N2 Gas Flushing Limits the Rise of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Bovine Raw Milk during Cold Storage

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Munsch-Alatossava , P , Jääskeläinen , S , Alatossava , T & Gauchi , J-P 2017 , ' N 2 Gas Flushing Limits the Rise of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Bovine Raw Milk during Cold Storage ' , Frontiers in Microbiology , vol. 8 , 655 . https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00655

Title: N2 Gas Flushing Limits the Rise of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Bovine Raw Milk during Cold Storage
Author: Munsch-Alatossava, Patricia; Jääskeläinen, Susanna; Alatossava, Tapani; Gauchi, Jean-Pierrre
Contributor: University of Helsinki, University of Helsinki
University of Helsinki, University of Helsinki
Date: 2017-04-19
Language: eng
Number of pages: 12
Belongs to series: Frontiers in Microbiology
ISSN: 1664-302X
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/206295
Abstract: Antibiotic resistance has been noted to be a major and increasing human health issue. Cold storage of raw milk promotes the thriving of psychrotrophic/psychrotolerant bacteria, which are well known for their ability to produce enzymes that are frequently heat stable. However, these bacteria also carry antibiotic resistance (AR) features. In places, where no cold chain facilities are available and despite existing recommendations numerous adulterants, including antibiotics, are added to raw milk. Previously, N-2 gas flushing showed real potential for hindering bacterial growth in raw milk at a storage temperature ranging from 6 to 25 degrees C. Here, the ability of N-2 gas (N) to tackle antibiotic-resistant bacteria was tested and compared to that of the activated lactoperoxidase system (HT) for three raw milk samples that were stored at 6 degrees C for 7 days. To that end, the mesophiles and psychrotrophs that were resistant to gentamycin (G), ceftazidime (Ce), levofloxacin (L), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TS) were enumerated. For the log(10) ratio (which is defined as the bacterial counts from a certain condition divided by the counts on the corresponding control), classical Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) was performed, followed by a mean comparison with the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple range test (REGWQ). If the storage "time" factor was the major determinant of the recorded effects, cold storage alone or in combination with HT or with N promoted a sample-dependent response in consideration of the AR levels. The efficiency of N in limiting the increase in AR was highest for fresh raw milk and was judged to be equivalent to that of HT for one sample and superior to that of HT for the two other samples; moreover, compared to HT, N seemed to favor a more diverse community at 6 degrees C that was less heavily loaded with antibiotic multi-resistance features. Our results imply that N-2 gas flushing could strengthen cold storage of raw milk by tackling the bacterial spoilage potential while simultaneously hindering the increase of bacteria carrying antibiotic resistance/multi-resistance features.
Subject: antibiotic resistance (AR)
raw milk
cold storage
N-2 gas
lactoperoxidase system
Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch test
416 Food Science

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