Contamination by Norovirus and Adenovirus on Environmental Surfaces and in Hands of Conscripts in Two Finnish Garrisons

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Oristo , S , Rönnqvist , M , Aho , M , Sovijärvi , A , Hannila-Handelberg , T , Horman , A , Nikkari , S , Kinnunen , P M & Maunula , L 2017 , ' Contamination by Norovirus and Adenovirus on Environmental Surfaces and in Hands of Conscripts in Two Finnish Garrisons ' , Food and Environmental Virology , vol. 9 , no. 1 , pp. 62-71 . https://doi.org/10.1007/s12560-016-9262-4

Title: Contamination by Norovirus and Adenovirus on Environmental Surfaces and in Hands of Conscripts in Two Finnish Garrisons
Author: Oristo, Satu; Rönnqvist, Maria; Aho, Mika; Sovijärvi, Ava; Hannila-Handelberg, Tuula; Horman, Ari; Nikkari, Simo; Kinnunen, Paula M.; Maunula, Leena
Contributor organization: Departments of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Food Hygiene and Environmental Health
University of Helsinki
Leena Maunula / Principal Investigator
Food and Environmental Virology Research Group
Date: 2017-03
Language: eng
Number of pages: 10
Belongs to series: Food and Environmental Virology
ISSN: 1867-0334
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12560-016-9262-4
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/214426
Abstract: This study investigated the presence of norovirus and adenovirus, especially enteric adenovirus, on the environmental surfaces (n = 481) and military conscripts' hands (n = 109) in two Finnish garrisons (A and B) in 2013 and 2014. A questionnaire study was conducted to reveal possible correlations between viral findings on the conscripts' hands and their acute gastroenteritis symptoms. In addition to the swab samples, 14 fecal samples were obtained for viral analysis. In total, norovirus was present in 9.0 % of the surface swabs in 2013, whereas enteric adenovirus was present in 0.0 % and non-enteric adenovirus in 9.4 %. In the same year, 2.6 % of the hand swabs contained norovirus, 2.6 % enteric adenovirus, and 40.3 % non-enteric adenovirus. Norovirus GI.6 was continually detected on the surfaces of garrison A, and identical virus was detected in some of the fecal samples. In garrison B, two slightly different norovirus GII.4 strains were present on the surfaces. The questionnaires revealed no recent acute gastroenteritis cases in garrison A, but in garrison B, where the norovirus-positive hand swabs were collected, 30.6 % of the conscripts reported of recent symptoms. In 2014, norovirus was rarely detected, but adenovirus was again frequently present, both on the surfaces and hands. Taken together, our results suggest that gastroenteritis outbreaks occurred in 2013, but not in 2014. Due to the low number of hand swabs positive for enteric viruses, no conclusions about associations between viral findings and gastroenteritis symptoms could be drawn. This study increased our understanding of the possible transmission of viruses via contaminated environment and hands.
Subject: Adenovirus
Environmental contamination
Gastroenteritis
Norovirus
Questionnaire
Surface swab
REVERSE-TRANSCRIPTION-PCR
NORWALK-LIKE VIRUSES
GENOGROUP-II
OUTBREAK
TRANSMISSION
GASTROENTERITIS
ASSAYS
INFECTION
SHELLFISH
ILLNESS
1183 Plant biology, microbiology, virology
1172 Environmental sciences
Peer reviewed: Yes
Rights: cc_by
Usage restriction: openAccess
Self-archived version: publishedVersion


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