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Actin Dynamics in Muscle Cells

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dc.contributor Helsingin yliopisto, biotieteellinen tiedekunta, bio- ja ympäristötieteiden laitos fi
dc.contributor Helsingfors universitet, biovetenskapliga fakulteten, institutionen för bio- och miljövetenskaper sv
dc.contributor University of Helsinki, Faculty of Biosciences, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Division of Genetics en
dc.contributor.author Skwarek-Maruszewska, Aneta fi
dc.date.accessioned 2010-11-25T13:22:02Z
dc.date.available 2010-11-25T13:22:02Z
dc.date.issued 2009-11-26 fi
dc.identifier.uri URN:ISBN:978-952-10-5887-5 fi
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10138/22252
dc.description.abstract In every cell, actin is a key component involved in migration, cytokinesis, endocytosis and generation of contraction. In non-muscle cells, actin filaments are very dynamic and regulated by an array of proteins that interact with actin filaments and/or monomeric actin. Interestingly, in non-muscle cells the barbed ends of the filaments are the predominant assembly place, whereas in muscle cells actin dynamics was reported to predominate at the pointed ends of thin filaments. The actin-based thin filament pointed (slow growing) ends extend towards the middle of the sarcomere's M-line where they interact with the thick filaments to generate contraction. The actin filaments in muscle cells are organized into a nearly crystalline array and are believed to be significantly less dynamic than the ones in other cell types. However, the exact mechanisms of the sarcomere assembly and turnover are largely unknown. Interestingly, although sarcomeric actin structures are believed to be relatively non-dynamic, many proteins promoting actin dynamics are expressed also in muscle cells (e.g ADF/cofilin, cyclase-associated protein and twinfilin). Thus, it is possible that the muscle-specific isoforms of these proteins promote actin dynamics differently from their non-muscle counterparts, or that actin filaments in muscle cells are more dynamic than previously thought. To study protein dynamics in live muscle cells, I used primary cell cultures of rat cardiomyocytes. My studies revealed that a subset of actin filaments in cardiomyocyte sarcomeres displays rapid turnover. Importantly, I discovered that the turnover of actin filaments depends on contractility of the cardiomyocytes and that the contractility-induced actin dynamics plays an important role in sarcomere maturation. Together with previous studies those findings suggest that sarcomeres undergo two types of actin dynamics: (1) contractility-dependent turnover of whole filaments and (2) regulatory pointed end monomer exchange to maintain correct thin filament length. Studies involving an actin polymerization inhibitor suggest that the dynamic actin filament pool identified here is composed of filaments that do not contribute to contractility. Additionally, I provided evidence that ADF/cofilins, together with myosin-induced contractility, are required to disassemble non-productive filaments in developing cardiomyocytes. In addition, during these studies we learned that isoforms of actin monomer binding protein twinfilin, Twf-1 and Twf-2a localise to myofibrils in cardiomyocytes and may thus contribute to actin dynamics in myofibrils. Finally, in collaboration with Roberto Dominguez s laboratory we characterized a new actin nucleator in muscle cells - leiomodin (Lmod). Lmod localises towards actin filament pointed ends and its depletion by siRNA leads to severe sarcomere abnormalities in cardiomyocytes. The actin filament nucleation activity of Lmod is enhanced by interactions with tropomyosin. We also revealed that Lmod expression correlates with the maturation of myofibrils, and that it associates with sarcomeres only at relatively late stages of myofibrillogenesis. Thus, Lmod is unlikely to play an important role in myofibril formation, but rather might be involved in the second step of the filament arrangement and/or maintenance through its ability to promote tropomyosin-induced actin filament nucleation occurring at the filament pointed ends. The results of these studies provide valuable new information about the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle sarcomere assembly and turnover. These data offer important clues to understanding certain physiological and pathological behaviours of muscle cells. Better understanding of the processes occurring in muscles might help to find strategies for determining, diagnosis, prognosis and therapy in heart and skeletal muscles diseases. en
dc.description.abstract Human heart cells - cardiomoycytes - are constantly contracting cells; about three billion times during an average lifespan - to pump in average 7000 litres of blood per day. To ensure its proper function the multiprotein cytoskeletal complexes (myofibrils) have to be assembled and maintained correctly. The myofibrils consist of set of filaments organized in a paracrystal structure - sarcomere - to ensure maximal contractile force. Sarcomeres are composed by actin and myosin filaments. Their proper interaction is regulated and accompany by vary type of supporting proteins. The actin filaments in muscle cells are organized into a nearly crystalline array and are believed to be significantly less dynamic than the ones in other cell types (eg. skin cells). However, the exact mechanisms of the sarcomere assembly and turnover are largely unknown. This study revealed that two types of actin dynamics exist in muscle cells. First, actin filaments undergo slow dynamics at their ends to maintain the correct length of the filaments. Secondly, entire actin filaments are replaced by new ones during sarcomere assembly and maintenance, and this phenomenon is dependent on the contractility of the muscle cells. Finally, we characterized a new actin-binding protein, Lmod, which nucleates the formation of new actin filaments in muscle cells. These data provide valuable new information about the molecular mechanisms underlying muscle sarcomere assembly and turnover. These data offer important clues to understanding certain physiological and pathological behaviours of muscle cells. Better understanding of the processes occurring in muscles might help to find strategies for determining, diagnosis, prognosis and therapy in heart and skeletal muscles diseases. fi
dc.language.iso en fi
dc.publisher Helsingin yliopisto fi
dc.publisher Helsingfors universitet sv
dc.publisher University of Helsinki en
dc.relation.isformatof URN:ISBN:978-952-10-5886-8 fi
dc.relation.isformatof Helsinki : 2009, 1795-7079 fi
dc.rights Julkaisu on tekijänoikeussäännösten alainen. Teosta voi lukea ja tulostaa henkilökohtaista käyttöä varten. Käyttö kaupallisiin tarkoituksiin on kielletty. fi
dc.rights This publication is copyrighted. You may download, display and print it for Your own personal use. Commercial use is prohibited. en
dc.rights Publikationen är skyddad av upphovsrätten. Den får läsas och skrivas ut för personligt bruk. Användning i kommersiellt syfte är förbjuden. sv
dc.subject molekyylibiologia fi
dc.title Actin Dynamics in Muscle Cells en
dc.type.ontasot Väitöskirja (artikkeli) fi
dc.type.ontasot Doctoral dissertation (article-based) en
dc.type.ontasot Doktorsavhandling (sammanläggning) sv
dc.ths Lappalainen, Pekka fi
dc.opn Gimona, Mario fi
dc.type.dcmitype Text fi

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