Quantitative estimation of alpha-PVP metabolites in urine by GC-APCI-QTOFMS with nitrogen chemiluminescence detection based on parent drug calibration

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Mesihaa , S , Rasanen , I & Ojanpera , I 2018 , ' Quantitative estimation of alpha-PVP metabolites in urine by GC-APCI-QTOFMS with nitrogen chemiluminescence detection based on parent drug calibration ' , Forensic Science International , vol. 286 , pp. 12-17 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.02.017 , https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.05.015

Title: Quantitative estimation of alpha-PVP metabolites in urine by GC-APCI-QTOFMS with nitrogen chemiluminescence detection based on parent drug calibration
Author: Mesihaa, Samuel; Rasanen, Ilpo; Ojanpera, Ilkka
Contributor: University of Helsinki, Medicum
University of Helsinki, Medicum
Date: 2018-05
Language: eng
Number of pages: 6
Belongs to series: Forensic Science International
ISSN: 0379-0738
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10138/234582
Abstract: Gas chromatography (GC) hyphenated with nitrogen chemiluminescence detection (NCD) and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS) was applied for the first time to the quantitative analysis of new psychoactive substances (NPS) in urine, based on the N-equimolar response of NCD. A method was developed and validated to estimate the concentrations of three metabolites of the common stimulant NPS alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (alpha-PVP) in spiked urine samples, simulating an analysis having no authentic reference standards for the metabolites and using the parent drug instead for quantitative calibration. The metabolites studied were OH-alpha-PVP (M1), 2 ''-oxo-alpha-PVP (M3), and N,N-bis-dealkyl-PVP (2-amino-1-phenylpentan-1-one; M5). Sample preparation involved liquid-liquid extraction with a mixture of ethyl acetate and butyl chloride at a basic pH and subsequent silylation of the sec-hydroxyl and prim-amino groups of M1 and M5, respectively. Simultaneous compound identification was based on the accurate masses of the protonated molecules for each compound by QTOFMS following atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. The accuracy of quantification of the parent-calibrated NCD method was compared with that of the corresponding parent-calibrated QTOFMS method, as well as with a reference QTOFMS method calibrated with the authentic reference standards. The NCD method produced an equally good accuracy to the reference method for alpha-PVP, M3 and M5, while a higher negative bias (25%) was obtained for M1, best explainable by recovery and stability issues. The performance of the parent-calibrated QTOFMS method was inferior to the reference method with an especially high negative bias (60%) for M1. The NCD method enabled better quantitative precision than the QTOFMS methods To evaluate the novel approach in casework, twenty post-mortem urine samples previously found positive for alpha-PVP were analyzed by the parent calibrated NCD method and the reference QTOFMS method. The highest difference in the quantitative results between the two methods was only 33%, and the NCD method's precision as the coefficient of variation was better than 13%. The limit of quantification for the NCD method was approximately 0.25 mg/mL in urine, which generally allowed the analysis of alpha-PVP and the main metabolite M1. However, the sensitivity was not sufficient for the low concentrations of M3 and M5. Consequently, while having potential for instant analysis of NPS and metabolites in moderate concentrations without reference standards, the NCD method should be further developed for improved sensitivity to be more generally applicable. (c) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Subject: alpha-PVP
Drug metabolite quantification
Gas chromatography
Post-mortem urine
Nitrogen chemiluminescence detection
Time-of-flight mass spectrometry
GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY
PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCES
QUANTIFICATION
IDENTIFICATION
STANDARDS
BLOOD
319 Forensic science and other medical sciences
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