NLS/FGI Series

Recent Submissions

  • Kilpeläinen, Tiina (Finnish Geodetic Institute, 1997)
    FGI Publications 124
  • Heikkinen, Markku (Finnish Geodetic Institute, 1981)
    FGI Reports 81:2
  • Koivula, Hannu (Aalto University, Department of Built Environment, 2019)
    FGI Publications 159
  • Bilker-Koivula, Mirjam (Unigrafia Oy, 2021)
    FGI Publications
    Positioning using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) is widely used nowadays and it is getting more and more accurate. This requires also better geoid models for the transformation between heights measured with GNSS and heights in the national height system. In Finland heights are continuously changing due to the Fennoscandian postglacial rebound. Land uplift models are developed for the Fennoscandian land uplift area, not only for the vertical velocities, but also for the gravity change related to postglacial rebound. In this dissertation geoid studies were carried out in search of the geoid model that is most suitable for the conversion of GNSS heights in the EUREF-FIN coordinate system to heights in the Finnish height system N2000 on land as well as on sea. In order to determine the relationship between gravity change rates and vertical velocities, time series of absolute gravity measurements were analysed. Methods were tested for fitting a geoid model to GNSS-levelling data. The best method for Finland was found to be least-squares collocation in combination with cross-validation. The result was the height conversion surface FIN2005N00, the official model for Finland. Then, high-resolution global gravity field models were tested in geoid modelling for Finland. The resulting geoid models were better than the earlier geoid models for Finland. After correcting for an offset and tilt, the differences with other models disappeared. Also, a method was developed to validate geoid models at sea using GNSS measurements collected on a vessel. The method was successful and key elements were identified for the process of reducing the GNSS observations from the height of observation down to the geoid surface. Possible offsets between different types of absolute gravimeters were investigated by looking at the results of international comparisons, bi-lateral comparisons and of trend calculations. The trend calculations revealed significant offsets of 31.4 ± 10.9 μGal, 32.6 ± 7.4 μGal and 6.8 ± 0.8 μGal for the IMGC, GABL and JILAg-5 instruments. The time series of absolute gravity measurements at 12 stations in Finland were analysed. At seven stations reliable trends could be determined. Ratios between -0.206 ± 0.017 and -0.227 ± 0.024 μGal/mm and axis intercept values between 0.248 ± 0.089 and 0.335 ± 0.136 μGal/yr were found for the relationship between gravity change rates and vertical velocities. These values are larger than expected based on results of others. The knowledge obtained in the geoid studies will be of benefit in the determination of the next generation geoid models and height conversion surfaces for Finland. Before clear conclusions can be drawn from the absolute gravity results, more studies related to glacial isostatic adjustment, and longer high-quality time series from more stations in Finland, as well as the whole of the uplift area and its boundaries, are needed.
  • Kakkuri, Juhani (Maanmittauslaitos, 2021)
    FGI Publications
  • Saaranen, Veikko; Lehmuskoski, Pekka; Takalo, Mikko; Rouhiainen, Paavo (National Land Survey of Finland, 2021)
    FGI Publications
    The Third Precise Levelling of Finland was performed in 1978–2006 by The Finnish Geodetic Institute (FGI). The levelling network consisted 9158 km of levelled lines including 29 closed loops, 13 side lines to the tide gauges and 21 connections to the neighbouring countries. The mean standard error of the Third Levelling, calculated from the closing errors of the levelling loops, is ±0.86 mm/ √km. In this publication, measuring methods, equipment, computation of the observations, and the adjustments are presented. In the appendices, yearly progress of the measuring work, the rod corrections, and the observations are presented. The new height system N2000 is a realization of a European Vertical Reference System (EVRS). It is a normal height system, where the permanent tidal deformation is in a zero tidal system. The observations were reduced to the epoch 2000.0 using the Nordic land uplift model NKG2005LU. The Normaal Amsterdams Peil (NAP) is a datum of the N2000 height system. The fundamental benchmark PP2000 for the adjustment of the Finnish observations is located in Metsähovi and its height is 54.4233 m. This height was determined by using the Finnish version of the Baltic Levelling Ring adjustment. The N2000 adjustment contained the measurements of the Third Levelling of Finland and some observations of Sweden and Norway near the Finnish border in order to ensure the compatibility of the new height systems between the neighbouring countries.
  • Ärölä, Esa; Järvinen, Seppo; Kallatsa, Mikko (2019)
    Maanmittauslaitoksen julkaisuja
  • Isomäki, Harri (Maanmittauslaitos, 2019)
    Maanmittauslaitoksen julkaisuja
  • Lehtinen, Kimmo; Prusti, Timo; Lammers, Uwe; Bruijne, Jos de; Manara, Carlo; Ness, Jan-Uwe; Siddiqui, Hassan; Markkanen, Tapio; Poutanen, Markku; Muinonen, Karri (National Land Survey of Finland, Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI, 2017)
    FGI Reports 2017:1
  • Ärölä, E (Maanmittauslaitos, 2015)
    Maanmittauslaitoksen julkaisuja
  • Mattila, P (Maanmittauslaitos, 2015)
    Maanmittauslaitoksen julkaisuja
  • Zhu, L (Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI, NLS, 2015)
    FGI Publications
  • Guinness, R.E (Finnish Geospatial Research Institute FGI, NLS, 2015)
    FGI Publications