Folding and Selective Exit of Reporter Proteins from the Yeast Endoplasmic Reticulum

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http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-10-4454-0
Title: Folding and Selective Exit of Reporter Proteins from the Yeast Endoplasmic Reticulum
Author: Shmelev, Anton
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Faculty of Biosciences, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Division of Genetics
Institute of Biotechnology
Publisher: Helsingin yliopisto
Date: 2007-12-19
Language: en
Belongs to series: Disertationes Bioscientarium Molecularium Universitatis Helsingensis in Viikki - URN:ISSN:1795-7079
URI: http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-10-4454-0
http://hdl.handle.net/10138/22044
Thesis level: Doctoral dissertation (article-based)
Abstract: The present study analyses the traffic of Hsp150 fusion proteins through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of yeast cells, from their post-translational translocation and folding to their exit from the ER via a selective COPI-independent pathway. The reporter proteins used in the present work are: Hsp150p, an O-glycosylated natural secretory protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as fusion proteins consisting of a fragment of Hsp150 that facilitates in the yeast ER proper folding of heterologous proteins fused to it. It is thought that newly synthesized polypeptides are kept in an unfolded form by cytosolic chaperones to facilitate the post-translational translocation across the ER membrane. However, beta-lactamase, fused to the Hsp150 fragment, folds in the cytosol into bioactive conformation. Irreversible binding of benzylpenicillin locked beta-lactamase into a globular conformation, and prevented the translocation of the fusion protein. This indicates that under normal conditions the beta-lactamase portion unfolds for translocation. Cytosolic machinery must be responsible for the unfolding. The unfolding is a prerequisite for translocation through the Sec61 channel into the lumen of the ER, where the polypeptide is again folded into a bioactive and secretion-competent conformation. Lhs1p is a member of the Hsp70 family, which functions in the conformational repair of misfolded proteins in the yeast ER. It contains Hsp70 motifs, thus it has been thought to be an ATPase, like other Hsp70 members. In order to understand its activity, authentic Lhs1p and its recombinant forms expressed in E. coli, were purified. However, no ATPase activity of Lhs1p could be detected. Nor could physical interaction between Lhs1p and activators of the ER Hsp70 chaperone Kar2p, such as the J-domain proteins Sec63p, Scj1p, and Jem1p and the nucleotide exchange factor Sil1p, be demonstrated. The domain structure of Lhs1p was modelled, and found to consist of an ATPase-like domain, a domain resembling the peptide-binding domain (PBD) of Hsp70 proteins, and a C-terminal extension. Crosslinking experiments showed that Lhs1p and Kar2p interact. The interacting domains were the C-terminal extension of Lhs1p and the ATPase domain of Kar2p, and this interaction was independent of ATPase activity of Kar2p. A model is presented where the C-terminal part of Lhs1p forms a Bag-like 3 helices bundle that might serve in the nucleotide exchange function for Kar2p in translocation and folding of secretory proteins in the ER. Exit of secretory proteins in COPII-coated vesicles is believed to be dependent of retrograde transport from the Golgi to the ER in COPI-coated vesicles. It is thought that receptors escaping to the Golgi must be recycled back to the ER exit sites to recruit cargo proteins. We found that Hsp150 leaves the ER even in the absence of functional COPI-traffic from the Golgi to the ER. Thus, an alternative, COPI-independent ER exit pathway must exists, and Hsp150 is recruited to this route. The region containing the signature guiding Hsp150 to this alternative pathway was mapped.The present study analyses the traffic of Hsp150 fusion proteins through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of yeast cells, from their post-translational translocation and folding to their exit from the ER via a selective COPI-independent pathway. The reporter proteins used in the present work are: Hsp150p, an O-glycosylated natural secretory protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as fusion proteins consisting of a fragment of Hsp150 that facilitates in the yeast ER proper folding of heterologous proteins fused to it. It is thought that newly synthesized polypeptides are kept in an unfolded form by cytosolic chaperones to facilitate the post-translational translocation across the ER membrane. However, beta-lactamase, fused to the Hsp150 fragment, folds in the cytosol into bioactive conformation. Irreversible binding of benzylpenicillin locked beta-lactamase into a globular conformation, and prevented the translocation of the fusion protein. This indicates that under normal conditions the beta-lactamase portion unfolds for translocation. Cytosolic machinery must be responsible for the unfolding. The unfolding is a prerequisite for translocation through the Sec61 channel into the lumen of the ER, where the polypeptide is again folded into a bioactive and secretion-competent conformation. Lhs1p is a member of the Hsp70 family, which functions in the conformational repair of misfolded proteins in the yeast ER. It contains Hsp70 motifs, thus it has been thought to be an ATPase, like other Hsp70 members. In order to understand its activity, authentic Lhs1p and its recombinant forms expressed in E. coli, were purified. However, no ATPase activity of Lhs1p could be detected. Nor could physical interaction between Lhs1p and activators of the ER Hsp70 chaperone Kar2p, such as the J-domain proteins Sec63p, Scj1p, and Jem1p and the nucleotide exchange factor Sil1p, be demonstrated. The domain structure of Lhs1p was modelled, and found to consist of an ATPase-like domain, a domain resembling the peptide-binding domain (PBD) of Hsp70 proteins, and a C-terminal extension. Crosslinking experiments showed that Lhs1p and Kar2p interact. The interacting domains were the C-terminal extension of Lhs1p and the ATPase domain of Kar2p, and this interaction was independent of ATPase activity of Kar2p. A model is presented where the C-terminal part of Lhs1p forms a Bag-like 3 helices bundle that might serve in the nucleotide exchange function for Kar2p in translocation and folding of secretory proteins in the ER. Exit of secretory proteins in COPII-coated vesicles is believed to be dependent of retrograde transport from the Golgi to the ER in COPI-coated vesicles. It is thought that receptors escaping to the Golgi must be recycled back to the ER exit sites to recruit cargo proteins. We found that Hsp150 leaves the ER even in the absence of functional COPI-traffic from the Golgi to the ER. Thus, an alternative, COPI-independent ER exit pathway must exists, and Hsp150 is recruited to this route. The region containing the signature guiding Hsp150 to this alternative pathway was mapped.
Subject: molekyylibiologia
perinnöllisyystiede
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