Gene Expression : From Microarrays to Functional Genomics

Show full item record



Permalink

http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-10-5447-1
Title: Gene Expression : From Microarrays to Functional Genomics
Author: Greco, Dario
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Faculty of Biosciences, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Genetics
Institute of Biotechnology, University of Helsinki
Publisher: Helsingin yliopisto
Date: 2009-05-28
Language: en
Belongs to series: URN:ISSN:1795-7079
URI: http://urn.fi/URN:ISBN:978-952-10-5447-1
http://hdl.handle.net/10138/22156
Thesis level: Doctoral dissertation (article-based)
Abstract: The time of the large sequencing projects has enabled unprecedented possibilities of investigating more complex aspects of living organisms. Among the high-throughput technologies based on the genomic sequences, the DNA microarrays are widely used for many purposes, including the measurement of the relative quantity of the messenger RNAs. However, the reliability of microarrays has been strongly doubted as robust analysis of the complex microarray output data has been developed only after the technology had already been spread in the community. An objective of this study consisted of increasing the performance of microarrays, and was measured by the successful validation of the results by independent techniques. To this end, emphasis has been given to the possibility of selecting candidate genes with remarkable biological significance within specific experimental design. Along with literature evidence, the re-annotation of the probes and model-based normalization algorithms were found to be beneficial when analyzing Affymetrix GeneChip data. Typically, the analysis of microarrays aims at selecting genes whose expression is significantly different in different conditions followed by grouping them in functional categories, enabling a biological interpretation of the results. Another approach investigates the global differences in the expression of functionally related groups of genes. Here, this technique has been effective in discovering patterns related to temporal changes during infection of human cells. Another aspect explored in this thesis is related to the possibility of combining independent gene expression data for creating a catalog of genes that are selectively expressed in healthy human tissues. Not all the genes present in human cells are active; some involved in basic activities (named housekeeping genes) are expressed ubiquitously. Other genes (named tissue-selective genes) provide more specific functions and they are expressed preferably in certain cell types or tissues. Defining the tissue-selective genes is also important as these genes can cause disease with phenotype in the tissues where they are expressed. The hypothesis that gene expression could be used as a measure of the relatedness of the tissues has been also proved. Microarray experiments provide long lists of candidate genes that are often difficult to interpret and prioritize. Extending the power of microarray results is possible by inferring the relationships of genes under certain conditions. Gene transcription is constantly regulated by the coordinated binding of proteins, named transcription factors, to specific portions of the its promoter sequence. In this study, the analysis of promoters from groups of candidate genes has been utilized for predicting gene networks and highlighting modules of transcription factors playing a central role in the regulation of their transcription. Specific modules have been found regulating the expression of genes selectively expressed in the hippocampus, an area of the brain having a central role in the Major Depression Disorder. Similarly, gene networks derived from microarray results have elucidated aspects of the development of the mesencephalon, another region of the brain involved in Parkinson Disease.The time of the large sequencing projects has enabled unprecedented possibilities of investigating more complex aspects of living organisms. Among the high-throughput technologies based on the genomic sequences, the DNA microarrays are widely used for many purposes, including the measurement of the relative quantity of the messenger RNAs. However, the reliability of microarrays has been strongly doubted as robust analysis of the complex microarray output data has been developed only after the technology had already been spread in the community. An objective of this study consisted of increasing the performance of microarrays, and was measured by the successful validation of the results by independent techniques. To this end, emphasis has been given to the possibility of selecting candidate genes with remarkable biological significance within specific experimental design. Along with literature evidence, the re-annotation of the probes and model-based normalization algorithms were found to be beneficial when analyzing Affymetrix GeneChip data. Typically, the analysis of microarrays aims at selecting genes whose expression is significantly different in different conditions followed by grouping them in functional categories, enabling a biological interpretation of the results. Another approach investigates the global differences in the expression of functionally related groups of genes. Here, this technique has been effective in discovering patterns related to temporal changes during infection of human cells. Another aspect explored in this thesis is related to the possibility of combining independent gene expression data for creating a catalog of genes that are selectively expressed in healthy human tissues. Not all the genes present in human cells are active; some involved in basic activities (named housekeeping genes) are expressed ubiquitously. Other genes (named tissue-selective genes) provide more specific functions and they are expressed preferably in certain cell types or tissues. Defining the tissue-selective genes is also important as these genes can cause disease with phenotype in the tissues where they are expressed. The hypothesis that gene expression could be used as a measure of the relatedness of the tissues has been also proved. Microarray experiments provide long lists of candidate genes that are often difficult to interpret and prioritize. Extending the power of microarray results is possible by inferring the relationships of genes under certain conditions. Gene transcription is constantly regulated by the coordinated binding of proteins, named transcription factors, to specific portions of the its promoter sequence. In this study, the analysis of promoters from groups of candidate genes has been utilized for predicting gene networks and highlighting modules of transcription factors playing a central role in the regulation of their transcription. Specific modules have been found regulating the expression of genes selectively expressed in the hippocampus, an area of the brain having a central role in the Major Depression Disorder. Similarly, gene networks derived from microarray results have elucidated aspects of the development of the mesencephalon, another region of the brain involved in Parkinson Disease.
Subject: perinnöllisyystiede
Rights: This publication is copyrighted. You may download, display and print it for Your own personal use. Commercial use is prohibited.


Files in this item

Total number of downloads: Loading...

Files Size Format View
geneexpr.pdf 1.114Mb PDF View/Open

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show full item record