Maternal vitamin D status, gestational diabetes and infant birth size

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BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2017 Dec 15;17(1):420

Title: Maternal vitamin D status, gestational diabetes and infant birth size
Author: Hauta-alus, Helena H; Viljakainen, Heli T; Holmlund-Suila, Elisa M; Enlund-Cerullo, Maria; Rosendahl, Jenni; Valkama, Saara M; Helve, Otto M; Hytinantti, Timo K; Mäkitie, Outi M; Andersson, Sture
Publisher: BioMed Central
Date: 2017-12-15
Abstract: Abstract Background Maternal vitamin D status has been associated with both gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and fetal growth restriction, however, the evidence is inconsistent. In Finland, maternal vitamin D status has improved considerably due to national health policies. Our objective was to compare maternal 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations [25(OH)D] between mothers with and without GDM, and to investigate if an association existed between maternal vitamin D concentration and infant birth size. Methods This cross-sectional study included 723 mother-child pairs. Mothers were of Caucasian origin, and infants were born at term with normal birth weight. GDM diagnosis and birth size were obtained from medical records. Maternal 25(OH)D was determined on average at 11 weeks of gestation in pregnancy and in umbilical cord blood (UCB) at birth. Results GDM was observed in 81 of the 723 women (11%). Of the study population, 97% were vitamin D sufficient [25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L]. There was no difference in pregnancy 25(OH)D concentration between GDM and non-GDM mothers (82 vs 82 nmol/L, P = 0.99). Regression analysis confirmed no association between oral glucose tolerance test results and maternal 25(OH)D (P > 0.53). Regarding the birth size, mothers with optimal pregnancy 25(OH)D (≥ 80 nmol/L) had heavier newborns than those with suboptimal pregnancy 25(OH)D (P = 0.010). However, mothers with optimal UCB 25(OH)D had newborns with smaller head circumference than those with suboptimal 25(OH)D (P = 0.003), which was further confirmed as a linear association (P = 0.024). Conclusions Maternal vitamin D concentration was similar in mothers with and without GDM in a mostly vitamin D sufficient population. Associations between maternal vitamin D status and birth size were inconsistent. A sufficient maternal vitamin D status, specified as 25(OH)D above 50 nmol/L, may be a threshold above which the physiological requirements of pregnancy are achieved. Trial registration The project protocol is registered in in November 8, 2012 ( NCT01723852 ).
Subject: Maternal vitamin D status
Newborn vitamin D status
25-hydroxy vitamin D concentration
Gestational diabetes mellitus
Birth size
Birth weight
Birth length
Head circumference
Ponderal index

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