Refereed publications


Peer-reviewed scientific articles such as journal articles, book sections, chapters in research books, or peer-reviewed articles in conference proceedings.

Recent Submissions

  • Junttila, Samuli; Hölttä, Teemu; Puttonen, Eetu; Katoh, Masato; Vastaranta, Mikko; Kaartinen, Harri; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppä, Hannu (Elsevier, 2021)
    Remote Sensing of Environment
    During the past decades, extreme events have become more prevalent and last longer, and as a result drought-induced plant mortality has increased globally. Timely in-formation on plant water dynamics is essential for under-standing and anticipating drought-induced plant mortality. Leaf water potential (ΨL), which is usually measured de-structively, is the most common metric that has been used for decades for measuring water stress. Remote sensing methods have been developed to obtain information on water dynamics from trees and forested landscapes. However, the spatial and temporal resolutions of the existing methods have limited our understanding of the water dynamics and diurnal variation of ΨL within single trees. Thus, we investi-gated the capability of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in-tensity in observing diurnal variation in ΨL during a 50-h monitoring period. We aimed to improve the understanding on how large a part of the diurnal variation in ΨL can be captured using TLS intensity observations. We found that TLS intensity at the 905 nm wavelength measured from a static position was able to explain 77% of the variation in ΨL for three trees of two tree species with a root mean square error of 0.141 MPa. Based on our experiment with three trees, a time series of TLS intensity measurements can be used in detecting changes in ΨL, and thus it is worthwhile to expand the investigations to cover a wider range of tree species and forests and further increase our understanding of plant water dynamics at wider spatial and temporal scales.
  • Campos, Mariana Batista; Litkey, Paula; Wang, Yunsheng; Chen, Yuwei; Hyyti, Heikki; Hyyppä, Juha; Puttonen, Eetu (Frontiers Research Foundation, 2021)
    Frontiers in Plant Science
    The terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) has become standard technology for vegetation dynamics monitoring. TLS time series have significant underlying application in investigating structural development and dynamics on a daily and seasonal scale. However, the high potential of TLS for the monitoring of long-term temporal phenomena in fully grown trees with high spatial and temporal resolution has not yet been fully explored. Automated TLS platforms for long-term data collection and monitoring of forest dynamics are rare; and long-term TLS time series data is not yet readily available to potential end-user, such as forestry researchers and plant biologists. This work presents an automated and permanent TLS measurement station that collects high frequency and high spatial resolution TLS time series, aiming to monitor short- and long-term phenological changes at a boreal forestry field station (0.006◦ angular resolution, one scan per hour). The measurement station is the first of its kind considering the scope, accuracy, and length of the time series it produces. The TLS measurement station provides a unique dataset to monitor the 3D physical structure of a boreal forest, enabling new insights into forest dynamics. For instance, the information collected by the TLS station can be used to accurately detect structural changes in tree crowns surrounding the station. These changes and their timing can be linked with the phenological state of plants, such as the start of leaf-out during spring growing season. As the first results of this novel station, we present time series data products collected with the station and what detailed information it provides about the phenological changes in the test site during the leaf sprout in spring.
  • Herrero-Huerta, Mónica; Bucksch, Alexander; Puttonen, Eetu; Rainey, Katy Martin (American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 2020)
    Plant Phenomics
    Cost-effective phenotyping methods are urgently needed to advance crop genetics in order to meet the food, fuel, and fiber demands of the coming decades. Concretely, charac-terizing plot level traits in fields is of particular interest. Re-cent developments in high resolution imaging sensors for UAS (unmanned aerial systems) focused on collecting de-tailed phenotypic measurements are a potential solution. We introduce canopy roughness as a new plant plot-level trait. We tested its usability with soybean by optical data collect-ed from UAS to estimate biomass. We validate canopy roughness on a panel of 108 soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] recombinant inbred lines in a multienvironment trial during the R2 growth stage. A senseFly eBee UAS platform obtained aerial images with a senseFly S.O.D.A. compact digital camera. Using a structure from motion (SfM) tech-nique, we reconstructed 3D point clouds of the soybean experiment. A novel pipeline for feature extraction was de-veloped to compute canopy roughness from point clouds. We used regression analysis to correlate canopy roughness with field-measured aboveground biomass (AGB) with a leave-one-out cross-validation. Overall, our models achieved a coefficient of determination (R2) greater than 0.5 in all trials. Moreover, we found that canopy roughness has the ability to discern AGB variations among different geno-types. Our test trials demonstrate the potential of canopy roughness as a reliable trait for high-throughput phenotyping to estimate AGB. As such, canopy roughness provides practical information to breeders in order to select pheno-types on the basis of UAS data.
  • Gruber, Thomas; Ågren, Jonas; Angermann, Detlef; Ellmann, Artu; Engfeldt, Andreas; Gisinger, Christoph; Jaworski, Leszek; Marila, Simo; Nastula, Jolanta; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz; Oikonomidou, Xanthi; Poutanen, Markku; Saari, Timo; Schlaak, Marius; Swiatek, Anna; Varbla, Sander; Zdunek, Ryszard (MDPI, 2020)
    Remote Sensing
    Traditionally, sea level is observed at tide gauge stations, which usually also serve as height reference stations for national leveling networks and therefore define a height system of a country. One of the main deficiencies to use tide gauge data for geodetic sea level research and height systems unification is that only a few stations are connected to the geometric network of a country by operating permanent GNSS receivers next to the tide gauge. As a new observation technique, absolute positioning by SAR using active transponders on ground can fill this gap by systematically observing time series of geometric heights at tide gauge stations. By additionally knowing the tide gauge geoid heights in a global height reference frame, one can finally obtain absolute sea level heights at each tide gauge. With this information the impact of climate change on the sea level can be quantified in an absolute manner and height systems can be connected across the oceans. First results from applying this technique at selected tide gauges at the Baltic coasts are promising but also exhibit some problems related to the new technique. The paper presents the concept of using the new observation type in an integrated sea level observing system and provides some early results for SAR positioning in the Baltic sea area.
  • Kirkko-Jaakkola, Martti; Marila, Simo; Sarang, Thombre; Honkala, Salomon; Koivula, Hannu; Kuusniemi, Heidi; Söderholm, Stefan (2019)
    Proceedings of the 32nd International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation (ION GNSS+ 2019) September 16 - 20, 2019, Hyatt Regency Miami, Miami, Florida
    This paper presents a hybrid navigation algorithm based on loose coupling of the on-board speedometer and inertial sensors of a land vehicle with a GNSS receiver. An Extended Kalman Filter estimating ten error states is used as the hybridization framework. The algorithm is developed to serve as a baseline for the evaluation of the navigation infrastructure of the Aurora ecosystem which is an Arctic test bed for autonomous vehicles and intelligent transport systems. In the experimental tests we focus on the performance of the navigation algorithm during GNSS outages. First, the tests indicate that the quality of GNSS updates has an immediate effect on how fast the position errors accumulate when GNSS becomes unavailable. Second, using low-cost sensors together with the current navigation infrastructure available at the Aurora test site, GNSS position fixes need to be obtained at intervals no longer than 4 seconds in order to maintain a 95 % horizontal positioning accuracy better than 0.2 meters. The results serve as a basis for recommendations for further development of the Aurora ecosystem, suggesting that further positioning infrastructure could be deployed for guaranteeing a navigation performance adequate for autonomous vehicles.
  • Perheentupa, Viljami; Mäkinen, Ville; Habicht, Hando-Laur; Oksanen, Juha (Elsevier, 2020)
    Applied Computing and Geosciences
    Post-glacial land uplift and shore displacement are dynamic processes that are challenging to present with cartography and geovisualization. To communicate these phenomena, we have created a dynamic visualization in the form of high-quality animation, utilizing automated processes in the computation and rendering of large raster datasets. We have developed a simplified model to assess the past and future elevation models, and applied it to the High Coast/Kvarken Archipelago UNESCO World Heritage Site, which is considered one of the best places in the world to observe land uplift. Additionally, the ice decline in the area has been evaluated and visualized. Based on the model and the present-day topography/bathymetry data, we provide a 40 fps 4K-resolution animation with an 80-s duration of the post-glacial history at the World Heritage Site and its vicinity, extending from 10,500 years ago to 1000 years in the future. Although they do not aim to contain the precision of thorough paleogeographic reconstructions, we have found that the individual frames of the animation are closely aligned with comparable geological data. We also present the computational process flow and the visualization principles used in the automated rendering, and thus aim to contribute to the cartographic presentation of geodynamic processes.
  • Brauer, Anna; Mäkinen, Ville; Oksanen, Juha (Elsevier, 2021)
    Computers Environment and Urban Systems
    Mobile activity tracking data, i.e. data collected by mobile applications that enable activity tracking based on the use of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), contains information on cycling in urban areas at an un-precedented spatial and temporal extent and resolution. It can be a valuable source of information about the quality of bicycling in the city. Required is a notion of quality that is derivable from plain GNSS trajectories. In this article, we quantify urban cycling quality by esti-mating the fluency of cycling traffic using a large set of GNSS trajectories recorded with a mobile tracking appli-cation. Earlier studies have shown that cyclists prefer to travel continuously and without halting, i.e. fluently. Our method extracts trajectory properties that describe the stopping behaviour and dynamics of cyclists. It aggre-gates these properties to segments of a street network and combines them in a descriptive index. The suitability of the data to describe the cyclists' behaviour with street-level detail is evaluated by comparison with various data from independent sources. Our approach to characterizing cycling traffic fluency offers a novel view on the cyclability of a city that could be valuable for urban planners, application providers, and cyclists alike. We find clear indications for the data's ability to estimate characteristics of city cycling quality correctly, despite behaviour patterns of cyclists not caused by external circumstances and the data's inher-ent bias. The proposed quality measure is adaptable for different applications, e.g. as an infrastructure quality measure or as a routing criterion.
  • Brauer, Anna; Mäkinen, Ville; Oksanen, Juha (2020)
    Proceedings of GISRUK
    Activity tracking data collected by mobile applications opens up a new, data-driven perspective on monitoring cycling in the city. In this work, we demonstrate how a large set of trajectories can be used to measure the cyclability of an urban infrastructure. We achieve this by defining the cycling traffic fuency index that describes the smoothness of cycling traffic on segments of a street network. Bias, uncertainty, and the divergence of infrastructure popularity presents challenges to the method, but within these limits, the index could be applied in city planning or as a routing criterion.
  • Kaasalainen, Sanna (CRC Press, 2020)
    The development of multispectral terrestrial laser scan-ning (TLS) is still at the very beginning, with only four instruments worldwide providing simultaneous three-dimensional (3D) point cloud and spectral measurement. Research on multiwavelength laser returns has been carried out by more groups, but there are still only about ten research instruments published and no commercial availability. This chapter summarizes the experiences from all these studies to provide an overview of the state of the art and future developments needed to bring the multispectral TLS technology into the next level. Alt-hough the current number of applications is sparse, they already show that multispectral lidar technology has po-tential to disrupt many fields of science and industry due to its robustness and the level of detail available.
  • Andrei, Constantin-Octavian; Johansson, Jan; Koivula, Hannu; Poutanen, Markku (IEEE, 2020)
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Localization and GNSS
    On 12 February 2020, the latest four Galileo satellites had completed one full year of space operational service. The satellites were launched on 25 July 2018. The quartet increased the operational capacity of the Galileo constellation to 22 satellites. This study reports on three signal-in-space (SiS) performance indicators - status, availability, and ranging accuracy - from 11 February 2019 to 12 February 2020. In addition, the study looks also at how the on-board satellite clocks have performed. The data analysis shows 100% data validity and signal health status for three our of the four satellites, whereas NAPA (No Accuracy Prediction Available) events accounted for about 2% of the time. In addition, SiS availability was higher than 95% in the first operational year. Furthermore, the 95th percentile of the global average of the instantaneous signal in space error is found to vary between 0.17 to 0.33 m on monthly basis. Lastly, the precise satellite clock biases show high short-term performance with 0.1 ps/s (10-13 s/s) standard deviations during the first operational year. The numerical results indicate a robust performance and high reliability for the youngest Galileo satellites in the constellation. They increase the number of operational satellites in the constellation and thus contribute to the Galileo’s increased popularity in the satellite-based positioning and navigation user community.
  • Ghobadi, Hossein; Spogli, Luca; Alfonsi, Lucilla; Cesaroni, Claudio; Cicone, Antonio; Linty, Nicola; Romano, Vincenzo; Cafaro, Massimo (Springer, 2020)
    GPS Solutions
    We contribute to the debate on the identification of phase scintillation induced by the ionosphere on the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) by introducing a phase detrending method able to provide realistic values of the phase scintillation index at high latitude. It is based on the fast iterative filtering signal decomposition technique, which is a recently developed fast implementation of the well-established adaptive local iterative filtering algorithm. FIF has been conceived to decompose nonstationary signals efficiently and provide a discrete set of oscillating functions, each of them having its frequency. It overcomes most of the problems that arise when using traditional time–frequency analysis techniques and relies on a consolidated mathematical basis since its a priori convergence and stability have been proved. By relying on the capability of FIF to efficiently identify the frequencies embedded in the GNSS raw phase, we define a method based on the FIF-derived spectral features to identify the proper cutoff frequency for phase detrending. To test such a method, we analyze the data acquired from GPS and Galileo signals over Antarctica during the September 2017 storm by the ionospheric scintillation monitor receiver (ISMR) located in Concordia Station (75.10° S, 123.33° E). Different cases of diffraction and refraction effects are provided, showing the capability of the method in deriving a more accurate determination of the σϕ index. We found values of cutoff frequency in the range of 0.73–0.83 Hz, providing further evidence of the inadequacy of the choice of 0.1 Hz, which is often used when dealing with ionospheric scintillation monitoring at high latitudes.
  • Vallet Garcia, José M. (MDPI, 2020)
    Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks
    Using the classical received signal strength (RSS)-distance log-normal model in wireless sensor network (WSN) applications poses a series of characteristic challenges derived from (a) the model’s structural limitations when it comes to explaining real observations, (b) the inherent hardware (HW) variability typically encountered in the low-cost nodes of WSNs, and (c) the inhomogeneity of the deployment environment. The main goal of this article is to better characterize how these factors impact the model parameters, an issue that has received little attention in the literature. For that matter, I qualitatively elaborate on their effects and interplay, and present the results of two quantitative empirical studies showing how much the parameters can vary depending on (a) the nodes used in the model identification and their position in the environment, and (b) the antenna directionality. I further show that the path loss exponent and the reference power can be highly correlated. In view of all this, I argue that real WSN deployments are better represented by random model parameters jointly accounting for HW and local environmental characteristics, rather than by deterministic independent ones. I further argue that taking this variability into account results in more realistic models and plausible results derived from their usage. The article contains example values of the mean and standard deviation of the model parameters, and of the correlation between the path loss exponent and the reference power. These can be used as a guideline in other studies. Given the sensitivity of localization algorithms to the proper model selection and identification demonstrated in the literature, the structural limitations of the log-normal model, the variability of its parameters and their interrelation are all relevant aspects that practitioners need to be aware of when devising optimal localization algorithms for real WSNs that rely on this popular model.
  • Khoramshahi, Ehsan; Campos, Mariana Batista; Tommaselli, Antonio Maria Garcia; Viljanen, Niko; Mielonen, Teemu; Kaartinen, Harri; Kukko, Antero; Honkavaara, Eija (MDPI, 2019)
    Remote Sensing
    Mobile mapping systems (MMS) are increasingly used for many photogrammetric and computer vision applications, especially encouraged by the fast and accurate geospatial data generation. The accuracy of point position in an MMS is mainly dependent on the quality of calibration, accuracy of sensor synchronization, accuracy of georeferencing and stability of geometric configuration of space intersections. In this study, we focus on multi-camera calibration (interior and relative orientation parameter estimation) and MMS calibration (mounting parameter estimation). The objective of this study was to develop a practical scheme for rigorous and accurate system calibration of a photogrammetric mapping station equipped with a multi-projective camera (MPC) and a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) and inertial measurement unit (IMU) for direct georeferencing. The proposed technique is comprised of two steps. Firstly, interior orientation parameters of each individual camera in an MPC and the relative orientation parameters of each cameras of the MPC with respect to the first camera are estimated. In the second step the offset and misalignment between MPC and GNSS/IMU are estimated. The global accuracy of the proposed method was assessed using independent check points. A correspondence map for a panorama is introduced that provides metric information. Our results highlight that the proposed calibration scheme reaches centimeter-level global accuracy for 3D point positioning. This level of global accuracy demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed technique and has the potential to fit accurate mapping purposes.
  • Zhu, Lingli; Kukko, Antero; Virtanen, Juho-Pekka; Hyyppä, Juha; Kaartinen, Harri; Hyyppä, Hannu; Turppa, Tuomas (MDPI, 2019)
    Remote Sensing
    As data acquisition technology continues to advance, the improvement and upgrade of the algorithms for surface reconstruction are required. In this paper, we utilized multiple terrestrial Light Detection And Ranging (Lidar) systems to acquire point clouds with different levels of complexity, namely dynamic and rigid targets for surface reconstruction. We propose a robust and effective method to obtain simplified and uniform resample points for surface reconstruction. The method was evaluated. A point reduction of up to 99.371% with a standard deviation of 0.2 cm was achieved. In addition, well-known surface reconstruction methods, i.e., Alpha shapes, Screened Poisson reconstruction (SPR), the Crust, and Algebraic point set surfaces (APSS Marching Cubes), were utilized for object reconstruction. We evaluated the benefits in exploiting simplified and uniform points, as well as different density points, for surface reconstruction. These reconstruction methods and their capacities in handling data imperfections were analyzed and discussed. The findings are that (i) the capacity of surface reconstruction in dealing with diverse objects needs to be improved; (ii) when the number of points reaches the level of millions (e.g., approximately five million points in our data), point simplification is necessary, as otherwise, the reconstruction methods might fail; (iii) for some reconstruction methods, the number of input points is proportional to the number of output meshes; but a few methods are in the opposite; (iv) all reconstruction methods are beneficial from the reduction of running time; and (v) a balance between the geometric details and the level of smoothing is needed. Some methods produce detailed and accurate geometry, but their capacity to deal with data imperfection is poor, while some other methods exhibit the opposite characteristics.
  • Franzese, Giulio; Linty, Nicola; Dovis, Fabio (MDPI, 2020)
    Applied Sciences
    This work focuses on a machine learning based detection of iono-spheric scintillation events affecting Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals. We here extend the recent detection results based on Decision Trees, designing a semi-supervised detection system based on the DeepInfomax approach recently proposed. The paper shows that it is possible to achieve good classification accuracy while reducing the amount of time that human experts must spend manually labelling the datasets for the training of supervised algorithms. The proposed method is scalable and reduces the required percentage of annotated samples to achieve a given performance, making it a viable candidate for a realistic deployment of scintillation detection in software defined GNSS receivers.
  • Lehtola, Ville; Hyyti, Heikki; Keränen, Pekka; Kostamovaara, Juha (Copernicus Publications, 2019)
    The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
    Single photon lidars (in solid state form) offer several benefits over pulsed lidars, such as independence of micro-mechanical moving parts or rotating joints, lower power consumption, faster acquisition rate, and reduced size. When mass produced, they will be cheaper and smaller and thus very attractive for mobile laser scanning applications. However, as these lidars operate by receiving single photons, they are very susceptible to background illumination such as sunlight. In other words, the observations contain a significant amount of noise, or to be specific, outliers. This causes trouble for measurements done in motion, as the sampling rate (i.e. the measurement frequency) should be low and high at the same time. It should be low enough so that target detection is robust, meaning that the targets can be distinguished from the single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) triggings caused by the background photons. On the other hand, the sampling rate should be high enough to allow for measurements to be done from motion. Quick sampling reduces the probability that a sample gathered during motion would contain data from more than a single target at a specific range. Here, we study the exploitation of spatial correlations that exist between the observations as a mean to overcome this sampling rate paradox. We propose computational methods for short and long range. Our results indicate that the spatial correlations do indeed allow for faster and more robust sampling of measurements, which makes single photon lidars more attractive in (daylight) mobile laser scanning.
  • Visuri, Hanna; Jokela, Joonas; Mesterton, Nils; Latvala, Pekka; Aarnio, Timo (Copernicus Publications, 2019)
    The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences
    The amount and the quality of 3D spatial data are growing constantly, but the data is collected and stored in a distributed fashion by various data collecting organizations. This may lead to problems regarding interoperability, usability and availability of the data. Traditionally, national spatial data infrastructures have focused on 2D data, but recently there has been great progress towards introducing also 3D spatial data in governmental services. This paper studies the process of creating a country-wide 3D data repository in Finland and visualizing it for the public by using an open source map application. The 3D spatial data is collected and stored into one national topographic database that provides information for the whole society. The data quality control process is executed with an automated data quality module as a part of the import process to the database. The 3D spatial data is served from the database for the visualization via 3D service and the visualization is piloted in the National Geoportal.
  • Matikainen, Leena; Pandzic, Milos; Li, Fashuai; Karila, Kirsi; Hyyppä, Juha; Litkey, Paula; Kukko, Antero; Lehtomäki, Matti; Karjalainen, Mika; Puttonen, Eetu (SPIE, 2019)
    Journal of Applied Remote Sensing
    The rapid development of remote sensing technologies pro-vides interesting possibilities for the further development of nationwide mapping procedures that are currently based mainly on passive aerial images. In particular, we assume that there is a large undiscovered potential in multitemporal airborne laser scanning (ALS) for topographic mapping. In this study, automated change detection from multitemporal multispectral ALS data was tested for the first time. The results showed that direct comparisons between height and intensity data from different dates reveal even small chang-es related to the development of a suburban area. A major challenge in future work is to link the changes with objects that are interesting in map production. In order to effectively utilize multisource remotely sensed data in mapping in the future, we also investigated the potential of satellite images and ground-based data to complement multispectral ALS. A method for continuous change monitoring from a time series of Sentinel-2 satellite images was developed and tested. Finally, a high-density point cloud was acquired with terres-trial mobile laser scanning and automatically classified into four classes. The results were compared with the ALS data, and the possible roles of the different data sources in a fu-ture map updating process were discussed.
  • Perheentupa, Viljami; Mäkinen, Ville; Oksanen, Juha (Copernicus Publications, 2019)
    The Abstracts of the International Cartographic Association
    Glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) is an ongoing phenomenon that characterizes the landscape of the High Coast (63°04'N, 18°22'E, Sweden) / Kvarken archipelago (63°16'N, 21°10'E, Finland) UNESCO World Heritage site. GIA occurs as the Earth’s crust that was depressed by the continental ice sheet during the last glacial period is slowly rebounding towards isostatic equilibrium. The maximum rate of land uplift in the area is more than eight millimetres per year, which – along with the very different topographical reliefs of the opposite coasts – makes the region an excellent study area for land uplift as a phenomenon. As there is a marine area between the coasts, shore displacement is an essential part of the phenomenon in the study area. The cartographic representation of GIA and shore displacement has classically relied on static maps representing isobases of the uplift rates and of ancient shorelines. However, to dynamically visualize and communicate the continuity and the nature of the phenomena, an animated map is required. To create a visually balanced, seamless animation, we need to create high-resolution image frames that represent digital elevation models (DEMs) together with extracted shorelines of different moments of time. To create these frames, we developed a mathematical model to transform the DEM in a given time for the past ~9300 years. We used the most recent LiDAR-derived DEMs of Finland and Sweden, and a bathymetric model of the Gulf of Bothnia as our initial data, along with a land uplift rate surface derived from geophysical measurements. We compared the current uplift rates with the shoreline observations of the ancient Baltic Sea stages, Litorina Sea and Ancylus Lake, and created a linear model between the elevations of the shorelines and the present-day uplift rates, as there was a near-linear correlation in both cases. Based on the current uplift rates and the elevations and the dating of the ancient shorelines, we derived an exponential model to describe the non-linear correlation between the elapsed time and the occurred land uplift. Near the present time, we adapted the formula proposed by Ekman (2001) to make the model more robust closer to the present day. We assumed that although the uplift rate varies in time, the spatial relation of uplift rates remains the same. Furthermore, as the land uplift is an exponentially decelerating phenomenon occurring with a significantly lower annual rate than shortly after the de-glaciation (Eronen et al. 2001, Nordman et al. 2015), and with most of the total uplift already having occurred (Ekman 1991), we assumed a constant rate of uplift from the present day to the near geological future. We did not consider potential sea level changes caused by human-driven climate change in the predictions, as the geological time scale vastly exceeds the time range of the climate models. Neither did we take into account the historical transgression phases, as they did not appear dominating in the area. The elevation and bathymetry data were harmonized and resampled into 4K (3840 x 2160) pixel dimensions to utilize the best commercially available screen resolutions and to avoid unnecessary sub-pixel level computations. This resulted in a spatial pixel size of about 200 metres. The initial spatial resolution of the DEMs of Finland and Sweden was 2 metres and 1 metre, respectively, while the bathymetric data had a spatial pixel size of 400 metres. This, along with the fact that the bathymetric data was partly modelled and inaccurate near the coastlines, meant that it had to be oversampled to generate plausible coastal bathymetry and to allow any future estimations of shore displacement. All the datasets were resampled to EPSG:3857 Pseudo-Mercator projection to facilitate any future use in web map applications. As the visualized area is only about 430 kilometres in the north-south direction, the use of this projection did not introduce cartographic issues. The rendered frames required by the animation were produced with a programmatic conversion of raster files to RGBimages. The visualization of shore displacement was implemented by a discontinuity in elevation dependent colour scale at sea level. The bathymetry was visualized with a continuous colour scale in shades of blue until the elevation of zero metres. Elevations above zero were visualized with a colour scale starting from green to create an impression of a discrete shoreline (Figure 1). Figure 1. Examples of individual frames for the land uplift animation. Litorina stage 7300 BP (a), 3000 BP (b), current stage (c), and 1000 years after present (d). The imprecision of the predicted shoreline placement compared to the past reconstructions can be observed in the last frame. The whole process from computing the DEMs to rendering the frames was implemented in Python, without the need for traditional GUI operated GIS or image processing software. The raster data was read and processed with GDAL and NumPy libraries, and the visualization was carried out using Matplotlib and Python Imaging Library. Each DEM was given the same elevation based colour scale and an individually created hillshading that was blended with the image by multiplication. The whole process was carried out as an open source solution. The interval between the calculated frames was set to five years as, particularly at the Swedish coast, the shore displacement can appear abrupt with a longer time interval. The frame duration was set to 0.05 seconds, which means a 100-second duration for an animation of 10 000 years. The resulting DEM reconstructions show good agreement with comparable data, such as the Litorina reconstructions by the Geological Survey of Finland (GTK). Also, the mathematical model appears to be in line with previous reconstructions conducted in the area (e.g. Nordman et al. 2015). So far, any continuous series of paleogeographic DEM reconstructions comparable to ours has not been published for this area. The animation provides an understandable way of perceiving the continuous but decelerating nature of the land uplift phenomenon and also highlights the differences in the post-glacial history of Finnish and Swedish coasts. To further improve the visualization, we must consider the removal of post-glacially developed features in the present day DEM, e.g. the various rivers that can both cause bias in the shore displacement and uplift estimations and appear visually distractive. In the very early frames of the animation, the retracting ice sheet must also be present. Also, a balanced addition of other cartographic elements, such as present-day hydrography and place names, can further improve the overall presentation.
  • Hashemi, Amin; Thombre, Sarang; Ferrrara, N. Giorgia; Bhuiyan, M. Zahidul H.; Pattinson, Michael (IEEE, 2019)
    International Conference on Localization and GNSS (ICL-GNSS) 2019

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