Mechanisms of KCC2 upregulation during development

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Title: Mechanisms of KCC2 upregulation during development
Author: Ludwig, Anastasia
Other contributor: Friauf, Eckhard
Rivera, Claudio
Kaila, Kai
Saarma, Mart
Contributor organization: University of Helsinki, Faculty of Biosciences, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences
Institute of Biotechnology
Helsingin yliopisto, biotieteellinen tiedekunta, bio- ja ympäristötieteiden laitos
Helsingfors universitet, biovetenskapliga fakulteten, institutionen för bio- och miljövetenskaper
Publisher: Helsingin yliopisto
Date: 2008-11-21
Language: eng
Thesis level: Doctoral dissertation (article-based)
Abstract: Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acting through ionotropic GABAA receptors plays a crucial role in the activity of the central nervous system (CNS). It triggers Ca2+ rise providing trophic support in developing neurons and conducts fast inhibitory function in mature neuronal networks. There is a developmental change in the GABAA reversal potential towards more negative levels during the first two postnatal weeks in rodent hippocampus. This change provides the basis for mature GABAergic activity and is attributable to the developmental expression of the neuron-specific potassium chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2). In this work we have studied the mechanisms responsible for the control of KCC2 developmental expression. As a model system we used hippocampal dissociated cultures plated from embryonic day (E) 17 mice embryos before the onset of KCC2 expression. We showed that KCC2 was significantly up-regulated during the first two weeks of culture development. Interestingly, the level of KCC2 upregulation was not altered by chronic pharmacological blockage of action potentials as well as GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission. By in silico analysis of the proximal KCC2 promoter region we identified 10 candidate transcription factor binding sites that are highly conserved in mammalian KCC2 genes. One of these transcription factors, namely early growth response factor 4 (Egr4), had similar developmental profile as KCC2 and considerably increased the activity of mouse KCC2 gene in neuronal cells. Next we investigated the involvement of neurotrophic factors in regulation of Egr4 and KCC2 expression. We found that in immature hippocampal cultures Egr4 and KCC2 levels were strongly up-regulated by brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)and neurturin. The effect of neurotrophic factors was dependent on the activation of a mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway. Intact Egr4-binding site in proximal KCC2 promoter was required for BDNF-induced KCC2 transcription. In vitro data were confirmed by several in vivo experiments where we detected an upregulation of KCC2 protein levels after intrahippocampal administration of BDNF or neurturin. Importantly, a MAPK-dependent rise in Egr4 and KCC2 expression levels was also observed after a period of kainic acid-induced seizure activity in neonatal rats suggesting that neuronal activity might be involved in Egr4-mediated regulation of KCC2 expression. Finally we demonstrated that the mammalian KCC2 gene (alias Slc12a5) generated two neuron-specific isoforms by using alternative promoters and first exons. A novel isoform of KCC2, termed KCC2a, differed from the previously known KCC2b isoform by 40 unique N-terminal amino acid residues. KCC2a expression was restricted to CNS,remained relatively constant during postnatal development, and contributed 20 50% of total KCC2 mRNA expression in the neonatal mouse brainstem and spinal cord. In summary, our data provide insight into the complex regulation of KCC2 expression during early postnatal development. Although basal KCC2 expression seems to be intrinsically regulated, it can be further augmented by neurotrophic factors or by enhanced activity triggering MAPK phosphorylation and Egr4 induction. Additional KCC2a isoform, regulated by another promoter, provides basal KCC2 level in neonatal brainstem and spinal cord required for survival of KCC2b knockout mice.Ei saatavilla
Subject: fysiologia
Rights: Julkaisu on tekijänoikeussäännösten alainen. Teosta voi lukea ja tulostaa henkilökohtaista käyttöä varten. Käyttö kaupallisiin tarkoituksiin on kielletty.

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