Selection on the morphology-physiology-performance nexus : Lessons from freshwater stickleback morphs

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Morozov , S , Leinonen , T , Merilä , J & McCairns , R J S 2018 , ' Selection on the morphology-physiology-performance nexus : Lessons from freshwater stickleback morphs ' , Ecology and Evolution , vol. 8 , no. 2 , pp. 1286-1299 . https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3644

Title: Selection on the morphology-physiology-performance nexus : Lessons from freshwater stickleback morphs
Author: Morozov, Sergey; Leinonen, Tuomas; Merilä, Juha; McCairns, R. J. Scott
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Biosciences
University of Helsinki, Biosciences
University of Helsinki, Ecological Genetics Research Unit
Date: 2018-01
Language: eng
Number of pages: 14
Belongs to series: Ecology and Evolution
ISSN: 2045-7758
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/233893
Abstract: Conspecifics inhabiting divergent environments frequently differ in morphology, physiology, and performance, but the interrelationships amongst traits and with Darwinian fitness remains poorly understood. We investigated population differentiation in morphology, metabolic rate, and swimming performance in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.), contrasting a marine/ancestral population with two distinct freshwater morphotypes derived from it: the typical low-plated morph, and a unique small-plated morph. We test the hypothesis that similar to plate loss in other freshwater populations, reduction in lateral plate size also evolved in response to selection. Additionally, we test how morphology, physiology, and performance have evolved in concert as a response to differences in selection between marine and freshwater environments. We raised pure-bred second-generation fish originating from three populations and quantified their lateral plate coverage, burst- and critical swimming speeds, as well as standard and active metabolic rates. Using a multivariate Q(ST)-F-ST framework, we detected signals of directional selection on metabolic physiology and lateral plate coverage, notably demonstrating that selection is responsible for the reduction in lateral plate coverage in a small-plated stickleback population. We also uncovered signals of multivariate selection amongst all bivariate trait combinations except the two metrics of swimming performance. Divergence between the freshwater and marine populations exceeded neutral expectation in morphology and in most physiological and performance traits, indicating that adaptation to freshwater habitats has occurred, but through different combinations of traits in different populations. These results highlight both the complex interplay between morphology, physiology and performance in local adaptation, and a framework for their investigation.
Subject: ecophysiology
Gasterosteus aculeatus
metabolic rate
morphotype
physiological adaptation
respirometry
selection
swimming performance
STANDARD METABOLIC-RATE
GASTEROSTEUS-ACULEATUS
THREESPINE STICKLEBACK
3-SPINED STICKLEBACK
NATURAL-SELECTION
SWIMMING PERFORMANCE
ADAPTIVE EVOLUTION
LATERAL PLATES
INDIVIDUAL VARIATION
QUANTITATIVE TRAITS
1181 Ecology, evolutionary biology
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