How can stakeholders promote environmental and social responsibility in the shipping industry?

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Parviainen , T A M , Lehikoinen , A M , Kuikka , O S & Haapasaari , P E 2017 , ' How can stakeholders promote environmental and social responsibility in the shipping industry? ' WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs , pp. 1-22 . DOI: 10.1007/s13437-017-0134-z

Title: How can stakeholders promote environmental and social responsibility in the shipping industry?
Author: Parviainen, Tuuli Aino Maaria; Lehikoinen, Annukka Maaria; Kuikka, Olli Sakari; Haapasaari, Päivi Elisabet
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Fisheries and Environmental Management Group
University of Helsinki, Fisheries and Environmental Management Group
University of Helsinki, Environmental Sciences
University of Helsinki, Fisheries and Environmental Management Group
Date: 2017-12-18
Language: eng
Belongs to series: WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs
ISSN: 1651-436X
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/231484
Abstract: The highly globalized and competitive nature of the shipping industry poses serious governance challenges. Recently, the use of voluntary measures, such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, has been explored in terms of moving towards environmentally and socially responsible as well as safe shipping industry practices. Limited attention has been paid on the role of stakeholders such as consumers, employees, NGOs, and academia in pressuring the shipping industry towards greater environmental and social responsibility. Here, by applying stakeholder theory and drawing on examples of already materialized stakeholder actions and multistakeholder initiatives, we study the potential ways that stakeholders can promote CSR in the shipping industry: we explore the resource dependencies between stakeholders, the stakeholder influence strategies, and the importance of multi-stakeholder pressure. We show that stakeholders can gain more power by using indirect strategies such as working via and/or in alliances with NGOs, trade unions, banks and financers, and/or different national or international regulatory bodies, as well as with the industry itself. Our results reveal the potential of multi-stakeholder pressure and action to promote the adoption of CSR activities, support the transparency, legitimacy, and enforcement of the practices, as well as widen the scope and focus of CSR initiatives and practices by focusing on a broad range of social and environmental issues. Finally, stakeholder pressure can push towards improved regulations. The study suggests that increased attention needs to be paid on the multi-stakeholder demands, especially considering the accentuated importance of effective maritime governance in the future.
Subject: 1172 Environmental sciences
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