The effectiveness of high dose zinc acetate lozenges on various common cold symptoms : a meta-analysis

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Hemila , H & Chalker , E 2015 , ' The effectiveness of high dose zinc acetate lozenges on various common cold symptoms : a meta-analysis ' , BMC Family Practice , vol. 16 , 24 . https://doi.org/10.1186/s12875-015-0237-6

Title: The effectiveness of high dose zinc acetate lozenges on various common cold symptoms : a meta-analysis
Author: Hemila, Harri; Chalker, Elizabeth
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Department of Public Health
Date: 2015-02-25
Language: eng
Number of pages: 11
Belongs to series: BMC Family Practice
ISSN: 1471-2296
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/223354
Abstract: BACKGROUND: A previous meta-analysis found that high dose zinc acetate lozenges reduced the duration of common colds by 42%, whereas low zinc doses had no effect. Lozenges are dissolved in the pharyngeal region, thus there might be some difference in the effect of zinc lozenges on the duration of respiratory symptoms in the pharyngeal region compared with the nasal region. The objective of this study was to determine whether zinc acetate lozenges have different effects on the duration of common cold symptoms originating from different anatomical regions. METHODS: We analyzed three randomized trials on zinc acetate lozenges for the common cold administering zinc in doses of 80-92 mg/day. All three trials reported the effect of zinc on seven respiratory symptoms, and three systemic symptoms. We pooled the effects of zinc lozenges for each symptom and calculated point estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: Zinc acetate lozenges shortened the duration of nasal discharge by 34% (95% CI: 17% to 51%), nasal congestion by 37% (15% to 58%), sneezing by 22% (-1% to 45%), scratchy throat by 33% (8% to 59%), sore throat by 18% (-10% to 46%), hoarseness by 43% (3% to 83%), and cough by 46% (28% to 64%). Zinc lozenges shortened the duration of muscle ache by 54% (18% to 89%), but there was no difference in the duration of headache and fever. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of zinc acetate lozenges on cold symptoms may be associated with the local availability of zinc from the lozenges, with the levels being highest in the pharyngeal region. However our findings indicate that the effects of zinc ions are not limited to the pharyngeal region. There is no indication that the effect of zinc lozenges on nasal symptoms is less than the effect on the symptoms of the pharyngeal region, which is more exposed to released zinc ions. Given that the adverse effects of zinc in the three trials were minor, zinc acetate lozenges releasing zinc ions at doses of about 80 mg/day may be a useful treatment for the common cold, started within 24 hours, for a time period of less than two weeks.
Subject: Common cold
Cough
Laryngitis
Meta-analysis
Myalgia
Randomized controlled trials
Pharyngitis
Respiratory tract infections
Rhinitis
Zinc acetate
DOUBLE-BLIND
SIDEROBLASTIC ANEMIA
GLUCONATE LOZENGES
INTRANASAL ZINC
DURATION
SULFATE
ADULTS
ACCELERATION
REDUCTION
SEVERITY
3125 Otorhinolaryngology, ophthalmology
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