Väitöskirjat: Recent submissions

Now showing items 1-20 of 47
  • Mesiä, Susanna (2019)
    Tämä väitöskirja tutkii populaarimusiikin ja jazzin laulupedagogiikkaa Pohjoismaisissa korkeakouluissa. Pohjoismaat ovat sisällyttäneet populaarimusiikin ja jazzin opetuksen lähes kaikille koulutusasteille ja -muodoille jo vuosikymmenten ajan. Tämän seurauksena näiden musiikkityylien opetusta tarjotaan Norjassa, Ruotsissa, Suomessa ja Tanskassa suurimmassa osassa musiikkikorkeakouluista. Pohjoismaat tarjoavat tälle tutkimukselle koulutuksellisesti ja kulttuurisesti yhtenäisen ja toisaalta myös vaihtelevan kontekstin, jota tämä tutkimus tarkastelee kahdella tasolla. Ensinnä tämä tutkimus tarkastelee opettajien ammatillisen eksperttiyden kehittymistä yhteistyöprojektissa, jossa he jakoivat ammatillista osaamistaan ja keskustelivat päivittäisen työnsä haasteista. Toiseksi tämä tutkimus pyrkii lisäämään tietoa ja ymmärrystä laulupedagogiikasta tutkimalla miten opettajat kuvaavat omaa pedagogista ajatteluaan ja opetusmenetelmiään projektin aikana. Työn tutkimusintressi nousi useista tämän koulutuskentän haasteista, kuten vähäisestä pedagogiikan tutkimustiedosta, vähäisistä mahdollisuuksista osallistua omaa ammattialaa koskevaan opettajien täydennyskoulutukseen, opettajien eristyneisyydestä ja jakautumisesta leireihin laulumetodien tai -mallien perusteella. Tämä instrumentaalinen tapaustutkimus on kiinnostunut ammatillisen eksperttiyden kehittymisestä sekä laulupedagogiikasta sosiaalisina ilmiöinä ja sijoittuu vygotskilaiseen sosiokonstruktivistiseen oppimiskäsitykseen. Lisäksi tutkimuksen keskeisiä elementtejä ovat eksperttiyden kehittymisen teoriat (development of expertise), yhteistyö (collaboration) ja oppiminen keskustelujen kautta (conversational learning). Aineisto kerättiin nonformaalissa yhteistyöprojektissa, jossa opettajat osallistuivat vertaismentorointitapaamisiin (peer-group mentoring sessions) ja joissa he kävivät ammatillisia keskusteluja (professional conversations). Tutkimusaineisto kerättiin monimuotoisesti sisältäen henkilökohtaisia haastatteluja, ammatillisia keskusteluja sekä kasvokkain että verkossa, yksin ja yhdessä tehtyjä reflektioita, internet-alustalla käytyjä keskusteluja ja tutkijan päiväkirjan. Aineisto kerättiin yhden lukuvuoden aikana ja analysoitiin yhdistäen temaattista analyysia ja kvalitatiivista sisällönanalyysia sekä aineisto- että teorialähtöisesti. Tutkimuksen tulokset osoittavat että yhteistyöprojektit ovat tehokas tapa edistää Pohjoismaisten laulunopettajien ammatillisen eksperttiyden kehittymistä ja vähentää eristyneisyyden tunteita. Osallistuminen projektiin edesauttoi opettajien opetusmenetelmien kehittymistä ja oman ammatillisen ajattelun syventymistä kaikkien uransa eri vaiheissa olevien opettajien kohdalla. Osallistuneiden opettajien pedagoginen ajattelu ja heidän kuvaamansa opetusmenetelmät viittaavat vahvasti siirtymiseen pois mestari–kisälli-mallista ja oppijalähtöisen pedagogiikan periaatteiden luovaan soveltamiseen heidän opetuksessaan. Tämä esiin noussut paradigman muutos kohti oppijalähtöisyyttä nostaa esille tarpeen tarkoituksenmukaisesta opettajille suunnatusta täydennyskoulutuksesta sekä lisätutkimuksesta ymmärtääksemme paremmin ja kehittääksemme tätä laulupedagogiikan orientaatiota. Tutkimuksen aikana järjestetty projekti tarjoaa lisäksi mahdollisen mallin tuleville laajamittaisille kehitysprojekteille koulutusalasta riippumatta.
  • Olarte, Luis Alejandro (2019)
    The core application of my research project is a pedagogical package or toolkit for studying and teaching electroacoustic music performance and improvisation. The package consists of a series of units, each of which investigates fundamental concepts or elements of electroacoustic music, sound theory and its performance aspects through improvisational strategies. The two disciplines of electroacoustic music performance and improvisation, have been considered in a combined and holistic manner. Each unit includes musical exercises, performance situations, theoretical discussions and suggested developments designed to systematically address the essential questions of becoming a sound performer integrating electrical means with musical expression. The toolkit is presented within a theoretical framework where the main aspects of the discipline have been studied: listening and improvisation, the contributions of the electroacoustic genre to modern musicianship and a collection of electronic instruments as tools for performance. The toolkit has been developed using a process of qualitative inquiry and action research methodology based on fieldwork with university student groups during more than one thousand hours of workshops over the past five years. The final result is thus a fully integrated skill set compiled in a book. This research is a response to the modern challenges of designing pedagogical content towards the development of performance skills with electronic instruments and audio technology. The main research question leading this work project has been: What are the methods, materials, resources, and strategies required to develop skills in the discipline of Electroacoustic Music Performance and Improvisation? I approached this question by following a combined methodology of action research and deductive-inductive analysis. The deductive-inductive methodology was applied in the following way: an initial hypothetical content of sonic concepts, performance ideas, musical situations and electroacoustic themes was investigated with music students at third-level education (University of the Arts Helsinki) in a series of workshops. Evaluating a hypothesis through fieldwork entailed a deductive process. Accordingly, the research findings were recorded via a process of data collection, which included audiovisual recordings, working notes, personal observations, and verbal or written feedback from the participants. This data was then analyzed and evaluated through a triangulation process with my supervisors, leading to the reformulation of the toolkit's contents. In contrast, the process of inferring the theory and contents of the electroacoustic music performance and improvisation discipline from the collected data was an inductive process. The new contents were then further tested on the field and analyzed until reaching the form presented in this document: twenty one units organized into four sections researching the sonic, electroacoustic, musical and performative foremost aspects or elements of the discipline; a discussion on the related values of improvised sonic performance and three chapters establishing the theoretical framework. The results of this research offer the opportunity to acquire knowledge and understanding of electroacoustic music by performing with the tools of the genre while simultaneously developing improvisation skills through the manipulation of sound technology concepts. Playing with electroacoustic tools must impose no obstacle to the flow of the performer's intuition and musical thinking, and the development of a proper dexterity should be considered a fundamental part of modern musicianship. Whereas performance, improvisation and electroacoustic music are too often treated as distinct disciplines, in this work, these topics are developed and explored in an entirely unified manner. This approach allows the development of a fully integrated skill set in a single, cohesive discipline: Electroacoustic Music Performance and Improvisation. This pedagogical toolkit will grant new generations of students of electroacoustic improvisation access and insight into a unified method and discipline; one might further hope for it to spark new relationships between musicians and technology, or even to stimulate further research in domains such as psychoacoustics, acoustics, electroacoustic lutherie or the philosophy of music education.
  • Järvinen, Tomas (2019)
    Institutional theory has undergone major development in recent decades, while resource dependence theory has remained essentially unchanged since its inception in 1978. This study examines the associations of these two theories and organisational performance in the context of cultural centres in Finland. Few studies have attempted to empirically determine the effects of resource scarcity on institutional pressures. In addition to the novelty of combining these two theories, this thesis addresses this gap in the literature by empirically examining how and why resource dependence influences organisations' strategic responses. Using a mixed methods approach, this research involved in-depth semi-structured interviews and surveys in a later stage. A total of 20 interviews was conducted at four private cultural centres in Finland, while quantitative data (i.e. surveys) were gathered from 106 cultural centres. Thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data to investigate the factors that influence the practices of private cultural centres. Next, the quantitative data were reviewed to confirm or reject the assumptions from the qualitative data. A broad range of participants was selected to generate generalisable, reliable, valid and meaningful data and conclusions. The results support the conclusion that private cultural centres do not passively adhere to institutional constraints. Rather, they selectively choose strategic responses that balance conflicting institutional pressures and their own interests and goals. Additionally, the more dependent a cultural centre is on a single revenue source—in this study, the municipality—the greater of conformity it displays. Likewise, the more dependent a cultural centre is on diverse revenue sources, the greater diversity it displays. Through this theoretical discussion and empirical assessment, this research contributes to an expanded, more accurate understanding of how organisations can engage in sustainability practices that improve performance. This study also fills the research gap on Finnish cultural centres and identifies factors that affect the adoption of organisational strategical responses. Finally, this study yield recommendations for future research and implications for the practice of cultural centres, suggesting how resource dependence alters organisational strategic responses.
  • Ravolainen, Kaija ([K. Ravolainen], 2014)
    The present study examines the origin and the early phases of the ecclesiastical order of the singer, nowadays generally called cantor. The constitutive regulations concerning the order derive from the late fourth century in the canons of the Synod of Laodicea and the Apostolic Constitutions. The order of the singer was established in eastern Christendom, while in the West, it never was added to the ranks of the ecclesiastical hierarchy. There, the members of other ecclesiastical grades answered for the psalmody, although allusions to singers occasionally appear. The study period extends to the seventh century CE. The development of both ecclesiastical singing and the hierarchy is treated from the beginning of the history of the Church. This is necessary for identifying the standing and the role of the singer, whose order emerges rather late in comparison with other ecclesiastical orders. One of the earlier orders belongs to the reader, who is considered to have preceded the singer, but also to have been one, as all reading was performed in recitation. The study also aims to define why a separate order of the singer was needed, if the reader was able to execute these duties as well. The materials include both normative sources, consisting of the canons of ecclesiastical councils and church orders, and texts of the patristic authors. In the interpretation of the materials, some Greek and Latin expressions, simple in appearance, cause problems as their unambiguous meaning is difficult to define. The sources do not furnish a direct answer to the study question, which is solved with the aid of circumstantial evidence and secondary sources. The orders of the reader and the singer did not share a similar standing in the hierarchy. The order of the reader formed the lowest rank of the ecclesiastical hierarchy; thus, every member of the higher orders had served as a reader. The singer remained in his rank, which, eventually, established a hierarchy of its own, in the manner of a trade guild. The Christian Church emerged among an abundance of religions and cults, which also appear in the materials of this study. The issue of how far these cults influenced the practices adopted by the Church, or its singing and singers, is addressed in a brief survey appended to the introduction and commented on in the conclusions of the study. The instrumental music of the heathen cults was rejected, but natural similarities appear in the vocabulary and the hierarchy. The inheritance of Judaism is evident, not only in the use of the Psalter and other Holy Scriptures, but also in the references to the Old Covenant elements as models for the ranks of the ecclesiastical hierarchy. The study systematically introduces the essential documents relating to the topic, thus serving also as a work of reference.
  • Alesaro, Juhani (Taideyliopiston Sibelius-Akatemia, 2015)
    The purpose of this study is to examine the structure of the Satz of Sibelius. This consists of two branches: the traditional Satz and another Sibelian Satz-idea, hitherto little known. The core of it can be found in a fragment from the composer's audition lecture (1896). In it Sibelius presents his view on the tonal system of the oldest type of Finnish folksong: rune melodies. This accounts for his modal approach - both melodic and harmonic - that originated long before the Sixth Symphony (1923). In this fragment Sibelius also outlines his opinions on harmonization of rune melodies. This establishes the principle of additive harmony that results in ninth-, eleventh-, thirteenth-chords, other-kinds of sum-chord, as well as in polychords. The co-existence of modal and tonal systems in the music of Sibelius may be called neo-modality, a system where the long experience of major-minor tonality is taken into consideration, but where various modal scales are also utilized in a manner more profound that mere coloration. Some of the branches of neo-modality are polymodality, modal ambiguity and bitonality. Though independently developed, the Sibelian Satz-idiom has near relatives in the solutions made by his contemporaries, e.g. Debussy, Ravel, the young Stravinsky and others.
  • Laes, Tuulikki (Taideyliopiston Sibelius-Akatemia, 2017)
    This dissertation examines inclusion as an ambiguous concept and practice within the context of music education in Finland. The general ethos of inclusive education aims to ensure equal opportunities for all students. However, social practices that are mediated through action and structures within music education contexts, such as segregating students into categories of those who are able, and those who are in need of special education, therapy, or care, generate paradoxes of what inclusion means, and for whom. Furthermore, in the Finnish context the system of music schools has a tradition of selecting young and talented students, with the objective of guiding them toward professional music careers. Such approaches to music education make, in Bourdieusian terms, a distinction between those in the targeted mainstream, and those who are outside of this ideal because of their age, ability, or other characteristics, thus overlooking equal possibilities for learning and gaining agency in and through music. The research project builds upon four sub-studies, which are reported in international, refereed journal articles, focusing on the Resonaari music school which promotes inclusive and accessible music education within the Finnish music school system. By utilizing methodological strategies for reflexive interpretation, these sub-studies examine and reflect on the complexity of inclusion from varying perspectives. The first sub-study presented the case of six female older adults who construct their musical agency within a rock band context at Resonaari, examining the wider meanings assigned to rock band music learning with regard to personal empowerment and a deepened understanding of aging. The second sub-study examined how teacher activism is enacted at Resonaari through innovative pedagogical practices, ethical commitment, and flexible policy advocacy. The third sub-study investigated student music teachers' reflections upon workshops run by Resonaari's musicians, aiming to expand the discourse on professionalism by addressing disability as a generative notion for diversity within higher music education. Finally, the continuum of the sub-studies culminated in the researcher's self-reflexive narrative of striving toward activist scholarship during the research project, addressing the challenges and potentials of inclusive research in music education. Through the methodological lens of critical reflexivity, the overarching task of this research project was to examine: How might Resonaari's activist practices disrupt the hegemonic social practices and discourses of music education; and what potential might these ruptures hold for the reconstruction of the structural, ethical, and political enactments of inclusion? The theoretical framework builds on John Dewey's pragmatist philosophy of educational democracy and moral imagination, as well as complexity theories. Drawing upon Gert Biesta's conceptualization of democratic inclusion, it is argued here that there is a continuing need to challenge the understandings and discourses of inclusion through extending the scope of transformational activism within music education. The findings of this research indicate the benefit of recognizing the potential of inclusivity, as exemplified by Resonaari's specialized music education context, as both a generative and ambiguous process. By identifying the implicit and explicit, and the transferable and unique, these manifestations of inclusion revealed the complexity of such discourses and practices. This expanded and problematized view of inclusion is termed activist hope in this dissertation. Hence, by considering democracy as an experiment, we may radically challenge, extend, and reconstruct the envisioning and implementations of inclusive music education.
  • Pohjannoro, Ulla (Sibelius-Akatemia, 2013)
    The purpose of my case study was to explore composer's thinking during composing. The informant was an academic professional composer within western classical music tradition and modernistic aesthetics. The data comprised of stimulated recall interviews made at the composer's studio during composing of one extensive piece of music, as well as all the sketches, and the score versions of the piece. The key concepts and the analytical frame were constructed data-oriented, and then classified into concepts of intuition, reflection, and metacognition, according to the hybrid dual-process theoretical frame. Intuitive processing was classified as compositional acts of experimentation, imagination, incubation and restructuring. Further, reflective (analytic, rational) processing comprised acts of rule-based processing, musical analytic contemplating, and viewing different alternatives. Finally, metacognitive processing included the acts of evaluation, setting a musical goal, and executive control. The findings indicate the quintessential ramifications of the composer's germinal ideas into the composing process. The germinal ideas were thoroughly intuitive, since reflective choice would have been impossible due to innumerable possible combinations and implications of the ideas. The basic musical material, implied by and consistent with the germinal ideas, was constructed rationally, with rule-based processing - when intuition would easily have resulted into endless enterprise of experimentations. The composer moulded and embodied these multimodal ideas into musical passages of the evolving score step-by-step. The process comprised two core procedures: First, mental substance was manifested into concrete representations, i.e. the manuscripts. Second, intuitive substance entered the threshold of consciousness and subsequently, opened up into reflective processing. Sorting out these actions the composer's dilemma was inferred: how to work with utmost complexity of the germinal ideas' countless dispositions, at the same time creating aesthetic coherence within all the compositional decisions. The composer tackled this dilemma through strategic use of prolific intuitive and reflective thinking, including active deferral in making decisions, thus moving forward in the evolving score, leaving behind unresolved problems, and empty bars. The exercise resulted into crisis of accumulated problems. The turning point resulted into multifaceted sequence of solutions, which ended up into emergent know-how of the full potential of the musical material. In other words, the composer's appropriate and frugal interchange of intuitive, reflective, and metacognitive acts enhanced hastened process of bottom-up learning and automatizing of practices, usually characterized as a slow to evolve. This consolidated learning enabled the composer to work intuitively (associatively, and thus, by definition, with long-term memory) with newly created musical items. Thus he could deliberately, albeit intuitively, create and control aesthetic coherence in a highly complex situation, where reflective processing runs out of capacity. Consequently, the composer's compositional focus gradually converted from imaginative, inventive, and rule-making processes into more or less automatized acts of experimentation, remodelling, and browsing potential alternatives. The limits of the study come from the fact that only a fraction of compositional thinking was conveyed, at best, masking a considerable amount of the non-verbal (visual, audial, embodied) thinking. Furthermore, the data did not fully validate differentiations between different cognitive modes of processing, and the explicit order of the composer's reasoning sequence, thus casting doubt on the dual-process theory notion of the dichotomy of the two information processing modes. The results demonstrate quintessential characteristics of compositional thinking, thus assembling rich qualitative data in order to attain more profound and integrated understanding of higher cognitive processes, and the human cognitive architecture. In addition, the study may be useful for composers interested in expanding their compositional devices as well as for those educating professional composers.
  • Muhonen, Sari (Taideyliopiston Sibelius-Akatemia, 2016)
    This inquiry has had the theoretical aim of theorizing and analyzing educational action and creating conceptualizations as well as cumulating theoretical knowledge of collaborative creation and creative agency within music education. It has also had the empirical task of describing and analyzing educational action through examining the question of What are the potential meanings of experiencing collaborative creation and creative agency within school music education. This question was approached for it has been argued that although creative agency is emphasized in curricular texts and new views on learning, music education in schools in many countries, including Finland, does not sufficiently support its development. In order to discuss the potential to support collaborative creation and creative agency within school music education this research report provides an overview of a teacher inquiry into the practice of songcrafting, situated in a Finnish primary school context, reported in three peer-reviewed internationally published journal articles included in this research report. In this inquiry, collaborative composition practice of songs, songcrafting, has been seen as a 'case' of one potential way to support students' creative agency through tactful facilitation by the teacher. Through philosophical analysis and analysis of the teacher-researcher (see Stenhouse, 1975; Cochran-Smith & Lytle, 2009) and student perspectives, the inquiry examined the potential of supporting collaborative creation and creative agency within school music education and the teacher's position within it. The data included one teacher's reflections on songcrafting practice during the years 1997–2004 and forty-one students' experiences of songcrafting recalled several years afterwards during semi-structured interviews (Kvale & Brinkman, 2009) which were analyzed using qualitative methods, classifying (Boeije, 2010) and working narratively with the data (Riessman, 2008). The results of the three articles concerned 1) the meanings of grasping onto and exploring student initiatives both in terms of collaborative composing and the collaborative creation of meaningful teaching-learning practices (Article 1); 2) the meanings of a teacher learning at work through long-term reflection-on-practice (Article 2); and 3) the meanings of examining students' experiences of teaching-learning practices (Article 3). These three led to the discussion of 1) creative agency and democratic learning communities; 2) creative agency and transforming practice; and 3) creative agency and composing with regards to both teacher and student agency. Based on the results of this inquiry, it is argued that in order to support collaborative creation and creative agency within school music education, it is crucial to ponder the overall practices and views of learning, rather than merely implementing separate creative tasks. This necessitates the creation of an inquiring learning atmosphere, which is open to new possibilities and acknowledges the crucial role of social processes in collaborative creativity. Inquiry as stance is argued to be essential for a teacher and her group of learners in changing situations and rapidly developing society. Furthermore, all participants in a learning community might be seen as prospective contributors to create meaningful learning practices. Due to the evaluation of the results of this inquiry, it is proposed that collaborative composing sometimes requires the educator to actively advance student learning, rather than only leave them alone to experiment. Furthermore, the position of the teacher needs to be adjusted situationally. Adopting a facilitative stance may involve for instance tactful emotional and social scaffolding and co-composing. This inquiry claims that a variety of experiences with creative collaboration and composing alone and in groups is necessary since the early years and throughout the whole school music education to support the students experience of creative agency. The analysis of the students' experiences concerning songcrafting revealed the varied nuances of their experiences, and highlights the meaning of examining students experiences to further teaching-learning practices. Teaching-learning practices need to be examined and reflected and inquiry as stance is argued to be an essential approach for a teacher and her group of learners to cope well in changing situations and rapidly developing society. In order to support students' creative agency within composition, it is necessary to view all students as capable music creators and composers. Furthermore, describing everyone as capable and providing possibilities to experience creative processes even as peripheral participants supports the learners' beliefs in their musical creative capabilities. The seemingly democratic stance whereby students are allowed to choose their level of participation is also discussed critically, because the inquiry found that it did not automatically lead students take the stance of a creative musical agent. Based on the analysis, the meaning of collaborative musical works, 'oeuvres', that are shared and stored are claimed to strengthen the musical community. It is proposed that documented 'oeuvres' also enable recalling, reflection and following advancement, and could be used systematically within music education. Through the case of songcrafting the possibility of viewing all participants in a learning community as prospective contributors who create meaningful learning practices is discussed. This requires the creation of a learning atmosphere that promotes inquiry, is open to new possibilities, and acknowledges the crucial role of social processes in collaborative creativity. Based upon the results of this inquiry, it is argued that allowing space for situation-originated initiatives and collaborative inquiry, and skillfully weaving these together with the aims of the curricula, creates potentially meaningful teaching-learning situations that support both teacher and student creative agency. Creative collaboration and creative agency is important also with regards to curriculum reforms and curriculum development. If the curriculum becomes a collaborative creation, a collaborative work 'oeuvre' with its creators' efforts negotiated and visible within it, the engagement in its implementation becomes more feasible. As showed though the case of songcrafting, the collaborative oeuvre mostly enforced participation and engagement. However, if the collaborative creation process is too loose, it may lead to differentiation in songcrafting as in curriculum: it's the others creation, and the others' matter in which I do not belong. At best also curricula can be a collaborative 'oeuvre' to which to engage with, and from which different meanings inevitably arise as in songcrafting.
  • Kuusi, Tuire (Sibelius-Akatemia, 2003)
    This study examined connections between pitch-class set-theoretical abstract concepts, setclasses, and perceptual estimations of chords derived from the set-classes. The study had two aims, the first of which was to compare theoretical resemblance with perceived closeness. Another aim was to illuminate and analyze both factors relevant for perceptual estimations of chords and factors relevant for theoretical resemblance. The study also analyzed a selection of theoretical resemblance models. The models were so-called similarity measures. Statistical analyses of distributions of values produced by these measures were made. It turned out that the values produced by different measures could not be compared with one another because the distributions of values differed so much from one measure to another. Hence, the values were modified into percentiles. In the empirical part of the study, pentachords derived from pentad classes were used. Closeness between pentachords was rated by subjects. The subjects also rated the pentachords one at a time on nine semantic scales. The subjects' closeness ratings were compared with similarity values as percentiles calculated by nine pitch-class set-theoretical similarity measures. A rather high connection was found between theoretical set-class similarity and aurally estimated chordal closeness. The underlying factors guiding perceptual estimations of chords were examined. The methods used were multidimensional scaling, hierarchical clustering, and factor analysis. The first (and the most important) factor guiding perception of both chord pairs and single chords was the degree of consonance of the test chords, which could also be explained by theoretical consonance models. Another factor was the chords' association with some traditional tonal chord. The chords' association with the whole-tone collection was the third factor guiding closeness ratings, while the combination of the width and register of the chords was the third factor guiding single-chord ratings. An additional factor guiding closeness ratings was the number of common pitches between two chords. To examine the connection between set-classes and perceptual estimations of chords, the factors found in the analyses were compared with set-class properties (such as the intervalclass content and the subset-class content). It was found that the factors were, to a rather high degree, bound to the properties of the set-classes from which the chords were derived. Only the width and register of chords seemed to operate independently from set-classes. The factors relevant for theoretical set-class similarity were also examined. Datasets produced by nine similarity measures were analyzed by multidimensional scaling. The three factors that emerged in the analyses were interpreted by (near)chromatic property, pentatonic property, and whole-tone property of the set-classes. Of these, the first and third factors were closely connected with the first and third factors that were found to guide closeness ratings. An additional factor relevant for theoretical set-class similarity was the cardinality of the largest mutually embeddable subset-class of the two set-classes of a pair. In this study a connection was found between theoretical resemblance and perceived closeness as well as between set-class properties and perception of chords. The results of the study can be interpreted to indicate that the abstract properties of set-classes (which are quantitative) had an effect on the qualitative characteristics of chords derived from them, and these qualitative chordal characteristics had effects on the subjects' estimations.
  • Väisälä, Olli (Sibelius-Akatemia, 2009)
    The studies that compose this dissertation analyze a selection of pieces of early post-tonal music (by Debussy, Scriabin, Schoenberg, Berg, and Webern) on the basis of the notion of prolongation. They also discuss extensively the theoretical principles of post-tonal prolongation and, to some extent, the relationships of these principles with psychoacoustical phenomena. Prolongation is a key notion in Schenkerian analysis of conventionally tonal music, and there have been various attempts to generalize this notion to meet the demands of post-tonal music. However, whereas conventional Schenkerian analysis is regulated by well-defined theoretical principles related to the normative referential position of the triad, purported prolongational analyses of post-tonal music have, in general, remained unsatisfactory, owing to the lack of comparable theoretical principles. The present studies determine such principles for the selection of works analyzed, on the basis of non-triadic referential harmonies. The theoretical discussion draws on Joseph Straus's (1987) four conditions for prolongation, a well-known formulation of pitch-based functional norms required by prolongation. However, the approach differs from Straus's in its conception of harmonies and intervals, by incorporating aspects outside the purview of pitch-class set theory; it turns out that this decisively improves the prospects for post-tonal prolongation. Two such aspects are discussed. The first is registration; it is argued that registral distinctions (such as between certain complementary intervals) are crucial for functional distinctions in almost any kind of prolongational organization. The second-which pertains to a more limited repertoire-is rootedness, a property stemming from approximate correspondences between musical intervals and those in the harmonic series. Theoretical principles, such as these two aspects, are considered from two angles: how they illuminate the works analyzed, and how they relate with perceptual (psychoacoustical) principles. In the present selection of compositions, the theoretical foundation enables prolongational analyses whose descriptive power is largely comparable to that of conventional Schenkerian analyses. While several of the theoretical principles are likely to have general significance for the illumination of musical organization in comparable repertoire, only further studies can decide the extent to which this illumination actually amounts to the revelation of prolongational structures.
  • Huhtanen, Kaija (Sibelius-Akatemia, 2004)
    The object of this study consists of the experiences of those women who, after having been educated as pianists, have become piano teachers. The data includes biographical interviews of thirteen female piano teachers which 1 conducted in years 2000-2001. My aim in this investigation is to understand the experiences the interviewees have had in the process of becoming piano teachers. 1 ask the following questions: What kinds of meanings do these women give to the experiences of their becoming piano teachers? In which ways do cultural stories give a model in recognizing and telling about experiences? In what ways could it be possible to enrich the reserve of cultural stories? The approach is narrative-biographical. In the analysis of the data 1 use the analysis of narratives and the narrative analysis. 1 view the formation of experiences and the act of telling about them in relation to the life course of each individual. My presupposition is that the meaning of an individual experience is dependant on the personal meaning making structures that have been adopted during the whole life course of each individual. The surroundong culture with characteristic ways of telling about experiences have a big effect on the formation of personal meaning making structures. The interviewed have lived and worked surrounded by the culture of Finnish music professionals. For this reason 1 have also examined the education which qualifies professional musicians as well as the cultural ways of telling prevailing in that context. In the first hand the intervieweed have socialized as piano players and performers, having also adopted the identity of a pianist. After that they have faced the task of getting socialized as instrumental teachers and starting to build the identity of a teacher. 1 examine the experiences of this transition from a narrative to another. In this investigation becoming a piano teacher appears as an experience of ending up. The process is prolonged partly because the education primarily gives the qualification of performers and pianists. Becoming a piano teacher is not viewed as attractive because of the low estimation of teaching children with more or less fluctuating motivation. One central aim in this investigation is to enlarge the reserve of the cultural stories about professional musicians by giving more visibility to the experiences of piano teachers.
  • Jaakkola, Soila (Sibelius-Akatemia, 2012)
    The study focuses on choral aural training, which is understood to mean activities in choirs intended to improve the music literacy and aural training skills of choral singers. The approach is textbook-oriented, consisting of an analysis of an international selection of 41 textbooks on music reading and aural training for adult choral singers, published between 1980 and 2007. The content analysis is backed up by a review of Finnish aural training literature and extracts from older choral aural training literature. The author's perspective as an aural training teacher is pedagogical, with particular focus on the operating context of a choral singer and choral music; in other words, the issue of specifically what music literacy and aural training skills choral singers are considered to need in order to be able to read and interpret choral music. The data-driven research process was governed by two descriptive questions: Which basic concepts in the theory of music are featured in choral aural training textbooks? What teaching methods were selected for choral aural training textbooks? The data proved to be a relatively coherent body of material, explaining basic concepts of music notation and the theory of music to choral singers using brief verbal descriptions and music examples, followed by mainly monophonic exercises featuring the concepts discussed. However, six textbooks differentiated themselves from the rest by their approach. The author analysed these textbooks using case study methodology, considering four viewpoints of particular interest for choral singing: multiple voices and harmony; choral music examples; choral working and operating practices; and pedagogical instructions given with exercises. The case study textbooks yielded what are here described as six 'pathways' to choral aural training: (1) the diversity pathway, (2) the contemporary music pathway, (3) the overtone series pathway, (4) the solfège method pathway, (5) the traditional pathway, and (6) the musical element pathway. These pathways describe the differing approaches to choral aural training that emerged from the textbooks. The study incorporates a discussion of how exactly the music literacy and aural training skills of adult choral singers may be considered to improve through each of these pathways. The study indicates that choral aural training may be understood as an essential activity with broad relevance in the operating context of a choir, covering basic concepts in the theory of music and the teaching of music literacy, and also the following aspects of choral pedagogy: teaching polyphony and harmony; using choral music as material for choral aural training exercises; employing chorally oriented working and operating methods; and giving pedagogical instructions. A choral singer with good choral aural training skills is competent in reading and singing his/her part, in understanding his/her role in the choir as a whole, and in appreciating choral music both by listening and by reading a score. The study also involved an exploration of how well the textbooks studied are suited to practical choral aural training. There is very little consideration of adult learners and adult education in the study material. The pedagogical approaches in choral aural training textbooks are governed principally by aural training and choral training considerations. In connection with the case study textbooks the author discusses what the choral aural training textbook of the future – the ideal choral aural training textbook – might look like; the study material, except for the case study textbooks, was rooted in the traditional aural training pedagogics based on music literacy, with very little features having to do specifically with choral aural training. The findings of the study may be applied more broadly to the development of all singing-oriented music teaching and its learning materials.
  • Odendaal, Albi (Sibelius-Akatemia, 2013)
    This thesis reports an investigation of the applicability of the theory of perceptual learning style to the practising of Western Classical instrument students in higher music education. Perceptual learning style claims that it is possible to differentiate between individuals on the basis of their preference for gathering information through one of three sensory modality channels: visual, auditory or kinaesthetic. The application of these claims to musical learning is shown to be problematic through two studies that are described in the thesis. The first study used a researcher-designed questionnaire on practising strategy selection to investigate whether patterns that emerge from the self-report of students in the Sibelius Academy conform to the claims of perceptual learning style theory. The questionnaire was based on claims by authors who argue for the application of perceptual learning style to musical learning. A principal components analysis showed that perceptual learning style was not underlying the variation observed in the questionnaire. A cluster analysis further showed that individuals do not show similar preferences for specific modalities in differing situations, and groups of individuals who answer similarly for one situation do not do so in others. The questionnaire therefore does not support the claim that perceptual learning style is a major influence on the strategy selection of this sample. Instead, the possibility that instrument groups have an influence on the variety observed was noted, as was the possibility of the influence of personality. The second study observed six pianists as they practised two stylistically different works of their own selection, and interviewed them using stimulated recall immediately after each observation session. Two observations were made for each work at different stages of its development. The range of practising behaviours of each pianist identified in the four observation sessions and interviews was compared with that of the other pianists. Thirteen groups of behaviours were identified that participants could be differentiated on. These included the use of recordings and self-recordings, vocalisation, use of a metronome, writing on the score, reliance on the score, visual memory, regular movements while playing and not playing, expressive or non-regular movements while playing and not playing, hands separate practice and simplifying or varying aspects of the music. Very few of these groups of behaviours allowed the possibility to be used as a means of identifying perceptual learning style theory, and where individuals behaved in ways that the theory predicts in one group, they did not also do this in other groups. Perceptual learning style was concluded to have very little influence on the practising behaviours and strategies of the participants. Instead, the influence of teachers on strategy selection was highlighted. The two studies presented in the thesis therefore do not offer support for the claim that perceptual learning style influences the practising behaviours and strategies of the respondents and participants of this study. Several flaws in the conceptualisation of the theory are pointed out in a review of the literature, including: the conception of separate, clearly defined modalities; the ideal of matching instruction; and the use of learning style identification instruments. The results of the study point to a further problem with the conceptualisation of perceptual learning style as stable and inherent, and argues, in the light of findings that the theory influences the learning of young children, that instruction in and development of skill play a more important role in the practising behaviours of the participants and respondents in this study.
  • Ketomäki, Hannele (Sibelius-Akatemia, 2012)
    Oskar Merikanto's national ideals : Merikanto's music festival activities, the Pohjan neiti (Maiden of the North) opera and choral music in the song and instrumental music festival programmes during the Era of Russification.
  • Ilomäki, Tuukka (Sibelius-Akatemia, 2008)
    The relations of twelve-tone rows are of theoretical, analytical, and compositional interest. While relations based on the properties and transformations of rows have been widely studied, less attention has been paid to relations based on similarity. Formal similarity measures can be used to explicate ways of being similar. This study presents an analysis and categorization of 17 similarity measures for twelve-tone rows. Nine of them are new. The categorization of the similarity measures suggests the notion of different conceptions of twelve-tone rows. Five such conceptions are identified and explicated: vector, ordered pairs, subsegments, subsets, and interval contents. Similarity measures could thus be grouped into families based on the conception that they suggest. The similarity of twelve-tone rows allows two interpretations: comparison of the properties of the rows and the measurement of their transformational relations. The latter could be conveniently formalized using David Lewin's Generalized Interval Systems as the framework. This allows the linking of the discussion on permutations in mathematics and computer science because the measurement of the complexity of a transformation coincides with the notion of presortedness of permutations. The study is in three parts. The first part gives an overview of the types of relations between twelve-tone rows, and presents a formalization of twelve-tone rows and row operations in terms of group theory. The second part focuses on the properties of similarity. By way of background a review and criticism of the literature on similarity in music theory is presented. The transformational approach and the metric are promoted. It is shown that transformational similarity measures create perfectly symmetrical spaces since every row is related to the other rows by precisely the same set of transformations. Since most of the similarity measures discussed in this study are dissimilarity measures of the distance between rows, the mathematical concept of the metric is applicable; many similarity measures define a metric. One of the main findings is that any metric for twelve-tone rows that is transformationally coherent under the operations generating row classes also defines a metric for those row classes. The third part discusses the similarity measures and the respective conceptions in detail. While the study focuses on the similarity of twelve-tone rows, the possibilities of extending the measures to the examination of other ordered pitch-class sets are also discussed. The work concludes with some examples of their analytical application.
  • Kallio, Alexis (Taideyliopiston Sibelius-Akatemia, 2015)
    Popular music has often been promoted as an accessible, readily intelligible, engaging, authentic medium for young music students. Including a variety of popular musics in school lessons has also been regarded as a more relevant approach to teaching young people, establishing a continuum between school activities, and their musical worlds beyond classroom walls. In this way, these musics have been seen as particularly democratic, in the sense that they offer all students equal opportunities to participate in a hands-on approach to music-making in the classroom. However, a number of researchers have noted that many popular musics exist in apparent contrast with the aims and values of formal education. This raises questions regarding how school music teachers decide which of these musics to include as part of, and which to exclude from, school repertoires. Moreover, if adolescents construct individual identities and social groupings in relation to, and through, music, excluding certain popular musics from the school classroom as offensive or inappropriate may send students the message that 'your music is not welcome in school, and accordingly, neither are you'. This dissertation is a synthesizing text, drawing together and expanding upon research reported in four refereed, international journal articles. Assuming an interdisciplinary approach, this research combines the fields of music education and cultural criminology, as a means to understand the processes by which certain musics are excluded from school contexts. The social conflicts and negotiations of meaning by which certain popular musics are stigmatized are understood as processes of social censure, that is, the social interactions and ideological negotiations that construct certain musics as problematic. In turn, judgements and assessments of musical value provide frames and constraints for teacher decisions and actions. These frames may be seen as censorship processes that simultaneously legitimize certain musics through the reinforcement of moral boundaries, and delegitimize others, deeming them inappropriate. Adopting a theoretical lens incorporating Deweyan pragmatism, cultural criminological theories of deviance and critical pedagogy, this research discusses the implications of the processes of social censure and censorship for the ideals of inclusion and democracy in schools. Designed as a multiple, instrumental case study, data was collected through semi-structured interviews with five Finnish secondary school music teachers, and through the writing and sharing of four factional stories, a methodological tool developed during the research process. Data was approached through the analysis of narratives, emphasizing the close connections between the interview data, and emerging thematic classifications. The findings of this research suggest that in selecting popular repertoire for their students, teachers navigate what I term the school censorship frame: broad and specific social narratives that draw associations between particular musics or songs and socially constructed notions of deviance. Guided by these censorious narratives in making decisions regarding a music's inclusion or exclusion from classroom repertoires, teachers also identified four aspects of popular music that were considered in understanding the social censure of certain musics: lyrics, imagery, mood and emotional affect. It was found that in navigating the narratives of the school censorship frame, and attending to the aspects of popular music that raised or highlighted concerns, teachers could not rely upon a stable ethical framework in classifying popular musics as prudent or problematic. Rather, each student, each music and each situation required a (re)definition of the good, entailing a situational moral deliberation. This dissertation argues that if schools are envisioned as fully participatory spaces, music classrooms are inherently diverse. Accordingly, the sometimes uncomfortable tensions and disagreements that accompany this diversity may be regarded as resources for inclusive, democratic practices in music education, rather than as a hindrance. Through recognizing, reflecting upon and engaging with the political processes of legitimation and exclusion in popular repertoire selection, new possibilities and promises are presented whereby teachers and students may learn beyond bias and assumption, engage in collaborative critical inquiry and interrogate who music education serves, when, why, how and to what ends.
  • Rikandi, Inga (Sibelius-Akatemia, 2012)
    The purpose of this study was to design a learning environment in group vapaa säestys (VS) within the context of music teacher education that supports the development of students' musical and pedagogical agency, which is seen as the main goal of music teacher education. VS is a student-centered subject that concentrates on piano improvisation and accompaniment and playing by ear and from chord symbols, with emphasis on the process of music making and learning. It is most often studied with the piano, and the majority of tuition is offered in the form of one-on-one lessons. All music education students of the Sibelius Academy study VS for at least three years, of which only the first year studies (VS1) takes the form of group tuition. As a teacher of VS in higher music education, my motivation for embarking on this study was underpinned by my own experiences of teaching VS in a piano laboratory setting, which triggered a need to evoke change in this specific environment. The rationale for this study arose from the acknowledgment that, despite its student-centered goals, the student and his or her experiences is often neglected in VS1, which fails to take account the special characteristics of group tuition. In addition, VS1 usually focuses solely on musical issues and is not seen to have any pedagogical value. As a result, the VS1 course in the piano laboratory can be viewed as a badly designed learning environment; the curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment are mis-aligned with both the goals of VS and the goals of music teacher education. Through this investigation, I address this issue by aiming to design a learning environment that helps to align VS1 practices. Working in a pragmatist framework, and adopting a sociocultural view on learning, this study is situated in the field of practitioner inquiry as a form of generating knowledge for practice from practice. At the core of this inquiry is a project where I held a dual role as the teacher-researcher. The inquiry took place in two cycles of academic years, and it was carried out in collaboration with the participants with the aim of improving shared educational practices. Although the context of the study was local, wherein the general aim was to develop this particular context in terms of better teaching and more effective learning, the study also aims to broaden the understanding of the ways in which instrumental courses in higher music education might contribute to the growth of music teachers and pedagogues. I collected data by using various sources and methods during the two cycles of the inquiry, including: a teacher's research diary, videotaped lessons, videotaped exams, audio recorded group discussions, audio recorded feedback from colleague teachers, student essays, and individual follow-up interviews with students. The analysis in turn combines two approaches: narrative analysis and data driven qualitative content analysis. Using the narrative approach and triangulating various data sources, I construct three Vignettes as points of reference when discussing how the negotiated process of redesigning the VS group course as carried out by the members of the learning community – the students and the teacher-researcher – changed the course in terms of curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment. I use data driven qualitative content analysis to analyze how the students articulated their experiences of musical and pedagogical agency in this learning environment, which was designed to facilitate collaboration in and as a learning community. Based on these accounts, I then proceed to discuss the kind of structure that would support the development of students' reflexive musical and pedagogical agency in group VS, within the context of music teacher education. The findings of this study suggest that a learning community can be an important asset in music teacher education and in VS, because a learning community, once formed, starts to contribute to the process of teaching and learning by engaging in creative knowledge creation. Importantly, I found that being able to alternate between and explore different positions in the community (e.g. student, teacher, policy maker, researcher) was an important tool in building agency for both the students and the teacher-researcher. A significant outcome of the study was an increased level of reflection demonstrated by the students with regards to their musical and pedagogical agency. This reinforces the need for music teacher education students to acquire various diverse teaching and learning experiences as part of their education. The findings of this study also reinforce the need for music teacher education to align its curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment with the overall goals of the program, not only at the general level of the program but also at the level of individual courses situated in that program, as in the case of the VS1 course.
  • Vuori, Hilkka-Liisa (Sibelius-Akatemia, 2011)
    Cantus sororum – sisarten laulu on birgittalaisluostarin sisarten keskiaikainen hetkipalvelusliturgia. Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan Cantus sororumin matutinum-rukoushetken 21 suurta responsoriota, niiden alkuperää, sävelmiä, moodeja ja laulujen tekstejä. Laulujen alkuperän tutkimiseen liittyy myös Birgitan rippi-isän Petrus Skänningeläisen osuuden selvittäminen laulujen luomisessa. Lauluja lähestytään tutkimuksessa laajasta viitekehyksestä käsin perehtymällä rukoushetkiin, lauluihin liittyviin lukukappaleisiin ja Birgitan lauluohjeisiin sekä pohtimalla sanan ja sävelen suhdetta. Cantus sororumin suuria responsorioita ei ole aiemmin tutkittu, joten kyseessä on perustavaa laatua oleva tutkimus. Tutkimuksessa käytetyt Cantus sororum -lähteet ovat Kansalliskirjaston, Ruotsin kansalliskirjaston (Kungliga biblioteket) ja Uppsalan yliopiston kirjaston (Uppsala universitetsbibliotek) birgittalaislähteitä. Linköpingin ja Turun hiippakunnan alueelta on vertailumateriaalina käytetty Linköpingin, Karjalohjan ja Tammelan antifonariumeja. Eurooppalaista liturgisen laulun vanhaa perinnettä edustavat Hartkerin, Hesbertin ja Worcesterin antifonariumit. Birgitan lauluohjeet ovat peräisin lähteestä Revelaciones extravagantes. Lukukappaleiden lähde on Birgitan näkykokoelma Sermo angelicus, Enkelisaarna, joka sisältää lukukappaleiden ja suurten responsorioiden tekstit. Laulujen alkuperä on selvitetty vertaamalla nuottipaleografian menetelmiä käyttäen Cantus sororum -lähteiden lauluja ja tekstejä muihin käsikirjoituslähteisiin ja faksimile-lähteisiin. Vertailua on edeltänyt välttämättömänä nuottien transkriptioiden kirjoittaminen. Lauluteksteihin on syvennytty peilaamalla niitä lukukappaleiden sisältöön. Sävelmätutkimuksessa tärkeimpänä esikuvana ovat Hans Holmanin menetelmät responsorio-tutkimuksessa 1960-luvulla. Moodien analyysissä on huomioitu antiikin aikaisten ja keskiaikaisten esikuvien lisäksi nykytutkimus, erityisesti luonnonsävelharmonioihin perustuvien intervallisuhteiden vaikutus sävelmän tunnelmaan. Sanan ja sävelen suhdetta on tutkimuksessa lähestytty laulujen moodien näkökulmasta, muun muassa kirkkoisä Augustinuksen määritelmät huomioiden. Neljälletoista Cantus sororumin suurelle responsoriolle voidaan selkeästi osoittaa esikuva tutkimuksen vertaislähteistä. Seitsemän responsoriota on oletettavasti osittain tai kokonaan Petrus Skänningeläisen luomia. Sävelmät ovat laajoja sävellyksiä, joiden kirjoittamisessa on kunnioitettu keskiaikaisen liturgisen kirkkolaulun formuloihin perustuvaa sävelmän muodostamista. Laulun moodin ja tekstin sisällön välillä on liitto, mutta liiton vahvuus vaihtelee. Keskeistä sisarten liturgiassa on laulujen ja lukukappaleiden suuri teologinen sisältö ja sävelmällinen rikkaus. Koko kirkkovuosi rakennetaan toistuvan liturgisen viikkosyklin aikana yhä uudelleen. Lauluihin liittyvät Birgitan ohjeet syventävät tietoa ja ymmärrystä lauletun rukouksen kokonaisvaltaisesta rakentavasta merkityksestä osana rukoilevan yhteisön tasapainoista elämää.
  • Korhonen-Björkman, Heidi (Taideyliopiston Sibelius-Akatemia, 2016)
    In this study, I conduct a performer's analysis of four works by the French-American composer Betsy Jolas (1926–). Three of the works are for the piano: Signets. Hommage à Ravel (1987), Mon ami. Ariette variée à chanter-jouer pur pianiste femme ou enfant (1974), and Ô Bach! (2007), and the fourth is for the harpsichord: Auprès (1980). The researcher's–my own–practice and performance have a central role in the analyses. In addition, I comment on some other works for solo instruments by Jolas: Autour (1973) for the harpsichord, épisode cinqiuème (1983) for the cello; Pièce pour (1997) for the piano and Calling E.C. (1982) for the piano. Jolas is a relatively unknown composer, whose music does not belong to the commonly performed concert repertoire. The concept of performer's analysis has roots within the discipline of analysis & performance, but differs from its traditional directions: analysis prior to performance, as well as analyses of single performances (Rink 2002). The present study is concerned with analysis through performance. Therefore "performer's analysis" is here situated within musician-centred study; and, through the researcher's own practice as a point of departure, it also draws parallels to artistic research in music, a heterogeneous research area of growing influence. Consequently, my interests concern not only the results of the analysis (here: particular characteristics of Jolas' works), but also the analytical process: in what ways do the circumstances that surround practising influence the analytical insights? I also pay attention to performance experiences of Jolas' works, although, not the learning process per se. In addition, with this study, I have developed a novel method, the "two-way method", for practice-based analysis. The two-way method is characterized by doubleness in different ways. On the one hand, it combines two approaches: my own practising and interviews of other musicians. On the other hand, it combines musical performance and verbal dialogues. The perspective of performance may shed light on particular dimensions in a musical work, such as bodily aspects, and performance challenges–issues that are not necessarily readable in the score. This produces musician-centred analytical parameters, such as "instrumental quality". I have developed the Swedish term instrumentalkvaliteter (literally, "instrumental qualities") from the Finnish soittimellisuus, a concept that has already been applied in analysis. Instrumental quality refers to the way with which idiomatic characteristics of a particular instrument are realized in a particular piece of music. This kind of a performer's evaluation on the composer's achievements forms a contrast to a more traditional approach, where a researcher's or an analyst comments on the performer's output. A particular characteristic of the performer's analysis is the possibility of integrating personal experiences in the analytical observations. This also implies a standpoint towards the much-debated concept of a musical work. The musician understands the musical work through individual performance experiences, consisting of, for instance, practice of particular playing figures. As a term performer's analysis differs from most other analytical directions, since it is defined through the agent (the analyst). Therefore, we need clarification and a directional reference frame. In this study, the term "musician" is a practical concept; understood through the real, physical playing experience. In this respect, a musician's perspective differs from the angle of those music practitioners, who have the ability to play a particular piece, but who do not put their skills into practice. On the other hand, the physical performance cannot be separated from other related activities, such as listening, or communicating with other musicians, composer, and audience. In this study, "dialogical music analysis" functions as a theoretical-methodological reference frame. Dialogical music analysis, with its background in cultural and critical music research, is not an established theory, but rather an attitude that advocates a work-in-context principle and a dialogical perspective to the musical work. The closeness to the study of musical intertexts is obvious. The research interests of the dialogical music analysis correspond to the characteristics of the Jolas works that the analyses reveal: intertexts to other composers' music and "voice(s)". "Voice" concerns Jolas' interest in composing vocal works, as well as using the voice in a creative way in her compositions. The main interviewees of this study were the pianist Maria Kallionpää, the cellist Juho Laitinen, and the harpsichordist Petteri Pitko. The interviews were of "semi-open" quality; there were some prepared basic themes, but in general, the discussion was not strictly structured and characterized by open-endedness. In addition, I have used discussions at my own piano and harpsichord lessons as material: I practised Mon ami and Ô Bach with Kristiina Junttu, and Auprès with Petteri Pitko. Furthermore, I use my own performance as material; it is a kind of autoethnography. As far as Mon ami and Auprès are concerned, I was able to analyze the communication process between my interviewees and me. These two pieces were investigated in two stages: first, I interviewed Kallionpää (Mon ami) and Pitko (Auprès), then I practised the piece myself. In practice, the analyses were case studies, and differ from each other. One common issue was the consideration of the work titles. Signets. Hommage à Ravel and Ô Bach refer to other composers, but in different ways. In Signets, I investigated musical intertexts from Ravels' music, partly through a performance-based application of Lawrence Kramer's (1990) "hermeneutic window". Signets is a serious homage to Ravel's music, while Ô Bach is a humorous comment on J.S. Bach's Toccata, Adagio and Fugue C major for the organ (BWV 564). Jolas splits up a quotation from the organ work, and utilises the material to construct a virtuoso competition piece. The virtuosity manifests itself in fast playing figures and other technical challenges, but also in "virtuosity of sonority", which is a characteristic of Jolas' music. One of the common themes of Signets and Ô Bach, is Jolas' interest in earlier musical styles. The harpsichordist, Pitko, discussed the idiomatic use of the in Auprès. An interesting parallel to early music was Pitko's recognition of similar harmonies and treatment of tempo in Auprès and in a prelude by Jean-Henri d'Anglebert. My own performance brought forth the practices of harpsichord playing, such as registration, instrument, and tuning, all factors that influence sound, harmony, form, and technical solutions. Mon ami concerns Jolas' creative way of using the voice: the pianist is supposed to sing while playing. Both parts are played with traditional techniques, but the sonoric combination is unusual, as well as challenging to perform. During the course of the piece, the vocal part is fragmented and little by little, it disappears. The sound of Mon ami produces echo effects–the echo is the main theme of Mon ami. As a result of the analysis, I recognized different aspects of the echo: it manifests itself as song text, resonance, and canon. In addition, I made a personal association between the theme "echo" and the Greek myth of the nymph Echo. After my own practice, I no longer found the different aspects of the echo clearly categorized. The study revealed that the playing of an instrument influences the way one speaks about a musical work. In the interviews, there were differences in the topics of discussion, as well as vocabulary. My perspective could be changed from a listener's to a performer's position not only in the two-part studies of Mon ami and Auprès, but also in Signets and Ô Bach (which I investigated through my own performance only), by listening to my recordings. For instance, playing resulted in a different view of the form in the pieces. The musician must deal with Jolas' detailed notation that concerns the temporal organisation, dynamics, and articulation, and in the piano music, also the pedaling. As a research method, the researcher's own performance still needs systematization and organization. The two-way method may bring performance one step closer towards establishment as a mature research methodology, by presenting one possible approach and its results. The two-way method is effective in music analysis where the basic principle is dialogical; where playing a musical instrument is combined with speech, and where the perspectives of several people can be combined. It is possible to use in analytical case studies, where unique circumstances are considered, and in analyses where the perspective of performance is combined with other research perspectives. In this study, the performer's analysis is foremost practical: an analysis of performing. As a practice-based study, it can also be applied within pedagogical and artistic reference frames.
  • Hairo-Lax, Ulla (Sibelius-Akatemia, 2005)
    This dissertation examines the meanings that alcohol addicted clients gave to the group music therapy process. One the one hand, it focuses on the meanings given to events inside the therapy process, and on the other, to the meanings clients gave to the process in terms of their life context. From the viewpoint of the client, this study may possibly gain information on ways of developing and putting into practice a music therapy which supports an intoxicant-free way of life. The data analysed in this study consists of 17 music therapy client interviews. A thematic interview method was used and analysis of the interviews was carried out based on the grounded theory method. The theoretical point of departure of this data oriented study is Lincoln's and Guba's naturalistic paradigm. In the course of the research process, significant moments were selected as a supporting frame of reference. In this study, those moments became the focus of the analysis and refer to intensive and powerful moments experienced by the clients. The other important category found in the analysis was one of significant factors. These refer to the factors affecting the therapy process in the long term. Both the significant moments and the significant factors were experienced either as helpful or hindering to the music therapy process. Different group music therapy techniques alongside the physio-acoustic method were used in the therapy groups. Various art forms were also amongst the methods included. The therapy given can be described predominantly as humanistic. The main goal, then, is the growth of the individual's own developmental potential. The results centre upon the idea that the crucial meaning of music therapy is to help and, through the influence of music, to gain a recognition of those factors which form our quality of life and enhance our holistic well-being, as well as to add those factors to the clients life instead of intoxicants. Music therapy produced, in the interviewees, experiences that exhibited characteristics of a strong feeling of presence, and deep experiencing. Moreover, when offering a positive and meaningful weekly programme, the therapy worked for some clients as a regulator and supporter. Both reciprocal action and interpersonal communication between the client and therapist and the group members were found to be supporting factors. The growth of personal resources manifested itself in better ways of life control; finding new stimuli, the strengthening of initiative and courage as well as a clarification of values. Learning to relax and becoming more aware of one's own physical condition improved the physical state. Active self-processing and a more spontaneous ability to express emotions affected mental health positively. The study also shows how changes in mental health were affected by higher spirits, better self-esteem and improved social relationships with those nearest. The music therapy carried out in this research can be put into practice either as an independent form of rehabilitation or as part of a larger rehabilitation programme. It appears to be especially suitable for those with arts as a favoured means of expression. The study shows how music therapy can be a comprehensive form of rehabilitation for a client committed to the therapy. It takes into account personal life context, may contribute to it qualitatively and in that way could possibly enrich a person's life content. One of the special contributions of music therapy is to procure strong experiences in the form of significant moments. Such moments have aided the music therapy process and have an aspect of well-being that defines a vital and satisfying life.