57, difference in incidence 13 per 10 000 person-years, I-2 = 0%, p = 0.4662), but was null in the high socioeconomic status group (1. 00, 95% CI 0.80-1.25, incidence diff erence zero per 10 000 person-years, I-2 = 15%, p = 0.2464). The association in the low socioeconomic status group was robust to adjustment for age, sex, obesity, and physical activity, and remained after exclusion of shift workers. Interpretation In this meta-analysis, the link between longer working hours and type 2 diabetes was apparent only in individuals in the low socioeconomic status groups. Copyright (C) Kivimaki et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY.
Subject: CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE
COPENHAGEN PSYCHOSOCIAL QUESTIONNAIRE
JOB STRAIN
HEALTH INEQUALITIES
COHORT PROFILE
SWEDISH MEN
STRESS
WOMEN
SLEEP
METABOLISM
3142 Public health care science, environmental and occupational health
515 Psychology
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