Maanmittauslaitos: Recent submissions

Now showing items 1-20 of 363
  • Puttonen, Eetu; Lehtomäki, Matti; Litkey, Paula; Näsi, Roope; Feng, Ziyi; Liang, Xinlian; Wittke, Samantha; Pandzic, Milos; Hakala, Teemu; Karjalainen, Mika; Pfeifer, Norbert (Frontiers Reseach Foundation, 2019)
    Frontiers in Plant Science
    Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) can be used to monitor plant dynamics with a frequency of several times per hour and with sub-centimeter accuracy, regardless of external lighting conditions. TLS point cloud time series measured at short intervals produce large quantities of data requiring fast processing techniques. These must be robust to the noise inherent in point clouds. This study presents a general framework for monitoring circadian rhythm in plant movements from TLS time series. Framework performance was evaluated using TLS time series collected from two Norway maples (Acer platanoides) and a control target, a lamppost. The results showed that the processing framework presented can capture a plant's circadian rhythm in crown and branches down to a spatial resolution of 1 cm. The largest movements in both Norway maples were observed before sunrise and at their crowns' outer edges. The individual cluster movements were up to 0.17 m (99th percentile) for the taller Norway maple and up to 0.11 m (99th percentile) for the smaller tree from their initial positions before sunset.
  • Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo; Jauhiainen, Lauri; Honkavaara, Eija; Wittke, Samantha; Karjalainen, Mika; Puttonen, Eetu (Frontiers Reseach Foundation, 2019)
    Frontiers in Plant Science
    Monocultural land use challenges sustainability of agriculture. Pre-crop value indicates the benefits of a previous crop for a subsequent crop in crop sequencing and facilitates diversifi-cation of agricultural systems. Traditional field experiments are resource intensive and evaluate pre-crop values only for a limited number of previous and subsequent crops. We deve-loped a dynamic method based on Sentinel-2 derived Norma-lized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values to estimate pre-crop values on a field parcel scale. The NDVI-values were compared to the region specific 90th percentile of each crop and year and thereby, an NDVI-gap was determined. The NDVI-gaps for each subsequent crop in the case of mo-nocultural crop sequencing were compared to that for other previous crops in rotation and thereby, pre-crop values for a high number of previous and subsequent crop combinations were estimated. The pre-crop values ranged from +16% to -16%. Especially grain legumes and rapeseed were valuable as pre-crops, which is well in line with results from field expe-riments. Such data on pre-crop values can be updated and expanded every year. For the first time, a high number of previous and following crop combinations, originating from farmer’s fields, is available to support diversification of cur-rently monocultural crop sequencing patterns in agriculture.
  • Bhuiyan, Mohammad Zahidul H.; Ferrara, Nunzia Giorgia; Hashemi, Amin; Thombre, Sarang; Pattinson, Michael; Dumville, Mark (MDPI, 2019)
    GNSS-based applications are susceptible to different threats, including radio frequency interference. Ensuring that the new applications can be validated against the latest threats supports the wider adoption and success of GNSS in higher value markets. Therefore, the availability of standardized GNSS receiver testing procedures is central to developing the next generation of receiver technologies. The EU Horizon2020 research project STRIKE3 (Standardization of GNSS Threat reporting and Receiver testing through International Knowledge Exchange, Experimentation and Exploitation) proposed standardized test procedures to validate different categories of receivers against real-world interferences, detected at different monitoring sites. This paper describes the recorded interference signatures, their use in standardized test procedures, and analyzes the result for two categories of receivers, namely mass-market and professional grade. The result analysis in terms of well-defined receiver key performance indicators showed that performance of both receiver categories was degraded by the selected interference threats, although there was considerable difference in degree and nature of their impact.
  • Olsson, Per-Anders; Breili, Kristian; Ophaug, Vegard; Steffen, Holger; Bilker-Koivula, Mirjam; Nielsen, Emil; Oja, Tõnis; Timmen, Ludger (Oxford University Press, 2019)
    Geophysical Journal International
    For the first time, we present a complete, processed compilation of all repeated absolute gravity (AG) observations in the Fennoscandian postglacial land uplift area and assess their ability to accurately describe the secular gravity change, induced by Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). The dataset spans over more than three decades and consists of 688 separate observations at 59 stations. Ten different organisations have contributed with measurements using 14 different instruments. The work was coordinated by the Nordic Geodetic Commisson (NKG). Representatives from each country collected and processed data from their country, respectively, and all data were then merged to one dataset. Instrumental biases are considered and presented in terms of results from international comparisons of absolute gravimeters. From this dataset, gravity rates of change (g_dot) are estimated for all stations with more than two observations and a timespan larger than two years. The observed rates are compared to predicted rates from a global GIA model as well as the state of the art semi-empirical land uplift model for Fennoscandia, NKG2016LU. Linear relations between observed g_dot and the land uplift, h_dot (NKG2016LU), are estimated from the absolute gravity observations by means of weighted least squares adjustment (WLSA) as well as weighted orthogonal distance regression (WODR). The empirical relations are not significantly different from the modelled, geophysical relation g_dot = 0:03 - 0:163(+-0.016)h_dot. We also present a g_dot -model for the whole Fennoscandian land uplift region. At many stations, the observational estimates of g_dot still suffer from few observations and/or unmodelled environmental effects (e.g. local hydrology). We therefore argue that, at present, the best predictions of GIA-induced gravity rate of change in Fennoscandia are achieved by means of the NKG2016LU land uplift model, together with the geophysical relation between g_dot and h_dot.
  • Koistinen, Kai (2019)
    Positio - paikkatiedon erikoislehti
  • Lundvall, Anniina (2019)
    Positio - paikkatiedon erikoislehti
  • Oksanen, Juha; Puranen, Laura (2019)
    Positio - paikkatiedon erikoislehti
  • Karila, Kirsi; Matikainen, Leena; Litkey, Paula; Hyyppä, Juha; Puttonen, Eetu (Taylor & Francis, 2018)
    International Journal of Remote Sensing
    Multispectral airborne laser scanning (MS-ALS) sensors are a new promising source of data for auto-mated mapping methods. Finding an optimal time for data acquisition is important in all mapping applica-tions based on remotely sensed datasets. In this study, three MS-ALS datasets acquired at different times of the growing season were compared for automated land cover mapping and road detection in a suburban area. In addition, changes in the intensity were studied. An object-based random forest classi-fication was carried out using reference points. The overall accuracy of the land cover classification was 93.9% (May dataset), 96.4% (June) and 95.9% (August). The use of the May dataset acquired under leafless conditions resulted in more complete roads than the other datasets acquired when trees were in leaf. It was concluded that all datasets used in the study are applicable for suburban land cover map-ping, however small differences in accuracies between land cover classes exist.
  • Isomäki, Harri (Maanmittauslaitos, 2019)
    Maanmittauslaitoksen julkaisuja
  • Karila, Kirsi; Yu, Xiaowei; Vastaranta, Mikko; Karjalainen, Mika; Puttonen, Eetu; Hyyppä, Juha (Elsevier, 2019)
    ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing
    Satellite images provide spatially explicit information on forest change covering wide areas. In this study, bistatic TanDEM-X (TDX) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite data were used to derive digital surface models (DSMs) of forest areas using SAR interferometry (InSAR). The capability of change features derived from bi-temporal InSAR DSMs to detect forest height (90th percen-tile of canopy height distribution, H90) and density variations was investigated. Moreover, changes in the forest above-ground bio-mass (AGB) were estimated from height changes between two In-SAR DSMs. Bi-temporal airborne laser scanning (ALS) data, aerial orthoimages and an ALS-based AGB change map from a study area in Southern Finland were used as references. The results indicate that the InSAR height change of a forested area correlates more with vegetation density change than with height change. The corre-lation between the InSAR mean height change and the height change feature from ALS was 0.76 at stand level. Correspondingly, the correlation between the InSAR mean height change and the ALS penetration rate change was 0.89. The AGB changes predicted based on InSAR height change agreed well with the reference data; the root-mean-square error (RMSE) was 20.7 Mg/ha (18.5% of the mean biomass in 2012) at stand level and 27.4 Mg/ha (27.0%) for 16 × 16 m grid cells. The results show that TDX DSMs can be used to detect biomass changes of different orders of magnitude, e.g. due to logging and thinning.
  • Mäkinen, Ville; Oksanen, Juha; Sarjakoski, Tapani (Taylor & Francis, 2019)
    International Journal of Geographical Information Science
    Determining stream networks automatically from digital elevation models is an issue that is actively being studied. The quality of elevation models has increased over time, but many hydrologically critical features, such as culverts, are often missing from the elevation data. To analyze the surficial water flow, one must either prepare a special elevation model or post-process an already-existing model. This study builds on the traditional, well-established method of determining the stream network from digital elevation models. We have extended the traditional method by locating culverts automatically, using road network data as an input. We show, by comparison to the reference data, that the culverts being most relevant for the stream network can be found with good accuracy. We demonstrate that by including the automatically located culverts in the automatic stream network determination, the quality of the generated network can be noticeably improved.
  • Rantanen, Jesperi; Ruotsalainen, Laura; Kirkko-Jaakkola, Martti; Mäkelä, Maija (2018)
    IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
  • Rantanen, Jesperi; Mäkelä, Maija; Ruotsalainen, Laura; Kirkko-Jaakkola, Martti (2018)
    2018 International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN)
  • Mäkelä, Maija; Kirkko-Jaakkola, Martti; Rantanen, Jesperi; Ruotsalainen, Laura (2018)
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Fusion
    In this paper we discuss the effect of cooperation in foot-mounted pedestrian indoor navigation. We study methods to use Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) range measurements between two pedestrians, as well as sharing location information between them. Our aim is to handle the heading offset between two separate pedestrian inertial navigation solutions and to represent the collaborators in a common coordinate frame. Furthermore, we study the effect of the proposed method also on height estimation. Our approach fuses measurements from several sensors, such as Inertial Measurement Units, UWB radios and a barometer using Bayesian filtering. First results from tests done in a realistic scenario show that the method can work in tactical operations.
  • Mäkelä, Maija; Rantanen, Jesperi; Kirkko-Jaakkola, Martti; Ruotsalainen, Laura (IEEE Sensors Council, 2018)
    IEEE Sensors Journal
    In this paper, we study machine learning methods for recognizing the motion context of a user of an infrastructure-free navigation system. Motion context is information about whether the user is running, crawling, or lying down, for instance. This can be valuable information for the command and control of a tactical or rescue operation, and it can also be used to adapt the positioning algorithm accordingly in order to improve the positioning result. We test our approach in collaboration with the Finnish Defence Forces. With only about 5 min of training data, we are able to detect the users motion context over 93% of the time using a random forest classifier. However, our tests show that the performance of the classifier is highly dependent on the user of the system. For this reason, we experiment with different classification algorithms in order to find a user-independent classifier providing a good compromise between accuracy and computational complexity. With a naïve Bayesian classifier, we achieve 85% detection rate in case when the training data is not produced by the user. In addition, we demonstrate how the motion recognition can be used to adjust the zero velocity update threshold in order to improve the performance of a foot-mounted inertial navigation algorithm.
  • Mäkinen, Kirsi (2018)
    Positio - paikkatiedon erikoislehti
  • Vaniala, Riitta (2018)
    Positio - paikkatiedon erikoislehti
  • Markkanen, Johannes; Agarwal, Jessica; Väisänen, Timo; Penttilä, Antti; Muinonen, Karri (IOP Publishing, 2018)
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters
    We show that the scattering phase functions of the coma and the nucleus of the comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko measured by the Rosetta/Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) instrument can be reproduced by a particle model involving clustered, densely packed submicrometer-sized grains composed of organic material and larger micrometer-sized silicate grains. The simulated and measured coma phase functions suggest that near the nucleus scattering is dominated by large particles, and the size distribution of dust particles varies with time and/or local coma environment. Further, we show that the measured nucleus phase function is consistent with the coma phase function by modeling a nucleus-sized object consisting of the same particles that explain the coma phase functions.
  • Mattila, Kalevi; Haas, Martin; Haikala, Lauri; Jo, Y.-S.; Lehtinen, Kimmo; Leinert, Christoph; Väisänen, Petri (EDP Sciences, 2018)
    Astronomy & Astrophysics
    Context. Dark nebulae display a surface brightness because dust grains scatter light of the general interstellar radiation field (ISRF). High-galactic-latitudes dark nebulae are seen as bright nebulae when surrounded by transparent areas which have less scattered light from the general galactic dust layer. Aims. Photometry of the bright dark nebulae LDN 1780, LDN 1642, and LBN 406 shall be used to derive scattering properties of dust and to investigate the presence of UV fluorescence emission by molecular hydrogen and the extended red emission (ERE). Methods. We used multi-wavelength optical photometry and imaging at ground-based telescopes and archival imaging and spectroscopic UV data from the spaceborn GALEX and SPEAR/FIMS instruments. In the analysis we used Monte Carlo RT and both observational data and synthetic models for the ISRF in the solar neighbourhood. The line-of-sight extinctions through the clouds have been determined using near infrared excesses of background stars and the 200/250 μm far infrared emission by dust as measured using the ISO and Herschel space observatories. Results. The optical surface brightness of the three target clouds can be explained in terms of scattered light. The dust albedo ranges from ~0.58 at 3500 Å to ~0.72 at 7500 Å. The spectral energy distribution of LDN 1780 is explained in terms of optical depth and background scattered light effects instead of the original published suggestion in terms of ERE. The far-ultraviolet surface brightness of LDN 1780 cannot be explained by scattered light only. In LDN 1780, H2 fluorescent emission in the wavelength range 1400–1700 Å has been detected and analysed. Conclusions. Our albedo values are in good agreement with the predictions of the dust model of Weingartner and Draine and with the THEMIS CMM model for evolved core-mantle grains. The distribution of H2 fluorescent emission in LDN 1780 shows a pronounced dichotomy with a strong preference for its southern side where enhanced illumination is impinging from the Sco OB2 association and the O star ζ Oph. A good correlation is found between the H2 fluorescence and a previously mapped 21-cm excess emission. The H2 fluorescence emission in LDN 1780 has been modelled using a PDR code; the resulting values for H2 column density and the total gas density are consistent with the estimates derived from CO observations and optical extinction along the line of sight.
  • Harju, Jorma; Lehtinen, Kimmo; Romney, Jonathan; Petrov, Leonid; Granvik, Mikael; Muinonen, Karri; Bach, Uwe; Poutanen, Markku (IOP Publishing, 2018)
    The occultation of the radio galaxy 0141+268 by the asteroid (372) Palma on 2017 May 15 was observed using six antennas of the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). The shadow of Palma crossed the VLBA station at Brewster, Washington. Owing to the wavelength used, and the size and the distance of the asteroid, a diffraction pattern in the Fraunhofer regime was observed. The measurement retrieves both the amplitude and the phase of the diffracted electromagnetic wave. This is the first astronomical measurement of the phase shift caused by diffraction. The maximum phase shift is sensitive to the effective diameter of the asteroid. The bright spot at the shadow's center, the so called Arago-Poisson spot, is clearly detected in the amplitude time-series, and its strength is a good indicator of the closest angular distance between the center of the asteroid and the radio source. A sample of random shapes constructed using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm suggests that the silhouette of Palma deviates from a perfect circle by 26 +/- 13%. The best-fitting random shapes resemble each other, and we suggest their average approximates the shape of the silhouette at the time of the occultation. The effective diameter obtained for Palma, 192.1 +/- 4.8 km, is in excellent agreement with recent estimates from thermal modeling of mid-infrared photometry. Finally, our computations show that because of the high positional accuracy, a single radio interferometric occultation measurement can reduce the long-term ephemeris uncertainty by an order of magnitude.