A Research Note : Happiness by Age is More Complex than U-Shaped

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dc.contributor.author Laaksonen, Seppo Sakari
dc.date.accessioned 2018-04-13T13:19:01Z
dc.date.available 2018-04-13T13:19:01Z
dc.date.issued 2018-02
dc.identifier.citation Laaksonen , S S 2018 , ' A Research Note : Happiness by Age is More Complex than U-Shaped ' , Journal of Happiness Studies , vol. 19 , no. 2 , pp. 471–482 . https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-016-9830-1
dc.identifier.other PURE: 78371629
dc.identifier.other PURE UUID: 25fffd22-05df-4168-8e90-647fe10aa97a
dc.identifier.other Scopus: 85007226828
dc.identifier.other WOS: 000429222800008
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10138/234224
dc.description.abstract Happiness varies with age, but there is no general agreement regarding the feature of the variation. Many studies have found that it is U-shaped such that there is a minimum between approximately 40 and 50 years of age. The result largely depends on the control variables used in the happiness modeling. Some authors do not even allow the use of any control variables, but the conventional theory of U-shaped studies stipulates the inclusion of such controls that essentially influence the basic living conditions of people. In this study, we do not strictly follow earlier findings but estimate our age-shape with different versions of them, using the data of 28 or 30 European countries. We also estimate a model without proper controls. This does not give any minimum age and thus supports some studies. Moreover, using any or all of our three controls some type of U-shape is found in most countries. Our U-shapes are not as simple as conventional research suggests. Minimum happiness can occur either below 40 years, or much above 50 years. A special feature is that the U-shape phenomenon holds better for males than for females. We also estimated models to see what happens after the minimum age happiness. In the case of gender models, the turning points for males are substantially lower than for females. This means that the old-age happiness of males stops to increase approximately at 70 years but more than 10 years later for females. en
dc.format.extent 12
dc.language.iso eng
dc.relation.ispartof Journal of Happiness Studies
dc.rights cc_by
dc.rights.uri info:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.subject 5141 Sociology
dc.subject Control variables
dc.subject Cross-sectional happiness
dc.subject European Social Survey
dc.subject Linear regression
dc.subject Three age variables
dc.title A Research Note : Happiness by Age is More Complex than U-Shaped en
dc.type Article
dc.contributor.organization Department of Social Research (2010-2017)
dc.contributor.organization Centre for Social Data Science, CSDS
dc.description.reviewstatus Peer reviewed
dc.relation.doi https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-016-9830-1
dc.relation.issn 1389-4978
dc.rights.accesslevel openAccess
dc.type.version publishedVersion

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