Recent Submissions

  • Timonen, Vilma (2020)
    This doctoral dissertation addresses the increasing diversity in globalising 21st-century societies through an intercultural, inter-institutional critical participatory action research (PAR) project that engaged music educators and teacher educators from Finland and Nepal in collaborative learning. The inquiry is based on a social and educational vision according to which collaborative learning across national and institutional borders is seen as a powerful way for music teacher education to respond to the growing challenges of diversity. The PAR design highlights a more democratic, inclusive, and balanced approach to research and, as such, aims to challenge the Western hegemony in academic knowledge production. The inquiry is furthermore based on the conviction that the need for decolonising music teacher education is both real and imminent and can be effectively addressed through creating collaborative learning opportunities for educators from diverse backgrounds. Following the works of Arjun Appadurai, we should consider the right to research a universal right, and by inclusively expanding its reach we can provide opportunities to navigate through different knowledge paths and realize the potential to rejuvenate music teacher education practices and research both locally and globally. The inquiry was guided by the following research questions: 1) What kinds of potentials and constraints does critical collaborative intercultural educational development work hold for a) music educators’ professional development, b) music teacher education practices and, c) music education scholarship? 2) What kinds of politics were involved in the critical intercultural educational development work between the Finnish and Nepali music educators and researchers? These research questions were answered in three peer-reviewed, single and co-authored articles published in international publications, each guided by their own sub-questions; the complete texts can be found in the appendices of this summary. The empirical material of this inquiry was generated from 2013- 2019 during the process of manifold collaborative activities among Finnish and Nepali music educators working towards educational devel- opment at individual, institutional, and global levels. The analysis utilises theoretical lenses from the disciplines of music and music teacher education research, intercultural (music) education research, professional learning, and organizational studies. Article I illustrates how intercultural collaborative educational work is inevitably shaped by the affective actions and organisational micropolitics that are inherent to the process of the participating educators’ professional re-invention. The article points out the necessity of incorporating the emotional dimensions of educators’ lives as central elements in any educational development work. Article II scrutinizes the Finnish-Nepali collaboration through the theoretical lenses of a professional learning community (PLC), and, explores how the features of PLC acted as catalysts or constraints in the process of intercultural educational development work. Further to that point, article II illustrates the nature of learning that took place in the intercultural PLC and argues that collaborative learning should be embedded in the institutional structures of music teacher education. Article III explores the ambivalent duality in the risk of manifesting colonial power during such work, and the potential for the transformation of professional identity omnipresent in intercultural dialogues. The findings of article III highlight the potential for epistemic reflexivity in such intercultural interactions, but similarly illustrate how the colonial setting inevitably frames the dialogue and leaves the politics of reflexivity open, with no final answers being proffered. The discussion then expands upon the potentials and constraints of the critical collaborative intercultural educational development work for music educators’ professional learning, professional education, and research. Leaning on the work of Gert Biesta, it argues that ensuring music teaching that is educational requires supporting music educators to take a stance as critical knowledge workers that are supported in developing ethically engaged music teaching practices through research. The discussion emphasises that the efforts of co-constructing globalizing music education call for developing trust on multiple levels. Music educators need support to develop trust in their own abilities in uncertain situations, and they need to be seen as trusted active agents of change within their institutions. The institutional development in music teacher education calls for developing systematic collaborative practices that support the ability of music teacher institutions to act as innovative knowledge communities, both locally and globally. Moreover, it is argued that music education research would benefit from developing trust in multivoiced knowledge production, which would be supported by critical, participatory, and interdisciplinary research approaches. Finally, the discussion offers a vision for a 21st-century globalizing music education, in which music education is elevated by providing music educators opportunities for ongoing critical collaborative professional learning in institutions that can be characterized as innovative knowledge communities. This vision highlights the belief that engaging practitioners in critical, multivoiced, and collaborative research can provide a compelling environment for rejuvenating research ideas, and also contribute meaningfully to co-constructing the future of music education. The research has been conducted as part of a larger research project, “Global visions through mobilizing networks: Co-developing intercultural music teacher education in Finland, Israel, and Nepal”.
  • Miettinen, Laura (2020)
    This doctoral dissertation examines the understandings and visions of interculturality and intercultural competence in higher music education that arose from an institutional collaboration between the music teacher education programmes at the Sibelius Academy, University of the Arts Helsinki, Finland and Levinsky College of Education, Tel Aviv, Israel. The interculturally oriented frame of this study focuses on trans-national and trans-institutional collaboration and networking. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, this dissertation combines the field of music education with intercultural education and organizational studies as a way to understand how cultural diversity is and could be approached in music teacher education, and how the envisioned change could be initiated at an institutional level. Collaboration is strongly embedded in the theoretical starting points of the study, namely Cathy Davidson and David Goldberg’s idea of learning institutions as mobilizing networks and Kai Hakkarainen’s notions of knowledge creation and networked expertise. The concept of intercultural competence has served as one of the starting points of this study, in an attempt to map the participating music teacher educators’ understandings of cultural diversity and interculturality, as well as to evaluate the concept’s potential as a means for music teacher educators’ professional development. By choosing a collaborative approach as its frame, this study takes a social constructionist perspective as its epistemological underpinning, according to which knowledge and reality are produced in social and linguistic interaction. The aim of the design of this study was to enable the mobilization of networks among and between the participating music teacher educators and researchers in two music teacher education programmes in two different countries. This was done by initiating discussion and reflection through focus group interviews and facilitated workshops, aiming at encouraging knowledge creation and networked expertise. Research on and with higher education teachers and practitioner inquiry were chosen as the strategies of inquiry used in this collaborative research. In order to carry out this collaborative research, several research methods for data generation were used in different stages of the research. These included: focus group interviews, individual interviews, and workshops inspired by the Appreciative Inquiry (AI) Approach. In the first stage of the study, 11 focus group interviews were conducted, six at the Sibelius Academy and five at the Levinsky College. A total of 29 music teacher educators were interviewed. Following the analysis of the focus group interviews, four in-depth individual interviews were carried out. One music teacher educator was interviewed twice at each institution. In the second stage of the study, four workshops were held, two at each site, with a total of 24 participants. The cyclical progression of data generation and analysis created several layers of co-construction of knowledge between the participants and the researchers, both intra- and inter-institutionally. The results of the study are reported in two separately published peer-reviewed journal articles and three separately published peer-reviewed book chapters. Articles I-IV report the results of a particular stage of the research process. The fifth article considers the ethical and methodological issues of this study as one of the cases examined in the book chapter. This doctoral dissertation has been an attempt to move closer to the realization of the vision of interculturalization of music teacher education, through a collaborative exploration of the complexities of intercultural interaction and the development of intercultural competence in the two involved music teacher education programmes. The study argues that a more holistic and critical perspective on intercultural competence should be employed when examining it in the realm of intercultural music teacher education. The discussion of the emotional and relational aspects of the developmental process of intercultural competence has aimed at expanding the conceptualization of such competence in an educational context in general, and within music teacher education in particular. The study also argues that nurturing and enhancing music teacher educators’ and music teacher students’ capacity for critical self-reflection and offering music teacher educators opportunities to share and discuss issues and experiences of intercultural music teaching together with their colleagues and students is essential when striving for interculturally competent music teacher education. This dissertation offers new perspectives on how engaging with the issues of cultural diversity and interculturality in music teacher education can play a central role in music teacher educators’ professional development, the development of their programmes, and even whole institutions amidst the challenges of an ever-changing global cultural climate.
  • Jaakkola, Inkeri (2020)
    This study deals with Paavo Heininen’s opera Silkkirumpu (The Damask Drum) op. 45 (1983) and examines the narrative aspects of its text-music relationships. The research combines approaches of music analysis and literary theory. The central methods for the music analysis are Robert Morris’s reductive method for showing contour similarity between musical entities, Peter Stacey’s suggestions for observing the relations between text and music as well as Stacey’s view of text fragmentation in contemporary vocal music. The discussion of musical narrative follows the principles introduced by such scholars as Byron Almén and Robert Hatten. The literary narrative is described using concepts developed by Shlomith Rimmon-Kenan. Silkkirumpu is interpreted primarily in the context of Western art music. The opera’s text-music relationships are interpreted from four analytical perspectives, with emphasis on the narrative processes and their compositional strategies and descriptions of the work-specific and intertextual references. An analytical model of vocal style, in which the vocal part is observed as a combination of its components, is developed for the purpose of this study. The characters’ musical portrayals are expressed through their vocal styles which transform as the drama proceeds. The analysis focuses on the soloists’ parts, but the orchestra’s narrative role is also examined. Silkkirumpu’s text and music work together in the organization of form and in the symbolism of the work in which associations are evoked by recurring musical shapes and textures. However, the opera’s overall trajectory also includes ironic and tragic layers, which are based on conflicts or incongruities between text and music. Intermediality permeates the opera’s semantic and structural layers: in the processes of text fragmentation language and music converge in places, adapting features from one another’s sign systems. The frequent textural interruptions in Silkkirumpu’s music, in turn, are analogous to cinematic montage and flashback. This study is the first to focus on Heininen’s music and specifically on the music of Silkkirumpu. It shows that the opera’s text-music relationships are largely based on the centuries-old tradition of the Western vocal music, yet the composer has also utilized neonarrative, intermedial strategies.
  • Treacy, Danielle Shannon (2020)
    The intensifying diversity and rapid change characterizing contemporary societies challenges music teacher education globally to equip future teachers with the skills and understandings necessary for ethically engaging with uncertainty and difference. This doctoral research project, conducted in Nepal, addresses the idea that developing music teachers’ imaginations and capacities to envision the future may be of value in attending to such challenges. The project emerged following the 2010 introduction of music as a separate subject in the Nepali National Curriculum, and the subsequent collaboration initiated by representatives of the Nepal Music Center with representatives of the Sibelius Academy in order to develop music teacher education. The project directs the research interest to the perspectives of practitioners involved in music education in Kathmandu Valley schools, with particular attention to musician-teachers co-constructing visions. The overarching research question guiding the project was: How can musician-teachers’ co-constructing of visions contribute knowledge about the development of context-specific music teacher education in a situation of fast-paced social change and globalization? Three research sub-questions were constructed to address this overarching question: 1) What contextual issues frame practitioners’ envisioning of music education practices in Kathmandu Valley schools? 2) How might the process of co-constructing visions with musician-teachers in the Kathmandu Valley contribute to music teacher education in Nepal and beyond? and 3) How might the process of co-constructing visions with musician-teachers in the Kathmandu Valley contribute to understandings of cross-cultural music education research? The theoretical framework extends educational researcher Karen Hammerness’ concept of teachers’ visions through socio-cultural anthropologist Arjun Appadurai’s theories of the imagination and the social and cultural capacity to aspire, also drawing on John Dewey’s theorisation of the continuum of ends-means. The methodology applies Appreciative Inquiry (AI) critically and reflexively, with ongoing consideration of issues of power, ethnocentrism and coloniality. The project took place in three stages from 2014 to 2019, and the empirical material was generated through observations in schools, interviews with school administrators and musician-teachers, and a series of seventeen workshops for musician-teachers guided by the Appreciative Inquiry 4D model of Discover, Dream, Design and Destiny. Beyond solely supporting the research project, the workshops were designed to facilitate collaborative professional learning. Over 50 musician-teachers in Nepal participated the project. The results are reported in five international peer-reviewed articles that include: an examination and reflexive interpretation of the school-specific song practice in Kathmandu Valley private schools and the tensions that arise between vision and context through the case of assessment; a reflection on facilitating the process of co-constructing visions for music education in Nepal with musician-teachers in the Kathmandu Valley; an exploration of how the politics of legitimation intersect with music education and schooling in such a diverse context; and a problematization of the notion of shared visions for music education. These publications are summarised in the synthesizing text with particular attention to how they contribute to answering the research sub-questions. They are presented in their entirety as appendices. The discussion offers a further layer of interpretation moving beyond the Nepali context. It argues that music education is not neutral, but entangled with various historical, political, economic and socio-cultural complexities. Moreover, it raises questions about how to develop music teacher professionalism in contexts lacking music teacher education, and emphasizes the need for music teachers to be able to ethically navigate past, present and future musical practices in changing societies. The discussion also highlights four interconnected capacities of importance when developing pre- and in-service music teacher education: envisioning, reflecting, inquiring, and learning collaboratively. In addition, four methodological and ethical complexities related to cross-cultural research are presented: the need to balance appreciative and critical approaches; to reflect on the ethics of inquiry as intervention; to navigate aspirations and obstacles to collaboration; and to reflect on being and becoming as a researcher.
  • Helenius, Anna (2020)
    Tämän väitöstutkimuksen kohteena ovat Suomen evankelis-luterilaisen kirkon kanttoreiden kokemukset omasta ammatillisesta identiteetistään, toisin sanoen heidän käsityksensä itsestään ammatillisina toimijoina. Ammatillinen identiteetti ymmärretään tässä ilmiönä, joka sisältää piirteitä sekä sosiaalisesta että persoonallisesta identiteetistä. Ammatillisen identiteetin katsotaan muotoutuvan työn kontekstissa, sen rakenteissa ja sosiaalisissa vuorovaikutustilanteissa. Tätä käsitystä ammatillisesta identiteetistä lähestytään fenomenologis-hermeneuttisella tutkimusotteella analysoimalla kanttoreiden ammatillisen toimijuuden kokemusta ja niitä ilmiöitä, jotka työpaikan toimintaympäristössä vaikuttavat tähän kokemukseen. Tutkimuksen aineisto on kerätty keväällä 2016 syvähaastattelemalla 10:tä kanttoria eri puolilta Suomea. Haastatellut kanttorit ovat valmistuneet Sibelius-Akatemiasta musiikin maistereiksi vuosina 2000–2005. Aineisto analysoitiin ensin aineistovetoisesti ja se luokiteltiin aihioihin ja teemoihin. Analyysin edetessä teemat jäsentyivät teoriaohjaavasti kahdeksaan kategoriaan, jotka puolestaan muodostivat kaksi luokkaa: Kanttorin käsitys itsestään ammatillisena toimijana ja kanttorin toimintaympäristö ammatillisen identiteetin neuvottelun kehyksenä. Tutkimustuloksista voidaan todeta, että kaikki haastatellut kanttorit kokevat ammatillisen identiteettinsä yksilöllisesti. Yhteisiä tai lähes kaikilla haastatelluilla esiintyneitä teemoja ammatillisen identiteetin kokemuksessa ovat mm. pitkällinen, usein harrastuksena aloitettu opiskelu, suuri vaivannäkö opiskeluvaiheessa, rakkaus ja intohimo musiikkiin, kriittinen suhtautuminen ammatinhallintaan, työn pirstaleisuus, työn rajojen epäselvyydet ja ajatus työstä elämäntapana, pyrkimys korkeaan laatuun ja hengellisyyden kokeminen olennaisena osana työtä. Tutkimustulokset eivät ole yleistettävissä, mutta ne antavat hyödyllistä tietoa kanttoreille itselleen, heidän esimiehilleen ja seurakunnille sekä kaikille kanttoreiden kanssa toimiville ja heitä kouluttaville tahoille.
  • Mesiä, Susanna (2019)
    Tämä väitöskirja tutkii populaarimusiikin ja jazzin laulupedagogiikkaa Pohjoismaisissa korkeakouluissa. Pohjoismaat ovat sisällyttäneet populaarimusiikin ja jazzin opetuksen lähes kaikille koulutusasteille ja -muodoille jo vuosikymmenten ajan. Tämän seurauksena näiden musiikkityylien opetusta tarjotaan Norjassa, Ruotsissa, Suomessa ja Tanskassa suurimmassa osassa musiikkikorkeakouluista. Pohjoismaat tarjoavat tälle tutkimukselle koulutuksellisesti ja kulttuurisesti yhtenäisen ja toisaalta myös vaihtelevan kontekstin, jota tämä tutkimus tarkastelee kahdella tasolla. Ensinnä tämä tutkimus tarkastelee opettajien ammatillisen eksperttiyden kehittymistä yhteistyöprojektissa, jossa he jakoivat ammatillista osaamistaan ja keskustelivat päivittäisen työnsä haasteista. Toiseksi tämä tutkimus pyrkii lisäämään tietoa ja ymmärrystä laulupedagogiikasta tutkimalla miten opettajat kuvaavat omaa pedagogista ajatteluaan ja opetusmenetelmiään projektin aikana. Työn tutkimusintressi nousi useista tämän koulutuskentän haasteista, kuten vähäisestä pedagogiikan tutkimustiedosta, vähäisistä mahdollisuuksista osallistua omaa ammattialaa koskevaan opettajien täydennyskoulutukseen, opettajien eristyneisyydestä ja jakautumisesta leireihin laulumetodien tai -mallien perusteella. Tämä instrumentaalinen tapaustutkimus on kiinnostunut ammatillisen eksperttiyden kehittymisestä sekä laulupedagogiikasta sosiaalisina ilmiöinä ja sijoittuu vygotskilaiseen sosiokonstruktivistiseen oppimiskäsitykseen. Lisäksi tutkimuksen keskeisiä elementtejä ovat eksperttiyden kehittymisen teoriat (development of expertise), yhteistyö (collaboration) ja oppiminen keskustelujen kautta (conversational learning). Aineisto kerättiin nonformaalissa yhteistyöprojektissa, jossa opettajat osallistuivat vertaismentorointitapaamisiin (peer-group mentoring sessions) ja joissa he kävivät ammatillisia keskusteluja (professional conversations). Tutkimusaineisto kerättiin monimuotoisesti sisältäen henkilökohtaisia haastatteluja, ammatillisia keskusteluja sekä kasvokkain että verkossa, yksin ja yhdessä tehtyjä reflektioita, internet-alustalla käytyjä keskusteluja ja tutkijan päiväkirjan. Aineisto kerättiin yhden lukuvuoden aikana ja analysoitiin yhdistäen temaattista analyysia ja kvalitatiivista sisällönanalyysia sekä aineisto- että teorialähtöisesti. Tutkimuksen tulokset osoittavat että yhteistyöprojektit ovat tehokas tapa edistää Pohjoismaisten laulunopettajien ammatillisen eksperttiyden kehittymistä ja vähentää eristyneisyyden tunteita. Osallistuminen projektiin edesauttoi opettajien opetusmenetelmien kehittymistä ja oman ammatillisen ajattelun syventymistä kaikkien uransa eri vaiheissa olevien opettajien kohdalla. Osallistuneiden opettajien pedagoginen ajattelu ja heidän kuvaamansa opetusmenetelmät viittaavat vahvasti siirtymiseen pois mestari–kisälli-mallista ja oppijalähtöisen pedagogiikan periaatteiden luovaan soveltamiseen heidän opetuksessaan. Tämä esiin noussut paradigman muutos kohti oppijalähtöisyyttä nostaa esille tarpeen tarkoituksenmukaisesta opettajille suunnatusta täydennyskoulutuksesta sekä lisätutkimuksesta ymmärtääksemme paremmin ja kehittääksemme tätä laulupedagogiikan orientaatiota. Tutkimuksen aikana järjestetty projekti tarjoaa lisäksi mahdollisen mallin tuleville laajamittaisille kehitysprojekteille koulutusalasta riippumatta.
  • Olarte, Luis Alejandro (2019)
    The core application of my research project is a pedagogical package or toolkit for studying and teaching electroacoustic music performance and improvisation. The package consists of a series of units, each of which investigates fundamental concepts or elements of electroacoustic music, sound theory and its performance aspects through improvisational strategies. The two disciplines of electroacoustic music performance and improvisation, have been considered in a combined and holistic manner. Each unit includes musical exercises, performance situations, theoretical discussions and suggested developments designed to systematically address the essential questions of becoming a sound performer integrating electrical means with musical expression. The toolkit is presented within a theoretical framework where the main aspects of the discipline have been studied: listening and improvisation, the contributions of the electroacoustic genre to modern musicianship and a collection of electronic instruments as tools for performance. The toolkit has been developed using a process of qualitative inquiry and action research methodology based on fieldwork with university student groups during more than one thousand hours of workshops over the past five years. The final result is thus a fully integrated skill set compiled in a book. This research is a response to the modern challenges of designing pedagogical content towards the development of performance skills with electronic instruments and audio technology. The main research question leading this work project has been: What are the methods, materials, resources, and strategies required to develop skills in the discipline of Electroacoustic Music Performance and Improvisation? I approached this question by following a combined methodology of action research and deductive-inductive analysis. The deductive-inductive methodology was applied in the following way: an initial hypothetical content of sonic concepts, performance ideas, musical situations and electroacoustic themes was investigated with music students at third-level education (University of the Arts Helsinki) in a series of workshops. Evaluating a hypothesis through fieldwork entailed a deductive process. Accordingly, the research findings were recorded via a process of data collection, which included audiovisual recordings, working notes, personal observations, and verbal or written feedback from the participants. This data was then analyzed and evaluated through a triangulation process with my supervisors, leading to the reformulation of the toolkit's contents. In contrast, the process of inferring the theory and contents of the electroacoustic music performance and improvisation discipline from the collected data was an inductive process. The new contents were then further tested on the field and analyzed until reaching the form presented in this document: twenty one units organized into four sections researching the sonic, electroacoustic, musical and performative foremost aspects or elements of the discipline; a discussion on the related values of improvised sonic performance and three chapters establishing the theoretical framework. The results of this research offer the opportunity to acquire knowledge and understanding of electroacoustic music by performing with the tools of the genre while simultaneously developing improvisation skills through the manipulation of sound technology concepts. Playing with electroacoustic tools must impose no obstacle to the flow of the performer's intuition and musical thinking, and the development of a proper dexterity should be considered a fundamental part of modern musicianship. Whereas performance, improvisation and electroacoustic music are too often treated as distinct disciplines, in this work, these topics are developed and explored in an entirely unified manner. This approach allows the development of a fully integrated skill set in a single, cohesive discipline: Electroacoustic Music Performance and Improvisation. This pedagogical toolkit will grant new generations of students of electroacoustic improvisation access and insight into a unified method and discipline; one might further hope for it to spark new relationships between musicians and technology, or even to stimulate further research in domains such as psychoacoustics, acoustics, electroacoustic lutherie or the philosophy of music education.
  • Järvinen, Tomas (2019)
    Institutional theory has undergone major development in recent decades, while resource dependence theory has remained essentially unchanged since its inception in 1978. This study examines the associations of these two theories and organisational performance in the context of cultural centres in Finland. Few studies have attempted to empirically determine the effects of resource scarcity on institutional pressures. In addition to the novelty of combining these two theories, this thesis addresses this gap in the literature by empirically examining how and why resource dependence influences organisations' strategic responses. Using a mixed methods approach, this research involved in-depth semi-structured interviews and surveys in a later stage. A total of 20 interviews was conducted at four private cultural centres in Finland, while quantitative data (i.e. surveys) were gathered from 106 cultural centres. Thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data to investigate the factors that influence the practices of private cultural centres. Next, the quantitative data were reviewed to confirm or reject the assumptions from the qualitative data. A broad range of participants was selected to generate generalisable, reliable, valid and meaningful data and conclusions. The results support the conclusion that private cultural centres do not passively adhere to institutional constraints. Rather, they selectively choose strategic responses that balance conflicting institutional pressures and their own interests and goals. Additionally, the more dependent a cultural centre is on a single revenue source—in this study, the municipality—the greater of conformity it displays. Likewise, the more dependent a cultural centre is on diverse revenue sources, the greater diversity it displays. Through this theoretical discussion and empirical assessment, this research contributes to an expanded, more accurate understanding of how organisations can engage in sustainability practices that improve performance. This study also fills the research gap on Finnish cultural centres and identifies factors that affect the adoption of organisational strategical responses. Finally, this study yield recommendations for future research and implications for the practice of cultural centres, suggesting how resource dependence alters organisational strategic responses.
  • Ravolainen, Kaija ([K. Ravolainen], 2014)
    The present study examines the origin and the early phases of the ecclesiastical order of the singer, nowadays generally called cantor. The constitutive regulations concerning the order derive from the late fourth century in the canons of the Synod of Laodicea and the Apostolic Constitutions. The order of the singer was established in eastern Christendom, while in the West, it never was added to the ranks of the ecclesiastical hierarchy. There, the members of other ecclesiastical grades answered for the psalmody, although allusions to singers occasionally appear. The study period extends to the seventh century CE. The development of both ecclesiastical singing and the hierarchy is treated from the beginning of the history of the Church. This is necessary for identifying the standing and the role of the singer, whose order emerges rather late in comparison with other ecclesiastical orders. One of the earlier orders belongs to the reader, who is considered to have preceded the singer, but also to have been one, as all reading was performed in recitation. The study also aims to define why a separate order of the singer was needed, if the reader was able to execute these duties as well. The materials include both normative sources, consisting of the canons of ecclesiastical councils and church orders, and texts of the patristic authors. In the interpretation of the materials, some Greek and Latin expressions, simple in appearance, cause problems as their unambiguous meaning is difficult to define. The sources do not furnish a direct answer to the study question, which is solved with the aid of circumstantial evidence and secondary sources. The orders of the reader and the singer did not share a similar standing in the hierarchy. The order of the reader formed the lowest rank of the ecclesiastical hierarchy; thus, every member of the higher orders had served as a reader. The singer remained in his rank, which, eventually, established a hierarchy of its own, in the manner of a trade guild. The Christian Church emerged among an abundance of religions and cults, which also appear in the materials of this study. The issue of how far these cults influenced the practices adopted by the Church, or its singing and singers, is addressed in a brief survey appended to the introduction and commented on in the conclusions of the study. The instrumental music of the heathen cults was rejected, but natural similarities appear in the vocabulary and the hierarchy. The inheritance of Judaism is evident, not only in the use of the Psalter and other Holy Scriptures, but also in the references to the Old Covenant elements as models for the ranks of the ecclesiastical hierarchy. The study systematically introduces the essential documents relating to the topic, thus serving also as a work of reference.
  • Alesaro, Juhani (Taideyliopiston Sibelius-Akatemia, 2015)
    The purpose of this study is to examine the structure of the Satz of Sibelius. This consists of two branches: the traditional Satz and another Sibelian Satz-idea, hitherto little known. The core of it can be found in a fragment from the composer's audition lecture (1896). In it Sibelius presents his view on the tonal system of the oldest type of Finnish folksong: rune melodies. This accounts for his modal approach - both melodic and harmonic - that originated long before the Sixth Symphony (1923). In this fragment Sibelius also outlines his opinions on harmonization of rune melodies. This establishes the principle of additive harmony that results in ninth-, eleventh-, thirteenth-chords, other-kinds of sum-chord, as well as in polychords. The co-existence of modal and tonal systems in the music of Sibelius may be called neo-modality, a system where the long experience of major-minor tonality is taken into consideration, but where various modal scales are also utilized in a manner more profound that mere coloration. Some of the branches of neo-modality are polymodality, modal ambiguity and bitonality. Though independently developed, the Sibelian Satz-idiom has near relatives in the solutions made by his contemporaries, e.g. Debussy, Ravel, the young Stravinsky and others.
  • Laes, Tuulikki (Taideyliopiston Sibelius-Akatemia, 2017)
    This dissertation examines inclusion as an ambiguous concept and practice within the context of music education in Finland. The general ethos of inclusive education aims to ensure equal opportunities for all students. However, social practices that are mediated through action and structures within music education contexts, such as segregating students into categories of those who are able, and those who are in need of special education, therapy, or care, generate paradoxes of what inclusion means, and for whom. Furthermore, in the Finnish context the system of music schools has a tradition of selecting young and talented students, with the objective of guiding them toward professional music careers. Such approaches to music education make, in Bourdieusian terms, a distinction between those in the targeted mainstream, and those who are outside of this ideal because of their age, ability, or other characteristics, thus overlooking equal possibilities for learning and gaining agency in and through music. The research project builds upon four sub-studies, which are reported in international, refereed journal articles, focusing on the Resonaari music school which promotes inclusive and accessible music education within the Finnish music school system. By utilizing methodological strategies for reflexive interpretation, these sub-studies examine and reflect on the complexity of inclusion from varying perspectives. The first sub-study presented the case of six female older adults who construct their musical agency within a rock band context at Resonaari, examining the wider meanings assigned to rock band music learning with regard to personal empowerment and a deepened understanding of aging. The second sub-study examined how teacher activism is enacted at Resonaari through innovative pedagogical practices, ethical commitment, and flexible policy advocacy. The third sub-study investigated student music teachers' reflections upon workshops run by Resonaari's musicians, aiming to expand the discourse on professionalism by addressing disability as a generative notion for diversity within higher music education. Finally, the continuum of the sub-studies culminated in the researcher's self-reflexive narrative of striving toward activist scholarship during the research project, addressing the challenges and potentials of inclusive research in music education. Through the methodological lens of critical reflexivity, the overarching task of this research project was to examine: How might Resonaari's activist practices disrupt the hegemonic social practices and discourses of music education; and what potential might these ruptures hold for the reconstruction of the structural, ethical, and political enactments of inclusion? The theoretical framework builds on John Dewey's pragmatist philosophy of educational democracy and moral imagination, as well as complexity theories. Drawing upon Gert Biesta's conceptualization of democratic inclusion, it is argued here that there is a continuing need to challenge the understandings and discourses of inclusion through extending the scope of transformational activism within music education. The findings of this research indicate the benefit of recognizing the potential of inclusivity, as exemplified by Resonaari's specialized music education context, as both a generative and ambiguous process. By identifying the implicit and explicit, and the transferable and unique, these manifestations of inclusion revealed the complexity of such discourses and practices. This expanded and problematized view of inclusion is termed activist hope in this dissertation. Hence, by considering democracy as an experiment, we may radically challenge, extend, and reconstruct the envisioning and implementations of inclusive music education.
  • Pohjannoro, Ulla (Sibelius-Akatemia, 2013)
    The purpose of my case study was to explore composer's thinking during composing. The informant was an academic professional composer within western classical music tradition and modernistic aesthetics. The data comprised of stimulated recall interviews made at the composer's studio during composing of one extensive piece of music, as well as all the sketches, and the score versions of the piece. The key concepts and the analytical frame were constructed data-oriented, and then classified into concepts of intuition, reflection, and metacognition, according to the hybrid dual-process theoretical frame. Intuitive processing was classified as compositional acts of experimentation, imagination, incubation and restructuring. Further, reflective (analytic, rational) processing comprised acts of rule-based processing, musical analytic contemplating, and viewing different alternatives. Finally, metacognitive processing included the acts of evaluation, setting a musical goal, and executive control. The findings indicate the quintessential ramifications of the composer's germinal ideas into the composing process. The germinal ideas were thoroughly intuitive, since reflective choice would have been impossible due to innumerable possible combinations and implications of the ideas. The basic musical material, implied by and consistent with the germinal ideas, was constructed rationally, with rule-based processing - when intuition would easily have resulted into endless enterprise of experimentations. The composer moulded and embodied these multimodal ideas into musical passages of the evolving score step-by-step. The process comprised two core procedures: First, mental substance was manifested into concrete representations, i.e. the manuscripts. Second, intuitive substance entered the threshold of consciousness and subsequently, opened up into reflective processing. Sorting out these actions the composer's dilemma was inferred: how to work with utmost complexity of the germinal ideas' countless dispositions, at the same time creating aesthetic coherence within all the compositional decisions. The composer tackled this dilemma through strategic use of prolific intuitive and reflective thinking, including active deferral in making decisions, thus moving forward in the evolving score, leaving behind unresolved problems, and empty bars. The exercise resulted into crisis of accumulated problems. The turning point resulted into multifaceted sequence of solutions, which ended up into emergent know-how of the full potential of the musical material. In other words, the composer's appropriate and frugal interchange of intuitive, reflective, and metacognitive acts enhanced hastened process of bottom-up learning and automatizing of practices, usually characterized as a slow to evolve. This consolidated learning enabled the composer to work intuitively (associatively, and thus, by definition, with long-term memory) with newly created musical items. Thus he could deliberately, albeit intuitively, create and control aesthetic coherence in a highly complex situation, where reflective processing runs out of capacity. Consequently, the composer's compositional focus gradually converted from imaginative, inventive, and rule-making processes into more or less automatized acts of experimentation, remodelling, and browsing potential alternatives. The limits of the study come from the fact that only a fraction of compositional thinking was conveyed, at best, masking a considerable amount of the non-verbal (visual, audial, embodied) thinking. Furthermore, the data did not fully validate differentiations between different cognitive modes of processing, and the explicit order of the composer's reasoning sequence, thus casting doubt on the dual-process theory notion of the dichotomy of the two information processing modes. The results demonstrate quintessential characteristics of compositional thinking, thus assembling rich qualitative data in order to attain more profound and integrated understanding of higher cognitive processes, and the human cognitive architecture. In addition, the study may be useful for composers interested in expanding their compositional devices as well as for those educating professional composers.
  • Muhonen, Sari (Taideyliopiston Sibelius-Akatemia, 2016)
    This inquiry has had the theoretical aim of theorizing and analyzing educational action and creating conceptualizations as well as cumulating theoretical knowledge of collaborative creation and creative agency within music education. It has also had the empirical task of describing and analyzing educational action through examining the question of What are the potential meanings of experiencing collaborative creation and creative agency within school music education. This question was approached for it has been argued that although creative agency is emphasized in curricular texts and new views on learning, music education in schools in many countries, including Finland, does not sufficiently support its development. In order to discuss the potential to support collaborative creation and creative agency within school music education this research report provides an overview of a teacher inquiry into the practice of songcrafting, situated in a Finnish primary school context, reported in three peer-reviewed internationally published journal articles included in this research report. In this inquiry, collaborative composition practice of songs, songcrafting, has been seen as a 'case' of one potential way to support students' creative agency through tactful facilitation by the teacher. Through philosophical analysis and analysis of the teacher-researcher (see Stenhouse, 1975; Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 2009) and student perspectives, the inquiry examined the potential of supporting collaborative creation and creative agency within school music education and the teacher's position within it. The data included one teacher's reflections on songcrafting practice during the years 1997–2004 and forty-one students' experiences of songcrafting recalled several years afterwards during semi-structured interviews (Kvale & Brinkman, 2009) which were analyzed using qualitative methods, classifying (Boeije, 2010) and working narratively with the data (Riessman, 2008). The results of the three articles concerned 1) the meanings of grasping onto and exploring student initiatives both in terms of collaborative composing and the collaborative creation of meaningful teaching-learning practices (Article 1); 2) the meanings of a teacher learning at work through long-term reflection-on-practice (Article 2); and 3) the meanings of examining students' experiences of teaching-learning practices (Article 3). These three led to the discussion of 1) creative agency and democratic learning communities; 2) creative agency and transforming practice; and 3) creative agency and composing with regards to both teacher and student agency. Based on the results of this inquiry, it is argued that in order to support collaborative creation and creative agency within school music education, it is crucial to ponder the overall practices and views of learning, rather than merely implementing separate creative tasks. This necessitates the creation of an inquiring learning atmosphere, which is open to new possibilities and acknowledges the crucial role of social processes in collaborative creativity. Inquiry as stance is argued to be essential for a teacher and her group of learners in changing situations and rapidly developing society. Furthermore, all participants in a learning community might be seen as prospective contributors to create meaningful learning practices. Due to the evaluation of the results of this inquiry, it is proposed that collaborative composing sometimes requires the educator to actively advance student learning, rather than only leave them alone to experiment. Furthermore, the position of the teacher needs to be adjusted situationally. Adopting a facilitative stance may involve for instance tactful emotional and social scaffolding and co-composing. This inquiry claims that a variety of experiences with creative collaboration and composing alone and in groups is necessary since the early years and throughout the whole school music education to support the students experience of creative agency. The analysis of the students' experiences concerning songcrafting revealed the varied nuances of their experiences, and highlights the meaning of examining students experiences to further teaching-learning practices. Teaching-learning practices need to be examined and reflected and inquiry as stance is argued to be an essential approach for a teacher and her group of learners to cope well in changing situations and rapidly developing society. In order to support students' creative agency within composition, it is necessary to view all students as capable music creators and composers. Furthermore, describing everyone as capable and providing possibilities to experience creative processes even as peripheral participants supports the learners' beliefs in their musical creative capabilities. The seemingly democratic stance whereby students are allowed to choose their level of participation is also discussed critically, because the inquiry found that it did not automatically lead students take the stance of a creative musical agent. Based on the analysis, the meaning of collaborative musical works, 'oeuvres', that are shared and stored are claimed to strengthen the musical community. It is proposed that documented 'oeuvres' also enable recalling, reflection and following advancement, and could be used systematically within music education. Through the case of songcrafting the possibility of viewing all participants in a learning community as prospective contributors who create meaningful learning practices is discussed. This requires the creation of a learning atmosphere that promotes inquiry, is open to new possibilities, and acknowledges the crucial role of social processes in collaborative creativity. Based upon the results of this inquiry, it is argued that allowing space for situation-originated initiatives and collaborative inquiry, and skillfully weaving these together with the aims of the curricula, creates potentially meaningful teaching-learning situations that support both teacher and student creative agency. Creative collaboration and creative agency is important also with regards to curriculum reforms and curriculum development. If the curriculum becomes a collaborative creation, a collaborative work 'oeuvre' with its creators' efforts negotiated and visible within it, the engagement in its implementation becomes more feasible. As showed though the case of songcrafting, the collaborative oeuvre mostly enforced participation and engagement. However, if the collaborative creation process is too loose, it may lead to differentiation in songcrafting as in curriculum: it's the others creation, and the others' matter in which I do not belong. At best also curricula can be a collaborative 'oeuvre' to which to engage with, and from which different meanings inevitably arise as in songcrafting.
  • Kuusi, Tuire (Sibelius-Akatemia, 2003)
    This study examined connections between pitch-class set-theoretical abstract concepts, setclasses, and perceptual estimations of chords derived from the set-classes. The study had two aims, the first of which was to compare theoretical resemblance with perceived closeness. Another aim was to illuminate and analyze both factors relevant for perceptual estimations of chords and factors relevant for theoretical resemblance. The study also analyzed a selection of theoretical resemblance models. The models were so-called similarity measures. Statistical analyses of distributions of values produced by these measures were made. It turned out that the values produced by different measures could not be compared with one another because the distributions of values differed so much from one measure to another. Hence, the values were modified into percentiles. In the empirical part of the study, pentachords derived from pentad classes were used. Closeness between pentachords was rated by subjects. The subjects also rated the pentachords one at a time on nine semantic scales. The subjects' closeness ratings were compared with similarity values as percentiles calculated by nine pitch-class set-theoretical similarity measures. A rather high connection was found between theoretical set-class similarity and aurally estimated chordal closeness. The underlying factors guiding perceptual estimations of chords were examined. The methods used were multidimensional scaling, hierarchical clustering, and factor analysis. The first (and the most important) factor guiding perception of both chord pairs and single chords was the degree of consonance of the test chords, which could also be explained by theoretical consonance models. Another factor was the chords' association with some traditional tonal chord. The chords' association with the whole-tone collection was the third factor guiding closeness ratings, while the combination of the width and register of the chords was the third factor guiding single-chord ratings. An additional factor guiding closeness ratings was the number of common pitches between two chords. To examine the connection between set-classes and perceptual estimations of chords, the factors found in the analyses were compared with set-class properties (such as the intervalclass content and the subset-class content). It was found that the factors were, to a rather high degree, bound to the properties of the set-classes from which the chords were derived. Only the width and register of chords seemed to operate independently from set-classes. The factors relevant for theoretical set-class similarity were also examined. Datasets produced by nine similarity measures were analyzed by multidimensional scaling. The three factors that emerged in the analyses were interpreted by (near)chromatic property, pentatonic property, and whole-tone property of the set-classes. Of these, the first and third factors were closely connected with the first and third factors that were found to guide closeness ratings. An additional factor relevant for theoretical set-class similarity was the cardinality of the largest mutually embeddable subset-class of the two set-classes of a pair. In this study a connection was found between theoretical resemblance and perceived closeness as well as between set-class properties and perception of chords. The results of the study can be interpreted to indicate that the abstract properties of set-classes (which are quantitative) had an effect on the qualitative characteristics of chords derived from them, and these qualitative chordal characteristics had effects on the subjects' estimations.
  • Väisälä, Olli (Sibelius-Akatemia, 2009)
    The studies that compose this dissertation analyze a selection of pieces of early post-tonal music (by Debussy, Scriabin, Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern) on the basis of the notion of prolongation. They also discuss extensively the theoretical principles of post-tonal prolongation and, to some extent, the relationships of these principles with psychoacoustical phenomena. Prolongation is a key notion in Schenkerian analysis of conventionally tonal music, and there have been various attempts to generalize this notion to meet the demands of post-tonal music. However, whereas conventional Schenkerian analysis is regulated by well-defined theoretical principles related to the normative referential position of the triad, purported prolongational analyses of post-tonal music have, in general, remained unsatisfactory, owing to the lack of comparable theoretical principles. The present studies determine such principles for the selection of works analyzed, on the basis of non-triadic referential harmonies. The theoretical discussion draws on Joseph Straus's (1987) four conditions for prolongation, a well-known formulation of pitch-based functional norms required by prolongation. However, the approach differs from Straus's in its conception of harmonies and intervals, by incorporating aspects outside the purview of pitch-class set theory; it turns out that this decisively improves the prospects for post-tonal prolongation. Two such aspects are discussed. The first is registration; it is argued that registral distinctions (such as between certain complementary intervals) are crucial for functional distinctions in almost any kind of prolongational organization. The second-which pertains to a more limited repertoire-is rootedness, a property stemming from approximate correspondences between musical intervals and those in the harmonic series. Theoretical principles, such as these two aspects, are considered from two angles: how they illuminate the works analyzed, and how they relate with perceptual (psychoacoustical) principles. In the present selection of compositions, the theoretical foundation enables prolongational analyses whose descriptive power is largely comparable to that of conventional Schenkerian analyses. While several of the theoretical principles are likely to have general significance for the illumination of musical organization in comparable repertoire, only further studies can decide the extent to which this illumination actually amounts to the revelation of prolongational structures.
  • Jaakkola, Soila (Sibelius-Akatemia, 2012)
    The study focuses on choral aural training, which is understood to mean activities in choirs intended to improve the music literacy and aural training skills of choral singers. The approach is textbook-oriented, consisting of an analysis of an international selection of 41 textbooks on music reading and aural training for adult choral singers, published between 1980 and 2007. The content analysis is backed up by a review of Finnish aural training literature and extracts from older choral aural training literature. The author's perspective as an aural training teacher is pedagogical, with particular focus on the operating context of a choral singer and choral music; in other words, the issue of specifically what music literacy and aural training skills choral singers are considered to need in order to be able to read and interpret choral music. The data-driven research process was governed by two descriptive questions: Which basic concepts in the theory of music are featured in choral aural training textbooks? What teaching methods were selected for choral aural training textbooks? The data proved to be a relatively coherent body of material, explaining basic concepts of music notation and the theory of music to choral singers using brief verbal descriptions and music examples, followed by mainly monophonic exercises featuring the concepts discussed. However, six textbooks differentiated themselves from the rest by their approach. The author analysed these textbooks using case study methodology, considering four viewpoints of particular interest for choral singing: multiple voices and harmony; choral music examples; choral working and operating practices; and pedagogical instructions given with exercises. The case study textbooks yielded what are here described as six 'pathways' to choral aural training: (1) the diversity pathway, (2) the contemporary music pathway, (3) the overtone series pathway, (4) the solfège method pathway, (5) the traditional pathway, and (6) the musical element pathway. These pathways describe the differing approaches to choral aural training that emerged from the textbooks. The study incorporates a discussion of how exactly the music literacy and aural training skills of adult choral singers may be considered to improve through each of these pathways. The study indicates that choral aural training may be understood as an essential activity with broad relevance in the operating context of a choir, covering basic concepts in the theory of music and the teaching of music literacy, and also the following aspects of choral pedagogy: teaching polyphony and harmony; using choral music as material for choral aural training exercises; employing chorally oriented working and operating methods; and giving pedagogical instructions. A choral singer with good choral aural training skills is competent in reading and singing his/her part, in understanding his/her role in the choir as a whole, and in appreciating choral music both by listening and by reading a score. The study also involved an exploration of how well the textbooks studied are suited to practical choral aural training. There is very little consideration of adult learners and adult education in the study material. The pedagogical approaches in choral aural training textbooks are governed principally by aural training and choral training considerations. In connection with the case study textbooks the author discusses what the choral aural training textbook of the future – the ideal choral aural training textbook – might look like; the study material, except for the case study textbooks, was rooted in the traditional aural training pedagogics based on music literacy, with very little features having to do specifically with choral aural training. The findings of the study may be applied more broadly to the development of all singing-oriented music teaching and its learning materials.
  • Huhtanen, Kaija (Sibelius-Akatemia, 2004)
    The object of this study consists of the experiences of those women who, after having been educated as pianists, have become piano teachers. The data includes biographical interviews of thirteen female piano teachers which 1 conducted in years 2000-2001. My aim in this investigation is to understand the experiences the interviewees have had in the process of becoming piano teachers. 1 ask the following questions: What kinds of meanings do these women give to the experiences of their becoming piano teachers? In which ways do cultural stories give a model in recognizing and telling about experiences? In what ways could it be possible to enrich the reserve of cultural stories? The approach is narrative-biographical. In the analysis of the data 1 use the analysis of narratives and the narrative analysis. 1 view the formation of experiences and the act of telling about them in relation to the life course of each individual. My presupposition is that the meaning of an individual experience is dependant on the personal meaning making structures that have been adopted during the whole life course of each individual. The surroundong culture with characteristic ways of telling about experiences have a big effect on the formation of personal meaning making structures. The interviewed have lived and worked surrounded by the culture of Finnish music professionals. For this reason 1 have also examined the education which qualifies professional musicians as well as the cultural ways of telling prevailing in that context. In the first hand the intervieweed have socialized as piano players and performers, having also adopted the identity of a pianist. After that they have faced the task of getting socialized as instrumental teachers and starting to build the identity of a teacher. 1 examine the experiences of this transition from a narrative to another. In this investigation becoming a piano teacher appears as an experience of ending up. The process is prolonged partly because the education primarily gives the qualification of performers and pianists. Becoming a piano teacher is not viewed as attractive because of the low estimation of teaching children with more or less fluctuating motivation. One central aim in this investigation is to enlarge the reserve of the cultural stories about professional musicians by giving more visibility to the experiences of piano teachers.
  • Odendaal, Albi (Sibelius-Akatemia, 2013)
    This thesis reports an investigation of the applicability of the theory of perceptual learning style to the practising of Western Classical instrument students in higher music education. Perceptual learning style claims that it is possible to differentiate between individuals on the basis of their preference for gathering information through one of three sensory modality channels: visual, auditory or kinaesthetic. The application of these claims to musical learning is shown to be problematic through two studies that are described in the thesis. The first study used a researcher-designed questionnaire on practising strategy selection to investigate whether patterns that emerge from the self-report of students in the Sibelius Academy conform to the claims of perceptual learning style theory. The questionnaire was based on claims by authors who argue for the application of perceptual learning style to musical learning. A principal components analysis showed that perceptual learning style was not underlying the variation observed in the questionnaire. A cluster analysis further showed that individuals do not show similar preferences for specific modalities in differing situations, and groups of individuals who answer similarly for one situation do not do so in others. The questionnaire therefore does not support the claim that perceptual learning style is a major influence on the strategy selection of this sample. Instead, the possibility that instrument groups have an influence on the variety observed was noted, as was the possibility of the influence of personality. The second study observed six pianists as they practised two stylistically different works of their own selection, and interviewed them using stimulated recall immediately after each observation session. Two observations were made for each work at different stages of its development. The range of practising behaviours of each pianist identified in the four observation sessions and interviews was compared with that of the other pianists. Thirteen groups of behaviours were identified that participants could be differentiated on. These included the use of recordings and self-recordings, vocalisation, use of a metronome, writing on the score, reliance on the score, visual memory, regular movements while playing and not playing, expressive or non-regular movements while playing and not playing, hands separate practice and simplifying or varying aspects of the music. Very few of these groups of behaviours allowed the possibility to be used as a means of identifying perceptual learning style theory, and where individuals behaved in ways that the theory predicts in one group, they did not also do this in other groups. Perceptual learning style was concluded to have very little influence on the practising behaviours and strategies of the participants. Instead, the influence of teachers on strategy selection was highlighted. The two studies presented in the thesis therefore do not offer support for the claim that perceptual learning style influences the practising behaviours and strategies of the respondents and participants of this study. Several flaws in the conceptualisation of the theory are pointed out in a review of the literature, including: the conception of separate, clearly defined modalities; the ideal of matching instruction; and the use of learning style identification instruments. The results of the study point to a further problem with the conceptualisation of perceptual learning style as stable and inherent, and argues, in the light of findings that the theory influences the learning of young children, that instruction in and development of skill play a more important role in the practising behaviours of the participants and respondents in this study.
  • Ketomäki, Hannele (Sibelius-Akatemia, 2012)
    Oskar Merikanto's national ideals : Merikanto's music festival activities, the Pohjan neiti (Maiden of the North) opera and choral music in the song and instrumental music festival programmes during the Era of Russification.
  • Ilomäki, Tuukka (Sibelius-Akatemia, 2008)
    The relations of twelve-tone rows are of theoretical, analytical, and compositional interest. While relations based on the properties and transformations of rows have been widely studied, less attention has been paid to relations based on similarity. Formal similarity measures can be used to explicate ways of being similar. This study presents an analysis and categorization of 17 similarity measures for twelve-tone rows. Nine of them are new. The categorization of the similarity measures suggests the notion of different conceptions of twelve-tone rows. Five such conceptions are identified and explicated: vector, ordered pairs, subsegments, subsets, and interval contents. Similarity measures could thus be grouped into families based on the conception that they suggest. The similarity of twelve-tone rows allows two interpretations: comparison of the properties of the rows and the measurement of their transformational relations. The latter could be conveniently formalized using David Lewin's Generalized Interval Systems as the framework. This allows the linking of the discussion on permutations in mathematics and computer science because the measurement of the complexity of a transformation coincides with the notion of presortedness of permutations. The study is in three parts. The first part gives an overview of the types of relations between twelve-tone rows, and presents a formalization of twelve-tone rows and row operations in terms of group theory. The second part focuses on the properties of similarity. By way of background a review and criticism of the literature on similarity in music theory is presented. The transformational approach and the metric are promoted. It is shown that transformational similarity measures create perfectly symmetrical spaces since every row is related to the other rows by precisely the same set of transformations. Since most of the similarity measures discussed in this study are dissimilarity measures of the distance between rows, the mathematical concept of the metric is applicable; many similarity measures define a metric. One of the main findings is that any metric for twelve-tone rows that is transformationally coherent under the operations generating row classes also defines a metric for those row classes. The third part discusses the similarity measures and the respective conceptions in detail. While the study focuses on the similarity of twelve-tone rows, the possibilities of extending the measures to the examination of other ordered pitch-class sets are also discussed. The work concludes with some examples of their analytical application.

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